Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DimethylformamideDrug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.PaintParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.HydrocarbonsPowders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectEthanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Benzene DerivativesProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)EthersStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.ThiazinesOccupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.EstersAcrylic ResinsNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.PrintingSpectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
Solubility[edit]. KCl is soluble in a variety of polar solvents. Solubility[15] Solvent. Solubility. (g/kg of solvent at 25 °C ... Solubility Soluble in glycerol, alkalies Slightly soluble in alcohol Insoluble in ether[1] ... Electrolysis (used for sodium) fails because of the high solubility of potassium in molten KCl.[7] ...
Solubility. Soluble in most organic solvents. Vapor pressure. 0.06 mmHg (20 °C)[1]. ...
Solubility (g/100 g solvent). Solvent. 25 °C. 120 °C. 160 °C. 200 °C. 240 °C. ... Due to high reaction temperature, approximately 5% of the acetic acid solvent is lost by decomposition or "burning". Solvent ... Solubility[edit]. Terephthalic acid is poorly soluble in water and alcohols; consequently, until about 1970 terephthalic acid ... 4] The commercial process utilizes acetic acid as solvent and a catalyst composed of cobalt and manganese salts, with a bromide ...
Solubility in water. Low Solubility in other solvents Sol. in organic solvents ...
Solubility of C60[27][28][29]. Solvent. Solubility. (g/L). 1-chloronaphthalene. 51. ... Beck, Mihály T.; Mándi, Géza (1997). "Solubility of C60". Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures. 5 (2): 291-310. doi: ... Fullerenes are extracted from the soot with organic solvents using a Soxhlet extractor.[19] This step yields a solution ... Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in aromatic solvents such as toluene and carbon disulfide, but insoluble in water. Solutions ...
Solubility in other solvents Soluble in ethanol and ether Vapor pressure 0.7 mmHg (20°C)[1] ...
Solubility in other solvents reacts with alcohols. soluble in chlorocarbons Refractive index (nD) ...
Relative to the potassium salt, the main advantage of sodium dichromate is its greater solubility in water and polar solvents ...
Solubility in water. organic solvents Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 ... It is a colourless solid that dissolves in organic solvents. It slowly reacts with water. The main use for this compound is as ...
Solubility in other solvents soluble in ethanol, cottonseed oil, corn oil, ethyl acetate, methanol, toluene ...
Solubility of C60[30][31][32] Solvent. Solubility. (g/L) 1-chloronaphthalene 51 ... Beck, Mihály T.; Mándi, Géza (1997). "Solubility of C60". Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures. 5 (2): 291-310. doi: ... Fullerenes are extracted from the soot with organic solvents using a Soxhlet extractor.[22] This step yields a solution ... Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in aromatic solvents such as toluene and carbon disulfide, but insoluble in water. Solutions ...
Solubility in water. organic solvents Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 ...
Solubility in other solvents Water: 10 g/l (20 °C) Vapor pressure 4 mmHg[1] ... It is used as a flavoring agent, as a paint and lacquer solvent, and in the preparation of penicillin. ...
Solubility in other solvents Soluble in liquid ammonia, alcohol, diethyl ether[2] ...
... is water-soluble, yielding a red colloidal solution; its solubility is greater in organic solvents. However, the use ...
Solubility in water. Insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents log P 2.04050 [2] ... It is an orange solid with a camphor-like odor, that sublimes above room temperature, and is soluble in most organic solvents. ... Liu, Wan-yi; Xu, Qi-hai; Ma, Yong-xiang; Liang, Yong-min; Dong, Ning-li; Guan, De-peng (2001). "Solvent-free synthesis of ... As expected for a symmetric, uncharged species, ferrocene is soluble in normal organic solvents, such as benzene, but is ...
Solubility is determined by the method of manufacture. Typically, gelatin can be dispersed in a relatively concentrated acid. ... Hot water or several solvents may be used to reduce the fat content, which should not exceed 1% before the main extraction step ... Gelatin also is soluble in most polar solvents. Gelatin solutions show viscoelastic flow and streaming birefringence. ...
