The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Specialized solutions for PARENTERAL NUTRITION. They may contain a variety of MICRONUTRIENTS; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; CARBOHYDRATES; LIPIDS; and SALTS.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Relating to the size of solids.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (1/5266)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (2/5266)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

pH-dependent conformational change of gastric mucin leads to sol-gel transition. (3/5266)

We present dynamic light scattering (DLS) and hydrophobic dye-binding data in an effort to elucidate a molecular mechanism for the ability of gastric mucin to form a gel at low pH, which is crucial to the barrier function of gastric mucus. DLS measurements of dilute mucin solutions were not indicative of intermolecular association, yet there was a steady fall in the measured diffusion coefficient with decreasing pH, suggesting an apparent increase in size. Taken together with the observed rise in depolarized scattering ratio with decreasing pH, these results suggest that gastric mucin undergoes a conformational change from a random coil at pH >/= 4 to an anisotropic, extended conformation at pH < 4. The increased binding of mucin to hydrophobic fluorescent with decreasing pH indicates that the change to an extended conformation is accompanied by exposure of hydrophobic binding sites. In concentrated mucin solutions, the structure factor S(q, t) derived from DLS measurements changed from a stretched exponential decay at pH 7 to a power-law decay at pH 2, which is characteristic of a sol-gel transition. We propose that the conformational change facilitates cross-links among mucin macromolecules through hydrophobic interactions at low pH, which in turn leads to a sol-gel transition when the mucin solution is sufficiently concentrated.  (+info)

Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. (4/5266)

High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions.  (+info)

Effect of salt addition on the fractal structure of aggregates formed by heating dilute BSA solutions. (5/5266)

The fractal dimension, Df, of aggregates in a dilute BSA system with added salt was evaluated by static light scattering (SLS). A fractal structure was observed for the system with NaCl addition. The values of Df increased with increasing heating time and ionic strength. The values of Df were larger than those (Df = 1.8 or 2.1) predicted by the conventional cluster-cluster aggregation model, probably due to a "restructuring" of aggregates during the aggregation process. On the other hand, a fractal structure was not apparent for the system with added CaCl2.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (6/5266)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Conformation and self-association of human recombinant transforming growth factor-beta3 in aqueous solutions. (7/5266)

The transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) are important regulatory peptides for cell growth and differentiation with therapeutic potential for wound healing. Among the several TGF-beta isoforms TGF-beta3 has a particularly low solubility at physiological pH and easily forms aggregates. A spectroscopic structural analysis of TGF-beta3 in solution has thus been difficult. In this study, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to determine the secondary structural elements of TGF-beta3. In addition, the aggregation of TGF-beta3 was investigated systematically as a function of pH and salt concentration using a rapid screening method. Sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity analysis revealed that TGF-beta3 exists predominantly in two major forms: (i) monomers in solution at low pH and (ii) large precipitating aggregates at physiological pH. Under acidic conditions (pH < 3.8) the protein was not aggregated. At pH approximately 3.9, a monomer right arrow over left arrow dimer equilibrium could be detected that transformed into larger aggregates at pH > 4.1. Aggregation was pronounced in the pH range of 4.3 < pH < 9.8 with the aggregation maximum between pH 6.5 and 8. 5. The aggregation process was accompanied by a structural change of the protein. The CD spectra were characterized by an isodichroic point at 209.5 nm indicating a two-state equilibrium between TGF-beta3 dissolved in solution and aggregated TGF-beta3. Aggregated TGF-beta3 showed a higher beta-sheet content and lower beta-turn and random coil contributions compared with monomeric TGF-beta3. Both the solution structure and the aggregate structure of TGF-beta3 were different from the crystal structure. This was in contrast to TGF-beta2, which showed very similar crystal and solution structures. Under alkaline conditions (pH > 9.8) the turbidity disappeared and a further conformational change was induced. The pH dependence of the TGF-beta3 conformation in solution in the range of 2.3 < pH < 11. 0 was reversible. Aggregation of TGF-beta3 was, furthermore, influenced by the presence of salt. For pH > 3.8 the addition of salt greatly enhanced the tendency to aggregate, even in the very basic domain. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, cNaCl = 164 mM) TGF-beta3 has almost the highest tendency to aggregate and will remain in solution only at nanomolar concentrations.  (+info)

Maximum solubility of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. (8/5266)

In any lipid bilayer membrane, there is an upper limit on the cholesterol concentration that can be accommodated within the bilayer structure; excess cholesterol will precipitate as crystals of pure cholesterol monohydrate. This cholesterol solubility limit is a well-defined quantity. It is a first-order phase boundary in the phospholipid/cholesterol phase diagram. There are many different solubility limits in the literature, but no clear picture has emerged that can unify the disparate results. We have studied the effects that different sample preparation methods can have on the apparent experimental solubility limit. We find that artifactual demixing of cholesterol can occur during conventional sample preparation and that this demixed cholesterol may produce artifactual cholesterol crystals. Therefore, phospholipid/cholesterol suspensions which are prepared by conventional methods may manifest variable, falsely low cholesterol solubility limits. We have developed two novel preparative methods which are specifically designed to prevent demixing during sample preparation. For detection of the cholesterol crystals, X-ray diffraction has proven to be quantitative and highly sensitive. Experiments based on these methods yield reproducible and precise cholesterol solubility limits: 66 mol% for phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers and 51 mol% for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) bilayers. We present evidence that these are true, equilibrium values. In contrast to the dramatic headgroup effect (PC vs. PE), acyl chain variations had no effect on the cholesterol solubility limit in four different PC/cholesterol mixtures.  (+info)

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Most of the engineering materials are alloys (solid solutions) and inevitably contain some impurities or defects such as vacancies. However, theoretical predictions of the hardness of this kind of materials have rarely been addressed in literature. In this paper, a hardness formula for multicomponent covalent solid solution is proposed based on the work of Simunek and Vackar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 085501 (2006)]. With this formula, the composition dependence of the hardness is investigated for titanium nitrogencarbide (TiN1-xCx), off-stoichiometric transition-metal nitrides (TiN1-x and VN1-x), and B-doped semiconductors. The predicted hardness is in good agreement with experiments. To investigate the most frequently quoted correlation between hardness and elastic modulus, the elastic moduli of the systems involved in this paper have also been calculated. The results show that the elastic moduli cannot be used for rigorous predictions of the hardness of the solid solutions.. ...
Positive Solutions Behavior Group is committed to promoting personal growth and community integration for individuals with autism and developmental needs through evidence-based research utilizing the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis. ...
When a solid solution becomes unstable-due to a lower temperature, for example-exsolution occurs and the two phases separate into distinct microscopic to megascopic lamellae. This is mainly caused by difference in cation size. Cations which have a large difference in radii are not likely to readily substitute.[7]. Take the alkali feldspar minerals for example, whose end members are albite, NaAlSi3O8 and microcline, KAlSi3O8. At high temperatures Na+ and K+ readily substitute for each other and so the minerals will form a solid solution, yet at low temperatures albite can only substitute a small amount of K+ and the same applies for Na+ in the microcline. This leads to exsolution where they will separate into two separate phases. In the case of the alkali feldspar minerals, thin white albite layers will alternate between typically pink microcline,[7] resulting in a perthite texture. ...
