Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)DimethylformamideHemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.ThiazinesPhysicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dentin Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Photoinitiators, Dental: Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.Uranium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Hesperidin: A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acrylic ResinsDrug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.EthersCaco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.

Isolation and purification of rat mammary tumor peroxidase. (1/12820)

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors often contain high levels of the enzyme perioxidase, a putative marker of estrogen dependence. This enzyme can be effectively extracted with 0.5 M CaCl2, giving rise to a soluble peroxidase with a molecular weight of about 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. This is the same size as the estrogen-induced peroxidase of rat uterus but smaller than other mammalian peroxidases. Further purification of the rat mammary tumor peroxidase by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose provides a 640-fold purification of the enzyme.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (2/12820)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (3/12820)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (4/12820)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (5/12820)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of major intrinsic microsomal membrane proteins. (6/12820)

Treatment of the membrane matrix derived from hepatic microsomes with buffered 1 M urea resulted in the selective extraction of a group of proteins together with a portion of the membrane lipid. Thorough chemical characterization of this fraction has been performed, and the proteins have been fractionated by two different procedures. The first of these, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has produced five highly homogeneous membrane proteins which have been characterized with regard to molecular weight, electrophoretic behavior in five different polyacrylamide systems, NH2 terminus, relative carbohydrate content, isoelectric point, and amino acid composition. The five proteins of this group fell in the molecular weight range of 54,000 to 96,000 and had isoelectric points ranging from pH 4.9 to pH 6.7. Further fractionation of the urea-soluble proteins by gel filtration in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium resulted in the isolation of four homogeneous molecular weight classes of proteins which have been characterized with respect to various physicochemical parameters. The major membrane glycoprotein (apparent molecular weight, 171,000) was isolated by this procedure and found to contain approximately equal amounts of NH2-terminal glycine and serine. suggesting the presence of at least two polypeptide chains in this molecular weight region. From the urea-insoluble fraction of the membrane comprising approximately 80% of the total protein, five intrinsic polypeptides designated S-5 through S-9 were isolated. S-5 (54,000) and S-6 (49,000) represent the most prominent components in the microsomal membrane, accounting for close to 30% of the total protein. Also isolated and characterized is the smallest membrane protein (S-9), a hydrophobic polypeptide of molecular weight 16,000. All of the urea-insoluble proteins are glycoproteins, and S-7 (35,000) gives the second most intense stain for carbohydrate of all proteins in the microsomal membrane.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (7/12820)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (8/12820)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

*Cyclodextrin

Purification of the three types of cyclodextrins takes advantage of the different water solubility of the molecules: β-CD which ... The water-soluble MβCD is known to form soluble inclusion complexes with cholesterol, thereby enhancing its solubility in ... Thus they can enhance the solubility and bioavailability of such compounds. Cyclodextrins can also enhance drug permeability ... In contrast, the exterior is sufficiently hydrophilic to impart cyclodextrins (or their complexes) water solubility. The ...

*KP1019

It has a low solubility in water, which makes it difficult to transport in the bloodstream. The Ru-Cl bonds are labile and ... Due to its low solubility in water, KP1019 is often prepared as it's sodium salt, a derivative known as KP1339. By replacing ...

*Bolaamphiphile

Compared to single-headed amphiphiles, the introduction of a second head-group generally induces a higher solubility in water, ...

*Solubility

ACDlabs.com? ACD/Solubility DB aqueous solubility prediction Simulations-plus.com, S+Sw, an aqueous solubility prediction model ... Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility ... This kind of solubility is of great importance in geology, where it results in formation of metamorphic rocks. Solubility is a ... The solubility constant is not as simple as solubility, however the value of this constant is generally independent of the ...

*Solubility equilibrium

IUPAC-NIST solubility database Solubility products of simple inorganic compounds Solubility challenge: Predict solubilities ... Solubility table: A table of solubilities of mostly inorganic salts at temperatures between 0 and 100 °C. Molar solubility: The ... Units of solubility may be molar (mol dm−3) or expressed as mass per unit volume, such as μg ml−1. Solubility is temperature ... The term "intrinsic solubility" is used to describe the solubility of the un-ionized form in the absence of acid or alkali. ...

*Solubility pump

The solubility pump is driven by the coincidence of two processes in the ocean : The solubility of carbon dioxide is a strong ... it strongly outgasses carbon dioxide to the atmosphere because of the reduced solubility of the gas. The solubility pump has a ... The solubility pump is the primary mechanism driving this flux, with the consequence that anthropogenic CO2 is reaching the ... Ocean warming decreases the solubility of CO2 in seawater, slowing the ocean's response to emissions. Warming also acts to ...

*Molar solubility

If the solubility product constant (Ksp) and dissociation product ions are known, the molar solubility can be computed without ... Molar solubility is the number of moles of a substance (the solute) that can be dissolved per liter of solution before the ... It can be calculated from a substance's solubility product constant (Ksp) and stoichiometry. The units are mol/L, sometimes ... Inserting these initial concentrations into the solubility product equation gives: K s p = ( x ) ( 2 x ) 2 = ( x ) ( 4 x 2 ) = ...

*Solubility chart

Solubility Solubility table Solubility rules Anhydrous FeF3 is slightly soluble in water, FeF3·3H2O is much more soluble in ... For more detailed information of the exact solubility of the compounds, see the solubility table. The chemicals have to be ... A solubility chart refers to a chart with a list of ions and how, when mixed with other ions, they can become precipitates or ... The following chart shows the solubilities of various compounds, in water, at a pressure of 1 atm and at room temperature ( ...

*Solubility table

Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Solubility Database - International Union of Pure and Applied ... Units of solubility are given in grams per 100 milliliters of water (g/100 ml), unless shown otherwise. The substances are ... The table below provides information on the variation of solubility of different substances (mostly inorganic compounds) in ... Online resource that includes solubility data Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds (Richard C. Ropp) page 86 Chemicalc ...

*Solubility parameter

... may refer to parameters of solubility: Hildebrand solubility parameter, a numerical estimate of the degree ... and can be a good indication of solubility Hansen solubility parameters, developed by Charles Hansen as a way of predicting if ...

*Hansen solubility parameter

www.hansen-solubility.com. Stefanis, E.; Panayiotou, C. (2008). "Prediction of Hansen Solubility Parameters with a New Group- ... Solvent (has a chart of Hansen solubility parameters for various solvents) Hildebrand solubility parameter MOSCED Hansen, ... Hansen solubility parameters were developed by Charles M. Hansen in his Ph.D thesis in 1967 as a way of predicting if one ... In particular, all solubility parameter-based theories have a fundamental limitation that they apply only to associated ...

*Hildebrand solubility parameter

Solvent Hansen Solubility Parameters John Burke (1984). "Part 2. Hildebrand Solubility Parameter". Retrieved 2013-12-04. " ... This later became known as the "Hildebrand solubility parameter". Materials with similar solubility parameters will be able to ... More complicated three-dimensional solubility parameters, such as Hansen solubility parameters, have been proposed for polar ... The Hildebrand solubility parameter is the square root of the cohesive energy density: δ = Δ H v − R T V m {\displaystyle \ ...

