The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Relating to the size of solids.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
Chemical compound used to initiate polymerization of dental resins by the use of DENTAL CURING LIGHTS. It absorbs UV light and undergoes decomposition into free radicals that initiate polymerization process of the resins in the mix. Each photoinitiator has optimum emission spectrum and intensity for proper curing of dental materials.
Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.

Isolation and purification of rat mammary tumor peroxidase. (1/12820)

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors often contain high levels of the enzyme perioxidase, a putative marker of estrogen dependence. This enzyme can be effectively extracted with 0.5 M CaCl2, giving rise to a soluble peroxidase with a molecular weight of about 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. This is the same size as the estrogen-induced peroxidase of rat uterus but smaller than other mammalian peroxidases. Further purification of the rat mammary tumor peroxidase by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl Sepharose provides a 640-fold purification of the enzyme.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (2/12820)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (3/12820)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (4/12820)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (5/12820)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of major intrinsic microsomal membrane proteins. (6/12820)

Treatment of the membrane matrix derived from hepatic microsomes with buffered 1 M urea resulted in the selective extraction of a group of proteins together with a portion of the membrane lipid. Thorough chemical characterization of this fraction has been performed, and the proteins have been fractionated by two different procedures. The first of these, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has produced five highly homogeneous membrane proteins which have been characterized with regard to molecular weight, electrophoretic behavior in five different polyacrylamide systems, NH2 terminus, relative carbohydrate content, isoelectric point, and amino acid composition. The five proteins of this group fell in the molecular weight range of 54,000 to 96,000 and had isoelectric points ranging from pH 4.9 to pH 6.7. Further fractionation of the urea-soluble proteins by gel filtration in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing medium resulted in the isolation of four homogeneous molecular weight classes of proteins which have been characterized with respect to various physicochemical parameters. The major membrane glycoprotein (apparent molecular weight, 171,000) was isolated by this procedure and found to contain approximately equal amounts of NH2-terminal glycine and serine. suggesting the presence of at least two polypeptide chains in this molecular weight region. From the urea-insoluble fraction of the membrane comprising approximately 80% of the total protein, five intrinsic polypeptides designated S-5 through S-9 were isolated. S-5 (54,000) and S-6 (49,000) represent the most prominent components in the microsomal membrane, accounting for close to 30% of the total protein. Also isolated and characterized is the smallest membrane protein (S-9), a hydrophobic polypeptide of molecular weight 16,000. All of the urea-insoluble proteins are glycoproteins, and S-7 (35,000) gives the second most intense stain for carbohydrate of all proteins in the microsomal membrane.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (7/12820)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (8/12820)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Market study report Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market Insights Report 2019-2025 : BASF, Dow Chemical, Evonik, Shin-Etsu Chemicald Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market 2019 Industry Research Report recently published on is the key document for industries/clients to understand current global competitive market status. The Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market study report base year is 2018 and provides market research data status (2013-2017) and forecast (2019-2025) and also categorizes the Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market into key industries, region, type and application. Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Market 2019 study report covers all major geographical regions and sub-regions in the world and concentrates on product sales, value, market size and growth opportunities in these regions.. Competitive Analysis for Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF market industries/clients :- ...
The solubility parameters of pure Poly(n-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and Poly(n-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)P(VP/EGDMA) hydrogels have been evaluated via swelling experiments. Twenty solvents with various solubility parameters have been used in the swelling experiments. Considering the limitations of using the approach as developed by Gee, we have applied an asymmetric double sigmodial equation for locating the peak maxima in swelling curves. The solubility parameters are evaluated via this new approach. The solubility parameter of pure PVP is determined to be 11.38 +/- 0.11 Kb. The incorporation of EGDMA into the gel system slightly reduced the solubility parameter. The influence of relative amount of EGDMA on the solubility parameter was investigated, and evaluated values compared with literature and theoretically determined solubility values by group contribution values of van Krevelen, Small, and Hoy. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc ...
Solubility enhancement of a poorly water soluble drug by forming solid dispersions using mechanochemical activation, I Rojas-Oviedo1, B Retchkiman-Corona1, CT Quirino-Barreda1, J C
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global solubility enhancement excipients market for OSDF for the period 2015-2019. To arrive at the market shares of vendors and to calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of solubility enhancement excipients in OSDF. It also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the top eight vendors in the market. In addition, the report has been segmented based on: type (lipids, polymers, surfactants, and others like cyclodextrins and ion exchange resins); technology (solid dispersion, particle size reduction, micellar solubilization, lipid solubilization, chemical modification, complexation, and others such as dendrimers, silica, and solid-lipid nanoparticles); and geography (the Americas, APAC, and EMEA). The report does not cover the technology segment (modification of crystals). ...
The aqueous solubility of a drug is viewed as a pivotal property for its oral absorption since only dissolved molecules can permeate the gut wall and reach the systemic circulation. The fluids in the intestine, however, do not only consist of water and therefore poor water solubility may not necessarily imply a poor solubility in the intestinal fluids and resulting low bioavailability. This thesis addresses the determination of drug solubility and dissolution rates in biorelevant dissolution media (BDM) with the aim of applying these methods to the early stages of drug discovery, where there is a need to reduce the volume of the medium and the amount of solid drug used in testing. The thesis also addresses the need for computational methods for predicting solubility in intestinal fluids and, hence, allowing in silico screening of drugs yet to be synthesized. The apparent solubility and dissolution behavior of large series of lipophilic and other diverse compounds in BDM were studied using a ...
[159 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Solubility Enhancement Excipients for OSDF Industry 2016 Market...
The effects of high pressure (to 600 MPa) at different temperatures (20 to 60 °C) for 20 min on protein solubilization and electrophoretic pattern in beef post-rigor longissimus dorsi muscle were studied. The results showed that protein solubilization increased with increasing temperature, especially from 40 °C to 60 °C. A regular trend of protein solubilization was found when isolated myofibrils were subjected to high pressure at different temperatures, an increase was observed with increasing pressure up to about 400 MPa, solubility then decreasing to 600 MPa. Electrophoretic profiles showed that myosin light chains and actin thin filaments were sensitive to pressure, and were released from myofibrils subjected to 100 MPa and higher pressures at the different temperatures.
The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. Retention data from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution were used for the calculation. From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gas solubility measurement and modeling for the nitrogen + water system from 274.18 K to 363.02 K. AU - Chapoy, Antonin. AU - Mohammadi, Amir H.. AU - Tohidi, Bahman. AU - Richon, Dominique. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - New experimental solubility data of N2 in water are reported over a wide temperature range from (274.18 to 363.02) K and pressures up to 7.16 MPa. A static-analytic apparatus, taking advantage of a pneumatic capillary sampler, is used for fluid sampling. The experimental data generated in this work are compared with those reported in the open literature with good agreement. The Valderrama modification of the Patel-Teja equation of state combined with nondensity-dependent mixing rules is used for modeling the gas-liquid equilibrium. The solubility data generated in this work are used for tuning the binary interaction parameters between nitrogen and water. The model predictions are compared with independent experimental data on nitrogen solubility in water as well ...
A review on solid dispersion: A substitute approach for poorly water soluble drug An amount of methodologies can be adapted to progress solubility and
Hansen Solubility Parameters: A Users Handbook, 2nd Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials.
Solubility table 溶解度表 solubility parameter [化学] 溶度参数 ; 可溶解性参数 ; 度参数 solubility curve 溶解度曲线 ; [化学] 溶度曲线 ; 消融度曲线 ; 溶解度曲线英语 phase solubility [物化] 相溶解度 ; 翻译 solubility property 溶解性能 Solubility in 醇溶性实验 ; 乙醇或醚溶解试验 ; 氢氧化钠溶解试验 ; 乙酸乙酯溶解试验 styrene solubility [有化] 苯乙烯溶解度 ; 笨乙烯溶解度 solubility fractionation 溶度分级 ; 溶度评估 ; 溶度份化 liquid solubility 液态溶解度 ...
The solubility of paracetamol in water-glycerol mixtures at 25 and 30 °C was determined using flask shake method. The generated data extended the solubility database for further computational investigations and was also used to assess the prediction capability of a trained version of the Jouyban-Acree model for solubility prediction in water-glycerol mixtures at various temperatures. The accuracy of the predicted solubilities was evaluated by the mean percentage deviation between the predicted and experimental solubilities. The overall mean percentage deviation of the Jouyban-Acree model for the back-calculated solubility data from the literature was 37.9 ± 21.9%. The corresponding value for the predicted solubilities of paracetamol in binary mixtures using experimental values of paracetamol solubilities in water and glycerol was 15.6 ± 11.1%.. ...
begin{array}{c,c,c,c} \mathrm{substance} & \mathrm{Solubility\ in\ water\ (g/100\ mL)} & \mathrm{density\ (g/mL)} &\mathrm{volume\ percent}\\ \hline \text{1-butanol} & 7.7 & 0.8098 & 9.5\\ \text{diethyl ether} & 6.9 & 0.7134 & 9.7 \end{array}$$. Note that I have used the solubility data to calculate percent compositions by volume in both cases. It was and still is common to report low solubilities as percents composition. It also is and was common to see percents composition listed without specifying whether they were mass/mass (which should be the default), mass/volume (convenient for dilute solutions), or volume/volume (convenient for solutions, but unhelpful due to colligative properties). At both temperatures, the data supports that 1-butanol and diethyl ether have nearly the same percent solubility by volume. Morrison and Boyd is an older generation of textbook, first published before the world wide web. If they found a source of solubility data for these compounds that listed percents (but ...
One of the common difficulties with intravenous drug delivery is low solubility of the drug. The requirement for large quantities of saline to dissolve such materials limits their clinical use, and one solution for this problem that has recently generated interest is the formation of drug-loaded micelles.
The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of C 11 and C12 hydrocarbons with water and heavy water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility in 24 chemically distinct binary systems that appeared in the primary literature prior to end of 2002 are compiled. For 12 systems sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, a new method based on the evaluation of all the experimental data for a given series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was used.. ...
The mutual solubility and related liquid-liquid equilibria of C5 hydrocarbons with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility in 13 chemically distinct binary systems for which data appeared in the primary literature prior to end of 2002 are compiled. For seven systems sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, a new method based on the evaluation of the all experimental data for a given homologous series of saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons was used.. ...
Liposomes have been evolving as unique drug carriers for realizing enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity.1) Currently, several liposomal drug delivery systems are on the market, and practically all of them are administered parenterally. Liposomes are also investigated for oral delivery, especially for active ingredients with extremely low oral bioavailability, such as poorly soluble compounds. The aim of this project is to study the mechanisms underlying the bioavailability improvement of poorly soluble compounds entrapped in liposomes as oral drug delivery systems. We will start by studying the mechanisms of liposome digestion and drug solubilization and the efficiency of subsequent association of the entrapped compounds into mixed micelles, using a highly relevant in vitro human digestion model and dedicated analysis methods.2)3)4) In the second part of the project, we will study the permeability of the compounds after in vitro digestion, using an in vitro permeability model consisting of ...
Solubility of a drug is an important parameter in the formulation development. Hence various techniques are used for the improvement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble and water insoluble drugs include Particle Size Reduction, Solid Dispersion, Nanosuspension, Supercritical Fluid Technology, Cryogenic Technology, Inclusion Complex Formation Techniques, and Floating Granules etc. The purpose of this review article is to describe the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability.