We use molecular-dynamics simulation to examine the order-disorder behavior in pure ferroelectric KNbO{sub 3} and in KNbO{sub 3}-KTaO{sub 3} ferroelectric-paraelectric solid solutions and superlattices. We find that the order-disorder behavior is remarkably robust and plays an important role in both the polarization rotation associated with switching of the perfect crystal and in the dynamical behavior of the solid solutions and superlattices.
Autoxidation of lipids and antioxidation by α-tocopherol and ubiquinol in homogeneous solution and in aqueous dispersions of lipids: unrecognized consequences of lipid particle size as exemplified by oxidation of human low density lipoprotein
1ERG: THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR REGION OF THE COMPLEMENT REGULATORY PROTEIN, CD59, A NEW CELL SURFACE PROTEIN DOMAIN RELATED TO NEUROTOXINS
View Notes - lect14_reel4_3pg from CHM 123 at Ohio State. Solid State Synthesis, Phase Diagrams and Solid Solutions Chemistry 123 Spring 2008 Dr. Woodward Solid State Reactions Example: MgO(s) +
STAFFORD, STEPHEN WILLIAM. THE THERMODYNAMICS OF INTERSTITIAL HYDROGEN SOLID SOLUTIONS AND METAL HYDRIDES. (1975) Diss., Rice University. https://hdl.handle.net/1911/15183 ...
Nancy E. Brown, Alexandra Navrotsky; Hematite-ilmenite (Fe 2 O 3 -FeTiO 3 ) solid solutions; the effects of cation ordering on the thermodynamics of mixing. American Mineralogist ; 79 (5-6): 485-496. doi: Download citation file:. ...
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решение - do with the solution - algorithm/architecture solution - ambiguous solution - approximate solution - candidate solution - check solution - closed form solution - cost-effective solution - cut-and-dried solution - engineering solution - expert-like solution - feasible solution - general solution - good-enough solution -.
Temperature indicating compositions are provided for use in disposable thermometers comprising a heat-conductive carrier sheet having at least one but preferably a plurality of regions (cavities) thereon, each region containing a thermally responsive substance which undergoes a change in state at a precise and predetermined temperature different from any other region. The thermally responsive materials used herein as temperature indicating compositions are solid solutions comprised of two components which, inter alia, have linear temperature-composition liquidous curves. The change of state of the solid solution in each region is readily detectable visually by an indicator system which is intimately associated with the solid solution in said regions in order to permit rapid and accurate visual determination of the temperature of the test subject.
NMR solution structure of the isolated N-terminal fragment of protein-G B1 domain. Evidence of trifluoroethanol induced native-like beta-hairpin
The join between the compositions K2Mg2(SO4)3 and K2Ca2(SO4)3 was studied by means of high-temperature equilibrium quenching techniques and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Complete solid solution exists in the system, but at 25??C members of the solid solution series are isometric only in the composition range 0-73??5 wt. per cent K2Ca2(SO4)3. At compositions richer in K2Ca2(SO4)3 than 73??5 wt. per cent, members of the series are optically biaxial. At higher temperatures members of the solid solution series are isometric at successively more calcium-rich compositions and pure K2Ca2(SO4)3 is isometric above about 200 ?? 2??C. The system is not binary, as mixtures richer in K2Ca2(SO4)3 than 42 wt. per cent decompose with the formation of liquid and CaSO4. ?? 1964....
By Jason Doub. A solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture or a mixture where the components are uniformly mingled. Normally we thing of a solution is the liquid state, but this is a common misconception; a solution can be in any state. For example, air is a solution of oxygen, nitrogen, and a variety of other gases all in the gas state. Steel is also solution of carbon and iron, but this solution exists in the solid state. However, the most important solutions in chemistry involve water, so this section will focus of aqueous solution.. Before we begin discussing the properties of solutions, we must define ways to describe the concentrations of various mixtures:. Molarity (M): the number of moles per liter (moles/Liter). Mole fraction (c ): the ratio of the number of moles of a compound to the number of moles of solution (c A = moles A / (Moles A + Moles B)). Molality (m): the number of moles solute1 per kilogram solvent (m = moles solute/ kilograms solvent). Mass percent or weight percent: ...
WAFER-LEVEL ACA FLIP CHIP PACKAGE USING DOUBLE-LAYERED ACA/NCA - A method of manufacturing a wafer-level flip chip package is capable of being used to produce a flip chip package by directly coating a flip chip package using anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA) and non conductive adhesives (NCA) in a solution state as a double layer on a wafer. The method can be used to manufacture a non-conductive mixed solution and a conductive mixed solution and directly coat them on a substrate, such that it is possible to: increase productivity; simplify a manufacturing process; suppress a shadow effect; easily perform thickness control that is difficult with the anisotropic conductive adhesive paste or the non-conductive adhesive paste; and obtain the non-conductive layer and the anisotropic conductive layer in an initial state of a B-stage with a level not losing latent of hardening through a simple drying process to volatilize an organic solvent. Above all, the non-conductive layer and the anisotropic ...
Combine solutions A and B in a 1:1 ratio. Equal volumes of each solution are required to end up with a multivalent physiological ion solution of aCSF.. Recomended Storage Conditions: The aCSF solution may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 4 weeks. If the solution becomes cloudy, or there is indication of precipitation, discard and make a fresh batch. To preserve the pH and quality of the aCSF solution, we recommend making a fresh batch of the mixed solution (A and B) as needed. Solution A is a mixture of salts, and solution B is a mixture of buffers. When separate, solutions A and B may be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for longer periods. When mixed together, the solution is more prone to microbiological growth, thus it is recommended to store solutions A and B separately, and mix as needed.. ...
Media release , 11 JUN 2019 , Jakamo. Microsoft appointed Jakamo as a preferred solution. Microsoft has appointed Jakamos universal collaboration platform as a preferred solution in Microsoft AppSource Marketplace. Last year Jakamo joined an outstanding group of independent software vendors hand-picked by Microsoft for joint sales, marketing and development activities. Microsoft Preferred Solution -appointment is recognition for Jakamos unique solution which is solving a certain challenge for a certain group of customers.. A Microsoft preferred solution is a cloud application selected for its quality, performance, and ability to address customer needs in a certain industry vertical or solution area. A team of Microsoft experts validates solutions from partners with specific proven competencies and capabilities. Preferred solutions on AppSource can be discovered by industry verticals. Preferred solutions on Azure Marketplace can be discovered across horizontal solution categories.. The ...
