An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Trace analysis of ethinyl estradiol in casein diet using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. (1/374)

Ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is an extremely potent synthetic estrogen and a common component in oral contraceptives. The drug has a well-characterized pharmacological profile and is used as a positive control in toxicological investigations of compounds having estrogenic activity. An analytical method developed for the determination of low microg/kg levels of EE2 in a casein-based rodent diet is presented. A methanol extract of casein diet is purified for instrumental analysis by a 3-fold solid-phase extraction process. The sample extract is derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride to the pentafluoropropionyl product and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Recoveries of EE2 from casein diet fortified at 5, 10, and 50 microg/kg average 88.8% and have a relative standard deviation (%) of 7.2. The method limit of detection in a casein-based diet is 1 microg/kg.  (+info)

Superheated water extraction of essential oils of Origanum micranthum. (2/374)

Superheated water extraction is used to extract essential oil of leaves of Origanum micranthum. The effect of different temperatures on the essential oil profile and rate of extraction as a function of time is investigated. The components of essential oil of Origanum micranthum are removed from the aqueous extract by C18 solid-phase extraction. The identification of components is carried out using comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The number of extracted components is almost the same; however, the concentrations change with changing temperature. The highest yield (0.64%) is found at a temperature of 150 degrees C, 2 mL/min and 60 bar for 30 min. The increasing temperature from 100 degrees C to 175 degrees C increased the rate of extraction of six selected components of essential oil of Origanum micranthum. cis-Sabinenehydrate exhibits the fastest rate of extraction at all temperatures studied. Some degradation products are observed at a temperature of 175 degrees C.  (+info)

Development of an impregnated reagent and automation of solid-phase analytical derivatization for carbonyls: proof of principle. (3/374)

This study undertakes reduction of scale and automation of a solid-phase analytical derivatization of carbonyls with 2,4-dinitrophenylhyrazine on a styrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD-2). Three processes are tested. In the batch process, an aqueous phase consisting of 50 microL of sample and 150 microL of reagent solution is contacted with 6 mg XAD-2 by shaking. An impregnated reagent consisting of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride (DNPH) deposited on XAD-2 enables two additional processes. In-vial derivatization with an impregnated reagent requires shaking 50 microL of sample with 6 mg of the impregnated reagent and reduced the reaction time from 10 to 5 min. The third process involves packing impregnated reagent a mini-column and flowing 50 microL of sample through under positive pressure supplied by a Harvard Pump. This reduces sample preparation time to 1 min. Studies are conducted with worst-case model analytes: butanone, 2-pentanone, and malonyldialdehyde. The carbonyl of the two ketones is hindered, and, thus, these two compounds react very slowly with DNPH in aqueous solution. Malonyldialdehyde is highly water soluble, and it does not react in aqueous phase but also would not sorb onto XAD-2 for reaction. Nevertheless, derivatization/extraction of all model compounds any of the three procedures result in reproducible and high yields.  (+info)

Simplified method for determining the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-MAG3. (4/374)

99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine is used for dynamic renal imaging, and the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for the European formulation specifies a shelf life of 1 or 4 h, depending on the reconstitution volume of the kit. To minimize the time required to test the radiochemical purity, a simplified quality control method was developed. METHODS: To satisfy the recommendations of the International Commission on Harmonisation, results obtained with the methods described in the European and American SPCs were compared with those obtained with the simplified method. Further validation of the new method was performed by comparison with the standard 2-strip thin-layer chromatographic method as well as tests for linearity and limits of detection and quantification. RESULTS: The simplified method provided results comparable to those provided by the registered SPC methods but was more rapid to perform and used smaller volumes of solvents. CONCLUSION: The simplified method is a reasonable alternative to the registered SPC methods.  (+info)

Improved method of plasma 8-Isoprostane measurement and association analyses with habitual drinking and smoking. (5/374)

AIM: To develop a simple and accurate method for quantifying 8-isoprostane in plasma by employing a combination of two-step solid-phase extraction of samples and a commercially available ELISA kit, and by this method to examine the effects of drinking and smoking habits against the levels of plasma 8-isoprostane in healthy Japanese volunteers. METHODS: Plasma 8-isoprostane was extracted with ODS gel suspension followed by NH(2) Sep-Pak column. The 8-isoprostane fractions were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. We measured plasma 8-isoprostane levels in 157 healthy Japanese volunteers divided into three groups (64 non-habitual drinkers, 56 moderate drinkers and 37 habitual drinkers) according to their alcohol consumption per week. Genotypes of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) were also determined to investigate the plasma 8-isoprostane levels with reference to drinking habits. In addition, the plasma 8-isoprostane levels of 96 non-smokers and 61 smokers from the same subjects were compared. RESULTS: Our method fulfilled all the requirements for use in routine clinical assays with respect to sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay reproducibility, accuracy and dynamic assay range. Significant increases of plasma 8-isoprostane levels were observed in female habitual drinkers when compared with those of non-habitual drinkers (t = 5.494, P<0.0001) as well as moderate drinkers (t = 3.542, P<0.005), and 8-isoprostane levels were also significantly different between ALDH2*2/1 and ALDH2*1/1 in the female habitual drinkers (t = 6.930, P<0.0001), suggesting that excessive drinking of alcohol may increase oxidization stress, especially in females. On the contrary, no significant difference of the plasma 8-isoprostane levels was observed between non-smokers and smokers. CONCLUSION: Our present method was proved to be a simple and accurate tool for measuring plasma 8-isoprostane. However, the clinical utility of plasma 8-isoprostane for drinking and smoking habits was limited since elevated 8-isoprostane levels were observed in female heavy drinkers, and no association was found between smokers and nonsmokers.  (+info)

Evidence against a direct interaction between intracellular carbonic anhydrase II and pure C-terminal domains of SLC4 bicarbonate transporters. (6/374)