Over the years researchers have reported solubility data in the chemical, pharmaceutical, engineering, and environmental literature for several thousand organic
Water-solubility antirust agentT768 Water-solubility antirust agentProduct IntroductionT768 is a complex polymer-based rust inhibitor.T768 can suit for non-ferrous metals ,especially for long term ant
With the recent advent of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening of potentially therapeutic agents, the number of poorly soluble drug candidate has risen sharply and the formulation of poorly soluble compounds for oral delivery now presents one of the most frequent and greatest challenge to formulation scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. There are certain drugs for which solubility has presented a challenge to the development of a suitable formulation for oral administration. And one of these drugs is carbamazepine. In the literature, solid dispersions have shown tremendous potential for improving drug solubility and dissolution. In this study the main objective was to enhance the solubility of carbamazepine using selected water-soluble polymers and a solid dispersion technique. The solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method, using water-soluble polymers as carriers, namely Solutol HS, Vitamin E TPGS, Poloxamer 188 and Lipocol C 10 at a fixed ratio of 9:1 (drug:carrier) was
Unscramble solubilities, Unscramble letters solubilities, Point value for solubilities, Word Decoder for solubilities, Word generator using the letters solubilities, Word Solver solubilities, Possible Scrabble words with solubilities, Anagram of solubilities
The knowledge of solubility of gases and hydrocarbons in polymer has enormous importance in the design and development of reactor, polymer foaming, and membrane separation processes. In this work, the solubility of gases and hydrocarbons in polyethylene was correlated using a thermodynamic model based on perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The experimental solubility data of various gases such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, and hydrocarbons of up to chain length of seven in both molten and semicrystalline polyethylene has been reviewed and the suitability of the developed model based on PC-SAFT was then tested using the available solubility data in literatures for various gases and hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the optimum values of adjustable solvents-solute binary interaction parameters (Kij) of PC-SAFT at different temperatures have been estimated by regression of the PC-SAFT model using experimental solubility isotherms. A suitable correlation of Kij ...
Walker Roofing Inc.Ladders Inc Has Your Atlanta Ladders In Stock And Ready . How Can I Get Hansen Solubility Parameters Values For The . Decor: Modern Home Exterior With Sandstone Vertical Board . Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations
Macgregor, R. J. and Mather, A. E. (1991), Equilibrium solubility of H2S and CO2 and their mixtures in a mixed solvent. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 69: 1357-1366. doi: 10.1002/cjce.5450690618 ...
Dissolving pulps are used to manufacture various cellulose derived products through cellulose dissolution. Solubility of cellulose pulp has been claimed to be strongly dependent on the porosity development, the degree of polymerisation and the pulp viscosity. The removal of external cell walls has been proposed to have a key role in the pulp solubility. In this paper, the effect of the outermost surface layers on the solubility of a dissolving grade pulp was studied. Furthermore the effect of mechanical peeling and combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment on pulp solubility was compared. Based on the results combined mechanical and enzymatic treatment efficiently opens up the fibre structure and has a clear positive effect on the solubility of dissolving pulp. It seems that long fibre fraction is less accessible to solvent chemicals than the other pulp fractions. Mechanical peeling of outer fibre layers does not improve fibre dissolution to NaOH/ZnO. Thus, it seems that peeling alone is not a ...
The most used electron donors include hydrogen gas and reduced sulfur compounds i.e. elemental sulfur sulfide and thiosulfate. Plain sedimentation is the cheapest method to isolate S 0 bio although flocculation filtration extraction and flotation have shown higher efficiency due to the the relatively high cost low solubility and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Examining Asphaltene Solubility on Deposition in Model Porous Media. AU - Lin, Yu Jiun. AU - He, Peng. AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad. AU - Mathew, Nevin Thunduvila. AU - Fatt, Yap Yit. AU - Chai, John C.. AU - Goharzadeh, Afshin. AU - Vargas, Francisco M.. AU - Biswal, Sibani Lisa. PY - 2016/8/17. Y1 - 2016/8/17. N2 - Asphaltenes are known to cause severe flow assurance problems in the near-wellbore region of oil reservoirs. Understanding the mechanism of asphaltene deposition in porous media is of great significance for the development of accurate numerical simulators and effective chemical remediation treatments. Here, we present a study of the dynamics of asphaltene deposition in porous media using microfluidic devices. A model oil containing 5 wt % dissolved asphaltenes was mixed with n-heptane, a known asphaltene precipitant, and flowed through a representative porous media microfluidic chip. Asphaltene deposition was recorded and analyzed as a function of solubility, which was ...
KP1019, or trans-[tetrachlorobis(1 H-indazole)ruthenate(III)], is one of two ruthenium anti-cancer drugs to enter into phase I clinical trials, the other being NAMI-A. Research into ruthenium-based drugs has provided novel alternatives for platinum-based chemotherapeutics such as Cisplatin and its derivatives. KP1019 is useful for metastatic tumors and cis-platin resistant tumors. It exhibits potent cytotoxicity against primary tumors, particularly in colorectal cancer. KP1019 has an octahedral structure with two trans N-donor indazole and four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane. It has a low solubility in water, which makes it difficult to transport in the bloodstream. The Ru-Cl bonds are labile and KP1019 readily exchanges its chloro ligands in the presence of water. Due to its low solubility in water, KP1019 is often prepared as its sodium salt, a derivative known as KP1339. By replacing the indazole rings with imidazole rings the derivative KP418 is formed. KP418 also exhibits ...
Author: Nina M. Rodriguez Created Date: 3/3/2016 10:11:49 AM Template Free Download for Solubility Rules Chart and Customize this Free Editable Solubility Rules Chart and Print for your needs. A soluteis any substance which can be either solid or liquid or gas dissolved in a solvent. Solubility Rules Chart. Table of solubility. Sugar cubes added to a cup of tea or coffee is a common example of a solution. See more product details. There are few exceptions to this rule. The Solubility Rules Chart is available to edit and customize. These rules are general and qualitative in nature. With over 140 compounds listed, this comprehensive chart clearly shows the solubility trends or patterns for ionic compounds and helps reinforce general rules for determining solubility. Phosphates such as Ca3(PO4)2 and Ag3PO4 are frequently insoluble. Generally, the solute is a solid and the solvent is a liquid, such as our salt in water example above. The solubility of a gas depends on pressure and temperature. Look ...
Results: BI-XYZ apparent solubility increases linearly with increasing HPbCD concentration suggesting a 1:1 complexation between drug and HPßCD. K1:1 extrapolated from solubility data was found to be 353 M-1. BI-XYZ flux in water increases linearly (1.8 and 2.35 μg min-1 cm-2 ) with increasing drug concentration. In the absence of bile-salts, BI-XYZ flux decreased (1.804-0.185 μg min-1 cm-2) with increasing HPßCD concentration. Flux was the highest in the absence of HPßCD suggesting that with increasing HPßCD concentrations in the donor, in spite of the increase in apparent solubility, more drug molecules form inclusion complex and the free drug fraction in solution decreases. In the absence of HPßCD, BI-XYZ flux initially stays constant and decreases with increasing NaTC (1.804 to 0.780 μg min-1 cm-2). This may be due to the fact that below critical micelle concentration (CMC) flux is not affected by the presence of bile-salts while above CMC, bile-salts form mixed-micelle including ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solubility of sodium chloride in phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents. AU - Ghareh Bagh, Fatemeh Saadat. AU - Hadj-Kali, Mohamed Kamel Omar. AU - Mjalli, Farouq S.. AU - Hashim, Mohd Ali. AU - Alnashef, Inas M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl) in several phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is studied in this work. Seven combinations of DESs were investigated. The solubility of NaCl increased with temperature in all DESs at all combinations. The type of salt and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and the salt:HBD mole ratio of the DES affected the solubility of NaCl. The solubility of NaCl in DESs that use ethylene glycol or glycerol (neutral molecules) as HBDs is very low in comparison to DESs that use zinc (II) chloride (ZnCl2) or ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) which are metal halides as complexing agents. DESs containing ZnCl2produced the highest solubility. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide:ZnCl2DES possessed a NaCl solubility of ...
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VLCI is a certified research centre for determinations of HSP and implementations thereof. The solubility (or dispersibility) of a product is assessed within a standardized set of solvents with known HSPs, spread over the 3-dimensional HSP space. Solvents and products are automatically dispensed via the gravimetric dispensing unit of our High Throughput platform. The solubility is ranked from 1 (excellent) to 6 (very poor). Based on these scores, the HSPiP software generates the solubility sphere of the tested product.. ...
Pierottis theory for the solubility of gases in liquids is tested by means of a large amount of literature data on solubility and entropy of solution. The involved solutes comprise the noble gases, mercury vapour, inorganic gases and hydrocarbons up to propane. The involved solvents comprise alkanes, cycloalkanes, nitromethane, polythene, ... read more aromatics, dimethylsulfoxide and perfluoromethyl-cyclohexane. It appears, that this theory describes the solubilities satisfactory. The description of the entropies of solution is less good. The enhanced solubilities of BF3, CO2, Cl2 and C2H2 in some solvents are ascribed to electron donor-acceptor interaction. The association constants for donor-acceptor complex formation are tabulated. show less ...
Solubility coefficients for CO2, Ar and CH4 in polystyrene (PS) films with glass transition temperatures (Tg) of 52 to 107°C were measured in a pressure-decay sorption apparatus at 1 atm over a temperature range of 20 to 90°C. The gas solubility at 30°C increased as the T s of the PS increased; the heat of solution was largest for the PS with the highest Tg. This observed dependence of gas solubility on T s was analysed in terms of enthalpy-temperature relationships for glassy polymers. The solubilities for PS samples with different glass transition temperatures converged when comparisons were made on the basis of states of equal enthalpy instead of the temperature of measurement.
There are no simple relation between the solubility and the solubility product when a doubly charged ion is involved. The measured solubility is always much bigger than the value obtained from the solubility product. This is due to the doubly charged ion. Doubly charged ions like $\ce{Zn^{2+}}$ are usually hydrolyzed in water, and are partly transformed into basic ions like $\ce{[Zn(OH)]^+}$ by the following reaction : $$\ce{Zn^{2+} + H2O -, [Zn(OH)]^+ + H+}$$ If $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$ is dissolved in water, it will not only produce $\ce{Zn^{2+}}$ ions but also basic ions by the following equation : $$\ce{Zn(OH)_2 -, [Zn(OH)]^+ + OH^-}$$ As a consequence, the concentration of non complexed $\ce{Zn^{2+}}$ may be calculated from the solubility product of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$ but this $\ce{[Zn^{2+}]}$ is much smaller than the measured solubility of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$, because the measured solubility of $\ce{Zn(OH)_2}$ is the sum of $\ce{[Zn^{2+}]}$ and $\ce{[Zn(OH)]^+}$. It is even possible that ion pairs like ...
MNP001 is a newly synthesized 3-carbamyl-4-methylpyrrole analog with dual pharmacophores simultaneously to inhibit phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) and to antagonize L-type calcium channels. The physicochemical properties of MNP001, including solubility, pKa, Log P, plasma protein binding and plasma/blood partitioning, were determined to support the pharmacokinetic characterization. The preclinical pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in an in vivo rat model and the metabolic pathways of MNP001 were characterized by incubating the compound in vitro in rat or human microsomes/supersomes cocktails. MNP001 was found to have a low solubility in simulated intestinal fluid but a high solubility in simulated gastric fluid. MNP001 is a highly lipophilic compound with a Log P value greater than 4. MNP001 was highly bound to the plasma protein and had an uneven partition between red blood cells and plasma. MNP001 exhibited a rapid absorption, broad distribution, slow systemic clearance and a low but
Comparison of kinetic solubility profiles of indomethacin between experimental and predicted results as a function of supersaturation rate generated with variou
Remember to keep your periodic tables handy, and pay close attention to the solubility rules in your next experiment. Of course, you are supposed modify and fill it in with original and correct information when creating your own version. You can also make a new resume with our … Though I was excited to watch the salt seem to disappear I definitely didnt understand the intricacies of solubility. When a solute is mixed with a solvent, there are three possible outcomes: If the solution has less solute than the maximum amount it is able to dissolve (the solubility), it is a dilute solution. If we know that a substance is insoluble, it is likely that it would have excess solute, thus forming a precipitate. 5 7 Predicting Solubility Trends Chemistry LibreTexts. In fact, the information is very easy to peruse through due to the distinct coloring. Author: Nina M. Rodriguez Created Date: 3/3/2016 10:11:49 AM Lets take a look at how solubility works to better understand the solubility rules. PDF, ...
