The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? (1/95)

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

Deflection of the local interstellar dust flow by solar radiation pressure. (2/95)

Interstellar dust grains intercepted by the dust detectors on the Ulysses and Galileo spacecrafts at heliocentric distances from 2 to 4 astronomical units show a deficit of grains with masses from 1 x 10(-17) to 3 x 10(-16) kilograms relative to grains intercepted outside 4 astronomical units. To divert grains out of the 2- to 4-astronomical unit region, the solar radiation pressure must be 1.4 to 1.8 times the force of solar gravity. These figures are consistent with the optical properties of spherical or elongated grains that consist of astronomical silicates or organic refractory material. Pure graphite grains with diameters of 0.2 to 0.4 micrometer experience a solar radiation pressure force as much as twice the force of solar gravity.  (+info)

Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America. (3/95)

The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280-315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone "hole;" no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315-400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%), particularly when the solar UV was weighted for biological effectiveness according to action spectra that assume a sharp decline in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength from the UVB into the UVA regions of the spectrum.  (+info)

Sun-compass orientation in homing pigeons: compensation for different rates of change in azimuth? (4/95)

Birds using their sun compass must compensate for the apparent movement of the sun with the help of their internal clock. The movement of the sun is not uniform, being much faster around noon than near sunrise and sunset. If the sun-compass mechanisms are not adjusted to these variations, considerable errors might arise. To learn whether birds are able to take the different rates of sun azimuth change into account, we subjected homing pigeons to a 4 h fast clock-shift. The experiments were performed near Auckland, New Zealand, at a latitude of 37 degrees S, where the expected deflections for a 4 h shift in summer vary from less than 40 degrees to more than 120 degrees, depending on time of day. One group of birds was released just after sunrise or during the corresponding period in the afternoon when the expected deflections were minimal, the other group during late morning when they were maximal. The different sizes of the observed deflections - between 26 degrees and 51 degrees in the first group, and between 107 degrees and 153 degrees in the second group - clearly show that the birds' compensation mechanisms are closely tuned to the varying rates of change in sun azimuth. The results suggest that pigeons have a rather precise internal representation of the sun curve, which makes the avian sun compass a highly accurate mechanism of direction finding.  (+info)

Solar wind record on the moon: deciphering presolar from planetary nitrogen. (5/95)

Ion microprobe analyses show that solar wind nitrogen associated with solar wind hydrogen implanted in the first tens of nanometers of lunar regolith grains is depleted in 15N by at least 24% relative to terrestrial atmosphere, whereas a nonsolar component associated with deuterium-rich hydrogen, detected in silicon-bearing coatings at the surface of some ilmenite grains, is enriched in 15N. Systematic enrichment of 15N in terrestrial planets and bulk meteorites relative to the protosolar gas cannot be explained by isotopic fractionation in nebular or planetary environments but requires the contribution of 15N-rich compounds to the total nitrogen in planetary materials. Most of these compounds are possibly of an interstellar origin and never equilibrated with the 15N-depleted protosolar nebula.  (+info)

World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs. (6/95)

The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs.  (+info)

Migration along orthodromic sun compass routes by arctic birds. (7/95)

Flight directions of birds migrating at high geographic and magnetic latitudes can be used to test bird orientation by celestial or geomagnetic compass systems under polar conditions. Migration patterns of arctic shorebirds, revealed by tracking radar studies during an icebreaker expedition along the Northwest Passage in 1999, support predicted sun compass trajectories but cannot be reconciled with orientation along either geographic or magnetic loxodromes (rhumb lines). Sun compass routes are similar to orthodromes (great circle routes) at high latitudes, showing changing geographic courses as the birds traverse longitudes and their internal clock gets out of phase with local time. These routes bring the shorebirds from high arctic Canada to the east coast of North America, from which they make transoceanic flights to South America. The observations are also consistent with a migration link between Siberia and the Beaufort Sea region by way of sun compass routes across the Arctic Ocean.  (+info)

Can skin wrinkling in a site that has received limited sun exposure be used as a marker of health status and biological age? (8/95)

OBJECTIVES: to determine if skin wrinkling in a site that had received limited sun exposure may be a marker of health status and biological age. DESIGN: population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: we evaluated the health status of representative samples of elderly Greek-born people living in Melbourne, Greeks living in rural Greece, Anglo-Celtic Australians living in Melbourne and Swedes living in Sweden. We carried out microtopographic assessment of their skin and measured plasma dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. METHODS: we derived activities of daily living, well-being, memory and general health status scores from a cross-cultural questionnaire. We measured skin wrinkling using cutaneous microtopographic methods and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone by enzyme immuno-assay. RESULTS: skin wrinkling was positively correlated with age (r(s)=0.27, P<0.0001) and negatively with body mass index (r(s)=-0.19, P<0.0001). Therefore, all analyses were controlled for these variables. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone was higher in smokers than non-smokers (2.86 vs 2.08; P<0.001) and men had significantly higher plasma dehydroepiandrosterone than women (2.74 vs 1.69; P<0.0001). In the pooled data, skin wrinkling was negatively associated with general health score (r(s)=-0.13, P<0.01) and activities of daily living score (r(s)=-0.14, P<0.05) after controlling for age, body mass index and smoking. These associations were more pronounced in women. Finally, those with the least skin wrinkling had the highest dehydroepiandrosterone level (r(s)=-0.12, P=0.06) after adjusting for age, smoking and sex. CONCLUSION: skin wrinkling in a site with limited sun exposure might be used as a marker of health status and, to some extent, biological age--particularly for women.  (+info)