*Volume

"Solubility". Retrieved 2010-05-01. Up to 1800 grams of sucrose can dissolve in a liter of water. "General Tables of Units of ...

*Good's buffers

Solubility. For ease in handling and because biological systems are in aqueous systems, good solubility in water was required. ... Low solubility in nonpolar solvents (fats, oils, and organic solvents) was also considered beneficial, as this would tend to ...

*Alkali metal

"Solubility Rules!". chem.sc.edu. Reedy, J. H. (October 1, 1929). "Lecture demonstration of ammonium amalgam". Journal of ... Furthermore, they have higher melting points, hardnesses, and densities, and lower reactivities and solubilities in liquid ... of the short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it easily moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility ...

*Barium iodate

Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Definition of Insoluble salts (precipitates); Solubility product. ...

*Isobutane

"Solubility in Water". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 6 April 2017. Record in the GESTIS ...

*Fullerene

The solubility value given is the approximate saturated concentration. Solubility of C60 in some solvents shows unusual ... At temperatures above solubility maximum the solvate is not stable even when immersed in saturated solution and melts with ... Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.; Keskinov, V. A.; Piartman, A. K.; Blokhin, A. A.; Kopyrin, A. A. (2010). "Solubility of Light ... Functionalizing the fullerenes aims to increase the solubility of the molecule by the cancer cells. Cancer cells take up these ...

*Supersaturation

Saturation occurs when the concentrations are on the solubility curve. If the concentrations are above the solubility curve, ... Lou's Chemistry Website." Factors Affecting Solubility. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. "Saturated Solutions and Solubility." ... One of the easiest ways to do this relies on the temperature dependence of solubility. As a general rule, the more heat is ... Primarily, it provides a means for drugs with very low solubility to be made into aqueous solutions. The identification of ...

*Petroleum jelly

Solubility--Insoluble in water; almost insoluble in cold or hot alcohol or in cold dehydrated alcohol; freely soluble in ... the degree of solubility in these solvents varying with the composition of the petrolatum. "How to Remove Petroleum Jelly from ...

*Proton affinity

Estimated to be the same as for Li+(aq) → Li+(g). Estimated from solubility data.. ...

*Perfluoromethyldecalin

"Solubility in Liquids" (PDF). F2 Chemicals. Begley P1, Foulger B, Simmonds P. (1988). "Femtogram detection of perfluorocarbon ... It is mainly of interest as a blood substitute, exploiting the high solubility of air in this solvent. Most commercially ...

*Pyrotechnic composition

Low solubility in water. Produces high temperature flame and smoke of potassium chloride. Safer replacement of potassium ...

*Articaine

... this conveys lipid solubility. This drug was first synthesized by Rusching in 1969, and brought to the market in Germany by ...