Based on solid-phase binding assays with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection, previous investigators suggested that intracellular carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) interacts at high affinity with the C-terminal (Ct) domains of SLC4 bicarbonate-transport proteins, expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, to form functional HCO3- metabolons. Here we re-evaluated this protein-protein interaction using two solid-phase binding assays. We first compared the ability of the Ct domain of three SLC4 transporters, SLC4-A1 (AE1), SLC4-A4 (NBCe1), and SLC4-A8 (NDCBE), to bind immobilized CA II, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection. We found that when expressed as GST fusion proteins, all three bind to CA II (Kd 300-600 nM) better than does pure GST. However, we detected no binding of pure SLC4-Ct peptides to immobilized CA II. Second, we reversed assay orientation by immobilizing the SLC4-Ct fusion proteins or peptides. We found that more CA II binds to GST than to any of the three GST-SLC4-Ct fusion proteins. Furthermore, we detected no binding of CA II to any of the immobilized pure SLC4-Ct peptides. Finally, we used surface plasmon resonance to detect possible rapid interactions between CA II and the pure peptides. Although we detected acetazolamide binding to immobilized CA II and specific antibodies binding to immobilized SLC4-Ct peptides, we detected no binding of CA II to immobilized SLC4-Ct or vice versa. Thus, although an HCO3 metabolon may exist, CA II cannot bind directly to pure SLC4-Ct peptides and can bind to GST-SLC4-Ct fusion proteins only when the CA II is immobilized and the fusion protein is soluble, and not vice versa.  (+info)

Control of matrix effects in the analysis of urinary F2-isoprostanes using novel multidimensional solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. (7/374)

F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-iPs), established markers of oxidative stress, exist as four sets of regioisomers. Simultaneous and specific determination of F(2)-iPs can be achieved by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed novel methods for urine sample preparation and HPLC to control matrix-related ion suppression effects in the LC-MS/MS analysis of F(2)-iPs. A selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) wash protocol was developed with an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) SPE cartridge using an elution profile of [(3)H]8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) (iPF(2alpha)-III) when the methanol concentration was increased under acidic, neutral, and base wash conditions. A multidimensional (MD)-SPE method that incorporated size exclusion chromatography [corrected] reverse-phase chromatography, and normal-phase chromatography was developed using an Oasis HLB SPE cartridge and an HLB microElution SPE plate. Average extraction recoveries of the deuterated internal standards of iPF(2alpha)-III and iPF(2alpha)-VI were 62 +/- 8% and 60 +/- 10%. A buffer-free HPLC method for the separation of F(2)-iP isomers was developed on base-deactivated C8 columns. Average matrix effects for iPF(2alpha)-III and iPF(2alpha)-VI were 95 +/- 6% and 103 +/- 5%. The clean extraction of urine F(2)-iPs using MD-SPE and the separation of F(2)-iP isomers using a novel HPLC method did not cause apparent ion suppression in the analysis of iPF(2alpha)-III and iPF(2alpha)-VI using LC-MS/MS. These findings should be useful for establishing a routine LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of F(2)-iPs.  (+info)

Enantioanalysis of bisoprolol in human plasma with a macrocyclic antibiotic HPLC chiral column using fluorescence detection and solid phase extraction. (8/374)

A sensitive, enantioselective, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine S-(-)- and R-(+)-bisoprolol in human plasma. Baseline resolution was achieved using the teicoplanin macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phase (CSP) known as Chirobiotic T with a polar ionic mobile phase (PIM) consisting of methanol-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine (100 : 0.02 : 0.025, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and fluorescence detection set at 275 nm for excitation and 305 nm for emission. All analyses with S-(-)-atenolol as the internal standard were conducted at ambient temperature. The assay involved the use of a solid-phase extraction procedure for human plasma samples prior to HPLC analysis. The C18 cartridge gave good recovery rates for both enantiomers without any interference. The method was validated over the range of 20-200 ng/ml for each enantiomer concentration. Recovery rates for S-(-)- and R-(+)-bisoprolol enantiomers were in the range of 95-102%. The method proved to be precise (within-run precision expressed as % RSD ranged from 1.0-6.2% and between-run precision ranged from 0.9-6.7%) and accurate (within-run accuracies expressed as percentage error ranged from 0.2-4.8% and between-run accuracies ranged from 0.3-1.7%). The limit of quantitation and limit of detection for each enantiomer in human plasma were 20 and 5 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a method used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to extract, separate, or clean up specific components from a complex matrix, such as a biological sample. It involves the use of a solid phase, typically a packed bed of sorbent material, held within a cartridge or column. The sample mixture is passed through the column, and the components of interest are selectively retained by the sorbent while other components pass through.

The analytes can then be eluted from the sorbent using a small volume of a suitable solvent, resulting in a more concentrated and purified fraction that can be analyzed using various techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or mass spectrometry.

The solid phase used in SPE can vary depending on the nature of the analytes and the matrix, with different sorbents offering varying degrees of selectivity and capacity for specific compounds. Commonly used sorbents include silica-based materials, polymeric resins, and ion exchange materials.

Overall, solid-phase extraction is a powerful tool in sample preparation, allowing for the isolation and concentration of target analytes from complex matrices, thereby improving the sensitivity and selectivity of downstream analytical techniques.

I must clarify that "Inorganic Chemicals" is a broad term related to the field of chemistry and not specifically within the realm of medicine. However, I can provide a general definition for you:

Inorganic chemicals are chemical substances that primarily consist of matter other than carbon-based compounds. They include metallic and non-metallic elements, along with their compounds, excluding carbon-hydrogen bonds (organic compounds). Examples of inorganic chemicals are salts, acids, and bases, as well as metal alloys and oxides.

In the context of medicine, certain inorganic chemicals can be used in medical treatments, such as lithium carbonate for bipolar disorder or potassium chloride as an electrolyte replenisher. However, some inorganic chemicals can also pose health risks depending on the type and level of exposure. For instance, lead and mercury are toxic heavy metals that can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled.

Burseraceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 18 genera and 700 species. These plants are characterized by their resinous sap, which is often aromatic and used in perfumes, incense, and traditional medicines. Many members of this family have thick, exfoliating bark and pinnate leaves. Some well-known examples include the frankincense tree (Boswellia sacra) and the myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha). The plants in Burseraceae are primarily found in tropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Central America.