Galaxy vs Solar System. The solar system and a galaxy are two different terms but sometimes are confused with one another. To understand the solar system, one should know the definition of a star system. A star system is a system in which planets orbit around a massive star. This is due to the gravitational attraction that is present in between them. A solar system is a specific kind of star system in which the Sun is at the centre. The solar system consists of anything that orbits the sun or orbits the planets which orbit the sun. The moon of earth, for example, is a part of our solar system. A galaxy, on the other hand, is a huge collection of stars that are held together by gravitational attraction. There can be a 100 million to over a trillion stars within a galaxy. It consists of interstellar gas, star clusters and numerous star systems. Many star systems can be part of a single galaxy but not the other way around.. Perhaps the biggest difference between a solar system and a galaxy is their ...
New research reveals the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount of gas into the sun within just a few million years.. Infant planetary systems are usually nothing more than swirling disks of gas and dust. Over the course of a few million years, this gas gets sucked into the center of the disk to build a star, while the remaining dust accumulates into larger and larger chunks - the building blocks for terrestrial planets.. Astronomers have observed this protoplanetary disk evolution throughout our galaxy - a process that our own solar system underwent early in its history. However, the mechanism by which planetary disks evolve at such a rapid rate has eluded scientists for decades.. Now researchers at MIT, Cambridge University, and elsewhere have provided the first experimental evidence that our solar systems protoplanetary disk was shaped by an intense magnetic field that drove a massive amount ...
The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. The idea that comets once seeded the early Earth with the water and organics needed for life to originate has been widely discussed. This raises the question of whether the composition of comets - a reliable indicator of the composition of the solar nebula - is unique to the Solar System or commonly accompanies planet formation. Here Karin Öberg et al. report the detection of cyanides - CH3CN, HC3N and HCN - in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, an analogue to the solar nebula. The abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas-phase are similar to those in comets, implying that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the prebiotic chemistry present in the young Solar System is not unique.
The solar system is made up of the Sun, the planets and dwarf planets and their known moons, asteroids, comets, dust and gas. The planets, asteroids, and comets travel around the Sun, the center of our solar system.. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits, and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above).. Solar system formation began billions of years ago, when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun, planets, and other bodies of the solar system.. ...
Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits sometimes bring them close to the Earth, making them potential collision threats. NEOs also offer clues to the composition, dynamics and environmental conditions of the early solar system and its evolution, and because they are relatively close to the Earth they lend themselves to astronomical measurements. Most NEOs are discovered in optical searches, but one crucial NEO parameter, its size, usually cannot be determined from optical detections alone. This is because an NEOs optical light is reflected sunlight, and an object can be bright either because it is large or because it has a high reflectivity. A CfA team has been using the IRAC infrared camera on Spitzer to measure NEO infrared emission signals which provide an independent measure of its size.
A method of delivering a solar system and related services from a solar system vendor to a customer is provided. The method includes estimating the customers solar system requirements, delivering the estimated requirements to the customer, providing a sales lead that includes the estimated requirements to a contractor, the contractor contacting the customer to perform a sales close, ordering the solar system products from the solar system vendor, and issuing a payment for the products to the solar system vendor. The method of delivering solar services further includes supplying a first set of solar system components from the solar system vendor and a second set of solar system components from a third-party vendor, configuring all or a portion of the solar system components in accordance with the solar system requirements, shipping the solar system to the customers site, and installing the system on the customers site. The method for delivering solar services further includes financing the solar
This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the H II regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z = 0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multicomponent line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats ...
Allende is this very unusual meteorite with all these wonderful inclusions (CAIs), said Ian Hutcheon, one of the LLNL scientists on the team. The isotopic measurements indicate that this CAI was transported among several different nebular oxygen isotopic reservoirs, arguably as it passed through into various regions of the protoplanetary disk.. A protoplanetary disk is an area of dense gas surrounding a newly formed star. In this case, the CAI formed when our star was quite young.. It is particularly interesting in understanding the formation and dynamics of our solar systems protoplanetary disk (and protoplanetary disks in general), said Justin Simon of NASA Johnson Space Center and lead author of a paper appearing in the March 4 issue of the journal Science.. The new observations, support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either due to transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition ...
MASSE - Microarray Assay for Solar System Exploration. Looking for abbreviations of MASSE? It is Microarray Assay for Solar System Exploration. Microarray Assay for Solar System Exploration listed as MASSE
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Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right). - Stock Image C002/9063
Topic: Earth and space science, Astronomy, Size and scale, Earth and space science, Astronomy, Stars, nebulae and galaxies, Earth and space science, Earth processes, Climate, Earth and space science, Solar system, Asteroids and comets, Earth and space science, Solar system, Origin/formation of solar system, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary geology, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planetary science, Earth and space science, Solar system, Planets, Earth and space science, Solar system, The moon, Earth and space science, Solar system, The sun, Space weather, Engineering and technology, Remote sensing, Life sciences, Astrobiology, Mathematics, Physical sciences, States of matter, Physical sciences, Structure and properties of matter, The nature of science, The scientific process, The nature of technology, The design process ...
Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research. Research focus on the solar system with its planets and moons, comets and asteroids, and of course the Sun. Research Institution in Göttingen, Germany. MPS develops and builds scientific instruments that investigate solar system bodies. International space missions with ESA and NASA.
3)where the hydroxyl ion OH+ is formed either by the reaction of O+ with molecular hydrogen or by the reaction of atomic oxygen with H3+. The O+ ions are created by charge-transfer reactions between atomic oxygen and atomic hydrogen ions that are produced by cosmic ray ionization, whereas the H3+ formation is initiated by cosmic ray ionization of H2. Consequently, the formation of OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ are all essentially cosmic ray-driven, and one can use their abundance to constrain the cosmic ray ionization rate in the diffuse ISM and the fraction of atomic to molecular hydrogen (4, 5).. All three molecular ions, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+, have been observed in the ISM, often in surprisingly high abundance. OH+ was first detected using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12m telescope toward the massive star-forming region Sagittarius B2(M) (6). H2O+ was found using the Herschel satellite toward the star-forming regions DR21, Sagittarius B2(M), and NGC 6334 (7). The protonated water molecule H3O+ was ...
Context. The OH radical is a key species in the water chemistry network of star-forming regions, because its presence is tightly related to the formation and destruction of water. Previous studies of the OH far-infrared emission from low-and intermediate-mass protostars suggest that the OH emission mainly originates from shocked gas and not from the quiescent protostellar envelopes. Aims. We aim to study the excitation of OH in embedded low-and intermediate-mass protostars, determine the influence of source parameters on the strength of the emission, investigate the spatial extent of the OH emission, and further constrain its origin. Methods. This paper presents OH observations from 23 low-and intermediate-mass young stellar objects obtained with the PACS integral field spectrometer on-board Herschel in the context of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program. Radiative transfer codes are used to model the OH excitation. Results. Most low-mass sources have compact OH ...
Using the Heliospheric imager onboard STEREO, scientists studied the movements of hundreds of dense clumps of glowing, ionized gas within the ribbon of Comet Enckes tail, which passed by STEREO in 2007. Fluctuations in the solar wind are mirrored in changes in the tail. By tracking these clumps, scientists were able to reconstruct the motion of the solar wind, catching an unprecedented look at its turbulence.. Turbulence in the solar wind could provide one of the answers to the mystery of the solar wind heating. Based on analysis of the comet tail motions, the researchers calculated that large-scale turbulence provides sufficient kinetic energy to drive the high-temperatures observed in the solar wind.. Turbulence may also explain solar wind variability. Turbulent motion mixes up the solar wind, leading to the rapid variation that we see at Earth, said DeForest.. In situ measurements are limited because they cannot follow the turbulence along its path, said William Matthaeus, a professor ...
Another fascinating fact that speaks for a young solar system is the existence of short-term comets. Every time a comet passes the sun, it loses some of its mass and thus no short-term comet could last over 100, 000 years. Astronomers have speculated that a hypothetical stretch of space called the Oort Cloud that extends up to three light years from the sun houses millions of frozen comets. Every now and then these cold comets change to a shorter orbit that takes them closer to the sun. However, there is no observational evidence for the existence of this cloud. In other words, the Oort Cloud was invented because belief in an old solar system required it ...
Team member Giacomo Briani explains that the meteorite was found to contain several intrusions. These are small assemblages of minerals called xenoliths (literally foreign rock ) that have an origin different from that of the other components of the host meteorite. The Isheyevo xenoliths contain basic organic matter, which includes elements such as hydrogen and nitrogen. The usual interpretation is that the organic matter formed before the solar system, in the interstellar medium, says Briani. The Isheyevo xenoliths have unique variations in their nitrogen isotopic composition in fact, one sample showed the highest values of the 15N/14N ratio ever recorded in a meteorite.2 Solar system origin models we have at present explain this nitrogen isotopic composition as being caused by reactions between ions and molecules in the interstellar medium, explains Briani. And according to those models, the high concentrations of heavy nitrogen should be accompanied by high levels of deuterium (a hydrogen ...
Professor Munir Humayun of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the geological sciences department at FSU and Alan Brandon of NASA discovered an isotopic anomaly in the rare element osmium in primitive meteorites. The anomalous osmium was derived from small stars with a higher neutron density than that which formed our solar system. The findings of the researchers, who also included colleagues from the University of Maryland and Bern University in Switzerland, were recently published in the journal Science.. Our new data enabled us to catch a glimpse of the different star types that contributed elements to the solar system, the parental stars of our chemical matter, Humayun said. It opens a treasure trove of prospects for exploring the formation of the elements.. For about 50 years, scientists have known that all the elements beyond iron in the periodic table were made in stars by up to three nuclear processes. Osmium is mainly formed by two of those processes, the so-called ...
Its time to leave the Universe behind. The History Channels the Universe series is out of new episodes, and their sponsorship is about to drop off this blog and Astronomy Cast. If the Universe was your favorite space series of all time, have no fear, it will be showing in reruns, and you can purchase the complete series on DVD.. Looking over the past summers series, we can see 13 episodes laid on in a steady march through the solar system, with occasional field trips to the outer cosmos. The episodes were: Secrets of the Sun; Mars: The Red Planet; The End of the Earth: Deep Space Threats To Our Planet; Jupiter: The Giant Planet; The Moon; Spaceship Earth; The Inner Planets: Mercury & Venus; Saturn: Lord of the Rings; Alien Galaxies; Life and Death of a Star; The Outer Planets; The Most Dangerous Place in the; and Search for ET.. Looking over these titles, shows can be grouped into 3 categories: Our Solar System (9 episodes), all other objects (2 episodes), and the search for ET (1 ...