*Specific ion interaction theory

ISBN 0-8493-5415-3. Brønsted, J.N. (1922). "Studies on solubility IV. The principle of the specific interaction of ions". J. Am ...
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
The aqueous solubility of a drug is viewed as a pivotal property for its oral absorption since only dissolved molecules can permeate the gut wall and reach the systemic circulation. The fluids in the intestine, however, do not only consist of water and therefore poor water solubility may not necessarily imply a poor solubility in the intestinal fluids and resulting low bioavailability. This thesis addresses the determination of drug solubility and dissolution rates in biorelevant dissolution media (BDM) with the aim of applying these methods to the early stages of drug discovery, where there is a need to reduce the volume of the medium and the amount of solid drug used in testing. The thesis also addresses the need for computational methods for predicting solubility in intestinal fluids and, hence, allowing in silico screening of drugs yet to be synthesized. The apparent solubility and dissolution behavior of large series of lipophilic and other diverse compounds in BDM were studied using a ...
[159 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market...
The effects of high pressure (to 600 MPa) at different temperatures (20 to 60 °C) for 20 min on protein solubilization and electrophoretic pattern in beef post-rigor longissimus dorsi muscle were studied. The results showed that protein solubilization increased with increasing temperature, especially from 40 °C to 60 °C. A regular trend of protein solubilization was found when isolated myofibrils were subjected to high pressure at different temperatures, an increase was observed with increasing pressure up to about 400 MPa, solubility then decreasing to 600 MPa. Electrophoretic profiles showed that myosin light chains and actin thin filaments were sensitive to pressure, and were released from myofibrils subjected to 100 MPa and higher pressures at the different temperatures.
CHANGDEO, Jagdale Swati; VINOD, Musale; SHANKAR, Kuchekar Bhanudas and RAJARAM, Chabukswar Anuruddha. Physicochemical characterization and solubility enhancement studies of allopurinol solid dispersions. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. [online]. 2011, vol.47, n.3, pp.513-523. ISSN 2175-9790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502011000300009.. Allopurinol is a commonly used drug in the treatment of chronic gout or hyperuricaemia associated with treatment of diuretic conditions. One of the major problems with the drug is that it is practically insoluble in water, which results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. In the present study, solid dispersions of allopurinol were prepared by solvent evaporation, kneading method, co-precipitation method, co-grinding method and closed melting methods to increase its water solubility. Hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol 6000 were used in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 (drug to carrier ratio). The aqueous solubility of ...
Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g/L butyrate production. Likewise, a good-performing medium for xanthan production was chosen and increasing pressure saw increases to oxygen mass transfer coefficients for better yields up to 13 g/L biomass and 250 mPa·s of viscosity. Future work should be applied in connecting the results of the second process to that of the first.
A review on solid dispersion: A substitute approach for poorly water soluble drug An amount of methodologies can be adapted to progress solubility and
Hansen Solubility Parameters: A Users Handbook, 2nd Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials.
The solubility of paracetamol in water-glycerol mixtures at 25 and 30 °C was determined using flask shake method. The generated data extended the solubility database for further computational investigations and was also used to assess the prediction capability of a trained version of the Jouyban-Acree model for solubility prediction in water-glycerol mixtures at various temperatures. The accuracy of the predicted solubilities was evaluated by the mean percentage deviation between the predicted and experimental solubilities. The overall mean percentage deviation of the Jouyban-Acree model for the back-calculated solubility data from the literature was 37.9 ± 21.9%. The corresponding value for the predicted solubilities of paracetamol in binary mixtures using experimental values of paracetamol solubilities in water and glycerol was 15.6 ± 11.1%.. ...
begin{array}{c,c,c,c} \mathrm{substance} & \mathrm{Solubility\ in\ water\ (g/100\ mL)} & \mathrm{density\ (g/mL)} &\mathrm{volume\ percent}\\ \hline \text{1-butanol} & 7.7 & 0.8098 & 9.5\\ \text{diethyl ether} & 6.9 & 0.7134 & 9.7 \end{array}$$. Note that I have used the solubility data to calculate percent compositions by volume in both cases. It was and still is common to report low solubilities as percents composition. It also is and was common to see percents composition listed without specifying whether they were mass/mass (which should be the default), mass/volume (convenient for dilute solutions), or volume/volume (convenient for solutions, but unhelpful due to colligative properties). At both temperatures, the data supports that 1-butanol and diethyl ether have nearly the same percent solubility by volume. Morrison and Boyd is an older generation of textbook, first published before the world wide web. If they found a source of solubility data for these compounds that listed percents (but ...
One of the common difficulties with intravenous drug delivery is low solubility of the drug. The requirement for large quantities of saline to dissolve such materials limits their clinical use, and one solution for this problem that has recently generated interest is the formation of drug-loaded micelles.
Solubility of a drug is an important parameter in the formulation development. Hence various techniques are used for the improvement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble and water insoluble drugs include Particle Size Reduction, Solid Dispersion, Nanosuspension, Supercritical Fluid Technology, Cryogenic Technology, Inclusion Complex Formation Techniques, and Floating Granules etc. The purpose of this review article is to describe the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability.
Over the years researchers have reported solubility data in the chemical, pharmaceutical, engineering, and environmental literature for several thousand organic
Water-solubility antirust agentT768 Water-solubility antirust agentProduct IntroductionT768 is a complex polymer-based rust inhibitor.T768 can suit for non-ferrous metals ,especially for long term ant
Great interaction here and I am sure that this is really going to help a lot of people who are working and learning about solubility data. This post was really informative and reading about it, I am sure that the webservice is going to be just what is needed for people like us to come and refer. Hope everything goes well and as planned ...
In the literature there are several methods used to obtain solubility information for metal ions in non-aqueous media. However, there is not a well defined method that is accurate or reproducible enough to obtain reliable solubility data. This fact can be illustrated by the inconsistancy of the solubility data reported in the literature for the alkali fluorides. This thesis contains three chapters addressing the determination of metal salts in non-aqueous solvents. In Chapter 1, after a review of existing methods, experiments related to the development of several analysis protocols are described. These protocols are evaluated by determining the solubility of alkali metal fluorides in acetonitrile. Results are used to conclude the merit of each protocol and which protocol is suitable for particular classes of solvents. The second chapter contains experimental details and results of solubility determinations for lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium fluoride in acetonitrile, N,N
With the recent advent of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening of potentially therapeutic agents, the number of poorly soluble drug candidate has risen sharply and the formulation of poorly soluble compounds for oral delivery now presents one of the most frequent and greatest challenge to formulation scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. There are certain drugs for which solubility has presented a challenge to the development of a suitable formulation for oral administration. And one of these drugs is carbamazepine. In the literature, solid dispersions have shown tremendous potential for improving drug solubility and dissolution. In this study the main objective was to enhance the solubility of carbamazepine using selected water-soluble polymers and a solid dispersion technique. The solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method, using water-soluble polymers as carriers, namely Solutol HS, Vitamin E TPGS, Poloxamer 188 and Lipocol C 10 at a fixed ratio of 9:1 (drug:carrier) was
Unscramble solubilities, Unscramble letters solubilities, Point value for solubilities, Word Decoder for solubilities, Word generator using the letters solubilities, Word Solver solubilities, Possible Scrabble words with solubilities, Anagram of solubilities
Macgregor, R. J. and Mather, A. E. (1991), Equilibrium solubility of H2S and CO2 and their mixtures in a mixed solvent. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 69: 1357-1366. doi: 10.1002/cjce.5450690618 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Examining Asphaltene Solubility on Deposition in Model Porous Media. AU - Lin, Yu Jiun. AU - He, Peng. AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad. AU - Mathew, Nevin Thunduvila. AU - Fatt, Yap Yit. AU - Chai, John C.. AU - Goharzadeh, Afshin. AU - Vargas, Francisco M.. AU - Biswal, Sibani Lisa. PY - 2016/8/17. Y1 - 2016/8/17. N2 - Asphaltenes are known to cause severe flow assurance problems in the near-wellbore region of oil reservoirs. Understanding the mechanism of asphaltene deposition in porous media is of great significance for the development of accurate numerical simulators and effective chemical remediation treatments. Here, we present a study of the dynamics of asphaltene deposition in porous media using microfluidic devices. A model oil containing 5 wt % dissolved asphaltenes was mixed with n-heptane, a known asphaltene precipitant, and flowed through a representative porous media microfluidic chip. Asphaltene deposition was recorded and analyzed as a function of solubility, which was ...