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

"Acanthopanax" is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Araliaceae. It includes several species native to Asia, such as Acanthopanax senticosus (also known as Eleutherococcus senticosus or Siberian ginseng) and Acanthopanax gracilistylus (also known as Mikania cordata or Japanese tea). These plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including boosting the immune system, increasing energy, and reducing stress. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Therefore, "Acanthopanax" itself does not have a specific medical definition as it refers to a genus of plants with various proposed medicinal properties.

The 'Limit of Detection' (LOD) is a term used in laboratory medicine and clinical chemistry to describe the lowest concentration or quantity of an analyte (the substance being measured) that can be reliably distinguished from zero or blank value, with a specified level of confidence. It is typically expressed as a concentration or amount and represents the minimum amount of analyte that must be present in a sample for the assay to produce a response that is statistically different from a blank or zero calibrator.

The LOD is an important parameter in analytical method validation, as it helps to define the range of concentrations over which the assay can accurately and precisely measure the analyte. It is determined based on statistical analysis of the data generated during method development and validation, taking into account factors such as the variability of the assay and the signal-to-noise ratio.

It's important to note that LOD should not be confused with the 'Limit of Quantification' (LOQ), which is the lowest concentration or quantity of an analyte that can be measured with acceptable precision and accuracy. LOQ is typically higher than LOD, as it requires a greater level of confidence in the measurement.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an advanced technique used in analytical chemistry for the preparation and extraction of samples. It's not exclusively a medical term, but it does have applications in clinical and medical research. Here's a definition:

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free sample preparation technique that integrates sampling, extraction, concentration, and cleanup into a single step. It involves the use of a fused-silica fiber, which is coated with a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or polyacrylate. This fiber is exposed to the sample matrix, allowing the analytes (compounds of interest) to be adsorbed or absorbed onto the coating. After the extraction step, the fiber is then inserted into a gas chromatograph or high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. SPME is widely used in various fields, including environmental monitoring, food analysis, and biomedical research, due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. In the medical field, it can be applied for the analysis of drugs, metabolites, or other compounds in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissue.

Solid-phase synthesis techniques refer to a group of methods used in chemistry, particularly in the field of peptide and oligonucleotide synthesis. These techniques involve chemically binding reactive components to a solid support or resin, and then performing a series of reactions on the attached components while they are still in the solid phase.

The key advantage of solid-phase synthesis is that it allows for the automated and repetitive addition of individual building blocks (such as amino acids or nucleotides) to a growing chain, with each step followed by a purification process that removes any unreacted components. This makes it possible to synthesize complex molecules in a highly controlled and efficient manner.

The solid-phase synthesis techniques typically involve the use of protecting groups to prevent unwanted reactions between functional groups on the building blocks, as well as the use of activating agents to promote the desired chemical reactions. Once the synthesis is complete, the final product can be cleaved from the solid support and purified to yield a pure sample of the desired molecule.

