Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sesame Oil: The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Iodized Oil: A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.PaintAcetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.DimethylformamideAcetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Cod Liver Oil: Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Clove Oil: An oil from flower buds of SYZYGIUM trees which contains large amounts of EUGENOL.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PrintingAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Benzene DerivativesStatic Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectThymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.HydrocarbonsBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Origanum: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of a familiar food seasoning.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PicratesTriglyceridesEucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).EstersBiophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.InkLiquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The additives are then removed with a volatile solvent to form the microporous result. The wet process is suitable for both ... The polymer resins are first mixed with, paraffin oil, antioxidant and other additives. The mixture is heated to produce a ... "Solvent-Removable Coatings for Electronic Applications." ACS Symposium Series 123 (1980): 127-37. Print.) Chung, Y. S., S. H. ...
Solvent types[edit]. Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is ... Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons ... Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as ... By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is an alcohol solution typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a ...
... is a stable, non-volatile, viscous heavy oil (technical) soluble in organic solvents. Its effectiveness was first ...
Isovaleric acid has a strong pungent cheesy or sweaty smell, but its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely ... It is a colourless liquid that is sparingly soluble in water, but highly soluble in most common organic solvents. The compound ... occurs naturally, including in essential oils. ... Lavender oil. *Lignans (e.g., 4-O-methylhonokiol, honokiol, ...
Wax may be applied in a volatile petroleum-based solvent but is now more commonly applied via a water-based emulsion. Blended ... paraffin waxes applied as an oil or paste are often used on vegetables. Brand names for waxes include Tal-Prolong, Semper-fresh ...
... essential oils). These essential oils can include limonene and other straight solvents. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most used ... For example, volatile oils can be extracted from a plant with low pressures (100 bar), whereas liquid extraction would also ... Matrix swelling can sometimes be increased by increasing the pressure of the solvent, and by adding modifiers to the solvent. ... but this will be very wasteful of solvent). However, to minimize the amount of solvent used, the extraction should be ...
... a thinner oil is required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily-once the solvent has evaporated, the ... Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of organic solvents as the diluent, including ... Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. To spread heavier oils (for example, linseed) as in oil- ... Specific examples are organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile ...
ROGs primarily come from petroleum transfer and storage, oil and gas production, mobile sources, organic solvent use, farming ... Reactive organic gases (ROG) -- ROG also referred to as volatile organic compounds (VOC) is one of the leading causes for ... Ozone within Fresno is created through Oxides of Nitrogen and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles, ...
On distillation, the resin yieds an essential oil, commonly known as turpentine, and non-volatile rosin. The proportion of ... The turpentine is chiefly used as a solvent in pharmaceutical preparations, perfume industry, in manufacture of synthetic pine ... oil, disinfectants, insecticides and denaturants. It is one of the most important basic raw materials for the synthesis of ... rosin and turpentine oil in chir pine is 75% and 22% respectively with 3% losses, etc. ...
... oils and other organic solvents. Vinyl Ether is a rather unstable compound which with exposure to light or acid fumes ... Mazurek, 2007) Vinyl Ether is a volatile, flammable liquid with a sweet, ethereal non-irritating odor (described to be similar ... volatile liquid which was briefly used as an inhalation anesthetic. It can be cyclopolymerized by itself and serves as a cross- ... obtained from the essential oil of Allium Ursinum L.), by reaction with silver oxide. Semmler's product which boiled at 39 °C ...
... or turpentine oil; soluble in ether, solvent hexane, or in most fixed and volatile oils, the degree of solubility in these ... Using an oil to dissolve the petroleum jelly first can render it more soluble to solvents and soaps that would not dissolve ... Vegetable oils such as canola and olive oil are commonly used to aid in the removal of petroleum jelly from hair and skin.[24] ... solvents varying with the composition of the petrolatum.. *^ "How to Remove Petroleum Jelly from Hair Using Olive Oil and ...