KP1019, or trans-[tetrachlorobis(1 H-indazole)ruthenate(III)], is one of two ruthenium anti-cancer drugs to enter into phase I clinical trials, the other being NAMI-A. Research into ruthenium-based drugs has provided novel alternatives for platinum-based chemotherapeutics such as Cisplatin and its derivatives. KP1019 is useful for metastatic tumors and cis-platin resistant tumors. It exhibits potent cytotoxicity against primary tumors, particularly in colorectal cancer. KP1019 has an octahedral structure with two trans N-donor indazole and four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane. It has a low solubility in water, which makes it difficult to transport in the bloodstream. The Ru-Cl bonds are labile and KP1019 readily exchanges its chloro ligands in the presence of water. Due to its low solubility in water, KP1019 is often prepared as its sodium salt, a derivative known as KP1339. By replacing the indazole rings with imidazole rings the derivative KP418 is formed. KP418 also exhibits ...
Eleven solid dispersions containing olanzapine, with carriers of different composition (Lutrol® F68, Lutrol® F127, Gelucire® 44/14), were prepared and examined by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); thermomicroscopy (HSM)) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, both as fresh or aged (one year) samples. Drug and carriers were preliminarily selected in order to avoid problems related to the aging of the formulation, according to the solubility parameters of carriers and drug. These parameters make it possible to predict the low solubility of olanzapine in the carriers (alone or in mixtures). Systems containing only Lutrol (also in the presence of Transcutol®) contain the drug in the form of particles of reduced size and in a crystalline form. Gelucire® 44/14 apparently increases the amount of olanzapine dissolved in the solid carrier, but this is presumed to be a metastable state, probably related to the heterogeneous nature of the carrier that delays crystallization of the drug. The
Ill admit that I dont have much experience with RDF but I can see how the triples are connected and it is clear that this is a format very suitable for machine readability. It is nice that the provenance of the data is clearly indicated by links to the original lab notebook pages (for example EXP207) with all the details about how the solubility measurements were carried out ...
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Solubility coefficients for CO2, Ar and CH4 in polystyrene (PS) films with glass transition temperatures (Tg) of 52 to 107°C were measured in a pressure-decay sorption apparatus at 1 atm over a temperature range of 20 to 90°C. The gas solubility at 30°C increased as the T s of the PS increased; the heat of solution was largest for the PS with the highest Tg. This observed dependence of gas solubility on T s was analysed in terms of enthalpy-temperature relationships for glassy polymers. The solubilities for PS samples with different glass transition temperatures converged when comparisons were made on the basis of states of equal enthalpy instead of the temperature of measurement.
Solubility DefinitionsSolubility is expressed in units of concentration. After reviewing many publications featuring solubility measurement of drugs we adopted the following definitions for the solubility parameters that our instruments measure.
Comparison of kinetic solubility profiles of indomethacin between experimental and predicted results as a function of supersaturation rate generated with variou
A new synthetic method for studying phase behaviour is described using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy. The method has been developed to provide relevant information on the solubility of water in CO2. The dew point of water has been determined at three different pressures, viz. (4.05, 5.05 and 6.03) MPa with mole fractions of water between 0.01 and 0.04. The data obtained fill the gap in the literature in these regions of pressures and temperatures and could be of high importance in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Indeed, the presence of water in the captured CO2 could damage the pipeline used for CO2 transport. Hence, it is very important to have a fully understanding of the behaviour of the (CO2 + H2O) mixtures in wide range of temperature relevant for CCS. The paper is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021961415003547, DOI: 10.1016/j.jct.2015.09.024. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C2-185.
Since it would take a very long and immense search to look for the enitre data for all ugi reagents in non-aqeuous solvents, I have chosen to focus on the aromatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids. I found the Belistein databse to be the most useful when searching for this data. Throughout the research I have found many different substituted benzoic acids but barely any aromatic aldehydes. As I have said prior in this paper the solubility information is very scarce, however aqeuous solubility data is almost always reported. Despite what it seemed like unnattainable data, I was able to find some data for this review. The following data table is a compilation of the solubility data found in other research papers for the organic compounds in many different non-aqeuous solvents. The data table gives the name of the solute followed by the solvent it is dissolved in. The solubility is then reported. In the next row the way the data was reported was given along with the temperature the data was found at. ...
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By joining the drug to a dendrimer construct, very large increases in drug solubility have been achieved, which can enhance the "bioavailability" of the drug. For example Docetaxel is a cancer drug well known for its poor aqueous solubility. When conjugated to a dendrimer construct a 20,000 fold increase in solublised Docetaxel is achieved.. The formulation of DEPTM docetaxel is also Polysorbate 80-free.. ...
MPa0.5? Or, sqrt(MPa)? Hansen identified three factors to consider for predictions of solubilities. He assigned units of square root of pressure to them to add them in quadrature. Activities/fugacities of solutes and solvents that do not dissociate when mixed to form a solution can be expressed in units of pressure, or as ratios of pressures. Actual energies? No. Proportional to energies of the interactions? Yes ...
On March 15, 2019, the European Commission's (EC) Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) published its preliminary opinion on the solubility…
A structure of CO2 -insoluble material has a three-dimensional object of CO2 -soluble material positioned inside. The object is contacted with a fluid containing carbon dioxide which dissolves the object in the fluid. The fluid is then removed to form a cavity in the structure.
I have some total cell lysed poteins solubilized using 7M urea/ 2M thiourea, and proteinase inhibitor for 2D electrophoresis. Can I run the same samples onto SDS-PAGE? Do i need to do any equilibration step or whatsoever for the proteins to run in smoothly ...
Edta Solubility Water, Wholesale Various High Quality Edta Solubility Water Products from Global Edta Solubility Water Suppliers and Edta Solubility Water Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about Solubility product (Ksp) and molar solubility (5). See what people are saying about Solubility product (Ksp) and molar solubility (5).
Anti-perspirant does happen to include Al, but, as said before, so does many foods. In fact, "In general, approximately 95% of the normal daily intake of aluminum for an adult comes from food" [1]. Thus, discontinuing use of anti-prespirants will probably not have a significant effect. Moreover, the EPA claims that the maximum allowable level for Al in drinking water is 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L [2]. Finally, Aluminum Hydroxide is prescribed for several things, including heartburn, peptic ulcers, and other stomach ailments [3]. It seems Al is present in many other things than anti-perspirants. Not to mention the fact that the Al ion has a very difficult time penetrating the skin due to low solubility at the pH found around the skin [4 ...
Literature examples of non-aqueous Pickering emulsions stabilized by fat crystals are very rare. Moreover, the applications of rutin are limited due to its low solubility in both water and oils (less than 0.10 mg g−1 and 0.25 mg g−1, respectively). Thus, herein, we developed an optimum formulation of a non-a
This blog chronicles the research of the UsefulChem project in the Bradley lab at Drexel University. The main project currently involves the synthesis of novel anti-malarial compounds. The work is done under Open Notebook Science conditions with the actual detailed lab notebook located at usefulchem.wikispaces.com. More general comments posted here relate to Open Science, especially when associated with chemistry.. ...
Secreted proteins are important targets and biomarkers. Humanization of e.g. Immunoglobulin, transport proteins, Interleukins, and hormones provide very valuable research models.
This book aims to provide the reader with a working knowledge of the various means of controlling the solubility or dissolution rate of a drug or other solute in an aqueous medium. The book begins with the factors which govern solubility in general and then looks at aqueous solubility in particular, including the properties of liquid mixtures and the thermodynamics of solutions formed from mixing two components.
Solubilities in aqueous media of sparingly soluble ionic compounds or homogeneous solid mixtures play an important role in chemical processes, whether carried out on a laboratory or an industrial scale. The respective solubility phenomena, i.e. dissolution and precipitation reactions, frequently control procedures for preparing, separating and purifying chemicals. Moreover, the interactions of the hydrological cycle with the cycle of rocks, the naturally occurring dissolution of minerals in water, as well as their precipitation on the ocean floor and in the sediments of rivers and lakes, can often be simply described iii terms of solubility equilibria, although gigantic quantities of material may be involved. Solid-solute equilibrium chemistry has usually been restricted to pure solids, whereas most minerals are solid solutions. Consequently, this chapter also deals with homogeneous solid mixtures or solid solutions, whose solubilities not only depend on those of the respective end members but ...
The homogeneously catalysed glycerol hydrochlorination was thoroughly investigated in a continuous isothermal co-current bubble column reactor over a wide range of reaction parameters, such as temperature (70-120 °C), catalyst concentration (3-12%), liquid flow rate (6-12 mL/min) and gas flow rate (0.4-1.0 L/min). The flow patterns inside the reactor were studied by means of step response residence time distribution experiments and by high-speed camera images. The fluid dynamics of the system presented an unusual behaviour due to the extremely high solubility of HCl in the reaction mixture. Interestingly, the fluid dynamics imposed severe limitations to the reaction conversion. The axial dispersion model was applied for describing the dynamic changes in concentrations of compounds. Kinetic and solubility data were collected from previous work on glycerol hydrochlorination in semi-batch reactor conducted by our research group. The bubble column model was able to successfully describe the dynamic ...
Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and