It is possible for solids to form a solution. Solid solution means that the solute component enters and becomes a part of the crystalline solvent, without altering its basic structure. Solid solutions with complete solid solubility, i.e., solid solubility over the entire range of the composition, are possible to form. For a metallic binary solution to exhibit a complete solid solubility, for instance, both metals must have the same type of crystal structure, nearly identical atomic radii and electronegativities, and similar valences because it must be possible to replace all the atoms of the initial solvent with solute atoms without causing a change in crystal structure. The copper-nickel system displays this behavior. The copper-nickel system is termed isomorphous because of this complete liquid and solid solubility of the two components. The phase diagram shapes are as shown below ...
The invention relates to new fluorescent dyes of formula (I) ##STR1##which can be used in high throughput screening both, on the solid phase as well as in homogeneous solution.
To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.. A solution is a homogeneous mixture. The major component is the solvent, while the minor component is the solute. Solutions can have any phase; for example, an alloy is a solid solution. Solutes are soluble or insoluble, meaning they dissolve or do not dissolve in a particular solvent. The terms miscible and immiscible, instead of soluble and insoluble, are used for liquid solutes and solvents. The statement like dissolves like is a useful guide to predicting whether a solute will dissolve in a given solvent.. The amount of solute in a solution is represented by the concentration of the solution. The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent is called the solubility of the solute. Such solutions are saturated. Solutions that have less than the maximum amount are ...
Use this formula to calculate ionic strength: I=1/2 ∑ Ci Zi^2. Let I equal ionic strength of the solution. The formula in Step 1 states that ionic strength is a squared sum of concentrations and valences of all ions in the solution.. Allow the molar concentration of ions to be represented by C. In mixed solutions, there will be several concentrations to sum. The unit is moles per liter for all ions.. Represent the ion with i. This could be sodium, chloride, etc. For example, there will be two Ci for the concentration of sodium in sodium chloride and the concentration of chloride in sodium chloride.. Symbolize the valence or the oxidation number of the ions with Z. This is also known as the electrical charge of the ion. Again, the i indicates the ion.. Square the valences on ions.. Sum the concentrations and valences.. ...
* found in: BUFFER SOLUTION pH 10.0 Blue, BUFFER SOLUTION pH 12.0, BUFFER SOLUTION pH 4.0, Buffer Solution pH 4.0 @ 25°C, Color Coded Red, BUFFER SOLUTION..
VIP Business Solutions, LLC.. II. Taxes VIP Business Solutions, LLC. shall not be liable for any taxes or other fees to be paid in accordance with or related to purchases made from Client or VIP Business Solutions, LLC.s server. Client agrees to take full responsibility for all taxes and fees of any nature associated with such products sold. III. Material and Products 1. Client will provide VIP Business Solutions, LLC. with material and data in a condition that is server-ready, which is in a form requiring no additional manipulation on the part of VIP Business Solutions, LLC.. VIP Business Solutions, LLC.s all make no effort to validate this information for content, correctness or usability. 2. VIP Business Solutions, LLC. will exercise no control whatsoever over the content of the information passing through the network. VIP Business Solutions, LLC. makes no warranties or representations of any kind, whether expressed or implied for the service it is providing. VIP Business Solutions, LLC. ...
A control solution packet for calibrating a bodily fluid sampling device includes a container, a control solution pressurized within the container, and a membrane for covering and sealing the container. The control solution can be pressurized before or during calibration so as to ensure the appropriate amount of control solution is delivered to the bodily fluid sampling device. The control solution is manufactured to have a viscosity that controls delivery of the control solution to the device. The membrane is permeable by a piercing device of the bodily fluid sampling device and seals around the piercing device during calibration. In another aspect, the container is in the form of a capsule or dosing attachment that contains the control solution along with a sponge-like material.
You can configure a solution to check for updates at specified intervals, and install updates automatically. The default setting for automatic updates is every seven days. After this interval is set and the solution is installed, the interval cannot be changed without installing an update. If your users want to force an update outside of the regular update intervals, the Office solution can be updated manually.. You can deploy updates by using the Publish Wizard. The Publish Wizard generates a new application manifest and copies the solution files to the same publish location as the earlier version. Updates are optional and users can cancel any solution update during the download stage and still run the add-in.. The publish action also updates the deployment manifest to point to the location of the new version of the solution. When the end users installed solution checks for updates at the specified interval, it will download and install the most recently deployed version. You can update ...
The electronic properties of Te doped-ZnSb systems are investigated by first-principles calculations. We focus on the Zn64Sb64−xTex systems (x = 0, 2, 3, 4), which respond to the 0, 1.56at%, 2.34at% and 3.12at% of Te doping concentration. We confirm that the amount of Te doping will change the conductivity type of ZnSb. In the cases of x = 2 and 3, we find that the Te element in ZnSb introduces some bands originating from Te s and p orbits and a donor energy level in the bottom of the conduction band, which induce the n-type conductivity of ZnSb. From these findings for the electronic structure and the conductivity mechanism, we predict that Te doping amounts such as 1.56at% and 2.34at% can be considered as suitable candidates for use as donor dopant.
The electronic properties of Te doped-ZnSb systems are investigated by first-principles calculations. We focus on the Zn64Sb64−xTex systems (x = 0, 2, 3, 4), which respond to the 0, 1.56at%, 2.34at% and 3.12at% of Te doping concentration. We confirm that the amount of Te doping will change the conductivity type of ZnSb. In the cases of x = 2 and 3, we find that the Te element in ZnSb introduces some bands originating from Te s and p orbits and a donor energy level in the bottom of the conduction band, which induce the n-type conductivity of ZnSb. From these findings for the electronic structure and the conductivity mechanism, we predict that Te doping amounts such as 1.56at% and 2.34at% can be considered as suitable candidates for use as donor dopant.
An automated sample-on-solid-support processing system includes a treatment solution supply subsystem which feeds solvent to a dispenser to dispense a measured amount of treatment solution to each well of a multi-well plate. The dispenser measures the solution within a fill container having a plurality of reservoir wells corresponding to the number of wells in the multi-well plate. The fill container is contained within a reservoir chamber that is filled with an excess of solution. Each reservoir well is surrounded by a plurality of bores which drains excess solution from the top of the fill container so that a precise amount of solution is left in the reservoir wells when solution is drained out of the reservoir chamber. Gas pressure is introduced into the reservoir chamber to force the solution out of the reservoir well through a bundle of tubes, with one tube per well, and into the wells of the multi-well plate.
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The range of pore size characterization by mercury intrusion porosimetry has been extended from 120 micrometers to approx. 850 micrometers by investment in an
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Molar solution is a standard solution The solution whose strength is known accurately is called standard solution. Again, molar solution is that solution w
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Solution Define Conductivity and Molar Conductivity for the Solution of an Electrolyte. Discuss Their Variation with Concentration. Concept: Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions - Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions.
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Preheat phase A to 90°C in a glass beaker and propeller mix until solution is dissolved and homogeneous. Mix phase B in a separate beaker at 95°C and stir until completely melted. Slowly add phase B to A and mix under propeller agitation until fully incorporated and uniform. Add phase C to A & B and slowly combine using a homogenizer. Premix phase D in a separate beaker at 70°C until uniform then add to phase A, B, C. Continue mixing until a smooth, creamy and homogeneous solution is present. Lower temperature of the batch to 70°C and pour into desired pans ...