... or turpentine oil; soluble in ether, solvent hexane, or in most fixed and volatile oils, the degree of solubility in these ... Using an oil to dissolve the petroleum jelly first can render it more soluble to solvents and soaps that would not dissolve ... Vegetable oils such as canola and olive oil are commonly used to aid in the removal of petroleum jelly from hair and skin. " ... Chesebrough noticed that oil workers would smear their skin with the residue from their drills, as it had the property to heal ...
Three main environmental issues with ink are: Heavy metals Non-renewable oils Volatile organic compounds Some regulatory bodies ... If the dye has the opposite charge, it is attracted to and retained by this coating, while the solvent soaks into the paper. ... There is a trend toward vegetable oils rather than petroleum oils in recent years in response to a demand for better ... To circumvent this problem, dye-based inks are made with solvents that dry rapidly or are used with quick-drying methods of ...
... and purification uses extraction from ether followed by distillation or rotary evaporation to remove the volatile solvent. The ... Charbonnet, G. H.; Singleton, W. S. (1947). "Thermal properties of fats and oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society ... Trimyristin is found naturally in many vegetable fats and oils. The isolation of trimyristin from powdered nutmeg is a common ... It is an uncommonly simple natural product extraction because nutmeg oil generally consists of over eighty percent trimyristin ...
... motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from storm water runoff Volatile organic compounds, such as industrial solvents, ... Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids, may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix ... Wachman, Richard (2007-12-09). "Water becomes the new oil as world runs dry". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2015-09-23. ... Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants ...
While the reaction is often carried out at room temperature, the solvent, usually volatile diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran is ... Oil is sucked into a sump in lieu of air. However, if the pressure in the reaction vessel falls too low, the oil may be sucked ... An oil bubbler may be a useful substitute. In this case, gases are allowed to escape, but air is not able to enter because the ... Oil bubblers can tolerate an underpressure in the reaction vessel. ...
Instead, the oils are extracted using their solvent properties. Organic solvent extraction is the most common and most ... Certain plant materials contain too little volatile oil to undergo expression, or their chemical components are too delicate ... Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include hexane, and dimethyl ether. In organic solvent extraction, ... Enfleurage Essential oil Perfume Rose oil Clove oil. ... oil-soluble) plant material, since these solvents effectively ...
In contrast to essential oils obtained by steam distillation, oleoresins abound in heavier, less volatile and lipophilic ... The solvents used are nonaqueous and may be polar (alcohols) or nonpolar (hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide). Oleoresins are similar ... Oleoresins are semi-solid extracts composed of a resin in solution in an essential and/or fatty oil, obtained by evaporation of ... the solvent(s) used for their production. Naturally occurring oleoresins are also known as balsams. ...
By far the most common solvent for perfume is oil dilution is an alcohol solution, typically a mixture of ethanol and water or ... Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons ... Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as ... 5 from Chanel Coco Mademoiselle from Chanel Tresor from Lancôme Poison from Dior Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent ...
... including solvents, waste oils, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), scrap materials, sludges and solids. Some hazardous ... substances, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PCBs, have migrated from the facility to underlying aquifers and ...
... tack treatments may be seen in the tendencies of some to dry-out or to leave residues from free oils or evaporating solvents, ... or with liabilities due to content of hazardous air pollutants (HAP's), or in health risk from volatile organic components ( ... The resin system may be solvent-based, water-based, or (more commonly in North America) a hot-melt. Different tack treatment ...
In industry, chemical solvents were typically used to remove oils, grease and dirt during the cleaning process, but recent ... lacquer thinner or kerosene were used in solvent-based manually operated parts washers, but these are highly volatile and can ... A solvent style parts washer is filled with several gallons of solvent that is stored in a settling pan at the bottom of the ... A small flame-tight electric liquid pump is immersed in the solvent and skims clean solvent from near the top of the settling ...
... solvents, volatile organic compounds, waste processing, auxiliary Water resources Water supply and distribution, water ... oil, gas, chemical and other industries. Headquartered in Irving, Texas, which is a suburb of Dallas, Texas, Flowserve has over ... Oil and gas Production, refining, pipeline, gas processing Power generation Nuclear power, combine cycle, conventional boiler, ...