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Hi Iain. Well we are indeed starting other series in the background. This is Jimmy Cronshaws project. Hes liking the theinopyrimidine set at the moment and has nearly cracked the parent:. http://openwetware.org/wiki/OSDDMalaria:GSK_Amino-thienopyrimidine_Series. But were doing another round on the arylpyrroles. Firstly the compounds are very potent, and some hit gametocytes. While there was no oral efficacy there is the possibility that this was due to low solubility. Were hoping to acquire data from the in vivo screen that might confirm that. The aim of the above sets (particularly the set to synthesise) is to diversify the upper portion within sensible physicochemical boundaries. If we dont ID a good-looking compound with good solubility then well be tempted to hop to a different series with no hard feelings, yes. So the purpose of this consultation (for about another week) is to make sure were going after a good set of compounds and dont miss something obvious, while throwing in a few ...
A process for impregnating a medical device made from a water absorbable polymer material, e.g., a hydrogel, with a medical compound having low solubility in aqueous solutions, e.g., an antiseptic or radiopaque compound, is disclosed. The device is first infiltrated with an aqueous solution containing a first water soluble, ionizable compound, and subsequently infiltrated with an aqueous solution containing a second water soluble, ionizable compound. The ionizable compounds are selected such that they react after mutual contact to form the medical compound in-situ within the device.
Water, ethanol and n-hexane solubility and pH-solubility behavior of a homologous series of isoxazolyl-naphthoquinone derivatives, which exhibit important biological activity, were studied. Their pK(a) values were determined spectrophotometrically as
Iron sulfide scaling is a severe problem in flow assurance and asset integrity in oil and gas and deep-water production. FeS scale control is challenging due to the extremely low solubility, fast precipitation kinetics and complexity of ferrous iron
Iron (Fe) is one of the most important micronutrients for many organisms because of its reduction-oxidation role as cofactor in multiple essential proteins and enzymes (Marschner, 1995; de Benoist et al., 2008). Limited Fe bioavailability, due to low solubility under alkaline or calcareous conditions in the soil, is a challenge for plants and can only be overcome by efficient mobilization of this micronutrient. Since Fe reactivity can also confer toxicity (Briat et al., 2010), Fe uptake requires controlled balancing in tight response to the availability and internal requirement. Understanding the regulation of key genes involved in plant Fe uptake is of crucial importance for plant breeding of more nutritious and micronutrient-enriched crops as well as of crops optimized for cultivation on calcareous and alkaline soils.. One of the prime research targets in this respect is the control leading to Fe acquisition in the root. Dicotyledonous plants mobilize Fe via the so-called Strategy I, based on ...
I created this thread so you all know how much water to use to dissolve benzodiazepines for injection. Its come to my attention people are still going to try shooting benzos, even those that arent as feasible to inject in water only, so I want to help you all instead of leaving you all in the dark. Hopefully these statistics should reflect water solubility at a pH of 7. If the pH fluctuates, the solubility may increase or decrease. You dont want to inject highly acidic or basic water,
Crystallization of drugs formulated in the amorphous form may lead to reduced apparent solubility, decreased rate of dissolution and bioavailability and compromise the physical integrity of the solid
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Solubility Definition - Solubility is the solute property that substances can dissolve in a liquid, solid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a...
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A1: When doing proteome profiling, there are two methods for protein fractionation such as SDS-PAGE and strong cation exchange (SCX), both of which are usual methods in our company. These two methods have their own advantage and shortage. For fractionating by using SDS- PAGE, protein with lower solubility such as hydrophobic protein could be dissolved and fractionated well, while protein with extremely small or large molecular weight could be lost. When using SCX, the losing of protein with extreme molecular weight could be avoided. However the protein with lower solubility could be lost. ...
Solubility continued... The solubility of solids mixed with liquids, liquids mixed with other liquids, and gases mixed with liquids is a vitally important
Solubility. What is solubility? How do I interpret solubility curves? Conditions of Solution Equilibrium. You order SWEET tea on a hot day. It arrives and you take a giant gulp. YUCHKG! They served you unsweet and the waiter is nowhere in sight. Sugar packets are on the table. Slideshow 2455815 by nishan
Hello! Try adding chloramphenicol to the culture to a final conc. of 1microgram/ml and grow it at 30degC. with best regards, Sulakshana On 13 Dec 2001, shan wrote: , hi. , , I have a problem regarding the solubility of my protein. This protein has a , cellulose binding domain tag. the size of the proein is almost 35kDa. This , protein has huge expression but it is going in the inclusion body in , insoluble form. I tried to solubilize it by 6M urea it became solubalised , but when I dialysed against decrease urea gradient it again became , insoluble. Some one has the idea how to come out of this problem. any , suggestion will be appericiated , , shan , , , ,http://www.biowww.net/forum/read.php?f=1&i=4883&t=4883, , ...
This post is about the ONSolubility project (For references search FriendFeed for Solubility). This post is about how Ive used Egons code to create a web service to query the data of solubility. Egon has already done a great job by using the google java spreasheet API to download Jean-Claudes Solubility data. On his side, Rajarshi Guha wrote an HTML page querying those data using the Google Query-API. Here I show how I have created a webservice searching for the measurements based on their solvent/solute/concentration ...
Download free powerpoint presentation of DISSOLUTION (Noyes Whitneys Dissolution rate law which is used for giving presentation of different topics eg .DISSOLUTION (Noyes Whitneys Dissolution rate law
ESPRIT: Screening of tens of thousands of constructs of a single gene to identify well-behaving soluble constructs. Academic structural biologists often work on proteins that lack accurate domain annotations. When the full-length protein cannot be expressed and a domain-focused approach is necessary, problems arise since it is unclear how to design high yielding, soluble expression constructs. Some proteins have little or no sequence similarity to others and this prevents domain identification using multiple sequence alignments. More often, some functional annotation exists e.g. from mutagenesis or deletion studies, but these regions do not define well the structural boundaries. Even when a soluble construct is obtained, disordered extensions may confound crystallisation attempts. We are all familiar with these situations; in many cases they are what keep our proteins "hot" and out of the PDB.. The ESPRIT technology was developed in the Hart lab at EMBL to express proteins whose domain ...
Cyanogen halides are employed for binding water-soluble proteins and water-soluble peptides containing a primary or secondary amino group to a water-insoluble polymer containing one or more hydroxyl and/or primary and/or secondary amino groups. The invention is useful, among other things, for binding watersoluble enzymes to water-insoluble polymers while preserving the activity of the enzyme.
Taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel are highly active against many types of cancers. The main obstacle with developing delivery systems of taxanes is their poor water solubility. In this...
Is currently limits the lack of water solubility supply of progesterone, the hormone that Groomed hours in advance and can not be stored at room temperature.
Can you name the Rules for Salt Solubility? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by elias006
Unscramble dissolution, Unscramble letters dissolution, Point value for dissolution, Word Decoder for dissolution, Word generator using the letters dissolution, Word Solver dissolution, Possible Scrabble words with dissolution, Anagram of dissolution
Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Objectives The objectives of this lab are as follows: To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing
The H (or D, or T) Sieverts constant for liquid Sn-Li alloys is calculated from thermodynamic data issuing of the Sn-Li binary phase diagram analysis. The range of temperatures investigated is 600-873 K (Sn0.8Li0.2 m.p. ~ 599 K) to maintain single-phase binary melts. The thermodynamic functions of Li-H, Sn-H, Sn-Li are evaluated to derive those of Sn-Li-H. Thus, monotectic solubility data for Sn and Li is analyzed. The calculation is done for high-dilution conditions. A quasi-chemical regular solution model is used for temperature/composition extrapolations when no data is available. The tritium Sieverts constant in Sn0.8Li0.2 at 600 K is: 9.65 10-8 Pa-12, five times the Reiters measured value for Pb-17Li and ~ 6 times the value in Pb-17Li eutectic obtained by using the same theoretical approach.. ...
V.P. Sazonov, D.G. Shaw with the assistance of Evaluators: V.P. Sazonov, N.V. Sazonov, A. Skrzecz IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 78 Acetonitrile Binary Systems. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 31 (4), 989-1133 (2002 ...
... : Can You Predict Solubilities of Thirty-Two Molecules Using a Database of One Hundred Reliable Measurements ...
Solubility adjectives are listed in this post. Each word below can often be found in front of the noun solubility in the same sentence. This reference page can
If one were asked to name the most important among the factors that will influence drug absorption and penetration to the site of action, one would have to name the lipid-water partition coefficient, which is determined by the pKa of the drug and the pH of the body fluids. Put simply, in solution the weak acids and bases will be present in some combination of ionised and non-ionised forms. Of these incompletely ionised substances, the non-ionised forms will be lipid soluble, whereas the ionised forms will not. The proportion of the ionised to non-ionised molecules is determined by the pH of the solution and the pKa of the drug (pKa being the pH at which concentration of ionised and non-ionised forms is equal).
Stable personal care composition comprising hydrophobic modified silica, a particulate material and a dermatologically-acceptable carrier, said carrier comprising about 70% or greater, by weight of the carrier, of at least one water-soluble polyol, said water-soluble polyol having a solubility parameter of from about 11 to about 17.