Some aqueous solutions are conductive while other are insulative. These two kind of solution can be distinguished with a conductivity test. A conductive solution always contains electrical particles called ions
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Solution of differential equations for astronomy[edit]. Around 1933 Eckert proposed interconnecting punched card tabulating ... Nicholas Metropolis and Richard Feynman organized a punched-card solution, proving its effectiveness for physics research and ...
Number of solutions[edit]. Figure 11: An Apollonius problem with no solutions. A solution circle (pink) must cross the dashed ... Solutions to Apollonius's problem generally occur in pairs; for each solution circle, there is a conjugate solution circle ( ... There are generally four solutions for each family, yielding eight possible solutions, consistent with the algebraic solution. ... Consider a solution circle of radius rs and three given circles of radii r1, r2 and r3. If the solution circle is externally ...
Solutions to EDIF 2 0 0 problems[edit]. The solution to the "flavor" problem of EDIF 2 0 0 was to develop a more specific ... The solution to vendor "conflict of interest" was neutral third-party companies, who could provide EDIF products based on ...
Potential solutions[edit]. Alternative biomass sources[edit]. Agricultural and forestry residues[35][edit]. Globally, 14 Gt of ... 8 Potential solutions *8.1 Alternative biomass sources *8.1.1 Agricultural and forestry residues[35] ... It uses absorption technology with Aker Solution Advanced Amine solvent as a CO2 capture unit. Similarly, the ARV Duiven at ...
Solutions[edit]. Unlimited resources[edit]. Main article: Water purification. Closed water cycles, reclaimed water, atmospheric ... The Integrated Biotectural System is an example for a low-tech solution, based on a natural wetland, without the use of toxic ... These artificial resources are based on the use of energy, infrastructure and human expertise, but are potential solutions to ...
Buffer solutions[edit]. Buffer solutions are used to correct acidosis or alkalosis. Lactated Ringer's solution also has some ... The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close ... A solution more specifically used for buffering purpose is intravenous sodium bicarbonate. ... Crystalloids are aqueous solutions of mineral salts or other water-soluble molecules. Colloids contain larger insoluble ...
The mathematical solution of the equation was given by Dey.[11] Particle Reynolds Number[edit]. In general, a particle Reynolds ... Solution[edit]. We make several assumptions to provide an example that will allow us to bring the above form of the equation ... These processes generally combine to give the hillslope a profile that looks like a solution to the diffusion equation, where ... Geologists can use inverse solutions of transport relationships to understand flow depth, velocity, and direction, from ...
Solutions[edit]. In practice, the difficulties associated with the Gibbs phenomenon can be ameliorated by using a smoother ...
Possible solutions[edit]. Sociologist Douglas Massey argues that housing discrimination is a moving target.[17] As federal ... Other proposed solutions include subsidies, such as direct subsidies, project-based subsidies, household-based subsidies, and ... There have been a number of solutions proposed to finally end the threat of housing discrimination and eliminate any legal ... wicked problems persist without clarity or solutions. However, looking beyond urban regimes and accepting the nexus of these ...
of a solution:[45] μ. s. μ. 0. =. 1. +. A. c. ,. {\displaystyle {\frac {\mu _{s}}{\mu _{0}}}=1+A{\sqrt {c}},}. where μ. 0. {\ ... Solutions and suspensions[edit]. Aqeuous solutions[edit]. See also: Debye-Hückel theory and List of viscosities § Aqueous_ ... solutions. Depending on the solute and range of concentration, an aqueous electrolyte solution can have either a larger or ... However, this expression is only valid for very dilute solutions, having c. {\displaystyle c}. less than 0.1 mol/L.[46] For ...
is the solution to the equation f. (. x. ). =. 0. {\displaystyle f(x)=0}. .[2] A "zero" of a function is thus an input value ... Solution of an equation[edit]. Every equation in the unknown x. {\displaystyle x}. may be rewritten as ... It follows that the solutions of such an equation are exactly the zeros of the function f. {\displaystyle f}. . In other words ... a "zero of a function" is precisely a "solution of the equation obtained by equating the function to 0", and the study of zeros ...
1-soliton solutions[edit]. The sine-Gordon equation has the following 1-soliton solutions: φ. soliton. (. x. ,. t. ). :=. 4. ... solution and the integration of the resulting first-order differentials: φ. ′. u. =. φ. u. +. 2. β. sin. ⁡. (. φ. ′. +. φ. 2. ) ... 2-soliton solutions[edit]. Multi-soliton solutions can be obtained through continued application of the Bäcklund transform to ... are known as vacuum states as they are constant solutions of zero energy. The 1-soliton solution in which we take the negative ...
Because infusing a solution of low osmolality can cause problems such as hemolysis, intravenous solutions with reduced saline ... This solution is used for irrigating wounds, tissues, body cavities, and bladders. Saline solution for irrigation should not be ... Normal saline (NSS, NS or N/S) is the commonly used phrase for a solution of 0.90% w/v of NaCl, 308 mOsm/L or 9.0 g per litre. ... a correction for non-ideal solutions, then the saline solution is much closer to isotonic. Osmotic coefficient of NaCl is about ...
Coasian solution[edit]. A Coasian solution, named for the economist Ronald Coase, proposes that potential beneficiaries of a ... Altruistic solutions[edit]. Social norms[edit]. The impact of social norms on the free-rider problem differs between cultural ... Economic and political solutions[edit]. Assurance contracts[edit]. Main article: Assurance contract ... William D. Nordhaus, "A New Solution: the Climate Club" (a review of Gernot Wagner and Martin L. Weitzman, Climate Shock: The ...
Solutions[edit]. Discounts[edit]. Programs and strategies are available to cut prescription drug costs. When it comes to US ... As solution to high medication costs as a result of drug rebates, the Trump administration have proposed allocating a portion ... is likely not an effective public health solution.[112] However, if the federal government modified reimportation laws, the FDA ...
Solutions of C60 can be oxygenated to the epoxide C60O. Ozonation of C60 in 1,2-xylene at 257K gives an intermediate ozonide C ... Solutions of pure C60 have a deep purple color which leaves a brown residue upon evaporation. The reason for this color change ... Talyzin, A.V.; Engström, I. (1998). "C70 in Benzene, Hexane, and Toluene Solutions". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 102 (34 ... 60 solution, showing reduced absorption for the blue (~450 nm) and red (~700 nm) light that results in the purple color. ...
Topical solution[edit]. Topical solutions can be marketed as drops, rinses, or sprays, are generally of low viscosity, and ... Lotions are similar to solution but are thicker and tend to be more emollient in nature than solution. They are usually oil ... Some examples of topical solutions are given below: *Aluminium acetate topical solution: This is colorless, with a faint ... Commercial product: Betadine solution.[citation needed]. Transdermal patch[edit]. Transdermal patches can be a very precise ...