Since it would take a very long and immense search to look for the enitre data for all ugi reagents in non-aqeuous solvents, I have chosen to focus on the aromatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids. I found the Belistein databse to be the most useful when searching for this data. Throughout the research I have found many different substituted benzoic acids but barely any aromatic aldehydes. As I have said prior in this paper the solubility information is very scarce, however aqeuous solubility data is almost always reported. Despite what it seemed like unnattainable data, I was able to find some data for this review. The following data table is a compilation of the solubility data found in other research papers for the organic compounds in many different non-aqeuous solvents. The data table gives the name of the solute followed by the solvent it is dissolved in. The solubility is then reported. In the next row the way the data was reported was given along with the temperature the data was found at. ...
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Formulation of new drug candidates is becoming increasingly difficult due to the low solubility associated with them. In such cases, the amorphous state is extremely appealing. However, the biggest obstacle in successful use of the amorphous state is its unpredictable physical stability or the tendency to revert to more stable crystalline state that precludes the use of amorphous state in commercial solid oral dosage forms. Instability in amorphous matrices, particularly physical instability or crystallization from amorphous state, has often been linked to the molecular mobility of these systems. The objective of this research was to better understand the correlation between molecular mobility in the amorphous matrix and onset of crystallization and to use this understanding to perhaps develop a stability testing protocol for crystallization from the amorphous state. Development of any stability protocol from correlations with molecular mobility require validating the two assumptions; (a) the relaxation
pH-dependent solubility affecting the release from dosage and hence absorption [Sanghvi, N. et al, 1994]. Verapamil HCl, a calcium channel blocker, exhibits very high solubility in the gastric pH which falls drastically in the intestinal pH [Florey, 1988; Streubel, A. et al, 2000]. It is imperative that a controlled release oral formulation should have uniform release pattern at different sites of G.I.T. over the period of dosing [Ritchel, 1989].. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of SR matrix and coated dosage formulations of Verapamil HCl for pH- independent release utilizing Succinic acid as pH-adjuster for the maintenance of constant acidic micro-environment inside the tablet core.. In accordance with the data obtained on solubility, different SR oral dosage forms of Verapamil HCl containing Succinic acid were developed in order to obtain near constant and complete release of the drug in the G.I.T. For this purpose the drug release was controlled by fabricating ...
By joining the drug to a dendrimer construct, very large increases in drug solubility have been achieved, which can enhance the bioavailability of the drug. For example Docetaxel is a cancer drug well known for its poor aqueous solubility. When conjugated to a dendrimer construct a 20,000 fold increase in solublised Docetaxel is achieved.. The formulation of DEPTM docetaxel is also Polysorbate 80-free.. ...
On March 15, 2019, the European Commission's (EC) Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) published its preliminary opinion on the solubility…
This doctoral thesis explores the copper corrosion inhibiting properties of a number of nitrogen containing hetero-organic compounds in refined mineral oil. Traditional organic corrosion inhibitors, as well as novel and bioorganic compounds have been studied.. The Hansen solubility parameters were determined for the three commercial organic corrosion inhibitors; benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and Irgamet 39™, an N-(aminomethyl) substituted triazole. The determination was done using an indirect method utilizing the solubility of the inhibitors in various solvents. The calculated Hansen solubility parameters of the inhibitors were compared with the Hansen solubility parameters and solubility sphere of refined mineral oil. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of benzotriazole indicate very low solubility in mineral oils, while the solubility of tolyltriazole was slightly higher due to the methyl substitution. The obtained Hansen solubility parameters of Irgamet 39™ indicate full miscibility ...
Sterol is a major component of cell membranes in living cells. A characteristic sterol is cholesterol in animal cell membranes, stigmasterol in plants, and ergosterol in fungi. The maximum solubility of sterol in a lipid bilayer is the highest mole fraction of sterol that can be incorporated into a lipid bilayer before sterol crystals precipitate. We have investigated how the maximum solubility of cholesterol depends on the sizes of lipid head groups in POPC/POPE/cholesterol lipid bilayers and on the charges of head groups in POPS/cholesterol and POPG/cholesterol lipid bilayers. We found that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC). Our fluorescence microscopy measurements reveal phase separations and large domain formation in the mixture of POPC/POPE lipid bilayers with high amount of cholesterol. We measured maximum solubility limits of ergosterol and stigmasterol molecules in PC lipid bilayers. Our results show that minor ...
Polyvinyl alkyl ester of carboxylic acids are a family of macromolecules in which the side chain esters (pendant groups) increase in molar mass and hydrophobicity and decrease in structural polarity as the number of carbons in the carboxylic acid increases. The most important polymer in this family is Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc). The Solubility Parameter (δ) is a unique physical property of any polymeric material and can be a useful guide to understanding the miscibility or compatibility of two polymeric substances. It is therefore essential in working with polymeric blends of PVAc that the experimental solubility parameter be accurately and precisely known. We have experimentally determined the solubility parameter of food grade PVAc by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of several different molecular weight PVAc samples (ranging from 11K -75K Daltons) in four different solvents (acetone, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, toluene,) at 25°C using glass capillary viscometry. We also estimated the solubility
Clopidogrel, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Oral bioavailability of clopidogrel is very low (less than 50%), due to its poor water solubility. The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a microemulsion formulation of clopidogrel for enhancing its solubility, and hence its oral bioavailability. For this purpose, initially, solubility of clopidogrel was determined in various vehicles. Next, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the microemulsion existing zone. Solubility study was also performed for optimization of formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation was characterized for its transparency, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, conductivity, % assay, and phase separation study. Particle size and zeta potential of the optimized
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en] PURPOSE: Ro 28-2653 (RO) is a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is potentially effective against bronchial remodeling. Given that this molecule has very poor aqueous solubility, different cyclodextrins (CDs) have been tested to increase its solubility. The aim of this study was to prepare and to characterize inclusion complexes between RO and CDs, in order to develop nebulizable solutions. METHODS: The complex formation was investigated by phase solubility studies. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling studies were carried out to elucidate the structure of the inclusion complex between RO and dimethyl-beta-CD (DIMEB). Nebulizable solutions of RO were developed with CDs and a stability study was performed over 9 months. RESULTS: The phase solubility studies showed that beta-CD and its derivatives form a 1:2 complex with RO, whereas gamma-CD includes RO with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a weak stability constant. T-ROESY spectra showed that DIMEB is able to ...
Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. Often solubility of a drug determines its pharmaceutical and therapeutic performance. Majority of newly synthesized drug molecules fail or are rejected during the early phases of drug discovery and development due to their limited solubility. Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate bioavailability and therapeutic outcome. A number of different approaches including co-solvency, micellar solubilization, micronization, pH adjustment, chemical modification, and solid dispersion have been explored towards improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. Dendrimers, a new class of polymers, possess great potential for drug solubility improvement, by virtue of their unique properties. These hyper-branched, mono-dispersed molecules have the distinct ability to bind the
The bioavailability of BCS II compounds may be improved by an enhanced solubility and dissolution rate. Four carboxylic acid drugs were selected, which were flurbiprofen, etodolac, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil. The drugs were chosen because they are weak acids with poor aqueous solubility and should readily form salts. The counterions used for salt formation were: butylamine, pentylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol, 2-amino-2-methyl propan-1,3-ol and tromethamine. Solubility was partially controlled by the saturated solution pH with the butylamine counterion increasing the solution pH and solubility and dissolution to the greatest extent. As the chain length increased, solubility was reduced due to the increasing lipophilic nature of the counterion. The benzylamine and cyclohexylamine counterions produced crystalline, stable salts but did not improve solubility and dissolution significantly compared to the parent compound. The ...
The solubility of ammonia in toluene has been measured at 398 K and at pressures up to 340 kPa using a static, synthetic and isochoric technique. The goal of the present study is to determine the equilibrium solubility of ammonia in toluene at a pressure and temperature regime that is relevant to the reaction conditions of amination of 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene leading to the formation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene. The ammonia solubility data in toluene were hitherto unavailable under these experimental conditions. The solubility data have also been compared with the result obtained from a direct sampling method. The results are in agreement with Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. The Henrys law constant at the reaction temperature has been determined ...
Enhancement Of Oral Bioavailability And Solid Dispersion these drugs dissolution is the rate limiting step to absorption. Hence, the hypothesis has been that the rate of absorption in vivo will be concurrently accelerated with an increase in the rate of drug dissolution Dhirendra et al., 2009. In the Biopharmaceutical Classification System BCS Class II drugs are those with low. Book Now ...
Clarithromycin (CLA), a broad-spectrum macrolide, is a poorly soluble drug with dissolution rate limited absorption. The aim of this investigation was to prepare CLA nanoparticles from a ternary ground mixture in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as co-grinding water-soluble compounds, in order to improve the drug dissolution rate. Different weight ratios of CLA: SLS: PVP were ground in a dry process by planetary ball mill using different grinding ball size. Following the dissolution rate study, physical properties of the best dissolved co-ground formulation was studied. The accelerated stability studies were also conducted on the co-ground formulation. The results revealed that the dissolution rate of ternary ground mixtures was much higher than that of the intact drug (p | 0.001). Decreasing the grinding ball size and weight with the same rotation speed resulted in particles with decreased dissolution. On the other hand, increasing the PVP concentration in
Abstract: Ritonavir, a widely prescribed anti-retroviral drug, belongs to Class II under \BCS\ and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Ritonavir is practically insoluble in water and aqueous fluids. Its aqueous solubility was reported to be 2.56 mg/100 ml. As such oral absorption of ritonavir is dissolution rate limited and it requires enhancement in solubility and dissolution rate for increasing its oral bioavailability. In the case of poorly soluble drugs formulation variables greatly influence their dissolution rate and bioavailability from solid dosage forms. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of five superdisintegrants and three solubilizers on the tablet qualities and dissolution rate of ritonavir tablets to optimize the formulation of ritonavir tablets. Compressed tablets each containing 100 mg of ritonavir were prepared by conventional wet granulation method using five superdisintegrants namely Prosolve, modified ...
0056] The following are some solubilities of a number of drugs: Sodium alendronate (solubility of 1 mg/L in water), Celecoxib (Very low water solubility (3.3 mg/L)), Atorvastatin Calcium (sodium salt soluble in water, 20.4 ug/mL (pH 2.1), 1.23 mg/mL (pH 6.0)), Losartan (solubility of 0.82 mg/L in water), Fexofenadine Hydrochloride (freely soluble in methanol and ethanol, slightly soluble in chloroform and water, and insoluble in hexane), Carvedilol (practically insoluble (0.583 mg/L)), Mometasone furoate (practically insoluble), potassium losartan (0.82 mg/L), Atorvastatin Cacium (Sodium salt soluble in water, 20.4 ug/mL (pH 2.1), 1.23 mg/mL (pH 6.0)), Levofloxacin (Insoluble), Telmisartan (practically insoluble), Anastrozole (0.5 mg/mL), Zoledronic acid monohydrate (sparingly soluble), Olanzapine (practically insoluble in water), Esomeprazole (very slightly soluble in water), Lansoprazole (solubility of 0.97 mg/L in water), Risperidone (solubility of 2.8 mg/L in water), Clopidogrel bisulphate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of temperature-dependent solubility on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer. AU - Pritchard, David. AU - Richardson, Chris N.. PY - 2007/1/31. Y1 - 2007/1/31. N2 - We consider the onset of thermosolutal (double-diffusive) convection of a binary fluid in a horizontal porous layer subject to fixed temperatures and chemical equilibrium on the bounding surfaces, in the case when the solubility of the dissolved component depends on temperature. We use a linear stability analysis to investigate how the dissolution or precipitation of this component affects the onset of convection and the selection of an unstable wavenumber; we extend this analysis using a Galerkin method to predict the structure of the initial bifurcation and compare our analytical results with numerical integration of the full nonlinear equations. We find that the reactive term may be stabilizing or destabilizing, with subtle effects particularly when the thermal gradient is ...