So whats going wrong? The authors point out that, at most larger companies, fragment-based approaches are often only attempted after HTS has failed, suggesting that the targets tackled by fragment-based methods may be inherently more difficult. But they also suggest that in the early stages of hit-to-lead optimization the primary measure of success is how many compounds are delivered to lead optimization, which could encourage rapid hit expansion with simple chemistries to rapidly boost potency by adding grease, leading to more hydrophobic, less soluble molecules that will ultimately struggle in the clinic ...
Here, industry expert Tony OLenick explains the difference between solubility and partition coefficient, as the understanding can lead to a better delivery of a formulations materials.
Need help with your General Chemistry homework? In this animated object, students examine the role that the solubility of water plays in various biological functions.
Determining the Apparent Volume of Distribution (this particular paragraph is intended to be of interest to those with great interest in math or pharmacology)... We can determine apparent volume of distribution (Vd) by dividing the dose of drug administered by the amount of the drug in the bloodstream following distribution of the drug.. Suppose that we injected someone with a total dose (i.v. bolus) of 10 grams of aspirin. Following distribution, we found a plasma concentration of 0.5 mg/ml in plasma. If we divide 10 g (10,000 mg) by 0.55 mg... that is a dilution factor of... 10,000 divided by 0.5 = 20,000. But we know that a mg of water has a volume of 1 ml. That means... our drug must have been distributed to a theoretical volume of of 20,000 mls or 20 liters of water. Our patient had a body mass of 50 kg. When we divide the theoretical volume of water in which the aspirin was distributed (20 L) by the mass of the patient (50 kg), we get a theoretical volume of distribution of 0.4 L/kg of ...
The water solubility of the test substance is 0.02 g/L, which is classified as slightly soluble. No information on the primary source of the data or the methods used is available. However, this information is taken from a reliable peer reviewed database and so can be considered reliable and suitable for use as the key study for this endpoint (WHO ICSC 2005). This value is also cited in a MITI study (1997) which was unavailable for review but was identified in the OECD SIDS. The QSAR (US EPA 2009) model predicts a water solubility of 51.88 mg/L at 25°C. This model and value are considered adequate to use for assessment as a supporting study. The data presented here are for the high purity form of DCPD. No information is available specifically on the water solubility of the commercial form of DCPD but it is not expected to be significantly different from the high purity form. ...
1 a : a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of sucrose, is colorless or white when pure tending to brown when less refined, is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet and less extensively from sorghum, maples, and palms, and is important as a source of dietary carbohydrate and as a sweetener and preservative of other foods b : any of various water-soluble compounds that vary widely in sweetness and include the oligosaccharides (as sucrose ...
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt. ...
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt. ...
Aqueous solubility of CO2 is 24.8 ml of CO2 per liter at 273K and a CO2 partial pressure of 3.6 atm. What is the molarity of a saturated water solution when the CO2 is under its normal partial pressure... ...
Solubility: The Basics Something is soluble if it dissolves in a particular liquid: picture stirring sugar into hot tea (soluble) versus cold water (not). Many plant compounds that we use for medicine have to dissolve in the water/alcohol/honey/oil/etc. for medicine to be a thing. Many plant constituents are polar, meaning they have a positive side…
Solubility: The Basics Something is soluble if it dissolves in a particular liquid: picture stirring sugar into hot tea (soluble) versus cold water (not). Many plant compounds that we use for medicine have to dissolve in the water/alcohol/honey/oil/etc. for medicine to be a thing. Many plant constituents are polar, meaning they have a positive side…
View Notes - Chap_19 from CHEM 102 at UMBC. Chapter 19 Solubility and Simultaneous Equilibria In this chapter we extend our discussion of ionic equilibria to deal with salts that until now we have
The purpose of this study was to see whether differential solubilization of human being CNS proteins would raise the final number of proteins that may be visualized using 2-D gel electrophoresis. electrophoresis, coupled with suitable sample preparation, may be used to expand the scholarly research for the pathologies of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Abacus Diagnostics […]. ...
liquid - Solutions and solubilities: The ability of liquids to dissolve solids, other liquids, or gases has long been recognized as one of the fundamental phenomena of nature encountered in daily life. The practical importance of solutions and the need to understand their properties have challenged numerous writers since the Ionian...
Allithiamine is a fat-soluble form of vitamin B-1. Although vitamin B-1 (thiamin) is most commonly found in its water-soluble form, allithiamine is also a
Picture an ionic compound that dissolves in water is saturated with a small amount left over Since the solubility reaction occurs in both directions a...
Abstract: Chernikovite and meta-ankoleite were synthesized with a relatively high crystallinity and the compounds were identified by means of chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. The infrared spectra were recorded and the bands assigned. From the luminescence spectra, the band-gap energy for both compounds was calculated as 2.35 eV, indicating that they must be considered as insulators. The dependence of the solubilities of these compounds on the acidity of the solution was studied, and the dominant ionic species were determined. The pKsp values of chernikovite and meta-ankoleite were found to be 22.73±0.24 and 24.30±0.81 respectively.. ...
Presentation by Sirius Analytical covering measurement of pKa, LogP, LogD, Solubility, Supersaturation and precipitation kinetics. For more details visit www.s…
This doctoral thesis explores the copper corrosion inhibiting properties of a number of nitrogen containing hetero-organic compounds in refined mineral oil. Traditional organic corrosion inhibitors, as well as novel and bioorganic compounds have been studied.. The Hansen solubility parameters were determined for the three commercial organic corrosion inhibitors; benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and Irgamet 39™, an N-(aminomethyl) substituted triazole. The determination was done using an indirect method utilizing the solubility of the inhibitors in various solvents. The calculated Hansen solubility parameters of the inhibitors were compared with the Hansen solubility parameters and solubility sphere of refined mineral oil. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of benzotriazole indicate very low solubility in mineral oils, while the solubility of tolyltriazole was slightly higher due to the methyl substitution. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of Irgamet 39™ indicate full miscibility ...
Autori: L. Copolovici and U. Niinemets. Editorial: Chemosphere, 61, p.1390-1400, 2005.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: Monoterpenes; Henrys law constant; Octanol/water partition coefficient; Partition coefficients; Temperature dependence. ...
Role of Components in the Formation of Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems. GURRAM, A. K.; DESHPANDE, P. B.; KAR, S. S.; NAYAK, USHA Y.; UDUPA, N.; REDDY, M. S. // Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences;May/Jun2015, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p249 Pharmaceutical research is focused in designing novel drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems, one among the lipid-based dosage forms were proven to be promising in improving the oral bioavailability of such... ...
|p|Predictive quantitative structure - property relationships (QSPR) have been established for normal boiling points and octanol/water partition coefficient for acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons using optimal descriptors calculated with simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES). The probabilistic criteria for a rational definition of the domain of applicability of these models are discussed. |inline-formula||alternatives| [...] |/alternatives||/inline-formula||/p|
Page contains details about etoposide-loaded non-cationic self-microemulsifying drug delivery system . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a drug delivery system that uses a microemulsion achieved by chemical rather than mechanical means. That is, by an intrinsic property of the drug formulation, rather than by special mixing and handling. It employs the familiar ouzo effect displayed by anethole in many anise-flavored liquors. Microemulsions have significant potential for use in drug delivery, and SMEDDS (including so-called "U-type" microemulsions) are the best of these systems identified to date. SMEDDS are of particular value in increasing the absorption of lipophilic drugs taken by mouth. SMEDDS in research or development include formulations of the drugs anethole trithione, oridonin, curcumin, vinpocetine, tacrolimus,Mitotane, berberine hydrochloride, nobiletin, piroxicam, anti-malaria drugs beta-Artemether and halofantrine, anti-HIV drug UC 781, nimodipine, exemestane, anti-cancer drugs 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) paclitaxel, and seocalcitol, alprostadil (intraurethral ...
Stability of soluble adhesion molecules, selectins and C-reactive protein at various temperatures: implications for epidemiological and large-scale clinical studies ...
BioAssay record AID 624112 submitted by NCGC: qHTS Assay for Inhibitors of Bacillus subtilis Sfp phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase): Aqueous Solubility in PBS.
The non-commercial copolymers E45S8, E45S17 and their mixtures with Pluronic® P123 (E21P67E21) were studied as carriers of the model drug griseofulvin. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) (dye solubilisation method), drug solubilisation capacity (Scp and Sh) determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and cytotoxicity (LDH activity in human neutrophils) were studied. E45S17 1.0 wt.% dispersions presented colloidal aggregates limiting its Scp in comparison to E45S8, but in 0.1 wt.% solutions this phenomenon seemed to be absent and E45S17 presented a higher Scp. The mixtures that showed the best Scp results contained 50% of P123 and presented low cmc. An evaluation of literature data suggested a minimum Em content of 62% in EmSn copolymers below which the increase of Sn length does not lead to an increase of Sh. The results suggested no toxicity of the copolymers on human neutrophils, supporting the use of P123 and poly(styrene oxide) ...