Organic solvents that cause CSE are characterized as volatile, blood soluble, lipophilic compounds that are typically liquids ... These can be compounds or mixtures used to extract, dissolve, or suspend non-water-soluble materials such as fats, oils, lipids ... Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, often but not ... ", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic ...
... a spent solvent, and vacuum gas oil. Naptha is processed into different hydrocarbon products while spent solvent hydrogenated ... By this process from one short ton (0.907 t) of dry, high volatile coal can be produced more than 2.6 barrels (0.41 m3) of a ... The Exxon donor solvent process is a non-catalytic processing of solvent-slurried coal in a high-pressure liquefaction reactor ... Maa, Peter S.; Trachte, Ken L.; Williams, Richard D. (2013). "Solvent Effects in Exxon Donor-Solvent Coal Liquefaction". In ...
... ethanol is also a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. This facilitates the use of flavoring ... It is called a reduction because the heat boils off some of the water and most of the more volatile alcohol, leaving a more ... It is used in mixed drinks, liqueurs, and tinctures, and also as a household solvent. ...
... at least one non-volatile liquid hydrophobic oil and at least one volatile or easily volatilized hydrophobic substance that is ... Because of the presence of the volatile substance in the composition a soft wax easily worked in the hair is obtained when the ... This soft wax hardens on the hair when the volatile ingredients evaporate. When the composition includes a propellant gas a wax ... Classical hair waxes are soluble or at least can be suspended in organic solvents. These solvents include easily volatilized ...
suspended oils. *cyanide. *solvents and Volatile hydrocarbons. *red list compounds. *mineral oils ...
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10-500T/D sunflower seeds and cake oil solvent extraction machine In former times, oil extraction was done exclusively with ... pressing process is oil expellers which are used for high oil content seeds and also used for smaller capacity oil production ... In most oil milling plant, oil extraction is done with expellers as pre extractio Industrial Microwave Systems Co Ltd. ... Large capacity edible oil solvent extraction machine manufacturer in the entire milling / ...
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In this manuscript we provide a comprehensive review of the volatile composition of this oil fraction and rind extracts for the ... In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review of the volatile composition of this oil fraction and rind extracts for ... A systematic description of the rind volatile composition in each of the species is provided together with a general comparison ... Finally, C. limon shows a particular volatile profile with some sulfur monoterpenoids and non-terpenoid esters and aldehydes as ...
Find volatile petroleum hydrocarbon testing articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry ... Solvent choices for infrared testing of oil and grease in water Water is a very strong absorber in the mi d infrared (I R) ... volatile petroleum hydrocarbon testing Articles. Related terms for "volatile petroleum hydrocarbon testing ": petroleum ... Emulsified oil substrate (EOS®) is being used to remediate a trichloroethene (TCE) source area at the Tarheel Army Missile ...
... or coal digestion pitches either molten or dispersed in volatile solvent. If desired, any water repellent material may be used ... heavy oil such as heavy water gas tar heavy oil or other oil of high aromaticity and with a boiling point above about 3000 C. ... Solvent naphtha in the above procedure may in whole or in part be replaced by other lowboiling coal tar solvents; fractions of ... In either Example A or B, the heavy water gas tar heavy oil may be substituted by light water gas tar heavy oil provided high ...
Solvent types[edit]. Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is ... Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons ... Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as ... By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is an alcohol solution typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a ...
Solvents; Air-contaminants; Nitrosamines; Humans; Author Keywords: Cutting Oils; Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Volatile ... oil decompostion products, xylene (1330207) oil mists and bulk samples of cutting oils were analyzed for nitrosamines and ... They recommend that currently used cutting oils should be substituted with oils that do not containing polynuclear aromatic ... Oil mist samples were analyzed by infrared spectrophotometer. Samples for all chemicals were below the evaluation criteria. The ...