Purpose This study is aimed at preparing and testing physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and levels of toxic metabolites of paracetamol and glucosamine solid dispersions intended for multiple deliveries via the parenteral or per oral route. Methods Solid dispersions were prepared using the spray drying technique at different molar ratios of paracetamol and glucosamine. Characterization of the solid dispersions was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate. In vivo pharmacokinetics and toxic metabolites of the prepared dispersions were evaluated and compared to those of pure drugs and physical mixtures. Results Instant water solubility and more than 7-fold increase in dissolution rate led to significantly high plasma drug concentration (|6.5-fold) compared to paracetamol
TY - CONF. T1 - Apparent solubility of drugs in Simulated Achlorhydric Gastric Fluid and Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid with low respectively high bile concentration. AU - Fagerberg, Jonas. AU - Jabbar, Hasna. AU - Zarmpi, Panagiota. AU - Fotaki, Nikoletta. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. M3 - Abstract. T2 - 6th FIP Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress. Y2 - 21 May 2017. ER - ...
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research (IJPPR) will give best paper award every year in the form of money along with certificate to support research activity of scholar ...
The present work is focused to develop a novel technique for selecting hydrotropic agents to enhance the solubility of low soluble drug, paroxetine hy..
The extracellular α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) is extremely thermostable and of an industrial importance and interest. PFA aggregates and accumulates as insoluble inclusion bodies when expressed as a heterologous protein at a high level in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we investigated the roles of chaperones from P. furiosus in the soluble expression of recombinant PFA in E. coli. The results indicate that co-expression of PFA with the molecular chaperone prefoldin alone significantly increased the soluble expression of PFA. Although, co-expression of other main chaperone components from P. furiosus, such as the small heat shock protein (sHSP) or chaperonin (HSP60), was also able to improve the soluble expression of PFA to a certain extent. Co-expression of chaperonin or sHSP in addition to prefoldin did not further increase the soluble expression of PFA. This finding emphasizes the biotechnological potentials of the molecular chaperone prefoldin
TY - JOUR. T1 - A lipid-based liquid crystalline matrix that provides sustained release and enhanced oral bioavailability for a model poorly water soluble drug in rats. AU - Boyd, Benjamin James. AU - Khoo, Shui Mei. AU - Whittaker, Darryl V. AU - Davey, Greg. AU - Porter, Christopher John. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Liquid crystalline phases that are stable in excess water, formed using lipids such as glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and oley glycerate (OG), are known to provide a sustained release matrix for poorly water soluble drugs in vitro, yet there has been no report of the use of these materails to impart oral sustained release behaviour in vivo. In the first part of this study, in vitro lipolysis experiments were used to compare the digestibility of GMO with a second structurally related lipid, oleyl glycerate, which was found to be less suscpetible to hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase than GMO. Subsequent oral bioavailability studies were conducted in rats, in which a model poorly water ...
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are extensively used as drug carrier systems, due to their small size distribution, biocompatibility and ease of preparation. They are especially useful for lipophilic drugs to overcome physicochemical constraints that limit their efficacy, such as low solubility in aqueous media. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the intracellular availability of poorly soluble drugs delivered via LNCs and their biological efficacy in cells in vitro. Cyclosporin A (CsA) with a logPOct = 4.3 (Lucangioli et al., 2003) and Itraconazole (It) with a logPOct = 6.2 (Bhardwaj et al., 2013) served as model lipophilic compounds, as they are highly promising candidates for the treatment of neovascular ocular diseases. Due to their lipophilic properties and the resulting preference for the oily core of LNCs, high encapsulation efficiencies were achieved. Drug-loaded LNCs with particle sizes around 50 nm were grafted with an αvβ3 integrin ligand (RGD) to optimize ...
Injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers possesses the highest potential capacity for geological carbon storage (GCS) in order to mitigate climate change. CO2 solubility in salty aqueous solutions plays a key role in GCS. However, the models of CO2 solubility are scanty when the mixture of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in aqueous solution is included. In this study, a simple model for CO2 solubility is proposed covering conditions typically encountered in geological sequestration. Effect of the property and concentration of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the solubility of CO2 is quantified based on the behavioral featers of solubility data. In order to describe CO2-brine phase equilibrium, the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) and Krichevsky-Kasarnosky equation (KK equation) are applied. The (PR-EOS) is modified for better performance in high salinity brine. The Henrys constant is precisely described by temperature and concentration of the mixed ions. A linear correlation is also found between the partial
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Cytotoxicity of free and gagomer-encapsulated paclitaxel TX-GAG IC50 short protocol.sup.(1) IC50 long protocol Formu- (μM paclitaxel) (μM paclitaxel) lation Free TX- Free TX- Method Cell line Paclitaxel.sup.(2) GAG.sup.(3) Paclitaxel GAG Via- B16F10.9.sup.(4) 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.04 DMSO D122 0.9 3.0 0.25 0.25 C-26 3.0 4.0 3.5 5.0 PANC-1 0.3 0.3 0.02 0.04 COS-7 1 1 0.06 0.12 Via- SNU-251 0.6 0.9 0.25 0.15 Ethanol Via-PE B16F10.9 1.8 0.4 0.12 0.22 COS-7 ,40 20 5 5 .sup.(1)Short protocol: 4 hours of incubation with treatment media, then: aspiration, wash, incubation for additional 44 hours in drug-free serum-supplemented cell growth media. Long protocol: 48 hours of incubation with the treatment media. .sup.(2)Free paclitaxel diluted directly into medium .sup.(3)TX-GAG: Paclitaxel-encapsulating gagomers .sup.(4)Cell origin and type: B16F10.9: mouse melanoma, subline of B16F10, MDR, over-expressing hyaluronan receptors D122: subline of mouse lung Lewis carcinoma, MDR, ...
The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand mechanisms governing associative phase separation within admixtures of plant proteins (e.g., pea and canola) and anionic polysaccharides (e.g., gum Arabic, alginate or é-carrageenan). The process involves the electrostatic attraction between two biopolymers of opposing charges, and typically results in the formation of both soluble and insoluble complexes during an acidic pH titration. If successful, polysaccharides could be triggered to coat the proteins surface to give novel, and hopefully improved functionality as ingredients for food and biomaterials. In the first study, the effect of protein enrichment and pH on the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes in admixtures of pea legumin (Lg) and vicilin (Vn) isolates with gum Arabic (GA) was investigated by turbidimetric, surface charge and fluorometric measurements. The solubility of the protein isolates and mixed biopolymer systems was also studied as a function of pH. Enrichment ...
Solubility Curve Practice Worksheet Answer Key. Solubility curves worksheet answers the lesson solubility and solubility curves will help you further increase your knowledge of the material. Read pdf solubility curves pogil answer key. Jull notice that for most substances, solubility directions: Degress celsius and grams of solute/100g of water 2. Use the graph to answer...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of drug dissolution data. AU - Lee, Jack C.. AU - Chen, Dung Tsa. AU - Hung, Hui-Nien. AU - Chen, James J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate of the drug. Suitable dissolution characteristics are important to ensure that the drug will achieve the desired therapeutic effects. To assess the similarity of dissolution rates of several drug lots, we apply a general growth curve model with different covariance structures. The Box-Cox power transformation and the naive log transformation are applied to a function of the dissolution rate. The predictive sample-reuse, or cross-validation, method is employed in selecting an appropriate model with best predictive accuracy. A testing procedure for examining the similarity among the drug lots is also conducted. A partially Bayesian approach is used for the assessment of dissolution equivalence.. AB - Drug absorption in the human body depends on the dissolution rate ...
The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent is function of temperature. Depending on the change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the dissolution reaction, i.e., on the endothermic (ΔG , 0) or exothermic (ΔG , 0) character of the dissolution reaction, the solubility of a given compound may increase or decrease with temperature. The van t Hoff equation relates the change of solubility equilibrium constant (Ksp) to temperature change and to reaction enthalpy change (ΔH). For most solids and liquids, their solubility increases with temperature because their dissolution reaction is endothermic (ΔG , 0).[8] In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g. that approaching the critical temperature), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water; the lower dielectric constant results in a less polar solvent and in a change of hydration energy affecting the ΔG of the dissolution reaction. Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior ...
Substituted phenols are an important class of compounds having widespread use (germicides, disinfectants, ingredients in fuel, etc.) There is little information in the literature regarding the solubilities of phenols in SCF CO2. Accurate and precise solubility data for the compounds of interest is essential for the design of any SCF-based process. In this work, the solubilities of selected substituted phenols (2,5-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol,2,3,5-trimethylphenol, 4-phenylphenol, 4-tertbutylphenol) in binary (single solute + SCF CO2) and ternary (two solutes + SCF CO2) systems were investigated using a SFT Phase Monitor.. ...
The goal was to characterize a hydrophobic cytokine with respect to oxidation and aggregation, as well as its adsorption to the container at different pH and ionic strength conditions. The tendency of the cytokine to adsorb on surfaces and its low solubility at physiological pH were the main challenges during the development of HSA-free formulations for the cytokine. When the formulation pH exceeded 5.5 precipitation led to significantly higher turbidity. This turbidity increase and elevated aggregation as determined by HP-SEC and DLS was more pronounced at higher glycine and NaCl concentrations. With rising pH protein adsorption was more distinct compared to pH 3.0. However, protein adsorption could be minimized by polysorbate 20 or the use of glass type I(+). FTIR revealed a reduced thermal stability at higher pH values indicated by a declining denaturation temperature. Five liquid formulations in the pH range 3.5-4.5 and five lyophilized formulations at pH 4.0-5.0 were stored for 6 months and ...
Details About Generic Salt :: Monoctan Main Medicine Class:: Gallstone solubilizer (MAHN-ahk-tuh-NO-in) Moctanin Class: Gallstone solubilizer Drugs Class :: Action Dissolves cholesterol gallstones via perfusion of common bile duct. Indications for ...
The enhancement of the oral bioavailability is currently one of the greatest challenges in the development of poorly water soluble drugs. The main objective of work to enhance solubility of Simvastatin (SIM) by use of natural polymer, chitosan (CHI) to produce cost effective formulation. Physical mixture, co-grinding method, spray drying method are compared. Co-grinding method applied for preparation of drug polymer complex and compared with the solubility and dissolution of marketed preparation.
Oral drug administration has been one of the most convenient and widely accepted route of delivery for most of the therapeutic agents. It is one of the most extensively used routes of drug administration because of its obvious advantages of ease of administration, improved patient compliance, and convenience. The bioavailability of many poorly water-soluble drugs is limited by their dissolution rates which are in turn controlled by the effective surface area present for dissolution. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. A more recent technique,
The development of new pharmaceutical products has been challenged by the growing number of poorly water-soluble drugs, which often lead to suboptimal bioavailability. Various approaches, such as the use of amor-phous solid dispersions and cocrystals, have been used to improve the solu-bility, and subsequent bioavailability, of these drug molecules. Supersaturat-ing drug delivery systems (SDDSs) have potential for achieving adequate oral drug bioavailability by increasing the drug solubility and creating a su-persaturated state in the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is a need for better understanding of the supersaturation behavior in SDDSs and of the factors affecting supersaturation. The main objective of this thesis was to improve understanding of the supersaturation solubility behavior in SDDSs with a particular focus on rapidly dissolving solid forms (amorphous forms/cocrystals).. In the course of the work, a new formulation for ezetimibe using an amorphous solid dispersion was ...
