Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.HemocyaninSerum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsChromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Protein Renaturation: The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Eye ProteinsChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Mice, Inbred C57BLChlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CMicrosomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
  • Osikovski E, Kamburov P, Vasilev I (1978) Comparative electrophoretic study of the water-soluble proteins of some representative of genus Paraamphistomum . (springer.com)
  • Finally, an inhalation-induced asthma patient recognized water-soluble proteins (of around 14 kDa) that could correspond to the α-amylase inhibitors. (ovid.com)
  • A large diverse group of proteins called soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) adaptor proteins (SNAPs) receptors (SNAREs) and their associated proteins are vital for this process. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We detected HNOB domains in several bacterial lineages, where they occur fused to methyl accepting domains of chemotaxis receptors or as standalone proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors levels in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. (pptaglobal.org)
  • [email protected] OBJECTIVES: To estimate the serum concentrations of Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptors (s TNF-RI and TNF-RII) in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), before and after treatment. (pptaglobal.org)
  • The soluble TNF receptors, particularly sTNF-RII concentrations were significantly increased in GBS patients treated by IVIG therapy. (pptaglobal.org)
  • b) The decrease in the serum TNF-alpha and increase in the serum soluble TNF receptors, particularly sTNF-RII showed a positive correlation with the neurological recovery in GBB patients following treatment. (pptaglobal.org)
  • The increased ET B receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells was documented as enhanced contractility (sensitive myograph technique), elevated levels of ET B receptor mRNA (quantitative real-time PCR), and protein expressions (immunohistochemistry and Western blotting). (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, upregulation of ET B receptors by DSP in arterial smooth muscle cells involves activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases (ERK1/2 and p38) and the downstream transcriptional factor NF-κB pathways. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we address this central issue by isolating Aβ dimers, the major form of soluble oligomer that can be detected and isolated from human brain ( 10 ), from the cerebral cortex of typical AD cases and showing that they first induce tau phosphorylation at specific epitopes characteristic of AD in primary hippocampal neurons, and then produce cytoskeletal collapse and neuritic degeneration, but knock-down of endogenous tau fully prevents this phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Soluble Aβ Oligomers Isolated from the AD Cortex Induce Marked Cytoskeletal Abnormalities at Subnanomolar Concentrations in Primary Hippocampal Neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been shown experimentally (in the absence of amyloid plaques) to impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity, decrease synapses, induce tau hyperphosphorylation and neuritic dystrophy, activate microglial inflammation, and impair memory in normal adult rodents. (jneurosci.org)
  • Converging lines of evidence support the concept that diffusible oligomers of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are the principal cytotoxic agents that induce a complex array of downstream effects on neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and cerebral microvessels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) ( Walsh and Selkoe, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • These results demonstrate that soluble CSP can induce a potent and sterile protective immune response when formulated with the QS-21 containing adjuvant ALFQ. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The present study was designed to determine whether a soluble divalent fusion protein, containing the extracellular domains of a class I MHC molecule fused to beta2-microglobulin and the constant domains of IgG1, could induce an immune response in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prolonged incubation of P41 delta, P41EI, or wild-type P41, either in vivo or with purified proteins in vitro, resulted in a second self-cleavage event generating a 39-kDa polypeptide termed P39. (asm.org)
  • We have also observed changes in the in vitro mRNA binding properties of these polypeptides during oogenesis and early embryonic development, in relation to their phosphorylation state and to the activity of an approximately 15S particle-associated protein kinase, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. (rupress.org)
  • An isogenic H. influenzae type b hxuA mutant was unable to utilize soluble heme-hemopexin complexes for growth in vitro unless soluble HxuA protein was provided exogenously. (asm.org)
  • Our previous in vitro cellular studies with human and mouse PD-L1 + tumor cells demonstrated that a soluble form of the costimulatory molecule CD80 prevented PD-L1-mediated immune suppression and restored T-cell activation by binding PD-L1 and blocking interaction with PD-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies showed that Omi is an apoptosis-inducing mitochondrial protein [ 4 , 5 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The smallest CD83 splice product can be translated efficiently into protein, and recombinant soluble CD83 shows a strong inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation in MLRs. (jimmunol.org)
  • A quantitative study was performed to investigate the requirements for secretion of recombinant soluble and particulate forms of the envelope glycoprotein E of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. (asm.org)