Solvents[edit]. Fluorinated compounds often display distinct solubility properties. Dichlorodifluoromethane and ... The fluorinated substituents render the anions weakly basic and enhance the solubility in weakly basic solvents, which are ... The solvent 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been used for extraction of natural products such as taxol, evening primrose oil, and ... 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol is an oxidation-resistant polar solvent.[28] Organofluorine reagents[edit]. The development of ...
... solvent) + AgCl (salt) Because the solvent system definition depends on the solute as well as on the solvent itself, a ... Franz, H. (1966). "Solubility of Water Vapor in Alkali Borate Melts". Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 49 (9): 473-477 ... An acid and a base react not to produce a salt and a solvent, but to form a new acid and a new base. The concept of ... On the other hand, solvent system theory has been criticized as being too general to be useful. Also, it has been thought that ...
One of the main drawbacks of IBX is its limited solubility; IBX is insoluble in many common organic solvents. In the past, it ... In many application IBX is replaced by Dess-Martin periodinane which is more soluble in common organic solvents. A sample ... elevated temperatures or trifluoroacetic acid solvent). The reaction mechanism for this glycol cleavage is based on initial ...
Its solubility in common polar aprotic solvents like THF is low; however, it is soluble in methanol and is available ...
Just like BaSO4, BaMnO4 exhibits low solubility in virtually all solvents. An easy method for preparing potassium manganate in ...
It has very low solubility in water or other aqueous solvents. . As of 2017, benfotiamine was marketed as a pharmaceutical drug ... 2012). Solubility enhancement of benfotiamine, a lipid derivative of thiamine by solid dispersion technique. US National ...
Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present in the solution. ... Solubility. Neutral organic compounds tend to be hydrophobic; that is, they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents ... Solvents can be either pure substances like ether or ethyl alcohol, or mixtures, such as the paraffinic solvents such as the ... Qualitative properties include odor, consistency, solubility, and color. Melting and boiling properties. Organic compounds ...
Solubility. soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, chloroform, CCl4. miscible in organic solvents. ...
Li+[RCONi(CO)3]− H+→solvent Li+ + RCHO + [(solvent)Ni(CO)3]. Li+[RCONi(CO)3]− R'Br→solvent Li+ + R'COR + [(solvent)Ni(CO)3]. ... "Solubility Rules!". chem.sc.edu.. *^ Reedy, J. H. (1 October 1929). "Lecture demonstration of ammonium amalgam". Journal of ... For example, lithium iodide (Li I) will dissolve in organic solvents, a property of most covalent compounds.[72] Lithium ... As such, they have to be made by reacting alkylmercury compounds with sodium or potassium metal in inert hydrocarbon solvents. ...
Methods: Morin-phospholipid complex (MPC) was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and characterized by infrared ... as verified through solubility studies. An orthogonal design was employed to screen the blank SNEDDS, using emulsifying rate ...
In this fun science fair project idea learn about universal solvents and solutes and find out the solubility of several common ... Whether a compound will dissolve in a particular solvent depends on what that solvent is. The rule of thumb for solubility in ... Whether a compound will dissolve in a particular solvent depends on what that solvent is. The rule of thumb for solubility in ... solubility in solvents is like dissolves like. This means that in general, polar compounds are soluble in polar solvents and ...
Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ... The solubility of the investigated cocrystal slightly increased when adding small amounts of anti-solvent to the solvent, but ... PC-SAFT is able to predict the solubilities in all above-mentioned solvent/anti-solvent systems in good agreement with the ... in the solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ethanol/water, ethanol/acetonitrile and ethanol/ethyl acetate at 298.15 K and in the ...
The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a co.. ... One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. ... Xi2is the mole fraction solubility of the solute in a given solvent and δ1 is the solubility parameter of the solvent [9]. ... the influence of the co solvent on drug solubility [5]. Evaluation of solubility parameter in different solvent blends of ...
Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Organic Solvents (3RD) by Andrew Lang (Paperback) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu ... Open Notebook Science Challenge: Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Organic Solvents (3RD) By Andrew Lang et al. ... Solubilities of organic compounds in organic solvents compiled and measured during the Open Notebook Science Challenge ... cameron-neylon-and-antony-williams/open-notebook-science-challenge-solubilities-of-organic-compounds-in-organic-solvents-3rd/ ...
Macgregor, R. J. and Mather, A. E. (1991), Equilibrium solubility of H2S and CO2 and their mixtures in a mixed solvent. Can. J ... Equilibrium solubility of H2S and CO2 and their mixtures in a mixed solvent. ...