Faster DP solution using a different parametrization[edit]. Notice that the above solution takes O. (. n. k. 2. ). {\ ... If a solution has been recorded, we can use it directly, otherwise we solve the sub-problem and add its solution to the table. ... That is, the solution to the entire problem relies on solutions to subproblems. Let us define a function q(i, j). as ... The solution to this problem is an optimal control law or policy u. ∗. =. h. (. x. (. t. ). ,. t. ). {\displaystyle \mathbf {u ...
Proposed solutions[edit]. Proposed solutions to the burial crisis, 1852. A ring of new cemeteries had opened or were under ... to provide a final solution to the problems caused by burials in built-up areas.[36] The massive London civil engineering ... development outside the built-up area of London, but were only a temporary solution. Edwin Chadwick planned two large new ...
Ancient solutions[edit]. An ancient solution to a flow problem is a curve whose evolution can be extrapolated backwards for all ... A given fan of four or more rays may be asymptotic to more than one different solution of this type, so these solutions do not ... All of the self-similar solutions that shrink or stay the same size rather than growing are ancient solutions in this sense; ... a b c d e Mullins (1956); Abresch & Langer (1986); Epstein & Weinstein (1987); Chou & Zhu (2001), "2. Invariant solutions for ...
Solutions to the fundamental issues[edit]. Geographic space[edit]. Manhattan distance versus Euclidean distance: The red, blue ... A better solution, proposed by psychometricians,[15] groups the data in a « cubic matrix », with three entries (for instance, ... A solution consists in fusing together several census matrices in a unique table which, then, may be analyzed. This, however, ...
New research article on Fehling's solution[edit]. I just want to note, there are some new findings about Fehling's solution. ... Why should Fehling's solution be freshly prepared?[edit]. I've done a little poking around and found that air will oxidise the ... It seems I've made an error also, its [Cu(C4H3O6)2]4-. So if the glucose solution is pH=1, the reduction of glucose will still ... The pH of the test solution is a part of the test. I do not remember how the test is conducted, but the test method utilized ...
Buffer solutions[edit]. Buffer solutions are used to correct acidosis or alkalosis. Lactated Ringer's solution also has some ... The most commonly used crystalloid fluid is normal saline, a solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% concentration, which is close ... FDA warns health care professionals not to inject patients with IV solutions from Wallcur, of San Diego.. ... A solution more specifically used for buffering purpose is intravenous sodium bicarbonate. ...
This method allows the study of gases as they evolve in solution. This method has been extensively used for the study of the ... Membrane-introduction mass spectrometry: measuring gases in solution[edit]. Membrane-introduction mass spectrometry combines ... either in solution or in gel after electrophoretic separation. Other proteolytic agents are also used. The collection of ...
Researching solutions[edit]. The decline of filter-feeding shellfish populations, such as oysters, likely contribute to HAB ...
Exceptions and possible solutions[edit]. There are some key points in Brooks' law that allow exceptions and open the door for ... possible solutions.[4][5]. The first point is to note that Brooks' law only applies to projects that are already late.[6] ...
Solutions are found in a wide variety of applications, including paints, sealants, and adhesives. Naphtha and acetone are used ... Liquids can form solutions with gases, solids, and other liquids. Two liquids are said to be miscible if they can form a ... Examples of non-Newtonian liquids include ketchup, mayonnaise, hair gels, play dough, or starch solutions.[28] ... Body fluids are water based solutions. Surfactants are commonly found in soaps and detergents. Solvents like alcohol are often ...
Solution sinkholes[edit]. Solution or dissolution sinkholes form where water dissolves limestone under a soil covering. ...
Peritoneal dialysis solution[edit]. *Intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition)α. Medicines for mental and ... Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances[edit]. Oral[edit]. *Oral rehydration salts ... for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available *^ The presence of both 25 mg/5 mL and ... 23 Peritoneal dialysis solution. *24 Medicines for mental and behavioural disorders *24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders ...
Implementation of the Final Solution in the Netherlands[edit]. Occupation[edit]. The May 1940 invasion ended the Netherlands ... 1.7 Implementation of the Final Solution in the Netherlands *1.7.1 Occupation ... and eventually implement the Final Solution.[20] Rauter had not only the Dutch Police, but 4,700 German Police personnel at his ...
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Experimental: Open Label ATI-50002 Topical Solution Drug: ATI-50002 ATI-50002 Topical Solution ... A Study in Male and Female Subjects With Androgenetic Alopecia Treated With ATI-50002 Topical Solution. The safety and ... This is an open-label study designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ATI-50002 Topical Solution in male and female ... and Efficacy Study in Male and Female Subjects With Androgenetic Alopecia Treated With ATI-50002 Topical Solution. ...
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... and in a micellar solution these are in equilibrium with free, unaggregated amphiphiles. Micellar solutions form when the ... A micellar solution consists of a dispersion of micelles in a solvent (most usually water). Micelles consist of aggregated ... Schematic of a micellar solution showing spherical micelles distributed in water (solvent) and having no long-range positional ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Micellar_solutions&oldid=906898445" ...