  • Specifically, the growing experimental evidence that key features of the AD phenotype, such as dendritic spine loss, altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impaired memory can be triggered by Aβ oligomers ( 3 - 9 )-including those isolated directly from patients' brains ( 10 )-raises the question of whether soluble Aβ oligomers are responsible by themselves for inducing altered tau phosphorylation, cytoskeletal change, and degeneration of neurites. (pnas.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) are tought to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is confusion and controversy about what types and sizes of oligomers have disease-relevant activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because Aβ accumulation in the human brain occurs extracellularly for the most part, it is assumed that the soluble oligomers bind to the plasma membranes of these diverse cell types and trigger transmembrane signaling events that lead to the intracellular changes that occur in AD. (jneurosci.org)
  • Oligomers on the Brain: the Emerging Role of Soluble Protein Aggregates in Neurodegeneration. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, studies employing, synthetic, cell-derived and purified recombinant proteins suggest that amyloid proteins first come together to form soluble low n-oligomers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • With particular reference to AD and PD, we review recent evidence that soluble oligomers are the principal pathogenic species that drive neuronal dysfunction. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Dominic M. Walsh and Dennis J. Selkoe, " Oligomers on the Brain: the Emerging Role of Soluble Protein Aggregates in Neurodegeneration. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Adult C57BL/6 mice were injected with 100 micrograms of soluble, freshly deaggregated human serum albumin (HSA) to produce partial immunologic tolerance. (pnas.org)
  • Soluble forms of CD83 have been detected in the serum, but neither the function nor the mechanism of how these soluble forms of CD83 are generated are fully understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • The aim of our study was to compare the significance of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in reflecting AD severity and identify the most relevant parameter for monitoring the course of disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The abundant serum proteins albumin and hemopexin bind heme avidly, with K d values of 10 −8 and 10 −13 M, respectively ( 25 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • An H. influenzae type b (Hib) chromosomal locus, hxuCBA , has been shown to be necessary for utilization of heme bound to the human serum protein hemopexin ( 5 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Further dilutions should be made with medium containing 5% fetal calf serum or other carrier protein. (mybiosource.com)
  • Conditions of the affinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE were as described in the legend to Fig. . Following electrophoresis, the recombinant proteins were detected by Western immunoblot analysis using an anti-six-His antibody as described in Materials and Methods. (nih.gov)
  • This has been helped by several studies and new methods that have come from laboratories engaged in high-throughput protein expression for structure determination [ 1 ] or antibody generation [ 2 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Focused on comprehensive experimental protocols, Electron Crystallography of Soluble and Membrane Proteins: Methods and Protocols covers the entire range of techniques used in electron crystallography, including protein sample preparation, 2D crystallization, and screening in negative stain over electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and data processing, as well as modeling of conformational changes. (nhbs.com)
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Electron Crystallography of Soluble and Membrane Proteins: Methods and Protocols serves laboratories new to the methods as well as state-of-the-art facilities pursuing this exciting area of protein science. (nhbs.com)
  • Nonetheless, there remains a high demand for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective methods for studying protein interactions, especially those occurring at membrane surfaces. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As in conventional SUS methods, ubiquitin is split between the N-terminal half (Nub) and the C-terminal half (Cub), and the latter is fused with the transcriptional activator complex Protein A-LexA-VP16 (PLV). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Bibliotekernes beskrivelse This Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) book covers techniques used in electron crystallography, including protein sample preparation, 2D crystallization and more. (saxo.com)
  • Here, we give an account of the most recent results on the structure−function relationships of the membrane-embedded complexes cytochrome b6−f and photosystem I and of the two soluble proteins (cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin) that serve as alternative electron carriers between them. (csic.es)
  • Full-length E and a carboxy terminally truncated anchor-free form were expressed in COS cells in the presence and absence of prM, the precursor of the viral membrane protein M. Formation of a heteromeric complex with prM was found to be necessary for efficient secretion of both forms of E, whereas only low levels of anchor-free E were secreted in the absence of prM. (asm.org)
  • Sequential transformation of normal hepatocytes to malignant cells during HCC development is associated with the immune response to HBV-infected liver cells, accumulated genetic alterations, and the interaction between the viral HBx protein with host signaling proteins [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rice protein has an excellent amino acid profile, is also easily digestible and low in ash. (preparedfoods.com)
  • In order to elucidate the importance of the MH segment in determining which of the two types of protein results from a given amino acid sequence, we statistically studied the characteristics of MH helices, longer than 19 residues in length, in 97 membrane proteins whose three-dimensional structure or topology is known, as well as 397 soluble proteins selected from the Protein Data Bank. (nih.gov)
  • The tool PERISCOPE is freely available for the researcher to predict the level of protein expressed based on the combination of signal sequence and amino acid sequence of a protein. (icheme.org)