... solvents with least solubilising capacity is selected. The solubility of drug in non volatile solvents can be revealed by ... Non volatile solvents enhance the solubility of water insoluble drugs by formation of micelles and act as dispersants. For ... Mechanism of solubility of liquisolid formulation in non volatile solvent: A review ... Sabitha M., "Mechanism of solubility of liquisolid formulation in non volatile solvent: A review", International Journal of ...
The extent of solubility of meloxicam is the same in ethanol and PG, but is higher when compared to its solubility in water, ... Keywords: meloxicam, cosolvency, solubility enhancement, parenteral preparations, ophthalmic drops Abstract. Solubility of ... indicating the role of hydrogen bonding in the solubility of meloxicam. The solubility of meloxicam is higher in phosphate ... The solubility of meloxicam is highest (12 mg/ml) in PEG 400-phosphate buffer in the ratio of 40:60. This vehicle may have the ...
GC data of class 1, class 2 solvents in Q3C:. HSP and Tamiflu: Solubility parameter of Tamiflu or other H1N1 antiviral ... Official HP HSPiP(Hansen Solubility Parameters(HSP) in Practice). HSPiP How to buy. Hansen Solubility Parameter (HSP). Basic ... Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP). Hansen Solubility Parameters(HSP) were developed by Charles M. Hansen as a way of ... I got the GC data for Class 1 and Class 2 solvents from Agilent Technologies.. (If you want to know the meaning of class1 class ...
Efficient method for cyclopentanone synthesis from furfural: understanding the role of solvents and solubility in a bimetallic ... Efficient method for cyclopentanone synthesis from furfural: understanding the role of solvents and solubility in a bimetallic ... By tuning the solvent ratio, with toluene/water (3 : 4 v/v), 75% yield of CPO is achieved under 1 MPa H2 at 180 °C. The ... difference in solubility of the substrate, intermediates and products, along with the optimum ratio of Pt and Co metals plays a ...
Solubility of Benzoic Acid and Substituted Benzoic Acids in Both Neat Organic Solvents and Organic Solvent Mixtures., article, ... IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 99. Solubility of Benzoic Acid and Substituted Benzoic Acids in Both Neat Organic Solvents ... Acree, William E. (William Eugene). IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 99. ... and Organic Solvent Mixtures. Citations, Rights, Re-Use Here is our suggested citation. Consult an appropriate style guide for ...
... new Spine Or Main Bookbinding Hot Melt Glue Good Solvent Solubility Environmental Non Toxic of Shanghai Zhengye Hot Melt ... 2. Good solvent solubility. 3. Environmental protection. 4. Anti-aging. • Excellent compatibility with various base polymers. ... Spine Or Main Bookbinding Hot Melt Glue Good Solvent Solubility Environmental Non Toxic Hot Melt Adhesive / Glue For Spine or ... China Spine Or Main Bookbinding Hot Melt Glue Good Solvent Solubility Environmental Non Toxic wholesale ...
... and C2H6 in a hydrophobic solvent (HPS) consisting of 2-fluorophenethylamine (2-FPEA)/4-methoxy phenol (MePhOH)/a mixture of ... Experimental study of a hydrophobic solvent for natural gas sweetening based on the solubility and selectivity for light ... Experimental study of a hydrophobic solvent for natural gas sweetening based on the solubility and selectivity for light ... Experimental study of a hydrophobic solvent for natural gas sweetening based on the solubility and selectivity for light ...
Solvent, Solution, Chemistry - The Effect Of Solubility On The Solubility Of The Solute And Solvent ... So the solubility of each substance is different. The formula of solubility is: SOLUBILITY(g/100g)= (SOLUTE / SOLVENT) * 100 I ... The Effect Of Solubility On The Solubility Of The Solute And Solvent Essay. Length: 1405 words (4 double-spaced pages) ... Solubility of Potassium Chlorate Solubility is the maximum amount of solid that will dissolve in 100g of solvent. The ...
Solubility and thermodynamics analysis of tenoxicam in various pure solvents at different temperatures. ...
Solubility of the compound in ChCl-EG solvent at 37 degC measured after 24 hrs by HPLC analysis. ...