In summary, solid-phase synthesis techniques are a powerful set of methods used in chemistry to synthesize complex molecules in a controlled and efficient manner, with applications in fields such as pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, and materials science.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Analytical laboratories use solid phase extraction to concentrate and purify samples for analysis. Solid phase extraction can ... Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), is a solid phase extraction technique that involves the use of a fiber coated with an ... Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a solid-liquid extractive technique, by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a ... Solid phase extraction cartridges and disks can be purchased with several stationary phases, each of which separates analytes ...
Some of the most common DNA extraction methods include organic extraction, Chelex extraction, and solid phase extraction. These ... Solid phase extraction such as using a spin-column-based extraction method takes advantage of the fact that DNA binds to silica ... This lowers the risk of contamination making it very useful for the forensic extraction of DNA. Multiple solid-phase extraction ... Minicolumn purification relies on the fact that the nucleic acids may bind (adsorption) to the solid phase (silica or other) ...
"Graphitized carbons for solid-phase extraction". Journal of Chromatography A. 885 (1-2): 73-95. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00085 ... The most common use (70%) of carbon black is as a pigment and reinforcing phase in automobile tires. Carbon black also helps ...
Wells, M. J. M.; Yu, L. Z. (2000). "Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides". Journal of Chromatography A. 885 (1-2): 237- ...
This property can be useful in organic synthesis and separation methods such as solid phase extraction. In practice, a ... Zhang, W.; Curran, D. P. (2006). "Synthetic Applications of Fluorous Solid-Phase Extraction (F-SPE)". Tetrahedron. 62 (51): ... for fluorous phases or fluorous-derivatized solid phases allows for near complete recovery of the tagged reagent (i.e., near ... These reagents can then be separated from organic solvents by extraction with fluorinated solvents such as perfluorohexane. The ...
Mattivi F. (1993). "Solid phase extraction of trans-resveratrol from wines for HPLC analysis". Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel- ... Vrhovsek U. (1998). "Extraction of Hydroxycinnamoyltartaric Acids from Berries of Different Grape Varieties". J Agric Food Chem ... The amount of phenols leached is known as extraction. These compounds contribute to the astringency, color and mouthfeel of the ... The technique allows for a better extraction of phenolic compounds. The exposure of wine to oxygen in limited quantities ...
Nucleic acid methods DNA sequencing Solid-phase extraction DeAngelis, M M; Wang, D G; Hawkins, T L (1995-11-25). "Solid-phase ... Solid-phase reversible immobilization, or SPRI, is a method of purifying nucleic acids from solution. It uses silica- or ... Open platform for high-throughput nucleic acid extraction and manipulation". PLOS Biology. 17 (1): e3000107. doi:10.1371/ ...
They have developed thin films for solid-phase micro extraction (SPME). Weber develops electrochemical detectors for use with ...
Solid-phase extraction technology was employed for sample purification and enrichment. After extraction and purification, the ... 1 for solid and liquid samples, respectively. "Beta-agonists: What are they and should I be concerned?". Retrieved 9 January ...
Sensitive GC-MS quantitation after solid phase extraction in 19 fatal cases". Forensic Science International. 86 (3): 173-180. ...
Examples are: Solid polymer, liquid phase: Extraction of caprolactam from Polyamides with water. Solid polymer, gas phase: ... Devolatilization can be carried out when a polymer is in the solid or liquid phase, with the volatile components going into a ... Liquid polymer, gas phase: Removal of Styrene from Polystyrene via vacuum. It is usual for different types of devolatilization ... The thermodynamic activity of volatiles needs to be higher in the polymer than in the other phase for them to leave the polymer ...
Toward a microchip-based solid-phase extraction method for isolation of nucleic acids. Electrophoresis, 23, 727-733 (2002). ( ...
... and solid-phase extraction. Among them solid-phase extraction is considered as the cheapest and easiest technique. Blackwater ... Resuspension-induced partitioning of organic carbon between solid and solution phases from a river-ocean transition. Mar. Chem ... and a dissolved phase (DIC). PIC mainly consists of carbonates (e.g., CaCO3), DIC consists of carbonate (CO32-), bicarbonate ( ...
Solid phase extraction also can be used to isolate YTXs from the sample medium. This technique separates the components of a ... shellfish by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on enrichment by solid-phase extraction". ... This can be achieved by several methods: Liquid-liquid extraction or solvent extraction can be used to isolate YTXs from the ... The drawback of using the solvent extraction method is the levels of analyte recovery can be poor, so any results obtained from ...
Bioactive phenols in algae: The application of pressurized-liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques. L. Onofrejová, J. ...
Further fractionation of the extract can be achieved using solid phase extraction columns, and may lead to isolation of ... The application of pressurized-liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis ... Phenol extraction is a processing technology used to prepare phenols as raw materials, compounds or additives for industrial ... Extraction can be performed using different solvents. There is a risk that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) degrades the phenolic ...
... is a solid phase extraction method for detection of pesticide residues in food. The name is a portmanteau word formed ... Following this, the sample is put through a dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup prior to analysis by gas-liquid ... Some modifications to the original QuEChERS method had to be introduced to ensure efficient extraction of pH-dependent ...
Albers S, Elshoff JP, Völker C, Richter A, Läer S (2005). "HPLC quantification of metoprolol with solid-phase extraction for ... Metoprolol blocks β1-adrenergic receptors in heart muscle cells, thereby decreasing the slope of phase 4 in the nodal action ... potential (reducing Na+ uptake) and prolonging repolarization of phase 3 (slowing down K+ release).[non-primary source needed] ...
"Determination of estazolam in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with solid-phase extraction" (PDF). Analytical ...
Preferential Extraction of Hydrocarbons from Fire Debris Samples by Solid Phase Microextraction. Journal of Forensic Sciences. ... J Non-Crystalline Solids, 351, 3174-3178 (2005). Jourden, M. J.*; Geiss, P.*; Thomenius, M. J.*; Horst, L. A.*; Barty, M. M.*; ... Selective Detection of Gas-Phase TNT by Integrated Optical Waveguide Spectrometry Using Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel Sensing ...
Solid phase microextraction, or SPME, is a solid phase extraction sampling technique that involves the use of a fiber coated ... Pawliszyn J.: Solid Phase Microextraction: Theory and Practice, Wiley-VCH, 1997. Pawliszyn J.: Applications of Solid Phase ... Introduction to Solid Phase Microextraction Quantification using Solid Phase Microextraction (All articles with unsourced ... "Understanding Solid-Phase Microextraction: Key Factors Influencing the Extraction Process and Trends in Improving the Technique ...
These separation methods include precipitation, Ion Exchange, Liquid Liquid extraction, Solid Phase extraction, Distillation, ... The advantage of solid state detectors is the greater resolution of the resultant energy spectrum. Usually NaI(Tl) detectors ...
Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of a-Tocopherol by Functionalized Ionic Liquid-modified Mesoporous SBA-15 Adsorbent. ... adsorption from supercritical gases in extraction processes and chromatography. Besides, knowledge of gas/solid interface ... The solid sample is placed in a sample holder on one arm of the microbalance while the counterpart is loaded on the other arm. ... However, adsorbed-phase density is the decisive factor for the existence of this end. The state of adsorbate at the "end" ...