Solubility AnimationSolubility Animation

... This lesson illustrates that changes that take place at the particle level when solutions form and shows ... If you know the author of Solubility Animation, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... You just viewed Solubility Animation. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
more infohttps://www.merlot.org/merlot/viewMaterial.htm?id=229446

protein solubilityprotein solubility

I have a problem regarding the solubility of my protein. This protein has a , cellulose binding domain tag. the size of the ... protein solubility. Sulakshana Mukherjee mukherji at tifr.res.in Sat Dec 15 04:23:00 EST 2001 *Previous message: protein ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2001-December/091611.html

Protein SolubilityProtein Solubility

... Achim Recktenwald achimr at home.com Tue Aug 24 21:57:09 EST 1999 *Previous message: Protein Solubility ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1999-August/077671.html

SolubilitySolubility

... and Ions. In order for two substances to be miscible, or in order for one substance to be soluble in another, the ... You could easily dissolve about 360 g of table salt in a liter of water, but the solubility of calcium carbonate is only about ... The factors that control the solubility of ions can be complex, though. For example, the charges on the ions also affect the ... Which of the following solvents would be most capable of dissolving some LiCl? Rank from greatest solubility to least ...
more infohttp://employees.csbsju.edu/cschaller/Principles%20Chem/imf/SPsolubility.htm

Chemistry: Factors That Affect SolubilityChemistry: Factors That Affect Solubility

Though pressure is an important factor in the solubility of a gas, pressure has very little effect on the solubilities of ... When dissolving a gas within a liquid, the pressure of the gas has a huge effect on its solubility. When the pressure of a gas ... The temperature of a liquid affects the solubility of both solids and gases. Generally, increasing the temperature of a solvent ... I feel confident in handing you the following ways of affecting solubility. ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/science/chemistry/chemistry-factors-affect-solubility

Reactions : Solubility (8 Variations)Reactions : Solubility (8 Variations)

... Which of the following compounds are soluble in water? ... Aqueous Solution Chemistry, Chemistry, Testing / Assessment, NSDL, Precipitation / Solubility, Chemical Education, Education ... You just viewed Reactions : Solubility (8 Variations). Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
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solubility Archives - ECSsolubility Archives - ECS

Tagged chemistry, GO, graphene, graphene oxide, graphene oxide films, inorganic, nanomaterials, solubility, soluble ... ECS member Jiaxing Huang used freshman-level chemistry to solve the solubility mystery of graphene oxide films.. Image: ... has done in order to solve the mystery that surrounds the solubility of graphene oxide films. ...
more infohttps://www.electrochem.org/redcat-blog/tag/solubility/

Solubility doubt | Physics ForumsSolubility doubt | Physics Forums

I mean, sodium benzoate is ionic, and water is very polar, so the solubility of the salt in water should be great. Nevertheless ... Am I thinking wrong? If not, how should I compare both of the solubilities?. Thanks. John ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/solubility-doubt.634749/

Solubility question | Physics ForumsSolubility question | Physics Forums

Why does the solubility of KNO3, in water, rises with increasing temperature and the solubility of Na2SO4 descreases? Thank you ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/solubility-question.122360/

SolubilitySolubility

... Equilibria Discussions of solubility equilibria are based on the following assumption: When solids dissolve in water ... Solubility Rules There are a number of patterns in the data obtained from measuring the solubility of different salts. These ... The amount of salt that must be added to a given volume of solvent to form a saturated solution is called the solubility of the ...
more infohttp://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch18/soluble.php

Re: Solubility of calcium carbonateRe: Solubility of calcium carbonate

... Date: Wed May 12 20:22:17 1999. Posted By: Charlie Crutchfield, , Retired, Retired. Area ...
more infohttp://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-05/926571699.Ch.r.html

Lu | Dissolution (Chemistry) | SolubilityLu | Dissolution (Chemistry) | Solubility