ThermoDex contains records for selected printed and web-based compilations of thermochemical and thermophysical data for chemical compounds and other substances. You can select one or more compound types and link them to one or more property terms, and ThermoDex will return a list of handbooks that could contain these data. Due to copyright and technical considerations, the actual data are not contained in ThermoDex. ThermoDex is based primarily on the holdings of the Mallet Chemistry Library at the University of Texas at Austin. Links are provided on the search page to identify library holdings in your area ...
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Assistant professor at the Dept of Bioinformatics - BiGCaT at NUTRIM, Maastricht University, studying biology at an unsupervised and atomic level. Open Science is my main hobby resulting in participation in, among many others, Bioclipse, CDK and WikiPathways. ORCID:0000-0001-7542-0286. Posts on G+ are personal ...
This conference will include plenary and invited lectures, oral presentations, a poster session and discussion sessions on specialized topics (see the program).. The Franzosini Award, as well as best presentations Poster and Presentation Awards, will be acknowledged during this event (see the awards).. Outside the session lecture theatres, you will also find numerous exhibitors presenting their contributions and take the opportunity to deeply improve your knowledge of modelling approaches during our Workshop. As an attendee, you will have an opportunity to meet and engage with colleagues, SSED IUPAC members and world-leading scientists on Thermodynamics and Fluid Phase Equilibria, not only through the proposed scientific sessions, but also on the networking events, which will take place throughout the conference!. ...
The notebook archive is meant to represent a snapshot of the state of all source documents at the time of the publication of an edition of this book. When used from a server with web services running, clicking on links to the spectra will allow interaction via a browser interface, including zooming in or out and integration of the NMR spectrum. When accessed in stand-alone mode after downloading or directly from a CD, everything will work the same, except that JCAMP-DX files must be open from JSpecView running on the desktop. Excel files will retain any calculations in the cells of the original Google Spreadsheets but dynamic values generated from calling web services - such the script that automatically integrates NMR spectra - will be frozen as simple values. However the link to the web service used will be stored in the cell as a comment. Links to external websites are not crawled and embedded Google Spreadsheets or videos are not copied. These will work but will reflect live data on the web ...
INTRODUCTION. In tropical soils, the agricultural production is limited by a low pH, low effective cation exchange capacity (CEC), low base saturation, Ca deficiency, toxic Al levels and predominance of kaolinite in the clay fraction (Fageria & Baligar 2008). These characteristics are not favorable for the development of most annual species because root growth and water and nutrient uptake are impaired. Liming is currently used to reduce soil acidity because it increases pH and base saturation, contributing to increased nutrient availability and Al precipitation and representing a source of Ca and Mg as well. However, lime solubility in water is low, which restricts its effects mostly to the soil layers of lime application (Fageria & Baligar, 2008).. Due to the low solubility of Ca and Mg carbonates, liming efficiency depends on the contact area between lime and soil and the reaction time and conditions, mainly soil moisture (Quaggio, 2000). To produce an adequate volume of limed soil it is ...
The test substance has a very low solubility in water (,0.1 mg/L). The solubility is higher in buffered media like those used for daphnia tests. In a recent study (2010) the EC50(48h) was 3.2 mg/L, the NOEC(48h) was 0.39 mg/L. The test substance solutions were prepared as WAFs (water accomodated fractions) with separate loading rates for each concentration. WAFs from the highest loading rates of 500.5 and 992 mg/L resulted in actual test substance concentrations of ca. 20.2 mg/L. In a study performed with WAFs of the chemically related substance rosin the effective loading rate EL50(48h) was 911 mg/L and the no observed effective loading rate NOELr was 750 mg/L. No analytical measurements were made in this study. ...
Experimental data are not available for icos-1 -ene. In the absence of data for icos-1 -ene, data have been read across from category members with a lower carbon number. Drottar and Swigert (1995) tested the toxicity of tetradec-1 -ene and Douglas and Halls (1993) tested the toxicity of hexadec-1 -ene to Oncorhynchus mykiss in an OECD 203 test. Due to the low solubility of the test substances test organisms were exposed as water accommodated fractions (WAF) and exposure concentrations were expressed as a loading rate. The test was conducted as a limit test with a single exposure concentration of 1000mg/l WAF. No mortality was observed at this loading rate, so the 96 hour LL50 is ,1000mg/l WAF. These results indicate that we would not expect icos-1 -ene to exhibit acute toxicity to fish at exposure concentrations up to its limit of solubility. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The yin and yang of solubilization and stabilization for wild-type and full-length membrane protein. AU - Hardy, David. AU - Desuzinges Mandon, Elodie. AU - Rothnie, Alice. AU - Jawhari, Anass. N1 - © 2018, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Membrane proteins (MP) are stable in their native lipid environment. To enable structural and functional investigations, MP need to be extracted from the membrane. This is a critical step that represents the main obstacle for MP biochemistry and structural biology. General guidelines and rules for membrane protein solubilization remain difficult to establish. This review aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the general concepts of MP solubilization and stabilization as well as recent advances in detergents innovation. Understanding how solubilization and ...
Curcumin is characterized with extremely low solubility in water (11ng/ml) and significant presystemic biotrans formation, mainly via glucuronide and sulfate conjugation.The maximum oral dose of 8 gm/day of curcumin does not produce any toxic effects
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hatóanyagok oldódásának elocombining double acute accentsegítése extrúziós technoló giával. AU - Gergo, Patyi. AU - György, Marosi. AU - István, Antal. AU - Attila, Bódis. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The transformation of the stable crystalline form can enhance the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The molecular dispersion, or solid solution, can be formed by various methods. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of such compounds are very similar to the amorphous state. Twinscrew melt-extrusion, with controlled pressure, heat and shear stress, is a powerful way for separating the molecules of the active ingredient from each other and distributing them in the matrix homogenously. The extrudate can be processed onward immediately after a required cooling phase. The dependence of the possible effect of extrusion on the process parameters was investigated by Raman-microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction in course of the preparation of solid solution of ...
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) is a well-known mitochondrially targeted anticancer compound. However, a major factor limiting the use of α-TOS is its low solubility in physiological media. To overcome this problem, the aim of this work is the preparation of new polymeric and active α-TOS-based nanovehicle wi
We have previously reported the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-(1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)propenamide (MP-MUS), a prodrug that targeted the mitochondria of glioblastoma (GBM). The mitochondrial enzyme, monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), is highly expressed in GBM and oxidizes an uncharged methyl-tetrahydropyridine (MP-) moiety into the mitochondrially targeted cationic form, methyl-pyridinium (P+-). Coupling this MAOB-sensitive group to a nitrogen mustard produced a prodrug that damaged GBM mitochondria and killed GBM cells. Unfortunately, the intrinsic reactivity of the nitrogen mustard group and low solubility of MP-MUS precluded clinical development. In our second-generation prodrug, MP-Pt(IV), we coupled the MP group to an unreactive cisplatin precursor. The enzymatic conversion of MP-Pt(IV) to P+-Pt(IV) was tested using recombinant human MAOA and rhMAOB. The generation of cisplatin from Pt(IV) by ascorbate was studied optically and using mass spectroscopy. ...
The incorporation of large π-conjugated ligands into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can introduce intriguing photophysical and electrochemical properties into the framework. However, these effects are often hindered by the strong π-π interaction and the low solubility of the arylated ligands. Herein, we report the synthesis of a porous zirconium-based MOF, Zr₆(μ₃-O)₄(μ₃-OH)₄(OH)₆(H₂O)₆(HCHC) (PCN ...
protein solubility in TCA - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi I am working with salivary proteins and I saw, several times, protocols in which the proline rich proteins are isolated by mixing the saliva sample with an equal volume of TCA 10%. I do not understand the basis for that. Can someone explain me why this type of proteins are soluble in TCA? What makes them different from the other proteins? Thank you ecsl
The generation of bicarbonate by this reaction increases the alkalinity. Further, the production of H2S promotes the removal of metals which have low solubility products as metal sulphides, such as the ferrous ion (Fe2+). The action of DSR and metal-sulphide precipitation has been shown to reduce the aqueous concentration of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni (Waybrandt et al. 1998; Benner et al. 1999). It has been observed that the rate of sulphate reduction by SRB is strongly affected by nutrient availability, particularly the availability of carbon (Benner et al., 2000). Therefore, there must be an organic carbon amendment to the reacting system. Particular passive treatment systems which have been utilised for DSR include anaerobic bioreactors (Dvorak et al., 1992; Christensen et al., 1996), anaerobic wetlands (Kadlec et al., 2000), and reactive permeable barriers (Waybrandt et al., 1998). All of these technologies have been applied to AMD treatment. In this study, the use of amended constructed wetlands ...
Solubility[edit]. KCl is soluble in a variety of polar solvents. Solubility[17] Solvent. Solubility. (g/kg of solvent at 25 °C ... Solubility Soluble in glycerol, alkalies Slightly soluble in alcohol Insoluble in ether[1] ... Electrolysis (used for sodium) fails because of the high solubility of potassium in molten KCl.[9] ...
Solubility[edit]. PEP is of very low solubility in water, acetone, chloroform, dioxane, and ethanol, but dissolves readily in ...
Water solubility[edit]. The solubility of silicon dioxide in water strongly depends on its crystalline form and is three-four ... "The solubility of amorphous silica in water at high temperatures and high pressures" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 62: 1052- ...
If the structures of the two metals are the same, there can even be complete solid solubility, as in the case of electrum, the ... Solubility and compound formation. Metals are insoluble in water or organic solvents unless they undergo a reaction with them. ... Even in solid metals, the solubility can be extensive. ...
Solubility[edit]. Terephthalic acid is poorly soluble in water and alcohols; consequently, until about 1970 terephthalic acid ... The solubility of molecular oxygen in solution is also enhanced in the CO2 environment. Because more oxygen is available to the ... Solubility (g/100 g solvent). Solvent. 25 °C. 120 °C. 160 °C. 200 °C. 240 °C. ... After reaction, crude TPA was leached by adding pure acetic acid and at high temperature to achieve partial solubility. Final ...
Solubility. Neutral organic compounds tend to be hydrophobic; that is, they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents ... Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present in the solution. ... Qualitative properties include odor, consistency, solubility, and color. Melting and boiling properties. Organic compounds ...
Aqueous solubility[edit]. Dissolution is a measure of the rate that solid TNT in contact with water is dissolved. The ... relatively low aqueous solubility of TNT causes the dissolution of solid particles to be continuously released to the ...
Solubility[edit]. Carboxylic acid dimers. Carboxylic acids are polar. Because they are both hydrogen-bond acceptors (the ...
This equals to a solubility in grams per liter of:. 0.0248. ∗. 1000. g. 18.053. mol. −. 1. 1. −. 0.0248. ∗. 151.17. mol. −. 1. ... For example, the solubility of paracetamol in water at 298 K is predicted to be:. x. 2. =. exp. ⁡. (. −. 28100. J mol. −. 1. ... Solubility prediction[edit]. The heat of fusion can also be used to predict solubility for solids in liquids. Provided an ideal ... Measurement and Prediction of Solubility of Paracetamol in Water-Isopropanol Solution. Part 2. Prediction H. Hojjati and S. ...