An effective sample preparation protocol, usually involving either liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solid phase extraction ( ... Van Hout, MW; Hofland CM; Niederländer HA; de Jong GJ (2000). "On-line coupling of solid-phase extraction with mass ... "On-line coupling of solid-phase extraction with mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological samples. I. Determination of ... Similar is the effect of reducing the mobile phase flow rate to the nanolitre-per-minute range since, in addition to resulting ...
Trenbolone (trienolone) Waller CC, McLeod MD (2014). "A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction ...
Curran also introduced fluorous solid phase extraction, a simple separation technique that enabled much subsequent work. The ... Curran introduced light fluorous reactions, fluorous triphasic reactions, fluorous phase vanishing reactions (with Ilhyong Ryu ... A fluorous-phase strategy for improving separation efficiency in organic synthesis" Science 1997, 275, 823-826. doi 10.1126/ ... and fluorous mixture synthesis (or FMS). FMS is the first example of solution phase synthesis with separation tagging, and it ...
Solid phase extraction which separates long polymers like DNA from other substances found in the cells. This is similar to ... The lag phase is not well known in microbiology, but it is speculated that this phase consists of the microorganism adjusting ... The log phase is the period where a culture experiences logarithmic growth until nutrients become scarce. The stationary phase ... where the solid phase is fixed and selectively binds a cellular component, allowing for its isolation. Gel electrophoresis is a ...
Izatt, R. M. Review of selective ion separations at BYU using liquid membrane and solid phase extraction procedures. J. Incl. ... Izatt, R. et al Solid phase extraction of ions of analytical interest using molecular recognition technology. Am. Lab. 1994 Vol ... Rahman, I. et al Determination of lead in solution by solid phase extraction, elution, and spectrophotometric detection using 4 ... Dulanská, S. Pre-concentration and determination of 90Sr in radioactive wastes using solid phase extraction techniques. J. ...
Estimates of bioavailability can also be obtained from chemical solid-phase soil extractions. Fugacity modelling of ... Ionic compounds, such as heavy metals, can be precipitated into the solid phase. Volatile compounds can be lost as aerosols to ... Depending on its chemical properties, a contaminant may or may not be found in the aqueous phase. Organic contaminants may ... bioavailability is based on the solubility and partitioning of compounds into aqueous and non-aqueous phases. This model ...
Barroso M, Gallardo E, Margalho C, Devesa N, Pimentel J, Vieira DN (April 2007). "Solid-phase extraction and gas ... despite Phase I clinical trials in 2005. As of 2001, the effects of xylazine were also reversed by the analeptics 4- ...
Analytical laboratories use solid phase extraction to concentrate and purify samples for analysis. Solid phase extraction can ... Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), is a solid phase extraction technique that involves the use of a fiber coated with an ... Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a solid-liquid extractive technique, by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a ... Solid phase extraction cartridges and disks can be purchased with several stationary phases, each of which separates analytes ...
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VERSA automated Solid Phase Extraction systems (also known as automated SPE systems) fully automate SPE workflows from ... Automated Liquid Liquid Extraction (LLE) System. Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) System. ... VERSA automated Solid Phase Extraction systems (also known as automated SPE systems) fully automate SPE workflows from ... Tanunkat from Bureau of Drug and Narcotic of Thailand use the VERSA 1100 automated Solid Phase Extraction system to quantify ...
Dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) has been used as a pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds. This ... technique is based on the dispersion of a solid sorbent in liquid samples in the extraction isolation and clean-up of different ... solid phase extraction (SPE) [10], solid phase microextraction (SPME) [11], microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) [12], and ... dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction) [57], UAE (ultrasound-assisted extraction) [29], and DSPE (dispersive solid phase ...
The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using ... The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using ... and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass ... and sulfonamide herbicides at nanogram-per-liter concentrations by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass ...
The manipulation of the solid phase in conventional analysis may involve the use of ... The manipulation of the solid phase in conventional analysis may involve the use of relatively large amounts of solid phase. ... solid phase extraction. S. S. M. P. Vidigal, I. V. Tóth and A. O. S. S. Rangel, Anal. Methods, 2013, 5, 585 DOI: 10.1039/ ... Sequential injection lab-on-valve platform as a miniaturisation tool for solid phase extraction ...
The use of solid-phase extraction allows the use of robotic or manual sample preparation for the efficient clean-up of ... The use of solid-phase extraction allows the use of robotic or manual sample preparation for the efficient clean-up of ... Determination of terfenadine and terfenadine acid metabolite in plasma using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid ...
PRO consists of a new type of polymeric SPE sorbent combined with matrix removal technology to revolutionize sample extractions ... Strata-X PRO Solid-Phase Extraction Product Guide. .social-ris-container { display: flex; justify-content: space-between; } @ ... Strata-X PRO Solid-Phase Extraction Product Guide. ... matrix removal technology to revolutionize sample extractions ...
... and Selected Metabolites in Decomposed Skeletal Tissues by Microwave-Assisted Extraction/Microplate Solid Phase Extraction/ ...
... using the Clarity OTX extraction protocol vendor recommendations, we have demonstrated its use to develop a method for the ... Although the extraction of oligos presents many challenges, implementing a sample strategy streamlines the workflow ... Although the extraction of oligos presents many challenges, implementing a sample strategy streamlines the workflow ... Although the extraction of oligos presents many challenges, implementing a sample strategy streamlines the workflow ...
Solid phase extraction SPE is the sample preparation process. It... ... Check for Discount on Global Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables Market Research Report 2023 report by QYResearch Group. ... 8.4.2 Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables Distributors. 8.5 Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables Customers. 9 Solid Phase ... And extraction cartridge is the most widely used in solid phase extraction SPE.. The global Solid Phase Extraction SPE ...
... Liu, Qian ... We herein demonstrate the use of graphene as a novel adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Eight chlorophenols (CPs) as ... Graphene, Solid-phase extraction, Adsorbent, Chlorophenol, Sample pretreatment National Category Analytical Chemistry ... and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the extraction of CPs. Some other advantages of graphene as SPE adsorbent, such as good ...
Determination of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Vegetable Oils Using Fe3O4/rGO Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Coupled with High- ... Static-dynamic pressurized hot water extraction coupled to on-line filtration-solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid ... Determination of Piperazine in Eggs Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) with High- ... Continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled to on line filtration-solid-phase extraction-column liquid chromatography- ...
Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Researchers believe they have found a new way of treating type 2 ... Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) does not affect the long-term survival of sufferers, as ... Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). The Plexa™ family of amide-free, polymeric SPE products provide a generic, sample independent ... Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Research carried out at the National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg, Canada, has shown that ...