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  • While the presence of water is often overlooked as the primary root cause of machine problems, excess moisture contamination can lead to premature oil degradation, increased corrosion and increased wear. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Moisture, upon contaminating hydraulic and lubricating oils, has a degrading effect to both the lubricant and the machine itself. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • The Karl Fischer Moisture test is the method of choice when accuracy and precision are required in determining the amount of free, dissolved and emulsified water in an oil sample. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • Finally, C. limon shows a particular volatile profile with some sulfur monoterpenoids and non-terpenoid esters and aldehydes as part of its main differential peculiarities. (frontiersin.org)
  • such oils consist of a mixture of fatty acids and their esters, and are classified as solid, semisolid, and liquid, or as drying, semidrying, and nondrying as a function of their tendency to solidify on exposure to air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fatty acid alkyl esters as solvents: An evaluation of the kauri-butanol value. (usda.gov)
  • Esters, most commonly methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats or other lipid feedstocks have found increasing use as an alternative diesel fuel known as biodiesel. (usda.gov)
  • Their report concludes with a list of recommended stains and the VOC (Volitile Organic Compound) concentration of each stain is listed. (treehugger.com)
  • 3) Teaseeds oil machineryDeodorizing section: to remove off the odor components in oil. (epier.com)
  • Empirical data suggest that the deodorant captures the osmophilic (odor-causing) moiety of the malodorous molecule by physical, electronic, chemical, polarization, coordinate covalency, polymerization or other activation means, rendering the combination non-volatile and odorless. (happi.com)
  • such oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a) Inhalation- The vapor formation of an essential oil is very minute and passes through the lungs from where they diffuse across tiny air sacs (alveoli) into the surrounding blood capillaries and eventually find their way into the systemic circulation from where they exert their therapeutic effect. (massagemag.com)
  • The purpose of Degumming Vegetable Oils is to remove GuSkype: taishan0072 All oils have hydratable and non-hydratable guSkype: taishan0072 a. (hrcusa.org)
  • The purpose of Neutralizing Vegetable Oils is to remove Free-Fatty Acids (FFAs). (hrcusa.org)
  • These two families of sterols, known for their anticancer properties, are rarely encountered in other vegetable oils. (hindawi.com)
  • The essential oil fraction obtained from the rind of Citrus spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The use of essential oil and the science behind it is an exciting field that has gained increased popularity. (prweb.com)
  • Sourek added, "The evolution of essential oil use encourages many people to seek alternative options for their own wellness. (prweb.com)
  • 3) New Vitality Health Foods, Inc. carries essential oil diffusers and an assortment of NOW Essential Oils. (prweb.com)
  • As with all highly concentrated essential oils, be cautious when allowing any essential oil to come into contact with the skin. (prweb.com)
  • As with any nutritional supplement, homeopathic remedy, or essential oil, it is important that the product be built from quality ingredients. (prweb.com)
  • The integrity of essential oil source and extraction process NOW follows, makes them a superior product," remarked Sourek. (prweb.com)
  • The integrity of an essential oil is determined by the botanical from which it was derived, proper harvest, and gentle extraction methods to bring the finished products to life. (prweb.com)
  • Contributions to the essential oil composition of the flowers and leaves of cannabis sativa L. Planta Medica. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Composition, In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L. (hindawi.com)
  • The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins was evaluated against linseed oil system at 200 ppm concentration by peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, ferric thiocyanate, ferrous ion chelating activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. (hindawi.com)
  • The essential oil and ethyl acetate oleoresin were found to be better than synthetic antioxidants. (hindawi.com)
  • The essential oil showed up to 90% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme in inverted petri plate method. (hindawi.com)
  • Using agar well diffusion method for evaluating antibacterial activity, the essential oil was found to be highly effective against Gram-positive bacteria. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of aromatherapy are theorized to result from the binding of chemical components in the essential oil to receptors in the olfactory bulb , impacting the brain's emotional center, the limbic system . (cancer.gov)