A comparison between pure active pharmaceutical ingredients and therapeutic deep eutectic solvents: Solubility and permeability ... The solubility of the APIs when in the THEDES system can be improved up to 12 fold, namely for the system containing ibu. ... The solubility and permeability of the systems in an isotonic solution was evaluated and a comparison with the pure APIs was ... THEDES, so called therapeutic deep eutectic solvents are here defined as a mixture of two components, which at a particular ...
Using Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) to Identify Safer Solvents. File Name: Using Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) to ... Identify Safer Solvents.pdf. File Size: 40.52 kB. Note: This file can be opened with Adobe Acrobat Reader ...
... diphenylphosphine oxide in pure and binary solvents, Fluid Phase Equilibria" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... The solubility of (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) diphenylphosphine oxide (Lucirin TPO) in ten pure solvents and two binary solvent ... Furthermore, the solubility in mixed solvents presented a maximum-solubility effect. The modified Apelblat model, λh model, ... Furthermore, the solubility in mixed solvents presented a maximum-solubility effect. The modified Apelblat model, λh model, ...
"Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Cellulose Solubility in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solvents, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on ... its solubility in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents is examined. Factors controlling the solubility and selection criteria for ... its solubility in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents is examined. Factors controlling the solubility and selection criteria for ... Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Cellulose Solubility in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solvents Bochek, A. 2004-10-03 00:00:00 ...
Physicochemical properties/descriptors governing the solubility and partitioning of chemicals in water-solvent-gas systems. ... The solubility of hydrophobic aromatic chemicals in organic solvent water mixtures evaluation of four mixed solvent solubility ... The solubility of hydrophobic aromatic chemicals in organic solvent/water mixtures: Evaluation of four mixed solvent solubility ... Physicochemical properties/descriptors governing the solubility and partitioning of chemicals in water-solvent-gas systems. ...
Solubility of N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide in PEG 400 + water co-solvent mixtures at ...
Aqueous solubility of solvent extraction reagents: A monolayer dissolution method. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange. 1987 ... Chaiko, DJ & Osseo-Asare, K 1987, Aqueous solubility of solvent extraction reagents: A monolayer dissolution method, Solvent ... Aqueous solubility of solvent extraction reagents: A monolayer dissolution method. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 5(2), ... Aqueous solubility of solvent extraction reagents : A monolayer dissolution method. In: Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange. ...
Maximum solubility was found in pure water with a reduction to low solubility in the semipolar solvents in the order of a ... The quantitative order of solubility in the solvent systems used varied for each amino acid, but similar solubility profiles ... In an aquea is system, the total solubility is equal to the sum of the original zwitterion solubility plus the solubility of ... In the hydroalcoholic solvent systems, variation of pH produced minimum solubility at the isoelectric point with no distinct ...
... dc. ... The resulting CPE-functionalized rGO (PFVSO3-rGO) shows excellent solubility and stability in a variety of polar solvents, ... Conjugated-polyelectrolyte-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent solubility and stability in polar solvents. en_ ... thus leading to the solubility and stability of PFVSO3-rGO in polar solvents. Optoelectronic studies show that the presence of ...