... With a solid-phase-extraction system from Zinsser Analytic a high throughput with little to no manual ...
... is a technique used for rapid, selective sample preparation and purification prior to ... Solid Phase Extraction & QuEChERS. Browse our website for the full range of systems, devices, and materials for solid phase ... Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free sample preparation technique that uses ... Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a technique designed for rapid, selective sample preparation and purification prior to the ...
Solid Phase Extraction Avantor offers a variety of J.T.Baker® brand silica- and polymer-based BAKERBOND™ spe columns, high ... J.T.Baker® BAKERBOND spe™ extraction disks 50mm disks for samples from 200ml to 2L. These are not cardridge or membrane disks. ... J.T.Baker® BAKERBOND spe™ extraction columns 1ml, 3ml and 6ml columns, round-rimmed and earshaped in ultraclean polypropylene ...
Comparison between automated and manual Solid phase extraction method for lipids. ... Data for: A novel automated solid phase extraction procedure for lipid biomarker purification and δ2H stable isotope ... efficiency and reproducibility with classical manual solid phase extraction. Published:. 26 April 2021, Version 1 , DOI: ...
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Empore Solid Phase Extraction Products are intended for solid phase extraction during scientific research only. These products ... Empore solid phase extraction (SPE). The Empore membrane systems provide an efficient alternative to liquid/liquid extraction ... cartridges and 96 wellplate formats with a range of sorbent materials that can be used for extraction of a wide range of sample ...
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buy solid phase extraction Sample Preparation Products online ... Supported Liquid Extraction (SLE) * Protein Precipitation (PPP) ...
Our samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and then detected with HPLC. During the evaluation, we looked for a ... Solid-Phase Extraction. The concentration of drug residues in the samples is expected to be very small according to our ... Therefore, solid-phase extraction was applied in order to achieve the highest possible concentration. An Agilent Mega Bond Elut ... After solid-phase extraction, the samples were analyzed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and mass spectrometry ...
Available in a wide range of phases to suit applications requiring complex matrix clean up. ...
... is a widely used technique for extraction and concentration of VOCs and SVOCs combined with ... Extraction:. Sample agitation with stir bars accelerates the extraction process and improves throughput. Mechanical fiber ... Using the MPS, a derivatization reagent can be added to the fiber prior to or following the extraction step. This is a much- ... In addition, samples can be heated or cooled during storage and extraction, which is highly useful, for example, for sensitive ...
Learn what every chromatographer needs to know about solid phase extraction (SPE) sample preparation products, methods, and ... Solid phase extraction employs the same basic principles as chromatography. SPE makes use of the same HPLC column solid phase ... such as reversed phase, ion exchange, normal phase, and mixed mode phases (see Table 1 and the SPE Solid Phase Selection page ... Table 4 illustrates the broad range of solid phase extraction phases and formats offered to solve sample preparation need of a ...
Be the first to review "QuEChERS Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction" Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. ... QuEChERS Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction. QuEChERS - a Simplified Method of Sample Preparation for Pesticide Analysis In 2003 ... 1. QuEChERS extraction method is designed for multi-residue pesticide analysis of fruits and vegetables with high water content ... 3. For low-water content fruits and vegetables, additional water needs to be added to optimize the extraction. For high-fatty ...
Manual Solid Phase Extraction System. The Manual solid phase extraction system is a negative pressure solid phase extraction ... Solid phase extraction BSPE-104. *Sample tube volume: 10 mm tube x12, 12 mm tube x12, 15 mm tube x12 ... Automated Solid Phase Extraction System*Manual Solid Phase Extraction System. *Automated Solid Phase Extraction System ... the solid phase extraction instrument aims to reduce the interference of the sample matrix and improve the detection ...
Automated Solid-Phase Extraction of Triclosan in Tap Water Using Hydrophilic Reversed-Phase Cartridges and HPLC with UV ...
  • The authors developed a two-cartridge, solid-phase extraction method for isolating 12 SU, 3 IMI, and 1 SA herbicides by using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) to identify and quantify these herbicides to 10 ng/l. (
  • Owing to the simplicity, rapidity and efficiency, Fe3O4/rGO magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence with post-column photochemical derivatization (Fe3O4/rGO MSPE-HPLC-PCD-FLD) is a promising analytical method for routine and accurate determination of aflatoxins in lipid matrices. (
  • Micro-matrix cartridge extraction coupled on-line to micro- solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (µ-MCE-online-µ-SPE- HPLC -MS) is presented. (
  • SPE is in fact a method of chromatography, in the sense of having a mobile phase, carrying mixtures through a stationary phase, packed inside a column. (
  • The chemistry considerations for the selection of stationary phases and the mobile phases are very similar in SPE and in chromatography. (
  • With the combination of the ReagentDrop™ dispenser, Heater-Shaker, Gripper, and Nitrogen Dryer, VERSA automated solid phase extraction (SPE) systems act to produce contamination-free sample pre-processing and trace analyte enrichment before performing sample analysis by a chromatography-based platform (HPLC, GCMS, HPLC-MS, etc). (
  • Employing solid phase extraction sample preparation can also reduce harmful compounds introduced into the chromatography system thereby extending the longevity of the analytical column and instrument. (
  • Solid phase extraction employs the same basic principles as chromatography. (
  • In summary, the method used solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • A new method of the determination polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples was developed by continuous-flow microextraction (CFME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this experiment, 15 mL sample solution with no salt-added was flowed at the rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) through 3 microL benzene as extraction solvent. (
  • UHPSFC , ultra- pacted by other parameters, such as the addition of the mod- high performance supercritical fluid chromatography ifier and the change of the mobile phase density [20]. (
  • Dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) has been used as a pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds. (
  • This technique has allowed the development of alternative methodologies such as dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE), which is based on the addition of a sorbent directly into the analytical solution followed by dispersion favoring the contact between the sorbent and the analytes [ 14 , 15 ]. (
  • As the sample passes through the stationary phase, the polar analytes in the sample will interact and retain on the polar sorbent while the solvent, and other non-polar impurities pass through the cartridge. (
  • This technique is based on the dispersion of a solid sorbent in liquid samples in the extraction isolation and clean-up of different analytes from complex matrices. (
  • Strata-X PRO consists of a new type of polymeric SPE sorbent combined with matrix removal technology to revolutionize sample extractions and matrix clean-up by eliminates the conditioning and equilibration steps. (
  • In SPE, the stationary phase (a sorbent or resin) binds either the analyte or impurity through strong but reversible interactions to reliably and rapidly extract the analyte of interest from a complex sample. (
  • The SPE products are available as disks, cartridges and 96 wellplate formats with a range of sorbent materials that can be used for extraction of a wide range of sample types including semi-volatile organics, polar and ionic compounds. (
  • The impact of the porous nature of the extraction sorbent on analyte recoveries, under different conditions of temperature and solvent contact time, is studied. (