Ge/Ch 128. Cosmochemistry. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: instructors permission. Examination of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, of protostellar nebulae, and of primitive solar-system objects with a view toward establishing the relationship of the chemical evolution of atoms in the interstellar radiation field to complex molecules and aggregates in the early solar system that may contribute to habitability. Emphasis will be placed on identifying the physical conditions in various objects, timescales for physical and chemical change, chemical processes leading to change, observational constraints, and various models that attempt to describe the chemical state and history of cosmological objects in general and the early solar system in particular. Given in alternate years; offered 2017-18. Instructor: Blake. ...
Much like its atmosphere, because no probe has yet to visit Eris, not much is known about its geography except speculations. Because of its distance, no images of its surface is available at this time and it is not due to be within its perihelion until approximately the 23 century. During that time, we would have a better ability to possibly be able to gain images of the surface to get a more accurate description. Until then, it is believed that the planet retains a temperature of approximately -238°C (-396°F) which keeps its methane and nitrogen in frozen form for most of its rotation. Only during its perihelion does it turn gaseous and may create a form of atmosphere. However, during its aphelion, these gases become heavy again and fall frozen back to the surface of the planet becoming the equivalent of snow and ice on Earth.. Eris is the brightest planet, 2nd most reflective body, in our solar system. The only body in our solar system that is brighter is Saturns satellite Enceladus. It ...
Cosmochemistry (from Greek κόσμος kósmos, universe and χημεία khemeía) or chemical cosmology is the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions. This is done primarily through the study of the chemical composition of meteorites and other physical samples. Given that the asteroid parent bodies of meteorites were some of the first solid material to condense from the early solar nebula, cosmochemists are generally, but not exclusively, concerned with the objects contained within the Solar System. In 1938, Swiss mineralogist Victor Goldschmidt and his colleagues compiled a list of what they called cosmic abundances based on their analysis of several terrestrial and meteorite samples. Goldschmidt justified the inclusion of meteorite composition data into his table by claiming that terrestrial rocks were subjected to a significant amount of chemical change due to the inherent processes of the Earth and the atmosphere. ...
The Solar System Ambassadors Program builds on and expands the outstanding efforts undertaken by the Galileo mission since 1997. Because of the success of the original Galileo Ambassadors program, JPL missions exploring Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Asteroids, Comets, Earth, the Sun and the Universe now come together to expand the programs scope to the Solar System and beyond. ...
The first solar system other than our own has been discovered only 44 light years away. Its planets are Jupiter-sized and its discovery suggests that solar systems such as our own may be commonplace in the Universe... potentially providing a fertile ground for extra-terrestial life. The large size ...
Learn Origins - Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth and Life from Universität von Kopenhagen. The Origins course tracks the origin of all things - from the Big Bang to the origin of the Solar System and the Earth. The course follows ...
We present Very Large Array NH{sub 3} and Plateau de Bure Interferometer NH{sub 2}D and HN{sup 13}C observations of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. The main goal is to determine the kinematical information of the high density regions of the core (n ∼, 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) missed in previous works due to the depletion of the species observed (e.g., CS). The obtained maps show different kinematical signatures between the eastern and western parts of the core, suggesting a possible dynamical interaction of the core with the HH 80/81/80N outflow. The analysis of the position-velocity (P-V) plots of these species rules out a previous interpretation of having a molecular ring-like structure with a radius of 6 × 10{sup 4} AU traced by CS infalling onto a central protostar found in the core (IRS1). A high degree of NH{sub 3} deuteration, with respect to the central part of the core harboring IRS1, is derived in ...
( the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), a group of astronomers has found that the star-forming galaxy (SFG) J0811+4730 is the most metal-poor dwarf SFG known to date. The finding is detailed in a paper published online on Sept. 1 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
by Rich Deem Modern astronomers are learning more about the motions they observe and uncovering some astonishing examples of chaotic behavior in the heavens. Nonetheless, the long term stability of the solar system remains a perplexing, unsolved issue. 1 (Ivars Peterson. 1993. Newtons Clock: Chaos in the Solar System) Introduction The universe, our galaxy, our…
Before mounting the solar system, the customer agrees with the manufacturer the kind of solar system preferred. At the same time all the necessary details for proper installation of the system such as time and location are agreed.. Once the customer agrees with the manufacturer, the installer should visit the location of the system to measure the dimensions of the structure and then proceed.. For the best performance of the solar system, the solar panel should be placed in the right place to avoid any malfunctions in the near future.. It is essential that the manufacturer has in mind that the proper performance of the solar system only works when the heater is facing south for northern hemisphere and north to the southern hemisphere. It is important that the solar system is not shaded by trees or other obstacles.. The installation of the solar system must be based on the terms of the Agreement and in accordance with the local electrical and plumbing regulations.. If the water heater must be ...
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The Solar System Congress, or SSC, is more analogous to a United Nations rather than a true governing body of the solar system. This elected body made of represe