  • The use of single mixture limits the polarity range while the binary mixture with a common co solvent allows to expand the polarity range and to test the influence of the co solvent on drug solubility [ 5 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • For immediate release liquisolid compacts, the selection of solvent is based on high drug solubility and for sustained release, solvents with least solubilising capacity is selected. (amrita.edu)
  • Dendrimers, a new class of polymers, possess great potential for drug solubility improvement, by virtue of their unique properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although some predictive thermodynamic tools can be used to determine drug solubility, the availability of experimental data is still fundamental for an appropriate model development and evaluation. (ipb.pt)
  • The Non-random Two-Liquid Segment Activity Coefficient (NRTL-SAC) equation (Chen and Song 2004), one of the most successful models for the representation of drug solubility, was used to model the data. (ipb.pt)
  • Hansen Solubility Parameters(HSP) were developed by Charles M. Hansen as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution. (pirika.com)
  • The first edition of HSPiP that appeared in November, 2008, greatly enhanced the usefulness of the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). (pirika.com)
  • In particular, the Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) have proven themselves and are described in detail in the literature. (shsu.edu)
  • Dr. Williams group is capable of determining the Hansen solubility parameters for a solute, a surface, or a solvent and a papers related to these activities is found here. (shsu.edu)
  • Kuklenz, K. D. A Determination of the Hansen Solubility Parameters of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS), Propellants Explosives and Pyrotechnics , 34, 452-457, (2009). (shsu.edu)
  • Several group additivity methods have been developed to build up the Hansen solubility parameters from the various constituent chemical groups present in a solute. (shsu.edu)
  • Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) are used to predict molecular affinities, solubility, and solubility-related phenomena. (routledge.com)
  • Revised and updated throughout, Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User's Handbook, Second Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials. (routledge.com)
  • Presenting a comprehensive survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of HSPs, Hansen Solubility Parameters, Second Edition concludes with a detailed discussion on the necessary research, future directions, and potential applications for which HSPs can provide a useful means of prediction in areas such as biological materials, controlled release applications, nanotechnology, and self-assembly. (routledge.com)
  • THEDES, so called therapeutic deep eutectic solvents are here defined as a mixture of two components, which at a particular molar composition become liquid at room temperature and in which one of them is an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures showed strong deviations from ideal-solution behavior. (mdpi.com)
  • It was found that the solubility behavior of those amino acids studied was a function of the constant effect of the α-amino carboxylic acid portion of the molecule and the independent interactions of the remaining neutral portion of the molecule. (uri.edu)
  • The aim of the present study was the enhancement in the solubility of tamoxifen citrate using solid dispersion which is considered as a great solution to overcome the poor water solubility behavior of tamoxifen citrate (TMX) by solvent evaporation technique using Soluplus® as a novel carrier then formulate it as an orodispersible tablet. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Within the field of computational chemistry, solvent models are a variety of methods to account for the behavior of solvated condensed phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I/sub 2/ to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime. (osti.gov)
  • In the hydroalcoholic solvent systems, variation of pH produced minimum solubility at the isoelectric point with no distinct isoelectric band seen. (uri.edu)
  • Examination of solute solubility has yielded a minimum in that property, which may be associated with theminimum found for noble gases.We have obtained a line of minimum solubility (TmS) across the phase diagram, accompanying the line of maximum density. (ufrgs.br)
  • This project has investigated the effect of solvent and substrate water solubility on monoquinone / diquinone product ratios with the aim of being able to consistently and predictably favor one (monoquinone or diquinone) over the other. (ecu.edu)
  • Solutions are a special kind of mixture and solubility is a term used to describe the amount of materials (solids, liquids, or gas) which can be dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. (education.com)
  • Published data of 460 diverse chemicals (29 gases at 298 K, 368 liquids, 63 solids) on VP, solubility in water (S-w), partitioning of chemicals in the system water-air (gas) (L-wg) were used to construct QSPRs for VP and C-air, on the basis of HYBOT physicochernical descriptors. (eurekamag.com)
  • High-pressure solubility measurement of solids in near- and supercritical fluids (D. Tuma et al . (elsevier.com)
  • The solubility of a particular substance is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of both the solute and solvent . (123helpme.com)
  • For example, although it is easily possible to discriminate wool or cotton from an artificial fiber microscopically, it may be impossible to determine whether an artificial fiber is acetate or polyester without performing solubility or other chemical tests. (makezine.com)
  • It is based on the research program 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the 'GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik' (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). (elsevier.com)
  • Contains results of projects within the research program on 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. (elsevier.com)
  • To find such dependency ab initio quantum-chemical calculations in combination with quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) tool were used to model the solubility of fullerene C 60 in 122 organic solvents. (elsevier.com)
  • The employed GA-MLRA approach enhanced by application of quantum-chemical calculations yields reliable results, allowing one to build simple, interpretable models that can be used for predictions of C 60 solubility in various organic solvents. (elsevier.com)
  • In quantum chemistry, where charge distributions come from ab initio methods (Hartree-Fock (HF), Post-HF and Density Functional Theory (DFT)) the implicit solvent models represent the solvent as a perturbation to the solute Hamiltonian. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the percent alcohol increased in those solvent systems studied, similar increments of acid or base added to the system produced a proportionally greater increase in the magnitude of total solubility of the amino acid. (uri.edu)
  • What do you call a solution in which the solvent is an alcohol? (reference.com)