  • Conditioning the SPE Cartridge prepares the sorbent phase to accept your pretreated sample. (
  • Solid phase extraction can be used to isolate analytes of interest from a wide variety of matrices, including urine, blood, water, beverages, soil, and animal tissue. (
  • The result is that either the desired analytes of interest or undesired impurities in the sample are retained on the stationary phase. (
  • The portion that passes through the stationary phase is collected or discarded, depending on whether it contains the desired analytes or undesired impurities. (
  • If the portion retained on the stationary phase includes the desired analytes, they can then be removed from the stationary phase for collection in an additional step, in which the stationary phase is rinsed with an appropriate eluent. (
  • It is possible to have an incomplete recovery of the analytes by SPE caused by incomplete extraction or elution. (
  • In the case of an incomplete extraction, the analytes do not have enough affinity for the stationary phase and part of them will remain in the permeate. (
  • Reversed phase SPE separates analytes based on their polarity. (
  • Ion exchange sorbents separate analytes based on electrostatic interactions between the analyte of interest and the positively or negatively charged groups on the stationary phase. (
  • In SPE, one or more analytes from a liquid sample are isolated by extracting, partitioning, and/or adsorbing onto a solid stationary phase. (
  • The modified surface of solid phase extraction sorbents is studied with respect to the impact on the isolation and purification of analytes. (
  • Interactions at the interface are characterized by quantifying recoveries of a broad range of analytes, on a variety of surfaces, and under various extraction conditions. (
  • Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is a relatively simple process, but one that requires some thought in order to achieve good recoveries and acceptable cleanliness of your analytes prior to analysis. (
  • For example, if your analytes contain an aromatic phenyl group, while the interferences don't, then possibly choose a phenyl phase (i.e. (
  • Factors influencing the quantity of the analytes extracted onto the solid-phase micro-extraction fiber, such as addition of salt, sample pH, extraction time, desorption time, and sample volume, were optimized using solid-phase micro-extraction-HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the method gave satisfactory sensitivities and precisions for analyzing sub-part-per-trillion levels of triclosan, triclocarban, and transformation products of triclocarban in samples collected locally. (
  • Finally, solid phase extraction and fluorescence detection experiments were conducted for the crude oil- containing seawater samples using the prototype device. (
  • Method: Solid-phase extraction and parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to quantify 17 synaptic proteins in CSF, in two cross-sectional studies including AD (n = 52) and controls (n = 37). (
  • The analyte can be eluted by washing the cartridge with a non-polar solvent, which disrupts the interaction of the analyte and the stationary phase. (
  • This sample pretreatment technique enables pre-quantification extraction, cleanup, and enrichment of the analyte. (
  • A compromise phase (C8) improves overall recoveries, while analyte recoveries were optimized by extraction onto stacked and layered phases. (
  • In contrast with a liquid-liquid extraction where it only allows you to target classes of compounds, SPE enables you to target just your analyte of interest. (
  • Hydrolyzed samples are passed through solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents. (
  • Our samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and then detected with HPLC. (
  • SPE makes use of the same HPLC column solid phase packing materials in a single-use container such as plastic tubular cartridges (shown in Figure 1), 96-well plates, or pipette tips. (
  • Like HPLC columns, there are many stationary phase options to choose from, such as reversed phase, ion exchange, normal phase, and mixed mode phases (see Table 1 and the SPE Solid Phase Selection page). (
  • First, the cartridge is equilibrated with a non-polar or slightly polar solvent, which wets the surface and penetrates the bonded phase. (
  • This stationary phase will adsorb polar molecules which can be collected with a more polar solvent. (
  • MSPE parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction and desorption time, washing conditions, and the type and volume of desorption solvent were optimized. (
  • SPE uses significantly smaller volumes of solvent compared to liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and supported liquid extraction (SLE) methods. (
  • Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) is a widely used technique for extraction and concentration of VOCs and SVOCs combined with GC/MS. Unique to absorption techniques for GC, SPME is suited for both small and larger molecules, and the absorption may take place in either the headspace or liquid. (
  • Dr. Thiangthum and Dr. Tanunkat from Bureau of Drug and Narcotic of Thailand use the VERSA 1100 automated Solid Phase Extraction system to quantify amphetamine and methamphetamine in drug users. (
  • The method is based on the extraction of Methamphetamine by usingof Solid Phase Extraction technique with C18 and its determination by GC-MS. The method was then successfully applied for the determination of Methamphetamine in real samples. (
  • The nanocomposite was successfully used as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents for the determination of aflatoxins in edible vegetable oils through the π-π stacking interactions. (
  • Micro-matrix cartridge extraction followed by online micro-solid phase extraction based on polystyrene@hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin nanofibers for selective determination of fipronil and its metabolites in soil. (
  • SPE uses the affinity of solutes, dissolved or suspended in a liquid (known as the mobile phase), to a solid packing inside a small column, through which the sample is passed (known as the stationary phase), to separate a mixture into desired and undesired components. (
  • The chromatographic process is harnessed to be an extractive technique, a solid-liquid extractive technique-taking advantage of large differences in the Keq, or equilibrium constant, of mixture components between the solid stationary phase and the mobile phase resulting, for a well-designed and executed separation. (
  • A stationary phase of polar functionally bonded silicas with short carbons chains frequently makes up the solid phase. (
  • The stationary phase of a reversed phase SPE cartridge is derivatized with hydrocarbon chains, which retain compounds of mid to low polarity due to the hydrophobic effect. (
  • A stationary phase of silicon with carbon chains is commonly used. (
  • SFC is mainly decided by the stationary phase nature. (
  • The use of solid-phase extraction allows the use of robotic or manual sample preparation for the efficient clean-up of terfenadine and terfenadine acid metabolite from plasma. (
  • Solid phase extraction SPE is the sample preparation process. (
  • Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a technique designed for rapid, selective sample preparation and purification prior to the chromatographic analysis (e.g. (
  • The Empore membrane systems provide an efficient alternative to liquid/liquid extraction for sample preparation. (
  • Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a sample preparation technique often used by chromatographers prior to analysis. (
  • Ashmeeta Chera, Phenomenex Sample Preparation Sales Manager and Matt Brusius, Phenomenex Sample Preparation Product Manager, discuss the major Solid Phase Extraction FAQs such as "what is Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)? (
  • Automatic solid phase extraction using the benchmate procedure was used for sample preparation. (
  • We herein demonstrate the use of graphene as a novel adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). (
  • VERSA automated Solid Phase Extraction systems (also known as automated SPE systems) fully automate SPE workflows from cartridge conditioning to sample derivatization. (
  • In the process, generally, solid phase extraction consumables refer to the extraction cartridge (including the filler), disk and 96 well plate etc. (
  • And extraction cartridge is the most widely used in solid phase extraction SPE. (