Solar System coloring page from Solar system category. Select from 31983 printable crafts of cartoons, nature, animals, Bible and many more.
A calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion or Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) is a submillimeter- to centimeter-sized light-colored calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusion found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. They are probably the oldest substances in the Solar System. The oldest age was measured in an inclusion of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2364 and was dated at 4568.22 ± 0.17 Mya. CAIs consist of minerals that are among the first solids condensed from the cooling protoplanetary disk. They are thought to have formed as fine-grained condensates from a high temperature (>1300 K) gas that existed in the protoplanetary disk at early stages of Solar System formations. Some of them were probably remelted later resulting in distinct coarser textures. The most common and characteristic minerals in CAIs include anorthite, melilite, perovskite, aluminous spinel, hibonite, calcic pyroxene, and forsterite-rich olivine. Using lead (Pb-Pb) isotopic dating of a CAI from NWA 2364, an age of ...
Artists conception of the Lucy and Psyche mission spacecraft (Left) An artists conception of the Lucy spacecraft flying by the Trojan Eurybates - one of...
The emphasis of the session is on all aspects of planetary plasma physics and interactions in the Solar System, including:. (a) Magnetospheres, ionospheres, auroras. (b) The solar wind interaction with planets, moons, asteroids and comets. (c) Plasma interactions with exospheres, dust and surfaces (e.g., at Mercury, Europa, Ganymede, our Moon, etc.). (d) Intercomparisons of planetary environments. Contributions are welcome which address previous (e.g., CHANDRAYAAN-1, KAGUYA), present (e.g., CASSINI, MARS EXPRESS, VENUS EXPRESS, ROSETTA, MESSENGER, CHANGE 2), forthcoming (e.g., BEPI COLOMBO) and planned (e.g., JUICE) observations from space. Analyses of ground-based observations of neutral and ionized environments are welcome.. Theoretical modelling and simulations are also strongly encouraged, both in themselves and as a basis for intercomparisons and interpretation of measurements. Laboratory studies on planetary analogues aiming to simulate the surface-plasma interaction are considered as ...
en] The solar system was formed from interstellar matter 4.6 Gyrs ago and comets are considered as remnants of icy planetesimals formed in the early solar system. One of interesting primordial characters of cometary ice is an ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of molecules such as H2O, NH3, etc. The OPR probably indicates the molecular formation temperatures in the solar nebula or in the pre-solar molecular cloud. We determined the OPRs of ammonia by using the high dispersion optical spectra of NH2 in 15 comets: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2002 V1 (NEAT), C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), C/2002 Y1 (Juels-Holvorcem), C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), C/2003 K4 (LINEAR), 8P/Tuttle, 88P/Howell, 9P/Tempel 1, and 73P-B and -C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3. The observations were mainly carried out by the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Other telescopes/instruments ...
The SWISS EPHEMERIS is the high precision ephemeris developed by Astrodienst. The Swiss Ephemeris is not a product for end users. It is a toolset for programmers to build into their astrological software. For end users are the printable ephemeris files for 8000 years, in Acrobat PDF format
Thanks to recent surveys of exoplanets-planets in solar systems other than our own-we know that most planetary systems typically have one or more super-Earths (planets that are substantially more massive than Earth but less massive than Neptune) orbiting closer to their suns than Mercury does. In March, researchers showed that our own solar system may have once had these super-Earths, but they were destroyed by Jupiters inward and outward migration through the solar system. This migration would have gravitationally flung small planetesimals through the solar system, setting off chains of collisions that would push any interior planets into the sun ...
CAMELOT facilitates the comparison of observational data and simulations of molecular clouds and/or star-forming regions. The central component of CAMELOT is a database summarizing the properties of observational data and simulations in the literature through pertinent metadata. The core functionality allows users to upload metadata, search and visualize the contents of the database to find and match observations/simulations over any range of parameter space.. To bridge the fundamental disconnect between inherently 2D observational data and 3D simulations, the code uses key physical properties that, in principle, are straightforward for both observers and simulators to measure - the surface density (Sigma), velocity dispersion (sigma) and radius (R). By determining these in a self-consistent way for all entries in the database, it should be possible to make robust comparisons. ...
Now lets discuss what we know today about the planets in the solar system. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, and it orbits the Sun in a variation of a condition called tidal lock. Tidal lock usually means that the planet always has the same face toward the Sun. Mercury rotates about 1 1/2 times the speed at which it goes around the Sun, so it keeps the same face toward the Sun for a long time. Mercury also has little atmosphere. Scientists have detected the presence of atmospheric molecules, but there are so few molecules that it is hard to call it an atmsophere. With so little atmosphere, there cannot be a greenhouse effect to keep the temperatures warm and equally distributed between the side of Mercury which faces the Sun and the side of Mercury which faces away from the Sun. The side of Mercury which faces away from the Sun will be very cold because it is virtually directly exposed to space. The side of Mercury which faces the Sun will be very hot! This means that life forms would ...
When the Voyager 1 spacecraft reached the edge of our solar system in 1990, it turned its camera around and photographed Earth. From such a tremendous distance, the earth appears as a tiny bluish-white grain of sand lost in an ocean of black. This famous image of Earth is named the Pale Blue Dot. From a secular perspective, that is all Earth is-a tiny bit of rock and water in a vast and meaningless universe of chance. But in the Christian worldview, this pale blue dot is the most important planet in the universe.. Properties of Earth. Earth orbits the sun at an average distance of 93 million miles. Since it is convenient to compare other orbits to Earths orbit, we refer to this distance as one astronomical unit, or AU. At one AU, it takes Earth one year to complete an orbit. Many units are defined in terms of Earths orbital or rotational characteristics. Earths solar day is 24 hours, and this is what we normally mean when we use the word day without any other qualifiers. Earth takes 23 ...
