Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)DimethylformamideHemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.ThiazinesPhysicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dentin Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Photoinitiators, Dental: Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acrylic ResinsDrug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.EthersCaco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.

Isolation and purification of rat mammary tumor peroxidase. (1/12820)

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors often contain high levels of the enzyme perioxidase, a putative marker of estrogen dependence. This enzyme can be effectively extracted with 0.5 M CaCl2, giving rise to a soluble peroxidase with a molecular weight of about 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. This is the same size as the estrogen-induced peroxidase of rat uterus but smaller than other mammalian peroxidases. Further purification of the rat mammary tumor peroxidase by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose provides a 640-fold purification of the enzyme.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (2/12820)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (3/12820)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (4/12820)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (5/12820)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of major intrinsic microsomal membrane proteins. (6/12820)

Treatment of the membrane matrix derived from hepatic microsomes with buffered 1 M urea resulted in the selective extraction of a group of proteins together with a portion of the membrane lipid. Thorough chemical characterization of this fraction has been performed, and the proteins have been fractionated by two different procedures. The first of these, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has produced five highly homogeneous membrane proteins which have been characterized with regard to molecular weight, electrophoretic behavior in five different polyacrylamide systems, NH2 terminus, relative carbohydrate content, isoelectric point, and amino acid composition. The five proteins of this group fell in the molecular weight range of 54,000 to 96,000 and had isoelectric points ranging from pH 4.9 to pH 6.7. Further fractionation of the urea-soluble proteins by gel filtration in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium resulted in the isolation of four homogeneous molecular weight classes of proteins which have been characterized with respect to various physicochemical parameters. The major membrane glycoprotein (apparent molecular weight, 171,000) was isolated by this procedure and found to contain approximately equal amounts of NH2-terminal glycine and serine. suggesting the presence of at least two polypeptide chains in this molecular weight region. From the urea-insoluble fraction of the membrane comprising approximately 80% of the total protein, five intrinsic polypeptides designated S-5 through S-9 were isolated. S-5 (54,000) and S-6 (49,000) represent the most prominent components in the microsomal membrane, accounting for close to 30% of the total protein. Also isolated and characterized is the smallest membrane protein (S-9), a hydrophobic polypeptide of molecular weight 16,000. All of the urea-insoluble proteins are glycoproteins, and S-7 (35,000) gives the second most intense stain for carbohydrate of all proteins in the microsomal membrane.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (7/12820)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (8/12820)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

  • Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. (
  • This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs. (
  • This is accomplished because the drug has a high solubility in the micelle, and the micelle has a high solubility in the solvent. (
  • The phase segregation of polymer-blocks into a micellar morphology creates an environment where hydrophobic molecules can dissolve in the hydrophobic core, despite the limited solubility in the solvent (which is usually water or saline for biological applications). (
  • Provides a working knowledge of the various means of controlling the solubility and dissolution rates of drugs and other biologically active compounds. (
  • Over the years researchers have reported solubility data in the chemical, pharmaceutical, engineering, and environmental literature for several thousand organic compounds. (
  • This model illustrates an approach for calculating the solubility an an element based on equilibrium chemistry that includes solid phase dissolution-precipitation and aqueous speciation similar in concept to a thermodynamically based geochemical model. (
  • SCCS states that the solubility values considered in its opinion may not be valid in situations where the SAS materials are formulated/used under conditions that are different from those used in the solubility tests - e.g ., when used in a less/non aqueous formulation, or at a different temperature. (
  • There are certain challenges associated with the formulation of drugs with pH-dependent solubility affecting the release from dosage and hence absorption [Sanghvi, N. et al, (
  • Based on the results combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment efficiently opens up the fibre structure and has a clear positive effect on the solubility of dissolving pulp. (
  • The latter protocol has been noted to increase the solubility by a factor of ten for some hydrophilic SAS materials. (
  • This dilution series shows the increase in Coumarin-6 ( C6 ) solubility (in µg/mL) with an increase in concentration of Methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(DL-lactide)decane (mPEG-PDLLA-decyl) [Aldrich Product No. 764736 ] in water. (
  • Comparison of kinetic solubility profiles of indomethacin between experimental and predicted results as a function of supersaturation rate generated with various drug solution (indomethacin in ethanol) infusion rates under nonsink dissolution condition (SI=0.1). (
  • The model predictions are compared with independent experimental data on nitrogen solubility in water as well as water content of the gas phase. (
  • According to SCCS, in the context of the definition of nanomaterial under the Cosmetics Regulation, which relates to insoluble materials in conjunction with other size/particle related parameters, the question of solubility of a nano-structured material needs to be seen in perspective for use in cosmetics. (
  • One of the common difficulties with intravenous drug delivery is low solubility of the drug. (
  • In accordance with the data obtained on solubility, different SR oral dosage forms of Verapamil HCl containing Succinic acid were developed in order to obtain near constant and complete release of the drug in the G.I.T. For this purpose the drug release was controlled by fabricating matrix as well as coated tablets. (
  • The solubility values for hydrophilic SAS materials have been reported to range from 22 mg/L to 225 mg/L for the solubility tests performed in aqueous media, or following the enhanced Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 105 (0.5 percent ethanol). (
  • The solubility values of hydrophobic surface-treated SAS materials have been reported to range from 0.4 to 180 mg/L for solubility tests performed in aqueous media, or following a modified enhanced OECD TG 105 protocol ( i.e ., using ten percent ethanol). (
  • In this study, chitosan ake was micronized in a ball mill to make ne powder.The effects of the milling on properties of chitosan, such as particle size, molecular parameters, bulk den-sity, crystalline structure, color, chemical structure, and solubility, were investigated. (
  • Gas solubility measurement and modeling for the nitrogen + water system from 274.18 K to 363.02 K . Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data , 49 (4), 1110-1115. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Gas solubility measurement and modeling for the nitrogen + water system from 274.18 K to 363.02 K'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • Marble crusher parameters.Ball milling parameters on solubility effect of ball milling on the phase constitution and lorentz center ed by inductive levitation melting followed by ball milling of different duration and hot chat now ball milling parameters on solubility parameter of ball milling ballmill parameter crusher plantcrushing plantcrusher. (
  • The solubility data generated in this work are used for tuning the binary interaction parameters between nitrogen and water. (
  • By evaluating your molecule's physiochemical characteristics through molecular modeling in advance, we identify the solubility enhancement technologies most likely to be effective before any work is done or API is wasted, which helps eliminate rework and worry later on, saving you time and money. (
  • My presentation will comprise of two sections: the first section will focus on formulation development of solid dispersions to enhance drug solubility and the second section will be dedicated to understanding transcriptomic changes of drug transporters during permeability studies. (
  • Many of the industry's early prospective methods for improving drug solubility have not succeeded at market. (
  • Dendrimers, a new class of polymers, possess great potential for drug solubility improvement, by virtue of their unique properties. (
  • The solubility was measured in various concentrations of the major solutes by use of a liquid scintillation technique to detect the so4- -in solution. (
  • There are a number of patterns in the data obtained from measuring the solubility of different salts. (
  • Rank the solubility of different salts. (
  • Revised and updated throughout, Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User's Handbook, Second Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials. (
  • For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula. (
  • Each form normally displays its own unique thermal, mechanical, physical and chemical properties that can profoundly influence the solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, hygroscopicity, melting point, stability, compressibility and other performances of the drug (Byrn et al. (
  • 2004). Different polymorphs of a pharmaceutical molecule generally have different physical and chemical properties such as solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, melting point, stability, etc (Sirota, 1982). (
  • 1 MeV) at temperatures in the range of 250 to 300°C, have higher dissolution and precipitation solubilities compared to those measured on unirradiated material. (
  • This means that solubility should be viewed as a result of two simultaneous and opposing processes: dissolution and precipitation. (
  • The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution , which is how fast it dissolves. (
  • An enhancement of solid solubility has been found in many bulk nanocrystalline materials, for instance [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • However quantifying the impact of grain refinement on equilibrium solid solubility is important for understanding the behavior of nanocrystalline alloys upon thermal activation. (
  • An experimental program has been carried out to measure the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in Zircaloy. (
  • and one or more solubility-modified high strength and/or high-toughness polymeric materials selected from polyamides, polyethers, and liquid crystal polymers. (
  • US Patent 20110201836 describes a new type of extraction based on silicone polymers having different solubilities, which allows for the customization of a menstruum to extract not only more active ingredient, but also narrower ranges of materials than has heretofore been possible. (
  • Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. (
  • We found that despite the fact that the total quantity of proteins within the cellular environment remains approximately constant during aging, protein aggregation sharply increases between days 6 and 12 of adulthood, after the worms have reproduced, as individual proteins lose their stoichiometric balances and the cellular machinery that maintains solubility undergoes functional decline. (
  • Ćirković Veličković, T. Fibrinogen Increases Resveratrol Solubility and Prevents it from Oxidation. (
  • We describe a statistical model that uses binomial logistic regression for predicting the solubility of heterologous proteins expressed in E. coli . (
  • A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. (
  • More than a decade ago, we put forward the "life on the edge of solubility" hypothesis, according to which proteins are expressed in the cellular environment at levels close to their solubility limits. (
  • This observation was based on the analysis of a small number of proteins for which solubility and cellular concentration information was available at the time. (
  • We have been able to show in this way that the vast majority of proteins in a model organism are indeed expressed above their solubility limits, and to investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. (
  • To function effectively proteins must avoid aberrant aggregation, and hence they are expected to be expressed at concentrations safely below their solubility limits. (
  • By analyzing proteome-wide mass spectrometry data of Caenorhabditis elegans , however, we show that the levels of about three-quarters of the nearly 4,000 proteins analyzed in adult animals are close to their intrinsic solubility limits, indeed exceeding them by about 10% on average. (
  • This vector suite allows the parallel cloning of the same PCR product into the 12 different expression vectors evaluating protein expression under different promoter strength, different fusion tags as well as different solubility enhancer proteins. (
  • b) If the pressure is increased in the piston, the gas molecules will undergo more frequent collisions, leading to higher solubility. (
  • Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. (
  • Majority of newly synthesized drug molecules fail or are rejected during the early phases of drug discovery and development due to their limited solubility. (
  • Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) are used to predict molecular affinities, solubility, and solubility-related phenomena. (
  • The report estimated that only 5% of new molecular entities (NMEs) under development by industry had both high solubility and high permeability (BCS Class I), while another 5% were of BCS Class III. (
  • The fugacity coefficient is close to 1 when the total pressure of the gas phase is less than about 10 atm, and it can be neglected in the solubility calculation. (
  • Calculating solubility products from molar solubilities, and vice versa. (
  • Calculating hydrocarbon components solubility of natural gases is known as one of the important issues for operational works in petroleum and chemical engineering. (
  • This invention also relates to and altering the solubility of above mentioned high strength soluble oilfield elements and well operating elements. (