Solubility will show a clear increase in presence of diverse ions as the solubility product will increase. Look at the ... Find the solubility of AgCl (Ksp = 1.0 x 10−10) in 0.1 M NaNO3. The activity coefficients for silver and chloride are 0.75 and ... Solubility in the presence of diverse ions[edit]. As expected from previous information, diverse ions have a screening effect ... We have calculated the solubility of AgCl in pure water to be 1.0 x 10−5 M, if we compare this value to that obtained in ...
Novel forms of CoQ10 with increased water-solubility[edit]. Facilitating drug absorption by increasing its solubility in water ...
Lipid solubility-anaesthetic potency correlation (the Meyer-Overton correlation)[edit]. The Meyer-Overton correlation for ... 1 Lipid solubility-anaesthetic potency correlation (the Meyer-Overton correlation). *2 Outdated lipid hypotheses of general ... Increasing the chain length in a homologous series of straight-chain alcohols or alkanes increases their lipid solubility, but ... According to the Meyer-Overton correlation the anaesthetic potency of the drug is directly proportional to its lipid solubility ...
This contra-intuitive solubility behaviour is called retrograde solubility. It is less common than for most of the salts whose ... Retrograde solubility[edit]. The dissolution of the different crystalline phases of calcium sulfate in water is exothermic and ... The solubility of calcium sulfate increases thus when the temperature decreases. If the temperature of the system is raised, ... The retrograde solubility of calcium sulfate is also responsible for its precipitation in the hottest zone of heating systems ...
Retrograde solubility[edit]. The solubility of calcium hydroxide (portlandite) at 70 °C is about half of its value at 25 °C. ... This counter-intuitive temperature dependence of the solubility is referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility. The ... Calcium hydroxide is relatively insoluble in water, with a solubility product Ksp of 5.5 × 10−6. It is large enough that its ... At high pH value (see common ion effect), its solubility drastically decreases. This behavior is relevant to cement pastes. ...
Solubility. As an example of the wide range of solubility of calcium compounds, monocalcium phosphate is very soluble in water ... it also forms compounds with a wide range of solubilities, enabling the formation of the skeleton.[5][53] ... 85% of extracellular calcium is as dicalcium phosphate with a solubility of 2.0 mM and the hydroxyapatite of bones in an ... but the composition of calcium complexes in supplements may affect its bioavailability which varies by solubility of the salt ...
Solubility in water. negligible Solubility soluble in acid and alkali Refractive index (nD) ...
Solubility insoluble, subject of hydrolysis in water solutions of bases and acids [2] ...
Solubility in water. 80 g/100 mL (25 °C) Solubility Moderately soluble in MeOH ...
Solubility in water. 22.6 g/100 mL (20 °C). 83.5 g/100 mL (90 °C) ...
Solubility soluble in chloroform, CCl4, liquid chlorine and bromine dissolves in nitrobenzene ...
Solubility Concentration in human serum (μM) Concentration in liver tissue (μmol/kg) ...
Solubility. soluble in chloroform, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ammonium hydroxide, benzene. ...
Solubility Insoluble in alcohol Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [ ...
Solubility in water. insoluble Solubility insoluble in acid slightly soluble in aqua regia ...
Solubility. Albite insoluble in HCl, anorthite decomposed by HCl [1]. References. [2]. ...
Solubility in water. anhydrous 52.9 g/100 mL (0 °C) 54.3 g/100 mL (20 °C) 72.6 g/100 mL (100 °C) hexahydrate 235 g/100 mL (20 ° ...
Solubility soluble in glycerol negligible in ammonia insoluble in ether slowly soluble in propylene glycol ... 2O, which result in a complex solubility diagram that was described in detail by S. U. Pickering in 1893.[15] The known ... Despite solubility in propylene glycol it is unlikely to replace water in saponificaction due to propylene glycol primary ... G. E. Brodale and W. F. Giauque(1962): "The freezing point-solubility curve of aqueous sodium hydroxide in the region near the ...
Solubility 1.5g/100g ethanol 19 degC [1] Chiral rotation ([α]D) ...
Kvech S, Edwards M (2002). "Solubility controls on aluminum in drinking water at relatively low and high pH". Water Research. ...
Solubility in water. anhydrous:[3]. 5.4 g/100 mL (0 °C). 12 g/100 mL (20 °C)[5]. 14.5 g/100 mL (25 °C). 23.3 g/100 mL (40 °C). ...
Solubility of one fluid (liquid or gas) in another may be complete (totally miscible; e.g., methanol and water) or partial (oil ... Solubility, degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per ... ratio of a materials solubilities in two solvents). Generally, solubilities of solids in liquids increase with temperature and ... Solubility, degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per ...
... This lesson illustrates that changes that take place at the particle level when solutions form and shows ... If you know the author of Solubility Animation, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. ... You just viewed Solubility Animation. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Though pressure is an important factor in the solubility of a gas, pressure has very little effect on the solubilities of ... When dissolving a gas within a liquid, the pressure of the gas has a huge effect on its solubility. When the pressure of a gas ... The temperature of a liquid affects the solubility of both solids and gases. Generally, increasing the temperature of a solvent ... I feel confident in handing you the following ways of affecting solubility. ...
... Which of the following compounds are soluble in water? ... Aqueous Solution Chemistry, Chemistry, Testing / Assessment, NSDL, Precipitation / Solubility, Chemical Education, Education ... You just viewed Reactions : Solubility (8 Variations). Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
... the solubility product constant can be calculated after experimentally determining the equilibrium concentration of either ion. ... determine the equilibrium solubility. The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is:. ...
I have a problem regarding the solubility of my protein. This protein has a , cellulose binding domain tag. the size of the ... protein solubility. Sulakshana Mukherjee mukherji at Sat Dec 15 04:23:00 EST 2001 *Previous message: protein ...
溶解性或溶解度(英語:Solubility)是指定溫、定壓時,每單位飽和溶液中所含溶質的量;也就是一种物质能够被溶解的最大程度或飽和溶液的濃度。通常用體積莫耳濃度、質量百分濃度或「每100公克溶劑能溶解的溶質重」表示之。溶解度主要取决于溶质在溶劑中的溶解 ... 溶解度(ようかいど、solubility)とはある溶質が一定の量の溶媒に溶け
... Achim Recktenwald achimr at Tue Aug 24 21:57:09 EST 1999 *Previous message: Protein Solubility ...
Solubility and Environmental Issues - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444527073, 9780080481036 ... Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Chapter 12: Solubility and the phytoextraction of arsenic from soils by two different fern species (V. Campos). Chapter 13: ... Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce ...
... Date: Wed May 12 20:22:17 1999. Posted By: Charlie Crutchfield, , Retired, Retired. Area ...
Tagged chemistry, GO, graphene, graphene oxide, graphene oxide films, inorganic, nanomaterials, solubility, soluble ... ECS member Jiaxing Huang used freshman-level chemistry to solve the solubility mystery of graphene oxide films.. Image: ... has done in order to solve the mystery that surrounds the solubility of graphene oxide films. ...
... and Ions. In order for two substances to be miscible, or in order for one substance to be soluble in another, the ... You could easily dissolve about 360 g of table salt in a liter of water, but the solubility of calcium carbonate is only about ... The factors that control the solubility of ions can be complex, though. For example, the charges on the ions also affect the ... Which of the following solvents would be most capable of dissolving some LiCl? Rank from greatest solubility to least ...
The effect of temperature on solubility, teacher handout. Experiment Duration : 2 pages The effect of temperature on solubility ... This experiment examines solubility at various temperatures. ...
Solubility, Supersaturation and precipitation kinetics. For more details visit www.s… ... If they are, then … ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Kinetic solubility = Intrinsic solubility = the solubility value required to fit a ... Sirius definitions of solubility ,ul,,li,Kinetic Solubility is the concentration of a compound in solution at the time when an ... Measuring pKas, logP and Solubility by Automated titration * 1. Sirius Analytical Measuring pK a s, logP and Solubility by ...
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Wholesale Various High Quality Solubility Acetate Products from Global Solubility Acetate Suppliers and Solubility Acetate ... Related Searches for solubility acetate: diethyl acetate titanium acetate preserves acetates accessories acetate acetate for ... Factory wholesale high quality wide solubility china methyl acetate 99% Shandong Allplace Environmental Protection Technology ... There are 2,369 solubility acetate suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying countries are China (Mainland), India, ...
Figure 3: Average solubility of carbon in the grain interior 𝑥. C. i. n. t. e. r. i. o. r. and resulting solubility 𝑥. C. g. l ... At a given temperature the overall solubility follows 𝑥. C. g. l. o. b. a. l. ≈. 𝑥. C. b. u. l. k. +. c. o. n. s. t. 𝐷. .. (. 7 ... Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with ... Finally the resulting global solubility 𝑥. C. g. l. o. b. a. l. is calculated from the grain boundary and interior compositions ...
Solubility also plays a major role for other dosage forms like parenteral formulations as well [11]. Solubility is one of the ... Problem of solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist [13].. The improvement of drug solubility thereby its oral ... Extensive use of solubility from different perspective has led to solubility being expressed in various manners. It is commonly ... Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes ...
I mean, sodium benzoate is ionic, and water is very polar, so the solubility of the salt in water should be great. Nevertheless ... Am I thinking wrong? If not, how should I compare both of the solubilities?. Thanks. John ...
Solubility of the two forms of L.. including solubility. A pharmaceutical co-crystal means a co-crystal with one of the co- ... Generally an organic solvent can influence the solubility of a salt in the following ways: (i) increasing solubility of non- ... have higher solubility than theophylline (Lu and Rohani. On the other hand. Lu and Rohani (2009a) have found that theophylline ... and (iii) decreasing solubility of salt formed. the crystals are designated as co-crystals. crystallinity. has been found to ...
Why does the solubility of KNO3, in water, rises with increasing temperature and the solubility of Na2SO4 descreases? Thank you ...
Solubility of gases. Henrys law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in solvents. The solubility of a gas in a solvent ... Factors affecting solubility. Solubility is defined for specific forms of each substance. For example, the solubilities of ... Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility ... Ksp = [Ag+] × [Cl−] (definition of solubility product). Ksp = 1.8 × 10−10 (from a table of solubility products). [Ag+] = [Cl− ...
Solubility of gases. Henrys law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in solvents. The solubility of a gas in a solvent ... Factors affecting solubility. Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite ... Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility ... Solubility of ionic compounds in water. Main articles: Solubility chart and Solubility table ...
Solubility test definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... Words nearby solubility test. solstice, solstitial, Solti, solubility, solubility product, solubility test, solubilize, soluble ...
Solubility is used in chemistry to describe the properties of a solid compound that is mixed with and fully dissolves in a ... Calculating Solubility from the Ksp * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/\/images\/thumb\/0\/00\/Determine-Solubility-Step- ... For tips on calculating solubility using the solubility constant, scroll down!. Did this summary help you?. Yes. No. ... The equation is the product solubility constant, which can be found for the 2 ions in a solubility chart. Since there are 2 I- ...
Here is a fun middle school science project on factors affecting solubility. Learn how dissolved solids can crash out to form ... A solute can be a solid, liquid or gas, and each has a particular solubility in a given solvent. Solubility refers to how much ... Solubility can be very useful in helping to purify products. Cooling down a solution until a solid solute comes out is called " ... Factors Affecting Solubility Kids discover what a homogeneous mixture is by adding sugar to distilled water and identify the ...
Plot the solubility curve of a salt on the basis of observed data. 2. Test the solubility versus temperature.. When the hot- ... Transcript of Solubility Curve. By: Alejandra Rivas Mr. Jose Popoff. Chemistry 11th grade. 5/11/12 Procedure Results Solubility ... wire gauze The solubility of a solute is defined as the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to ... Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the ...
Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility ... This kind of solubility is of great importance in geology, where it results in formation of metamorphic rocks. Solubility is a ... The solubility constant is not as simple as solubility, however the value of this constant is generally independent of the ... Solubility is often said to be one of the "characteristic properties of a substance", which means that solubility is commonly ...
Phase Monitor II is a powerful analytical tool for determining the solubility of various compounds, and mixtures of compounds, ... Monitor Compounds Solubility. Supercritical Fluid Technologies Phase Monitor II is a powerful analytical tool for determining ... Can be used to investigate the effect of co-solvents on the solubility of compounds of interest in supercritical carbon dioxide ... Supercritical Fluid Technologies Phase Monitor II is a powerful analytical tool for determining the solubility of various ...
Problems: Solubility & Phase Diagrams. Website Address: ...
  • Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. (
  • The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (fully miscible) such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. (
  • The solubilities of substances range widely, from those that are infinitely soluble, such as ethanol in water , to those that are poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. (
  • Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depends on pH . (
  • Solubility rules Compounds that include ammonium (NH4+), chlorate (ClO3−), or nitrate (NO3−) are soluble without exceptions. (
  • Slightly soluble salts give solutions that fall between these extremes.Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds in WaterSoluble Salts1. (
  • A powder laundry detergent has improved solubility in the laundering solution and improved dispensability by incorporating an acidulant that, in its acid form, is sparingly soluble in water and, in its salt form, is soluble in water. (
  • Dow has developed the AFFINISOL™ line of excipients to enable solubility enhancement.Hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) has proven effective at producing stable amorphous solid dispersions for poorly soluble APIs. (
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of oilfield exploration, production, and testing, and more specifically to a material and soluble oilfield elements such as well operating elements and methods of using same, which exhibit a combination of rapid solubility and high strength and/or high toughness. (
  • This invention also relates to and altering the solubility of above mentioned high strength soluble oilfield elements and well operating elements. (
  • Based on general trends in solubility, which of the following compounds is least soluble in hexane (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3)? (
  • The proportion of poorly soluble molecules entering the drug development pipeline is increasing year-on-year, raising the bar for pharmaceutical companies in terms of how best to approach the challenge of improving solubility and bioavailability. (
  • Simple Solubility Rules: -Nitrate (NO 3-) salts are soluble. (
  • Recall that the solubility of a substance can vary from essentially zero (insoluble or sparingly soluble) to infinity (miscible). (
  • Solubility , degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per litre of solvent). (
  • Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. (
  • The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of other chemicals (including changes to the pH) of the solution. (
  • The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. (
  • Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. (
  • The extent of solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration where adding more solute does not increase its concentration in the solution [ 1 ]. (
  • IUPAC defines solubility as the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. (
  • The maximum equilibrium amount of solute that can dissolve per amount of solvent is the solubility of that solute in that solvent under the specified conditions [ 6 ]. (
  • The solubility of a chemical substance is a physical property referring to the ability of that substance, called the solute, to dissolve in a solvent . (
  • Solubility is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent at chemical equilibrium. (
  • In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute that is thermodynamically stable, and the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution. (
  • The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation. (
  • Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute). (
  • According to the IUPAC definition, [2] solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. (
  • Solubility may be stated in various units of concentration such as molarity, molality, mole fraction, mole ratio, mass (solute) per volume (solvent) and other units. (
  • The term solubility is also used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis . (
  • A solute can be a solid, liquid or gas, and each has a particular solubility in a given solvent. (
  • Solubility refers to how much of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent. (
  • Introduction matches metric ruler ring stand test tube holder test tubes, 4 thermometer wire gauze The solubility of a solute is defined as the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to make a saturated solution. (
  • It points out the regularities existing between solubility and physical properties of solute and solvent. (
  • relate the structure of water to its function as a solvent and investigate the properties of solutions and factors affecting gas and solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, pressure, pH, and concentration. (
  • To determine the solubility of a solute at a different temperature2. (
  • Solubility may depend on the crystal (or droplet) size of the solute phase (typically, solubility will increase with the decreasing crystal size for crystals much smaller than 1 μm). (
  • For substances dissolving in an electrochemical reaction, solubility is expected to depend on the potential of the solute phase. (
  • File:Temperature dependence solublity of solid in liquid water high temperature.svg The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature. (
  • Because the entropy of a solute is usually increased when it dissolves, increasing temperature usually increases solubility - for solid and liquid solutes, anyway. (
  • Solubility equilibria are established when the dissolution and precipitation of a solute species occur at equal rates. (
  • Generally, increasing the temperature of a solvent increases the solubility of most ionic compounds (though there are exceptions). (
  • Chapter 2: Modelling the solubility in water of environmentally important organic compounds (E. Estrada et al . (
  • Saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility are sometimes described by solubility constants. (
  • In the following experiments, you'll learn whether each factor has a positive or negative effect on the solubility of different compounds. (
  • Supercritical Fluid Technologies' Phase Monitor II is a powerful analytical tool for determining the solubility of various compounds, and mixtures of compounds, in subcritical and supercritical fluids. (
  • Can be used to investigate the effect of co-solvents on the solubility of compounds of interest in supercritical carbon dioxide. (
  • The relationship between solubility products and the solubilities of ionic compounds. (
  • The following chart shows the solubility of multiple independent and various compounds, in water, at a pressure of 1 atm and at room temperature (approx. (
  • For more detailed information of the exact solubility of the compounds, see the solubility table. (
  • Polarity is a physical property of compounds which relate to other physical properties, such as melting and boiling points or solubility. (
  • The solubility of these compounds varies widely depending on the metal cation. (
  • Are there any patterns or periodic trends in the solubility behavior of alkaline earth metal compounds? (
  • Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility equilibrium). (
  • Compounds (N=635) were divided into two groups based on information available in the literature: high solubility (BDDCS/BCS 1/3) and low solubility (BDDCS/BCS 2/4). (
  • When comparing solubility classification using the threshold values of MLogSM or MSol with BDDCS, we were able to correctly classify 85% of compounds. (
  • We also evaluated solubility classification of an independent set of 108 orally administered drugs using MSol (0.3mg/mL) and our method correctly classified 81% and 95% of compounds into high and low solubility classes, respectively. (
  • Explain how ionic and covalent compounds may or may not have had different solubility. (
  • The solubility of ionic compounds in aqueous solutions is wide and varied. (
  • For compounds that have the same dissociation stoichiometry, such as lead chloride and calcium fluoride, where 1 mole of each compound produces 3 moles of dissolved ions, the respective K sp values can be used directly to compare their relative solubilities. (
  • Generally, solubilities of solids in liquids increase with temperature and those of gases decrease with temperature and increase with pressure . (
  • Please enter your potassium nitrate solubility & saturation temperature experiment data so that a solubility curve can be constructed using everyone's data. (
  • The temperature of a liquid affects the solubility of both solids and gases. (
  • This differs from Bunsen solubility coefficient (a) in that the amount of dissolved gas is expressed in terms of its volume at the temperature of the experiment, instead of STPD. (
  • The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the solvent used as well as on temperature and pressure. (
  • Similar to other equilibrium constants, temperature would affect the numerical value of solubility constant. (
  • Why does the solubility of KNO 3 , in water, rises with increasing temperature and the solubility of Na 2 SO 4 descreases? (
  • Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance, thus changing the solubility. (
  • For example, solubility of gold in high-temperature water is observed to be almost an order of magnitude higher when the redox potential is controlled using a highly oxidizing Fe 3 O 4 -Fe 2 O 3 redox buffer than with a moderately oxidizing Ni-NiO buffer. (
  • There are several factors affecting solubility, including temperature and pressure. (
  • The solubility of a substance is not constant- it varies with different conditions such as temperature. (
  • Objectives Demonstrate how the solubility of a salt varies with temperature. (
  • 2. Test the solubility versus temperature. (
  • Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the temperature is lower. (
  • The solubility of most solids increases with temperature. (
  • Solubility varies with the temperature of the solution. (
  • Have your students observe this demonstration in order to understand the relationships of temperature and pressure to the solubility of gases in liquids. (
  • Abstract The aim of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHC4H4O6) and temperature. (
  • In this process, called absorption , the dissolved carbon dioxide is later recovered, and the solvent is made usable again by heating the carbon dioxide-rich solvent, since the solubility of a gas in a liquid usually (but not always) decreases with rising temperature. (
  • The solubility of cellulose in water-based media is promoted by low temperature, which may appear counter-intuitive. (
  • For around 95% of solid solutes, the solubility increases with temperature, [5] in the temperature range from about ambient to 100 °C. In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g., that approaching the critical temperature ), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water (lower dielectric constant , less of a polar solvent ). (
  • In those rare cases where dissolution releases heat, increasing temperature can decrease solubility. (
  • Increasing the temperature tends to decrease the solubility of gas in liquid. (
  • The way to use this model on the website for the prediction of protein solubility is explained. (
  • Diaz AA, Tomba E, Lennarson R et al (2009) Prediction of protein solubility in Escherichia coli using logistic regression. (
  • The observation that protein solubility decreases as solution ionic strength increases at high co. (
  • Improved protein solubility in two-dimensional electrophoresis using tributyl phosphine as reducing agent. (
  • Tributyl phosphine improves protein solubility during isoelectric focusing, which results in shorter run times and increased resolution. (
  • Though pressure is an important factor in the solubility of a gas, pressure has very little effect on the solubilities of liquids or solids. (
  • Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining (e.g., precipitation of solids). (
  • Solutions are a special kind of mixture and solubility is a term used to describe the amount of materials (solids, liquids, or gas) which can be dissolved in a solvent to make a solution. (
  • The solubility rules are only for ionic solids' ability to dissolve in water. (
  • This is a list of the solubility rules for ionic solids in water. (
  • There are a number of patterns in the data obtained from measuring the solubility of different salts. (
  • Rank the solubility of different salts. (
  • Revised and updated throughout, Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User's Handbook, Second Edition features the three Hansen solubility parameters for over 1200 chemicals and correlations for over 400 materials including polymers, inorganic salts, and biological materials. (
  • Most commonly used in the coatings industry for the selection of solvents, the techniques assess polymer solubility, swelling, permeation, surface wetting, and the solubility of organic salts. (
  • A Table for the Solubility of Salts in Water. (
  • The term 'dissolving' is sometimes applied to an irreversible chemical reaction , as with iron in nitric acid , but in such a case the thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply. (
  • The thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply straightforwardly to solvolysis. (
  • Explore the concept of solubility. (
  • This book promotes a basic understanding of the concept of solubility and miscibility between halogenated hydrocarbons and water. (
  • Some separation methods ( absorption , extraction) rely on differences in solubility, expressed as the distribution coefficient (ratio of a material's solubilities in two solvents). (
  • A rule of thumb for solubility in solvents is 'like dissolves like. (
  • The solubility was measured in various concentrations of the major solutes by use of a liquid scintillation technique to detect the so4- -in solution. (
  • My presentation will comprise of two sections: the first section will focus on formulation development of solid dispersions to enhance drug solubility and the second section will be dedicated to understanding transcriptomic changes of drug transporters during permeability studies. (
  • Many of the industry's early prospective methods for improving drug solubility have not succeeded at market. (
  • How do I calculate molar solubility from KSP? (