1,2Levke Kööp,3Kazuhide Nagashima,1,2,4Andrew M. Davis,1Alexander N. Krot Meteoritics & Planetary Science (in Press) Link to Article [] 1Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 USA 2Chicago Center for Cosmochemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 USA 3Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and…
New data from meteorites indicates that formation of the Solar System was triggered by a supernova: Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) educational on-line space science magazine.
A group of University of Colorado Boulder researchers is readying for NASAs Sept. 8 launch of a spacecraft to a near-Earth asteroid named Bennu, thought to harbor primordial material left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. The main mission goal is to pluck a sampl
Read chapter 4 The Primitive Bodies: Building Blocks of the Solar System: In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge...
Image - CTIO/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/J. da Silva ( Spaceengine ) Scientists have found a fastest circling asteroid near the sun in our solar system...
Asteroids and comets-and the meteors that sometimes come from them-are leftovers from the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.
2009 is the year dedicated to astronomy. Five planets were already found in 55 Cancri the system that looks like our solar system. According to Nasa: This artists concept illustrates two planetary systems - 55 Cancri and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences. The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits. In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant ...
In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define molecular correlates of
North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents ∼52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout) were
At the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It is a star, like the billions of other stars in the sky. The other stars are very, very far away, so they look tiny. The Sun is important to us because it gives us heat and energy that allows life. None of the life on Earth could exist without the Sun.[3]. The rest of the things in the Solar System orbit (travel around) the Sun. The planets are the largest of these. Each planet is a little like the Earth. But the planets are also very different from each other.. Many of the planets have moons. A moon orbits a planet. Mercury has no moons[4] and nor does Venus. Earth has one. Jupiter has 63![5]. The planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. These are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Then comes a big ring of asteroids, chunks of rock much smaller than planets. This ring is called the asteroid belt. Within the asteroid belt, there is a dwarf planet (smaller than a normal planet) named Ceres. Then come the outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, ...
No, Pluto did NOT have it coming, and no, this is not about feelings.. Ceres is a planet, and our solar system does not have only 8 planets, at least according to the equally legitimate geophysical planet definition. 19th century astronomers did not know that Ceres is in hydrostatic equilibrium and therefore a complex world that doesnt belong in the category of asteroids and comets. It makes little sense to lump objects that structurally and compositionally are much more akin to the larger planets than to asteroids and comets with the latter category. It also makes little sense to require an object to clear its orbit to be a planet. We cannot look only at where an item is; we have to look at the individual item and what it is. These small spherical worlds are planets that have most of the same features the rocky planets have; the only difference is they are smaller.. The notion that we have to limit the number of planets in the solar system because we cannot have too many makes absolutely ...
When the Solar System was formed in a young star cluster a nearby star might have exploded in a supernova. The repercussions of such an event can be rather profound, and the current Solar system may still bear the memory of this traumatic event. The truncation of the Kuiper belt and the tilt of the ecliptic plane with respect to the Suns rotation axis could be such signatures.. ...
solar system: The solar system is the Sun, the planets and their moons, the comets, the asteroids, and the interplanetary dust and gas.
NASA and Google have discovered an eighth planet orbiting a star in the Kepler-90 solar system, tying it with our solar system, for the first time, with the highest number of planets.
Where is the best place to find living life beyond Earth? It may be a small, ice-covered moon of Jupiter or Saturn that harbors some of the most habitable real estate in our Solar System. Life loves liquid water and these moons have lots of it! Dr.Kevin Hand, Deputy Chief Scientist for Solar System Exploration at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory explains the science behind how these oceans exist and what we know about the conditions on these worlds. Dr. Hand focuses on Jupiters moon Europa, which is a top priority for future NASA missions and shows how the exploration of Earths ocean is helping our understanding of the potential habitability of worlds.. Talk held and hosted by NASA.. ...
eabc3557, Published Online: 08 Oct 2020. LINK. The composition of asteroids and their connection to meteorites provide insight into geologic processes that occurred in the early Solar System. We present spectra of the Nightingale crater region on near-Earth asteroid Bennu with a distinct infrared absorption around 3.4 μm. Corresponding images of boulders show centimeters-thick, roughly meter-long bright veins. We interpret the veins as being composed of carbonates, similar to those found in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. If the veins on Bennu are carbonates, fluid flow and hydrothermal deposition on Bennus parent body would have occurred on kilometer scales for thousands to millions of years. This suggests large-scale, open-system hydrothermal alteration of carbonaceous asteroids in the early Solar System.. ...
Our proposed research programme addresses the origin and evolution of the Solar System, including surfaces, atmospheres and physical, geological, chemical and biological processes on the terrestrial planets, the Moon, asteroids, comets, icy satellites and extraterrestrial materials, in a range of projects which address the STFC Science Roadmap challenge B: How do stars and planetary systems develop and is life unique to our planet? The inner rocky bodies of the Solar System are of particular importance in understanding planetary system evolution, because of their common origin but subsequent divergent histories. Lunar samples will be used to determine the abundance and composition of volatile elements on the Moon, their source(s) in the lunar interior, and processes influencing their evolution over lunar geological history. Oxygen isotope analysis will be used to determine the conditions and processes that shape the formation of materials during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. ...