  • The interference of tar and nicotinamide was separated by solid phase extraction with graphitized carbon black cartridge. (
  • The global Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables market was valued at US$ 302.6 million in 2022 and is anticipated to reach US$ 425.9 million by 2029, witnessing a CAGR of 4.9% during the forecast period 2023-2029. (
  • North America is the largest Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Consumables market with about 36% market share. (
  • This report aims to provide a comprehensive presentation of the global market for Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables, with both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to help readers develop business/growth strategies, assess the market competitive situation, analyze their position in the current marketplace, and make informed business decisions regarding Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables. (
  • The Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables market size, estimations, and forecasts are provided in terms of output/shipments (K Units) and revenue ($ millions), considering 2022 as the base year, with history and forecast data for the period from 2018 to 2029. (
  • This report segments the global Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables market comprehensively. (
  • The report will help the Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables manufacturers, new entrants, and industry chain related companies in this market with information on the revenues, production, and average price for the overall market and the sub-segments across the different segments, by company, by type, by application, and by regions. (
  • Chapter 2: Detailed analysis of Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables manufacturers competitive landscape, price, production and value market share, latest development plan, merger, and acquisition information, etc. (
  • Chapter 3: Production/output, value of Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables by region/country. (
  • According to TMR, the Global Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Consumables Market is estimated to reach xxx million USD in 2019 and projected to grow at the CAGR of xx% during the 2020-2025. (
  • The report analyses the global Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Consumables market, the market size and growth, as well as the major market participants. (
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a sample pretreatment technique routinely used in analytical laboratories to extract objects from a complex matrix. (
  • Although the extraction of oligos presents many challenges, implementing a sample strategy streamlines the workflow considerably and here, using the Clarity OTX extraction protocol vendor recommendations, we have demonstrated its use to develop a method for the extraction of therapeutic oligos from plasma. (
  • Comparison between automated and manual Solid phase extraction method for lipids. (
  • Two most common methods are the European Committee for Standardization (EN 15662) method which applies citrate buffer for extraction and the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC 2007.01) method using acetic acid buffer. (
  • Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a widely used method to separate and concentrate the target molecules in liquid mixture. (
  • Nucleic acid extraction (NAE) is the initial step for many molecular biology applications, so one of the first questions you have to answer when setting up a lab is what kind of RNA and DNA extraction method to use. (
  • To extract a sufficient yield of high quality, purified RNA or DNA for your downstream applications, you have to find the best extraction method (or combination of methods) for your sample type. (
  • Under the optimal extraction conditions, the developed method was found to yield a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 0.05 to 15 ng mL(-1). (
  • The results showed that CFME was an efficient preconcentration method for extraction of PAHs from spiked water samples. (
  • Sample agitation with stir bars accelerates the extraction process and improves throughput. (
  • Solid-phase extraction prevents most of the problems that occur with liquid-liquid extraction and improves quantitative recovery. (
  • Comparative studies showed that graphene was superior to other adsorbents including C18 silica, graphitic carbon, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the extraction of CPs. (
  • A low-viscosity mobile phase consisting of compressed trial organic matter in geosciences because the composition carbon dioxide is used in SFC to achieve fast and efficient of its phenols is an important indicator of the type of original separation. (
  • Chromatographic separation is achieved using a reversed phase column with 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.2 (mobile phase A) and 5/95% 100 mM ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile (mobile phase B). The eluent from the column is ionized using an APCI interface to generate and transmit positive ions into the mass spectrometer. (
  • Bonded phases of varying hydrocarbon chain length are studied. (
  • An extraction buffer containing Tris-HCl, EDTA, sodium lauryl sarkosyl and water insoluble PVPP is added to the sample. (
  • For Chelex 100 extraction, an extraction buffer containing Chelex 100 resin, SDS, NP40 and Tween ® 20 is added to the sample. (
  • In preliminary experiments with a standard nanoLC-MS set-up (i.e. trap column for extraction + separation column), injecting protein precipitated pooled human plasma clogged the column(s) (see Fig. 1A ). (
  • Analytical laboratories use solid phase extraction to concentrate and purify samples for analysis. (
  • Download the validation poster to see how the VERSA 1100 automated Solid Phase Extraction system is eliminating cross-contamination while ensuring accuracy and reproducibility in urine samples of drug users. (
  • In addition, samples can be heated or cooled during storage and extraction, which is highly useful, for example, for sensitive samples. (
  • Furthermore, conventional RNA and DNA extraction methods are not suitable for tough-to-lyse samples (e.g. yeast, human specimen, animal tissue or plant material), which require both chemical and physical cell lysis steps. (
  • These can be useful for sample types that don't provide the desired output with spin column or magnetic bead extraction, e.g. samples with large particles such as soil or dust, or high volume samples such as chemostat cultures. (
  • 2. Some QuEChERS methods add buffers during the extraction step. (
  • But first, let's take a look back at two nucleic acid extraction methods that have been developed over the last 150 years, and show you why they should no longer be used, even though they are quick and easy to perform. (
  • 3 Therefore, Chelex 100 extraction is rarely used today when alternative methods, such as spin column extraction, take the same amount of time and offer much better results. (
  • The manipulation of the solid phase in conventional analysis may involve the use of relatively large amounts of solid phase. (
  • This is a much-used accessory for the analysis of small aldehydes using the oxime formation by PFPBHA reagent, but may be used for all reagents which react fast in the gas phase, e.g. (
  • Empore Solid Phase Extraction Products are intended for solid phase extraction during scientific research only. (
  • Most labs now isolate nucleic acids by using sample- and application-specific kits for spin column or magnetic bead extraction workflows. (
  • These metabolites underwent extensive phase II metabolism to yield sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates. (
  • What are the steps in the Solid Phase Extraction Process? (
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a solid-liquid extractive technique, by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture are separated, isolated or purified, from other compounds in this mixture, according to their physical and chemical properties. (
  • Using the MPS, a derivatization reagent can be added to the fiber prior to or following the extraction step. (
  • This predicament lead to the development of a needle-based mRNA extraction system that provides high temporal and spatial resolution that allows for repeated removal of mRNA from living material. (
  • Available in a wide range of phases to suit applications requiring complex matrix clean up. (
  • Experiments are devised to characterize the role of particulates in the sample matrix during solid phase extraction. (