  • The keratins are distinguished from other structural proteins such as silk,fibrin, collagen and muscle proteins by their amino acid composition and particularly by the large number of cystine units in the keratin molecule. (patentgenius.com)
  • There are two types of exported parasite proteins: (i) those that contain a 5-amino-acid motif termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) ( 4 ) or host-targeting (HT) ( 3 ) motif downstream of a recessed amino-terminal signal sequence that directs entry into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and (ii) PEXEL-negative exported proteins (PNEPs) that do not possess a defined export motif. (asm.org)
  • The amino acid compositions of the two components are very similar and share features in common with a number of proteins, including inhibitor-1, inhibitor-2, dopamine- and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), and G-substrate, which may be involved in the regulation of protein phosphatase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, protein type, and not simply its amino acid composition, can differentially modulate protein synthesis depending on digestion kinetics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This N-trap and amino acid (AA)-sparing effect could be of particular interest in patients with kidney or liver disease, where the usage of guar gum in combination with beet pulp could allow for a decrease in the protein content of the diet without risking protein malnutrition and, at the same time reduce the kidneys' and/or liver's burden of N-waste removal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mice preinjected with soluble HSA (TOL) generate far fewer anti-HSA IgG1 antibody-forming cell precursors, termed anti-HSA memory cells. (pnas.org)
  • B lymphocytes were harvested from T-dependently immunized mice 5 days after challenge, incubated with soluble HSA for 18 hr, and then adoptively transferred together with N T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, soluble CD83 was able to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice ( 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Effective vaccination of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a soluble mixture of secreted mycobacterial proteins. (asm.org)
  • A soluble multimeric recombinant CD2 protein identifies CD48 as a low affinity ligand for human CD2: divergence of CD2 ligands during the evolution of humans and mice. (rupress.org)
  • Strikingly, while these parasites could export native proteins, they were unable to translocate soluble, tightly folded reporter proteins bearing the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) across the PVM into host erythrocytes under the same conditions. (asm.org)
  • The structural proteins of some viruses occasionally mimic the three-dimensional nature of an actual virus while lacking the virus genome packaged inside its capsid [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indirect assessment of eosinophiluria in urinary schistosomiasis using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX). (ajtmh.org)
  • The oxidative modification of proteins measured as carbonyl derivatives increased with advancing age in the liver of male garden lizard. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • This was studied by supplementing a low-protein diet with fermentable fibres, hereby providing an initial model for future studies in dogs suffering from renal/liver disease. (ugent.be)
  • And finally, incorporate protein (like lean chicken or turkey, eggs, fish, low-fat dairy, nuts, beans, and whole soy foods) into meals and snacks whenever possible, which also slows the absorption of carbohydrates into the blood. (joybauer.com)
  • Therefore, DDGS comprise a protein-rich food containing more than 70% CP in fraction B2, with a large amount of carbohydrates bound to the cell wall. (uel.br)
  • While much about Alzheimer's disease remains a mystery, scientists do know that part of the disease's progression involves a normal protein called tau, aggregating to form ropelike inclusions within brain cells that eventually strangle the neurons. (phys.org)
  • Like Alzheimer's disease-associated proteins, presenilin-1 and oligomeric amyloid-β [ 8 , 9 ], fibrilized α-synuclein and oligomeric prion are thought to be associated with Omi. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study aims to investigate the signal transduction pathway leading to acrosomal exocytosis in stallion spermatozoa, particularly the role of soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) and protein kinase A (PKA). (cornell.edu)
  • As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We have previously reported a phage display method for the identification of protein domains on a genome-wide scale (shotgun proteolysis). (garvan.org.au)
  • Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light and must therefore regulate protein composition within the chloroplast to ensure optimal functioning of elementary processes such as photosynthesis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 3. No changes in the phosphorylation of the protein are evident in epididymal fat-pads from fat-fed, starved or starved/refed animals, despite the large changes in protein composition of fat-cells which accompany these nutritional alterations. (biochemj.org)
  • The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness, strength and fatigue seem largely dependent on its composition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study demonstrated that protein composition has a large influence on muscular performance after prolonged resistance training. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Composition of supplements may play a key role in influencing net protein balance since previous studies have revealed that only essential amino acids could stimulate muscle protein synthesis[ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken altogether, these results seem to suggest that the effects of protein supplementation are largely dependent on their composition, and it can be hypothesized that supplementation with a rapidly-digesting protein would be more efficient to improve both strength and resistance to fatigue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Random PCR-Based Screening for Soluble Domains Using Green Fluorescent Protein", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 280: p. 842-844 (2001). (freepatentsonline.com)