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  • Get the performance, density, flexibility and scale from your storage infrastructure that is essential for operational and business success with Micron Accelerated Solutions for Microsoft®'s new portfolio for Azure Stack HCI solutions. (micron.com)
  • The AWS Connected Vehicle Solution was created to help you quickly develop a wide array of innovative connected vehicle applications, allowing you to build innovative connected experiences, rather than managing the underlying infrastructure operations. (amazon.com)
  • We assess your current network infrastructure, understand current and emerging network needs, and formulate a network strategy and solution design for a flexible and high performance end-to-end solution. (angelfire.com)
  • Intel HPC solutions provide superior infrastructure for oil and gas operations. (intel.com)
  • Curating a broad set of open source technologies, Red Hat Cloud Suite offers a turnkey Cloud solution with a container-based app-development platform, private-cloud infrastructure, and a common management framework. (redhat.com)
  • Breakbulk replaces a maze of multiple distribution channels, package handlers and infrastructure needs with a single, fast-moving, consolidated-clearance, direct-distribution solution. (fedex.com)
  • The Forrester Wave™: Enterprise Collaboration, Q4 2016 3 named IBM a leader among the nine collaboration solution providers that matter most, citing IBM Connections as a leading solution for broad, secure enterprise collaboration with strong integration to core systems and across IBM products. (ibm.com)
  • The Forrester Wave™: Enterprise File Sync And Share Platforms, Hybrid Solutions, Q2 2016 5 cited IBM as a leader among the ten most significant providers of enterprise file sync and share (EFSS) solutions with hybrid or on-premises deployment options. (ibm.com)
  • 4. The Forrester Wave™: Enterprise File Sync and Share Platforms, Cloud Solutions, Q1 2016. (ibm.com)
  • 5. The Forrester Wave™: Enterprise File Sync and Share Platforms, Hybrid Solutions, Q2 2016. (ibm.com)
  • [1] The RFP, issued on March 14, 2016, contemplated the award of up to 35 additional indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contracts for NIH's existing Chief Information Officer-Solutions and Partners 3 small business (CIO-SP3 SB) government-wide acquisition contract (GWAC), a 10-year IDIQ contract for IT solutions and services. (gao.gov)
  • Novell Cool Solutions (corporate web communities) are produced by WebWise Solutions. (novell.com)
  • Cybersecurity in Health solutions are trusted cloud solutions that help to ensure that your organizational and patient data is protected and kept private. (microsoft.com)
  • Our strategic cybersecurity solutions address current and emerging connected technology needs. (ul.com)
  • Learn how VMware digital solutions transform cybersecurity architecture by addressing compliance, identity management, threat detection, and remediation across devices, applications, and networks. (vmware.com)
  • Typically but by no means universally, our next step is to create a multi-functional team with FedEx SupplyChain specialists dedicated to implementing the most advantageous supply chain solution for you. (fedex.com)
  • By leveraging an integrated platform, the Care Coordination solutions enable you and your organization to nurture ongoing patient relationships to keep patients on a path toward better health. (microsoft.com)
  • The solutions help your organization customize a health care management plan for each patient. (microsoft.com)
  • The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. (rand.org)
  • Business Sponsor/Workflow Advocate - someone within your organization that can articulate measurable business goals of deploying a mobile solution and can see the cost/benefit of deploying mobile solutions. (esri.com)
  • Limbitless Solutions is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in the United States that uses additive manufacturing (3D printing) to create accessible, yet affordable personalized bionics and prosthetic partial arms for children with limb differences The organization says their bionic arms are manufactured for under $400, 1% of the standard production cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cisco Co-Innovation Centers work with regional and global partners to create new technology solutions, solving industry pain points and making contributions to business, society, and the planet. (cisco.com)
  • Healthcare Solutions has twice been recognized as one of the Fastest Growing companies in Georgia by Georgia Trends magazine and has received recognition by the Technology Association of Georgia for technology innovation. (prweb.com)
  • Their OMS is a modern SaaS solution designed to support innovation while allowing businesses to easily manage their orders, inventory and accounting," said Neil Patel, director of partnerships at Mozu. (prweb.com)
  • With calendar integration, touch-to-join, instant content sharing and center of room control Logitech Room Solutions make video meetings easy and convenient. (logitech.com)
  • From the network and data center to collaboration and security, we have solutions designed to meet the needs of your business. (cisco.com)
  • The Cloud OS Network is a select group o Microsoft partners committed to the strategic business opportunity of providing customers with the powerful hybrid cloud solutions leveraging the Microsoft Cloud Platform and the Azure global cloud. (microsoft.com)
  • RSA Solutions Webcast - Epicor = Complete Business Oversight - Duration: 1 hour, 8 minutes. (youtube.com)
  • Freestyle Solutions' inventory and order management systems synchronize and automate the order lifecycle across sales channels, fulfillment sources, and shipping carriers so retailers can obtain a 360 degree view of the business, operate more efficiently, and provide a superior customer experience. (youtube.com)
  • Need solutions for a midsize business? (sas.com)
  • Innovate with confidence by leveraging our strategic safety, security and sustainability solutions for your most complex business challenges. (ul.com)
  • Nearly all Global Fortune 1000 companies trust VMware solutions to power their digital transformation and business resilience strategies. (vmware.com)
  • Integrated solutions that accelerate the digital transformation journey in a communications-driven world, from network evolution to digital business to customer experience. (oracle.com)
  • Whether you're a small business owner looking for a simple, affordable file compression and data backup solution or a large enterprise IT administrator faced with complex compliance and file management issues, don't worry. (winzip.com)
  • Throughout George's tenure as CEO, Healthcare Solutions has achieved strong revenue and earnings growth across each of its business lines, and the company is on pace to achieve a second consecutive year of record sales performance. (prweb.com)
  • Now that we are partnered with Mozu, our combined offering provides mid-market retailers with a powerful omnichannel solution that will grow with their business both today and in the future. (prweb.com)
  • Over 2,000 multichannel merchants rely on Freestyle Solutions to automate their back office operations and drive business growth. (prweb.com)
  • Business intelligence (BI) solutions are all the buzz as of late, and BI developers are highly sought after. (springer.com)
  • Root R., Mason C. (2012) Business Intelligence Solutions. (springer.com)
  • Networks provide speed, connectivity, and ultimately value to their members and provide solutions to business challenges and problems that otherwise would not be possible. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Without a clear insight of precisely how your business operates, our Solutions Engineers, no matter how exhaustive their experience, cannot realistically devise the bespoke supply chain solution from which your business can truly profit. (fedex.com)
  • We deliver FedEx Fulfillment® services as a turnkey, modular and scalable logistics solution that provides you with an end-to-end fully visible supply chain designed and configured to your business as it grows and prospers. (fedex.com)
  • We are working diligently to improve our already impressive solutions through new features, cognitive capabilities, integrations with strategic partners, and much more. (ibm.com)
  • Bivens explains: "Every partner contributes to the development of the platform, and HM Health Solutions is able to offer advanced capabilities that would otherwise be too complex or costly to develop in-house. (ibm.com)
  • Bivens comments: "Our marketing solutions are a key part of our end-to-end service offering, and we saw IBM as a natural fit to deliver the digital capabilities we needed. (ibm.com)
  • Multi-mode, multi-band solutions supporting the highest industry data rates and advanced capabilities, such as carrier aggregation, voice over LTE (VoLTE), and power-saving technologies like envelope tracking. (intel.com)
  • Discover mobile solutions that enhance the capabilities of energy workers for better field work. (intel.com)
  • This combination of capabilities enables Fujitsu to intimately support the communications requirements of both network operators and enterprise clients to deliver comprehensive, fully integrated solutions. (fujitsu.com)