Solubility of the two forms of L.. including solubility. A pharmaceutical co-crystal means a co-crystal with one of the co- ... Generally an organic solvent can influence the solubility of a salt in the following ways: (i) increasing solubility of non- ... have higher solubility than theophylline (Lu and Rohani. On the other hand. Lu and Rohani (2009a) have found that theophylline ... and (iii) decreasing solubility of salt formed. the crystals are designated as co-crystals. crystallinity. has been found to ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/157265898/Lu

IUPAC Solubility PublicationIUPAC Solubility Publication

The NIST XPS Database gives access to energies of many photoelectron and Auger-electron spectral lines. The database contains over 29,000 line positions, chemical shifts, doublet splittings, and energy separations of photoelectron and Auger-electron lines.
more infohttps://srdata.nist.gov/solubility/IUPAC/SDS-24/SDS-24.aspx

IUPAC Solubility PublicationIUPAC Solubility Publication

The NIST XPS Database gives access to energies of many photoelectron and Auger-electron spectral lines. The database contains over 29,000 line positions, chemical shifts, doublet splittings, and energy separations of photoelectron and Auger-electron lines.
more infohttps://srdata.nist.gov/solubility/IUPAC/SDS-31/SDS-31.aspx

Solubility products menuSolubility products menu

An introduction to solubility products . . .. Defining solubility products. Their units. The relationship between solubility ... An introduction to calculations involving solubility products . . .. Calculating solubility products from molar solubilities, ... products and the solubilities of ionic compounds.. ...
more infohttp://chemguide.co.uk/physical/kspmenu.html

Solubility PatternsSolubility Patterns

Are there any patterns or periodic trends in the solubility behavior of alkaline earth metal compounds? ... The solubility of these compounds varies widely depending on the metal cation. ...
more infohttps://www.flinnsci.com/C/pub_95009/

Solubility Acetate Wholesale, Acetate Suppliers - AlibabaSolubility Acetate Wholesale, Acetate Suppliers - Alibaba

Wholesale Various High Quality Solubility Acetate Products from Global Solubility Acetate Suppliers and Solubility Acetate ... Related Searches for solubility acetate: diethyl acetate titanium acetate preserves acetates accessories acetate acetate for ... Factory wholesale high quality wide solubility china methyl acetate 99% Shandong Allplace Environmental Protection Technology ... There are 2,369 solubility acetate suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying countries are China (Mainland), India, ...
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Ostwald solubility coefficient definition | Drugs.comOstwald solubility coefficient definition | Drugs.com

Definition of Ostwald solubility coefficient. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... Ostwald solubility coefficient. Pronunciation: ostvalt. Definition: the milliliters of gas dissolved per milliliter of liquid ... This differs from Bunsen solubility coefficient (a) in that the amount of dissolved gas is expressed in terms of its volume at ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/ostwald-solubility-coefficient.html

Problems: Solubility & Phase Diagrams | CurrikiProblems: Solubility & Phase Diagrams | Curriki

Problems: Solubility & Phase Diagrams. Website Address:https://www.curriki.org/oer/Problems-Solubility-and-Phase-Diagrams ...
more infohttps://www.curriki.org/oer/Problems-Solubility-and-Phase-Diagrams

Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement TechniquesDrug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

Solubility also plays a major role for other dosage forms like parenteral formulations as well [11]. Solubility is one of the ... Problem of solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist [13].. The improvement of drug solubility thereby its oral ... Extensive use of solubility from different perspective has led to solubility being expressed in various manners. It is commonly ... Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/195727/

software component coding:actual solubilitysoftware component coding:actual solubility

KudoZ) English to Russian translation of software component coding:actual solubility [Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng (Tech/Engineering ... software component coding:actual solubility. Графический материал патента WO 2013/123281. на фигурах 2-19 встречается эта фраза ... Solubility.. Я бы их даже Enter(ом) отделил. Не знаю правда как это написано в патенте аскера. ... Немного запуталась, слово software относится только к Design-Expert® или к component coding:actual solubility тоже?. Изначально ...
more infohttps://www.proz.com/kudoz/english_to_russian/chemistry_chem_sci_eng/5646175-software_component_codingactual_solubility.html

Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement TechniquesDrug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at ... Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques. Ketan T. Savjani, Anuradha K. Gajjar, and Jignasa K. Savjani ... Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters ... Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/195727/abs/

THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT (Ksp) OF SILVER ACETATETHE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT (Ksp) OF SILVER ACETATE

... the solubility product constant can be calculated after experimentally determining the equilibrium concentration of either ion. ... determine the equilibrium solubility. The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is:. ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/weird2/crazy_chemist/ksp_lab.html

Solubility Curve by Alejandra Rivas on PreziSolubility Curve by Alejandra Rivas on Prezi

Plot the solubility curve of a salt on the basis of observed data. 2. Test the solubility versus temperature.. When the hot- ... Transcript of Solubility Curve. By: Alejandra Rivas Mr. Jose Popoff. Chemistry 11th grade. 5/11/12 Procedure Results Solubility ... wire gauze The solubility of a solute is defined as the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to ... Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/odoorcgaxgas/solubility-curve/

Ethene. (Solubility data series.) | University of Texas LibrariesEthene. (Solubility data series.) | University of Texas Libraries

Survey of ethene solubilities in various solvents, including water, electrolytes, and organic liquids. Literature coverage ...
more infohttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/thermodex/ethene-solubility-data-series
  • ECS member Jiaxing Huang used freshman-level chemistry to solve the solubility mystery of graphene oxide films. (electrochem.org)
  • Each form normally displays its own unique thermal, mechanical, physical and chemical properties that can profoundly influence the solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, hygroscopicity, melting point, stability, compressibility and other performances of the drug (Byrn et al. (scribd.com)
  • 2004). Different polymorphs of a pharmaceutical molecule generally have different physical and chemical properties such as solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, melting point, stability, etc (Sirota, 1982). (scribd.com)
  • In accordance with Le Chatelier's Principle, when the dissolution process is endothermic (heat is absorbed), solubility increases with rising temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. (hindawi.com)
  • The solubility of these compounds varies widely depending on the metal cation. (flinnsci.com)
  • Are there any patterns or periodic trends in the solubility behavior of alkaline earth metal compounds? (flinnsci.com)
  • When dissolving a gas within a liquid, the pressure of the gas has a huge effect on its solubility. (infoplease.com)
  • Plot the solubility curve of a salt on the basis of observed data. (prezi.com)
  • Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the temperature is lower. (prezi.com)
  • this is K_sp and _sp stands for solubility product. (coursera.org)
  • b) If the pressure is increased in the piston, the gas molecules will undergo more frequent collisions, leading to higher solubility. (infoplease.com)
  • This differs from Bunsen solubility coefficient (a) in that the amount of dissolved gas is expressed in terms of its volume at the temperature of the experiment, instead of STPD. (drugs.com)
  • That is what ECS member Jiaxing Huang - along with a team of Northwestern University researchers - has done in order to solve the mystery that surrounds the solubility of graphene oxide films. (electrochem.org)