The Oort cloud is thought to have developed after the formation of planets from the primordial protoplanetary disc approximately 4.6 billion years ago.[4] The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the Oort clouds objects initially coalesced much closer to the Sun as part of the same process that formed the planets and minor planets. After formation, strong gravitational interactions with young gas giants, such as Jupiter, scattered the objects into extremely wide elliptical or parabolic orbits that were subsequently modified by perturbations from passing stars and giant molecular clouds into long-lived orbits detached from the gas giant region.[4][28]. Recent research has been cited by NASA hypothesizing that a large number of Oort cloud objects are the product of an exchange of materials between the Sun and its sibling stars as they formed and drifted apart and it is suggested that many-possibly the majority-of Oort cloud objects did not form in close proximity to the Sun.[29] Simulations of ...
A search has been made for sinusoidal periodic variations in the 8B solar neutrino flux using data collected by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory over a 4-year time interval. The variation at a period of 1 yr is consistent with modulation of the 8B neutrino flux by the Earths orbital eccentricity. No significant sinusoidal periodicities are found with periods between 1 d and 10 years with either an unbinned maximum likelihood analysis or a Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis. The data are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the results of the recent analysis by Sturrock et al., based on elastic scattering events in Super-Kamiokande, can be attributed to a 7% sinusoidal modulation of the total 8B neutrino flux.. ...
The SWISS EPHEMERIS is the high precision ephemeris developed by Astrodienst. The Swiss Ephemeris is not a product for end users. It is a toolset for programmers to build into their astrological software. For end users are the printable ephemeris files for 9000 years, in Acrobat PDF format
The variability of these constituents, not only from one chondrite to another but also within the same chondrite, is no trivial detail. An originating nebula of dust and gas would be expected to have been homogeneous over medium-scale distances. Assuming that the solar system came from such a nebula, one has to excuse the variability by supposing that, for example, the separate classes of chondrules were derived from separate regions and that mixing subsequent to chondrule formation was not thorough (Taylor 2001). That is, the chondrules accreted very quickly, before differences in their composition could be smoothed out.. CAIs and chondrules commonly include the decay products of several extinct, very short-lived radioactive elements such as iron-60 (written as 60Fe, a neutron-rich isotope of iron) and aluminium-26 (26Al), and it is these that enable a remarkably precise chronology for the early solar system to be determined. The very oldest constituents are the CAIs. Dating to 4,568 million ...
Our research broadly lies in understanding how organisms respond and adapt to changing environments, with an emphasis on circadian biology. Organisms from bacteria to humans use circadian clocks to control a plethora of biochemical, physiological and behavioral rhythms. These clocks are synchronized to daily and seasonal environmental changes to allow organisms to tune specific activities at the appropriate times of day or year.. In our laboratory, we use the eastern North American migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) as a model system to study animal clock mechanisms and the role of circadian clocks and clock genes in a fascinating biological output, the animal long-distance migration. Every fall, like clockwork, millions of monarch butterflies start migrating thousands of miles from North America to reach their overwintering sites in central Mexico. During their journey south, migrating monarchs use a time-compensated sun compass orientation mechanism to maintain a constant flight ...
This bachelor thesis consists of two parts. The first part consists of a review of the theoretical background. It starts off with a shorter review on theories of the history of the early Solar System, from protostellar evolution to grain agglomeration. This is then followed by a brief summary of different kinds of meteorites, what their origins might be and the radiometric dating techniques used to determine their ages.. The second part of the thesis consists of an investigation of the possible forming times of the early planetesimals by computer simulation. These planetesimals can later become the parent bodies for iron-rich meteorites. Factors studied are ambient temperature and the abundance of the short-lived radioactive isotope 26Al in the forming nebula.. The study found that the parent bodies of iron meteorites had to accrete within the first few million years after the earliest solids in the Solar System, the CAI. It also found that changes in the studied boundary conditions did extend ...
SuperKamiokande has gathered data for more than 1000 days, and the newest results are in agreement withe previous results. Both the statistical and systematic errors get smaller. Also Soudan 2 has measured the energy spectrum and angular distribution, and MACRO reports nice results, both supporting SK results. On the other hand, BUST in Baksan is in discrepancy. The results are in excellent agreement with the hypothesis of neutrino oscillation. The favoured channel is the oscillation from muon neutrinos to tau neutrinos. Pure transformation to electron neutrino is both a bad fit and in disagreement with reactor experiments. Sterile neutrinos fit also poorly. However, 3 or 4 neutrino scenarios allow a substantial mixing between all four neutrinos, as long as the mu to tau oscillation is dominant. Alternative solutions are in bad shape, although neutrino decay gives formally a satisfactory fit. It is, however, much more difficult to build an acceptable model predicting such a rapid neutrino decay. ...
Established remote sensing methods provide coarse, indirect information about the interior structure of small bodies. This information is generally inferred from surface structures and overall mass density. Imagine being able to directly examine the interior of a comet or asteroid. Is the asteroid a composite of different materials or is it uniform? On a comet, how do the vents extend into the nucleus? Are there distinct interior reservoirs of volatiles? Determining the macro-scale of asteroid porosity would be fundamental to characterizing their rubble pile nature and formation and necessary for the development of planetary defense strategies. Knowledge of the interior structure and heterogeneity of comets would provide the first detailed physical constraints on jetting mechanisms, regolith formation and episodic mantle loss, while revealing interior evolutionary processes ongoing in the outer solar system. We propose to develop new types of spacecraft instrumentation, data analysis, and ...