  • Des applications Web à DevOps, les solutions Oracle Cloud peuvent prendre en charge toute application ou charge de travail et assurer ainsi votre réussite en matière de transformation digitale. (oracle.com)
  • HM Health Solutions uses IBM WebSphere® Commerce to deliver a customizable web experience for its health plan partners, who are then able to offer their members online tools to manage their care. (ibm.com)
  • Intel® mobile modem solutions deliver the speed and agility to keep you intelligently connected, across town and around the world. (intel.com)
  • Our office printing solutions deliver flexibility and advanced features to be your copier, printer, scanner, or fax machine. (xerox.com)
  • We need to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century to keep global temperature increases under 2°C. While most efforts toward this goal have been focused on reducing fossil fuel use, new science shows that natural climate solutions-based on the conservation, restoration and management of forests, grasslands and wetlands-can deliver up to a third of the emission reductions needed by 2030. (nature.org)
  • Client applications need the kind of groundbreaking performance and optimum portability that Micron's client solutions deliver. (micron.com)
  • We're addressing this exploding demand for networking bandwidth with new memory solutions that deliver equally revolutionary results. (micron.com)
  • Water & Solutions at AllMusic 'Water and Solutions', one of the beautiful records of the 1990s Slikeus (In Portuguese), 26 March 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increase efficiencies, transform security, and optimize service delivery with VMware's integrated portfolio of software-defined data center (SDDC), hybrid cloud, and mobility solutions. (vmware.com)
  • For the evolution of QCI, we aim to transform it into a multi-purpose solution deployment tool. (redhat.com)
  • The Care Coordination solutions enable you to communicate with patients, manage and connect health care providers, and monitor patient progress more effectively. (microsoft.com)
  • We'll work with you to design and implement customized chemical policies based on your unique needs and offer digital solutions to effectively manage those policies across your supply chain. (ul.com)
  • Nature-based solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural and modified ecosystems that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits. (iucn.org)
  • In the early 2000s, companies relied on in-house technical employees, consultants, and a variety of information technology-based tools (hardware and software) to plan, execute, and manage network solutions at both the technical and the strategic levels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Deploying mobile solutions using ArcGIS field apps can improve the efficiency of your field operations as well as update the accuracy and currency of your data. (esri.com)
  • We hear stories every day about how deploying mobile solutions are cutting costs, improving field workflows and helping organizations make more informed and timely decisions. (esri.com)
  • Learn how federal agencies deploying VMware solutions are securely modernizing and mobilizing to advance missions. (vmware.com)
  • The main advantage to using Windows Installer is deploying the Office solutions to All Users, rather than the current user only. (microsoft.com)
  • SurveyMonkey solutions make it fast and simple for organizations to collect feedback and share insights, so they can provide better experiences for their customers, employees, prospects, and communities. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Freestyle Solutions, the leading provider of essential order and inventory management solutions to growing omnichannel retailers, today announced a partnership with Mozu to offer the SaaS-based Freestyle O.M.S. order and inventory management solution with the Mozu cloud commerce platform. (prweb.com)
  • As a trusted leader with extensive expertise in order and inventory management solutions, Freestyle Solutions turned to Mozu to offer an unprecedented commerce experience to omnichannel retail customers by combining Freestyle O.M.S. with the Mozu ecommerce platform. (prweb.com)
  • We are excited to partner with Freestyle Solutions. (prweb.com)
  • Freestyle, together with Mozu, gives retailers all of the commerce features and back office support they need to attract, convert and retain customers," said Scott Todaro, chief marketing officer & executive vice president of sales, Freestyle Solutions. (prweb.com)
  • Freestyle Solutions, formerly Dydacomp, is changing the way that the industry thinks about order and inventory management. (prweb.com)
  • Healthcare Solutions, the parent company of Cypress Care, Procura Management, ScripNet and Modern Medical, today announced that David A. George, chairman and chief executive officer of Healthcare Solutions, has decided to transition his current responsibilities as chief executive officer while continuing in his role as chairman of the board. (prweb.com)
  • In conjunction with this decision, Joe Boures, Healthcare Solutions' president and chief operating officer, has been appointed as Healthcare Solutions' new president and CEO effective August 1, 2014. (prweb.com)
  • George has served as Healthcare Solutions' chief executive officer since 2006. (prweb.com)
  • Boures joined Healthcare Solutions in August of 2011. (prweb.com)
  • Prior to joining Healthcare Solutions, Boures served as president for Specialty Risk Services, Inc. (SRS), a subsidiary of The Hartford Financial Services Group, which was acquired by Sedgwick Claims Management Services. (prweb.com)
  • In his current role as president and COO of Healthcare Solutions, Boures provides oversight for the company's operational, financial, account management, marketing, legal and IT services. (prweb.com)
  • Joe was brought to Healthcare Solutions with this leadership evolution in mind," said George. (prweb.com)
  • Healthcare Solutions, Inc. is the parent company of Cypress Care, Procura Management, ScripNet and Modern Medical. (prweb.com)
  • Through its subsidiary companies, Healthcare Solutions delivers integrated medical cost management solutions to over 800 customers in workers' compensation and auto/PIP markets. (prweb.com)
  • Utilizing market‐leading technology, Healthcare Solutions delivers demonstrated benefits and savings complemented by deep industry expertise. (prweb.com)
  • See how VMware digital workspace solutions enable federal agencies to empower personnel with reliable, consumer-simple access to government data and resources-without compromising data security or privacy. (vmware.com)
  • HM Health Solutions leaders realized that enabling health plans to pool their resources could unlock economies of scale, and free them to focus on developing value-added services to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. (ibm.com)
  • Coordinated care solutions improve the quality of patient care services and reduce costs through workflow automation and optimization. (microsoft.com)
  • Communications and cloud solutions enable customers to connect, engage, and monetize their services. (oracle.com)
  • AWS remote work and learning services include remote desktops and applications, tools for communication and collaboration, and contact center solutions that can be deployed quickly at scale, globally. (amazon.com)
  • We provide world-class technology, services and solutions for improving efficiency, reducing costs and helping our multinational clients gain maximum benefit from their global assets. (fujitsu.com)
  • Community Violence Solutions (CVS) is dedicated to working in partnership with the community to end sexual assault and family violence through prevention, crisis services, and treatment. (idealist.org)
  • Our integrated supply chain solutions and complementary services. (fedex.com)
  • Our services support you in the development, integration, production and deployment of your mobile solution, ensuring that security is the No. 1 priority. (ul.com)
  • Our mobile testing services provide you with that solution, and we do it in an efficient way. (ul.com)
  • Competitive Range Solutions, LLC (CRS), of O'Fallon, Illinois, protests the Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s exclusion of the protester's proposal from further consideration under request for proposals (RFP) No. NIHJT2016015, for information technology (IT) supplies and services. (gao.gov)
  • With ruggedized tablets that connect to cellular networks, employees can work without having to drive into the main office, and the synchronicity offered by mobile solutions offers more accountability and efficiency. (intel.com)
  • We're focused on helping you keep your data center up and running - efficiently and effectively - through the use of our innovative solutions and products. (3m.com)
  • Piramal Pharma Solutions develops and manufactures parenteral pharmaceutical products in liquid and lyophilized dosage forms. (uky.edu)
  • You can deploy Office solutions using ClickOnce or Windows Installer (MSI) deployment technologies. (microsoft.com)
  • ClickOnce is designed to simplify solution deployment and maintenance because ClickOnce solutions install with user privileges. (microsoft.com)
  • After you configure these deployment settings, Visual Studio publishes the solution files to the publish location. (microsoft.com)