  • It requires, for example, as much as 2000 pounds of rose petals to create one pound of essential oil! (dreamingearth.com)
  • And, by the end of the 12th century, bitter orange trees were being cultivated in Seville, Spain for the production of this highly sought-after essential oil. (naturallycurly.com)
  • Like rose oil, this oil's valid expense is driven by the enormous amount of blossoms necessary to produce Neroli essential oil. (naturallycurly.com)
  • Neroli oil is the extracted essential oil of fragrant blossoms from the bitter orange tree. (naturallycurly.com)
  • You should not consider cannabis oil as an essential oil. (controlcancer.ca)
  • Aromatherapy works by synergistically using the properties of all the chemicals in essential oil for their correct application. (massagemag.com)
  • Not just this, studies show that scenting your office with Lavender essential oil can even reduce computer errors by at least 25 percent. (massagemag.com)
  • As a professional aromatherapist and an "impactful consumer," it is important to be aware of unsustainable essential oil species. (naha.org)
  • Oleoresins are typically liquid and contain significant amounts of essential oil. (naha.org)
  • Essential oil is one of an important concentrated liquid that possesses many physical, chemical and pharmacological properties. (intechopen.com)
  • They have been widely used as a food preservative (eucalyptus essential oil, thyme), cosmetic preparation (lavender oil), antimicrobial (lemon grass, cumin, fennel), and anticancer agent (lemon grass, Croton flavens ). (intechopen.com)
  • These methods have some disadvantages Preservation of essential oil from its environment can be possible through a number of technologies such as nanospheres, liposome, microcapsules and nanoemulsions [ 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A lot of research is currently underway for extracting essential oil through new green methods. (intechopen.com)
  • This review chapter documents the updated information about novel solvent-less extraction of essential oil. (intechopen.com)
  • Solventless extraction of essential oil was designed in a closed system under reduced pressure using a vacuum and compared the results with the conventional methods such as hydrodistillation. (intechopen.com)
  • The quality and quantity of essential oil extracted from Chromalaena odorata, Citronella , Baeckea frutescens , Orange peel was found better than traditional method [ 11 , 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Use our selection guide to determine which essential oil works best for your customers needs. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Geranium Oil, Chinese Type, also called Pelargonium graveolens oil or rose geranium oil, is an essential oil typically used in massage and aromatherapy applications. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • They were thought to be the essence of plants hence the term essential oil. (scribd.com)
  • Eugenol is the main ingredient of the essential oil that can be isolated from the spice clove. (scribd.com)
  • The essential oil inhibited the acetylcholinesterase, one of the main targets of insecticides. (mdpi.com)
  • After 48 h of treatment, the estimated LC 50 values were 118.94 μg mL −1 and 81.19 μg mL −1 for B. reticularia essential oil and d -limonene nanoemulsions, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • This paper demonstrated a simple and ecofriendly method for obtaining B. reticularia essential oil and d -limonene aqueous nanoemulsions by a non-heating and solvent-free method, as promising alternatives for Aedes aegypti control. (mdpi.com)
  • All Types Essential Oils Supplier @ Aroma Essential Oil Store - Aroma Essential Oil Store is a name for an essential oil e-store run by one of India's major Pure Essential Oils Suppliers. (powershow.com)
  • Natural Flower Oils at Aroma Essential Oil Store - Aromaessentialoilstore.com is one of the largest suppliers of Natural Flower oils in the world. (powershow.com)
  • 10-200T/D Fatty acid esterification production cooking oil production line. (epier.com)
  • In Chemical Refining, Vegetable Oil is treated with caustic lye for separation of free fatty acids from oil. (hrcusa.org)
  • It should be noted that essential oils are distinctly different chemically from (fatty) oils, such as those used as food. (cancer.gov)
  • The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. (hindawi.com)
  • Generally, this oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (80%), principally oleic, and linoleic acids (44.8 and 33.7%, resp. (hindawi.com)
  • and into drying and nondrying (fatty) oils, the former gradually thickening when exposed to the air and finally drying to a varnish, the latter not drying but liable to become rancid on exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)