  • Molar solubility can be calculated from KSP by writing the chemical equation for the substance and then dissolving and dissociating so that the KSP express. (
  • Calculate the molar solubility of a hypothetical metal sulfide, MS, in a solution saturated with H2S at 25C. (
  • The solubility of a compound in moles per liter, known as the molar solubility, is often used to express the concentration of the dissolved solid in a saturated solution. (
  • The molar solubility of a compound, x , can be calculated from its K sp using an ICE table. (
  • What factors affect solubility? (
  • There is also a number of less common factors which may affect solubility. (
  • Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and precipitation. (
  • 1 MeV) at temperatures in the range of 250 to 300°C, have higher dissolution and precipitation solubilities compared to those measured on unirradiated material. (
  • This means that solubility should be viewed as a result of two simultaneous and opposing processes: dissolution and precipitation. (
  • Precipitation reactions and solubility rules 6.C ... Types of Chemical Reactions Answers Balance each of the following reactions and identify each type of reaction: 1. (
  • When the rate of dissolution equals the rate of precipitation, a solubility equilibrium is established. (
  • The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. (
  • Mixtures of the reservoir fluid and injection gas are physically recombined in the same proportions as each of the swollen oil mixtures in the solubility-swelling study described above. (
  • Ksp is called the solubility product of silver chloride. (
  • This equilibrium constant is called the solubility product, denoted by K sp . (
  • Try this amazing AP Chemistry Solubility Rules Quiz quiz which has been attempted 5749 times by avid quiz takers. (
  • For example, one source states that substances are described as "insoluble" when their solubility is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent. (
  • For a solid that dissolves in a redox reaction, solubility is expected to depend on the potential (within the range of potentials under which the solid remains the thermodynamically stable phase). (
  • The solubility of a substance is an entirely different property from the rate of solution , which is how fast it dissolves. (
  • Solubility is used in chemistry to describe the properties of a solid compound that is mixed with and fully dissolves in a fluid without leaving any undissolved particles. (
  • Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions ( ligands ) in liquids. (
  • The Hildebrand's solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. (
  • From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. (
  • Comparing gas solubility in liquids with the concept of vapor pressure highlights another important pattern: Increasing pressure increases the solubility of a gas in liquid. (
  • The Hildebrand solubility parameters have been calculated for eight ionic liquids. (
  • From the solubility parameters, the enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. (
  • The factors that control the solubility of ions can be complex, though. (
  • A solubility chart is a chart with a list of ions and how, when mixed with other ions, they can become precipitates or remain aqueous. (
  • The solubility is due to the solvation (or in the case of water, hydration), of ions by the polar water molecules. (
  • The solubility of a compound can vary depending on factors, such as the pH of the solution and if there are other ions present. (
  • This permits the calculation of the congruent solubility product of scorodite. (
  • The fugacity coefficient is close to 1 when the total pressure of the gas phase is less than about 10 atm, and it can be neglected in the solubility calculation. (
  • La solubilité est la capacité d'une substance, appelée soluté, à se dissoudre dans une autre substance, appelée solvant, pour former un mélange homogène appelé solution.En thermodynamique, la solubilité massique est une grandeur physique notée s désignant la concentration massique maximale du soluté dans le solvant, à une température donnée. (
  • Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve or liquefy a substance, since these processes may occur not only because of dissolution but also because of a chemical reaction. (
  • Solubility is defined for specific forms of each substance. (
  • Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve a substance, because the solution might also occur because of a chemical reaction. (
  • The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that can be dissolved in a given amount of a solvent. (
  • A simple example of separation by differences in solubility is shown by placing a mixture of salt and sand in water. (
  • You could easily dissolve about 360 g of table salt in a liter of water, but the solubility of calcium carbonate is only about 0.01 grams per liter. (
  • For example, the solubilities of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula . (
  • An enhancement of solid solubility has been found in many bulk nanocrystalline materials, for instance [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • However quantifying the impact of grain refinement on equilibrium solid solubility is important for understanding the behavior of nanocrystalline alloys upon thermal activation. (
  • An experimental program has been carried out to measure the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in Zircaloy. (
  • Each form normally displays its own unique thermal, mechanical, physical and chemical properties that can profoundly influence the solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, hygroscopicity, melting point, stability, compressibility and other performances of the drug (Byrn et al. (
  • 2004). Different polymorphs of a pharmaceutical molecule generally have different physical and chemical properties such as solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, melting point, stability, etc (Sirota, 1982). (
  • The event, entitled "Spray-Dried Dispersion Development: From Droplet to Dosage Form," will see speakers from Catalent Pharma Solutions, along with industry experts, discuss a range of topics on amorphous dispersion technology, and its application to improve the solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical products. (
  • Spray drying is a versatile and rapid technique that can provide companies with a suitable and scalable option to improve the solubility and bioavailability of drug products. (
  • Where APIs have poor solubility, this has a marked effect on a drug's efficacy within the body and can lead to poor absorption, poor bioavailability, and increased pharmacokinetic variability," adds William Wei Lim Chin, technical specialist, Science and Technology, Catalent. (
  • Solubility, bioavailability, and stability are some of the most difficult formulation challenges faced by the pharmaceutical industry at present, and spray drying offers a very suitable solution," explains Manuel Leal, business development director, Idifarma. (
  • In my presentation, I will cover the following topics 1) Discovery formulations: changing the formulation paradigm 2) Impact of excipients and solubility on oral bioavailability 3) A novel, high throughput formulation screening method adapted to the discovery environment 4) The Impact of early formulation screening on Pharmacokinetic & Pharmacology. (
  • Now in its sixth year, the Drug Formulation, Solubility and Bioavailability Summit continues to offer you the best learning and networking venue for improving drug performance and therapeutic impact through enabled formulations and more effective delivery methods. (
  • Presenting a comprehensive survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of HSPs, Hansen Solubility Parameters, Second Edition concludes with a detailed discussion on the necessary research, future directions, and potential applications for which HSPs can provide a useful means of prediction in areas such as biological materials, controlled release applications, nanotechnology, and self-assembly. (
  • I shall review the reasons why computer modelling is still relatively un-exploited by the pharmaceutical sector, give details of the methods with selected applications including prediction of solid state properties such as solubility, and then give a perspective for the future. (
  • Therefore, we will focus the rest of our discussion on the application of the solubility equilibrium constant. (
  • Therefore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide depends on pH. (
  • Plot the solubility curve of a salt on the basis of observed data. (
  • Using the sodium bromide solubility curve, how many grams can be dissolved in 100g of water at 50°C? (
  • The gas liquefaction may result in small kinks in the calculated solubility curve (calculated by equilibrating a solution with a GAS_PHASE ), and one is visible in figure 27 at 65 atm and 25 °C. (
  • Under certain conditions equilibrium solubility may be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable [ 3 ]. (
  • Further, the large difference between equilibrium and non-equilibrium solubility limits in Sn 1− y Mn y Te 1− x Se x indicates these metastable alloys are attractive in terms of nano-precipitate formation for potential thermoelectric applications. (
  • Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. (
  • We found that despite the fact that the total quantity of proteins within the cellular environment remains approximately constant during aging, protein aggregation sharply increases between days 6 and 12 of adulthood, after the worms have reproduced, as individual proteins lose their stoichiometric balances and the cellular machinery that maintains solubility undergoes functional decline. (
  • Acetanilide has a water solubility of 6.93 x 103 milligrams per liter at 77 degrees Fahrenheit. (
  • Aqueous solubility of CO2 is 24.8 ml of CO2 per liter at 273K and a CO2 partial pressure of 3.6 atm. (
  • The solubility of sucrose in water at 20 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit) is 204 g sucrose/100 g water. (
  • What is the solubility of N 2 in a glass of water at 20 degrees Celsius sitting on a coffee table within a beach house? (
  • Solubility and Stability of Scorodite, Feaso4.2h2o: Reply. (
  • A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. (
  • We engineered this tag into a set of polypeptides and examined its ability to modulate solubility and stability. (
  • I mean, sodium benzoate is ionic, and water is very polar, so the solubility of the salt in water should be great. (
  • Oxygen-strengthened TIG welded Zircaloy-4 exhibited markedly different solubility behavior to the other unirradiated materials. (
  • A lesson about solubility that also discusses other related concepts such as saturation, concentration, and real-world examples of solubility. (
  • Methods of Collection and Compilation of Solubility Data 5. (
  • Novel high/low solubility classification methods for new molecular entities. (
  • In this work, the quaternary Sn 1− y Mn y Te 1− x Se x phase space serves as a relevant model system to explore how a combination of computational and combinatorial-growth methods can be used to study equilibrium and non-equilibrium solubility limits. (
  • The talk will cover simple drugability methods to evaluate solubility and in vitro and in vivo studies to clarify pharmaceutical developability. (
  • Results are compared with solubility parameters estimated by different methods. (
  • The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. (
  • If he ascends rapidly, the solubility of the gases decreases so that they leave his blood suddenly, forming bubbles in the blood vessels. (
  • List of the solubility of a gas decreases go to the first rule that. (
  • and one or more solubility-modified high strength and/or high-toughness polymeric materials selected from polyamides, polyethers, and liquid crystal polymers. (
  • US Patent 20110201836 describes a new type of extraction based on silicone polymers having different solubilities, which allows for the customization of a menstruum to extract not only more active ingredient, but also narrower ranges of materials than has heretofore been possible. (
  • When dissolving a gas within a liquid, the pressure of the gas has a huge effect on its solubility. (
  • To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of liquid solutions. (
  • The research aspect of this science fair project is to test the solubility of several common liquid substances. (
  • Solubility is the ability of something to dissolve in a liquid. (
  • Knowledge of the solubilities of substances is valuable for both research and practical applications. (
  • The solubility equilibrium is relatively straightforward for covalent substances such as benzene. (
  • Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. (
  • Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. (
  • While the solubility in water of the gases present in air is extremely small at atmospheric pressure, it becomes appreciable at high pressures where, in many cases, the solubility of a gas is (approximately) proportional to its pressure. (
  • The purpose of the work was to obtain sufficient sulfur-solubility data in sour gas to develop a widely applicable predictive model of sulfur solubility vs. sour-gas conditions. (
  • By analyzing proteome-wide mass spectrometry data of Caenorhabditis elegans , however, we show that the levels of about three-quarters of the nearly 4,000 proteins analyzed in adult animals are close to their intrinsic solubility limits, indeed exceeding them by about 10% on average. (
  • Calculating solubility products from molar solubilities, and vice versa. (
  • Calculating hydrocarbon components solubility of natural gases is known as one of the important issues for operational works in petroleum and chemical engineering. (
  • A number of other descriptive terms are also used to qualify the extent of solubility for a given application. (
  • The concentrations of the ionic species, Ag +1 and CH 3 COO -1 , when no net change in concentration is taking place, determine the equilibrium solubility. (
  • Radioactive Wastes Chapter 8: An evaluation of solubility limits on maximum uranium concentrations in groundwater (T. Iwatsuki, R.C. Arthur). (
  • To function effectively proteins must avoid aberrant aggregation, and hence they are expected to be expressed at concentrations safely below their solubility limits. (
  • However, now that you understand how solutions work, I feel confident in handing you the following ways of affecting solubility. (
  • CP Kelco reacts to changes in the market with a range of solutions for the solubility and stabilisation for health-orientated functional ingredients. (
  • Solubility of Barium and Strontium Sulfates in Strong Electrolyte Solutions. (
  • Knowledge of the solubilities of baso4 and srso4 in solutions containing nacl, cacl2, mgcl2, and nahco3 is needed to solve geologic and petroleum production problems. (
  • In this work, a novel solubility estimation tool has been proposed for hydrocarbon gases including methane, ethane, propane, and butane in aqueous electrolyte solutions based on extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. (
  • Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues highlights some of the problems and shows how chemistry can help to reduce these them. (
  • This informative book looks at the importance and applications of solubility and thermodynamics, in understanding and in reducing chemical pollution in the environment. (