  • You can install solutions in several different ways: by running the Setup program, by opening the deployment manifest (.vsto file), or by opening the document. (microsoft.com)
  • If your users will install the solution by opening the deployment manifest, you might have to configure the IIS server to recognize the .vsto MIME type. (microsoft.com)
  • We'll support you in every stage of the development, integration, production and deployment of your mobile solution so that you get the most value out of your time with us. (ul.com)
  • From networking and data center to collaboration and security, we have IT solutions to meet your organization's needs. (cisco.com)
  • What does it take to be a leader in the collaboration solutions space? (ibm.com)
  • It's our belief that to be broadly recognized as a leader, a collaboration solution must handle all of these often competing asks well - and not just well , but better than the competition. (ibm.com)
  • Over the past year, analysts have consistently recognized IBM solutions as a leader in the collaboration space. (ibm.com)
  • Gland, Switzerland - The first-ever Global Standard for Nature-based Solutions has been developed by IUCN. (iucn.org)
  • Combined with innovations in clean energy and other efforts to decarbonize the world's economies, natural climate solutions offer some of our best options in the response to climate change. (nature.org)
  • Learn how other data centers have been successful using 3M Data Center Solutions. (3m.com)
  • Learn about SAS solutions for your industry. (sas.com)
  • For every industry, there's an Adobe solution. (adobe.com)
  • Using Microsoft platforms and technologies, Patient Engagement solutions offer new ways for health care providers to connect with patients before, during, and after visits. (microsoft.com)
  • NFPA's Data Solutions Portal is a growing suite of online platforms for fire and safety officials, researchers, and the public to explore and analyze data in new and innovative ways. (nfpa.org)
  • Over the last few years, there have been plenty of crowdsourcing platforms to find solutions to difficult problems. (techdirt.com)
  • Learn more about our enterprise-grade solutions. (surveymonkey.com)
  • Learn how to participate in the Cloud Solution Provider program . (microsoft.com)
  • Learn about our Network Video Solutions Software Developers Kit (SDK). (canon.com)
  • Read our case studies to learn more about natural climate solutions in different geographies and land-use sectors. (nature.org)
  • Learn how we're building ecosystems that lead to better solutions for our customers. (micron.com)
  • Learn more about our suite of solutions for Phosphates, Urea and Specialty Sulphur Fertilizers. (shell.com)
  • To support the marketing component of its cloud-based enterprise health system, HM Health Solutions uses IBM Watson® Customer Engagement solutions. (ibm.com)
  • Explore how tactical C41 systems integrator, iGov Technologies , transformed network performance and availability for U.S. military forces using software-defined, hyper-converged solutions for storage and compute. (vmware.com)
  • Find a custom fit solution today! (acquia.com)
  • We work hard to protect and assist refugees, but our ultimate goal is to find solutions that allow them to rebuild their lives. (unhcr.org)
  • If you go to the ACME document archives you will find a 'solution' link at the top right of every puzzle. (mit.edu)
  • Check out government agency case studies, white papers, eBooks, infographics, videos and thought leadership briefs about our government solutions. (xerox.com)
  • Natural climate solutions are conservation, restoration and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage or avoid greenhouse gas emissions in landscapes and wetlands across the globe. (nature.org)
  • Natural climate solutions are vital to ensuring we achieve our ultimate objective of full decarbonization and can simultaneously boost jobs and protect communities in developed and developing countries. (nature.org)
  • Watch a short video that explains how natural climate solutions work. (nature.org)
  • Making Temporary Solutions, Inc. a part of your team will give you the flexibility and edge to stay ahead of the competition. (in.gov)
  • We appreciate too that businesses must react to change so your chosen solution will always give you the flexibility to upscale or downsize appropriately with minimum disruption. (fedex.com)
  • Why choose Fujitsu for telecommunications solutions? (fujitsu.com)
  • Finding solutions that enable refugees to live their lives in dignity and peace is a core part of our work. (unhcr.org)
  • Ruggedized mobile solutions enable service workers and crews to stay on top of their respective tasks, all while working faster and better than ever before. (intel.com)
  • An end-to-end solution capable of delivering valuable insights. (sas.com)
  • Tantau, which was acquired by Toronto-based 724 Solutions in January in a $375 million all-stock transaction, has developed a wireless Internet platform that allows bank customers to access bill paying. (eweek.com)
  • Reference solutions provide our customers with an easy way to get started building their applicatons, ensuring they are well architected using best practices and taking advantage of the most advanced computing models available. (amazon.com)
  • Mozu's retailer inspired front-end features coupled with Freestyle's SaaS-based order, inventory, and customer management solution will provide a 360 degree view of what sales channels customers are using. (prweb.com)
  • These API-based solutions make integration and extension easy for customers. (prweb.com)
  • Running on security-rich, highly available IBM® z Systems® servers, HM Health Solutions' cloud platform augments back-office, middle-office and marketing functions-empowering plan payers to compete more effectively. (ibm.com)
  • Small, power-efficient solutions combining advanced connectivity with hardware-assisted security for the growing wave of small form factor devices and IoT applications. (intel.com)
  • F-Secures Connected Home Security kombinerer router-sikkerhed med end-point beskyttelse og skaber dermed en let og intuitiv brugeroplevelse. (f-secure.com)
  • Oracle Communications S.A.F.E. Architecture (Secure, Analytical, Flexible, Extensible) addresses unique security challenges by enabling secure and reliable delivery of real-time communications through a comprehensive, best-in-class, communications portfolio of solutions. (oracle.com)
  • Nature-based solutions refer to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling challenges such as climate change, water and food security, biodiversity protection, human health, and disaster risk management. (nature.org)
  • Embedding security into routers is the simplest, most sensible solution to the complex challenge of securing connected homes. (f-secure.com)
  • Our comprehensive portfolio includes SAFE internet security, KEY password management, FREEDOME VPN privacy, and TOTAL, which combines all into one simple solution. (f-secure.com)
  • If you use Windows Installer to distribute your files, you must still fulfill Visual Studio Tools for Office runtime and ClickOnce security requirements before users can run your Microsoft Office solutions. (microsoft.com)
  • When all is said and done, you can have increased certainty of the security of your mobile solution. (ul.com)
  • McAfee cloud security solutions are built to integrate with McAfee device security to streamline your operations. (mcafee.com)
  • Start your journey to the cloud with reliability, agility, and automation with Oracle's virtualized and orchestrated VoLTE solutions. (oracle.com)
  • New research , led by The Nature Conservancy and 15 other institutions*, and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , demonstrates that nature-based solutions can provide up to 37 percent of the emission reductions needed by 2030 to keep global temperature increases under 2°C-30 percent more than previously estimated. (nature.org)
  • Whether you are an employer seeking to fill a position or a candidate seeking employment, ABS Staffing Solutions is here to provide results. (idealist.org)
  • Explosionweb Solutions is a group of young and driven enthusiasts, characterized by a unique blend of creativity and technical competence seeking to provide cutting-edge online solutions at competitive costs. (behance.net)
  • The idea of Limbitless Solutions came to life in 2014 after a team of engineering students at the University of Central Florida led an initiative to provide bionic 3D printed limbs to children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Designed for smartphones, tablets, PCs, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices, Intel's low-power modems and system on chips (SoCs) are among the industry's most compact and cost-effective mobile solutions. (intel.com)
  • Care Coordination solutions bring together providers, patients, and patient data systems. (microsoft.com)
  • Thanks to innovative solutions from 3M, taking your data center operations and servers to a better place is no longer tomorrow's dream. (3m.com)
  • Micron's high-bandwidth, low-latency solutions seamlessly speed data transfer from point A to point B. (micron.com)
  • Micron helps you choose the right memory and storage solutions to get the most value out of your data center. (micron.com)