BACKGROUND: In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile hormone status and oriented flight, critical features that differentiate summer monarchs from fall migrants, and identifying molecular correlates of behavioral state. RESULTS: Here we show that increasing juvenile hormone activity to induce summer-like reproductive development in fall migrants does not alter directional flight behavior or its time-compensated orientation, as monitored in a flight simulator. Reproductive summer butterflies, in contrast, uniformly fail to exhibit directional, oriented flight. To define
A HUGE planet dubbed the Super Earth, which is ten times bigger than our own, could be orbiting the Sun at the far edge of the solar system.
Solar system consists of the Sun and other celestrial objects. Of all 8 planets of our Solar system only one is habitable. Almost all the planets have sateliites. The more massive the planet is the more satellites can orbit it. It is like a mini-solar system.. Altough there is only one world in the whole system which we can call home, scientists seriously consider possibility of colonising neighbouring planets and satellites. Though many doubt practicability and realizability of these projects due to their possible cost, the question is still exciting fo those, who think tat if anything happens to one home, it would be a good idea to have a spare one.. It is interesting that construction of solar systems is repeated at the atom level. Electrons orbiting nucleum are like planets, rounded by the Sun. In turn, moleculas are like several solar systems, chained together by gravity.. ...
Download earth, globe, orbit, planet, solar system, space, world icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by BomSymbols . found in the icon set Financing
g Message - Book alert: Is it possible that extraterrestrial life forms exist within the Milky Way? Extraterrestrials: Where Are They? edited by Ben Zuckerman and Michael H. Hart, offers a critical analysis by leading experts in a range of sciences, of the plausibility that other intelligent lifeforms do exist. Exploration of the Solar System, and observations with telescopes that probe deep space, have come up empty handed in searches for evidence of extraterrestrial life. Many experts in the fields of astronomy, biology, chemistry and physics are now arguing that the evidence points to the conclusion that technological civilizations are rare. After ten billion years, and among hundreds of billions of stars, we may well possess the most advanced brains in the Milky Way Galaxy. This second edition contains many new and updated aspects of extraterrestrial research, especially the biological viewpoint of the question ...
Does life exist beyond Earth? Not surprisingly, searches of the solar system yield no evidence because the only planet (or moon) located in the right place is Earth. However, the discovery of exoplanets (planets outside our solar system) boosted researchers enthusiasm for finding life beyond Earth. Thus far, our technology lacks the sensitivity to detect any signatures of life outside of our solar system, but scientists continue to make progress. While these advances reveal additional indicators that Earth may be rare (or unique) in its capacity to support life, they also provide a way to genuinely test the rare-earth hypothesis.. Using current telescope technology, scientists can measure only orbits, masses, and sizes of exoplanets. Over the next decade, advances will permit the detection of life signatures from stars in the neighborhood of the solar system, which will allow powerful tests of the rare-earth hypothesis. An article published in the journal Astrobiologyhighlights one of those ...
Herbig-Haro objects are bright nebular patches formed when narrow jets of partially ionized gas ejected from newborn stars collide with clouds of gas and dust. Often aligned with a stars rotational axis, they are commonly found in star-forming regions. Most of them lie within a few light-years of the source. They are transient phenomena, lasting around a few tens of thousands of years. They can change visibly over just a few years, as they move rapidly away from their parent star. First observed in the late 19th century by Sherburne Wesley Burnham, Herbig-Haro objects were not recognized as distinct from other emission nebulas until the 1940s. The first astronomers to study them in detail were George Herbig and Guillermo Haro, who independently recognized that the objects were by-products of the star formation process. Although the objects emit visible wavelengths, many are hidden by dust and gas, and can only be seen at infrared wavelengths ...
It will be another giant leap for mankind when NASAs Voyager 1 spacecraft becomes the first manmade object to venture past the solar systems edge and into the uncharted territory of interstellar space. But did this giant leap already occur?
It will be another giant leap for mankind when NASAs Voyager 1 spacecraft becomes the first manmade object to venture past the solar systems edge and into the uncharted territory of interstellar space. But did this giant leap already occur?
Chemical element - Chemical element - Solar system: Direct observations of chemical composition can be made for the Earth, the Moon, and meteorites, although there are some problems of interpretation. The chemical composition of Earths crust, oceans, and atmosphere can be studied, but this is only a minute fraction of the mass of Earth, and there are many composition differences even within this small sample. Some information about the chemical properties of Earths unobserved interior can be obtained by the study of the motion of earthquake waves and by Earths magnetic field, which originates in the interior (see below Geochemical distribution of the elements). Until recently, more was
Furthermore, this heat and geological activity has made Mirandas surface have some of the most interesting topological features in the solar system. On top of the previously mentioned coronae, Miranda has some of the highest cliffs that we have ever measured, including a 20-kilometer-high scarp called Verona Rupes. How these types of extreme geological features happened to develop on Miranda is not well understood and further analysis will certainly yield more interesting discoveries. Miranda could also hold the clues to the collision that tilted Uranus. Uranus is the only planet that travels as if it was a barrel rolling around the Sun. It is theorized that Uranus must have faced a large collision. However, the details behind this are still shrouded in mystery. Sending space probes to observe the isotopes ratio of Miranda and other major Moons could help establish whether they are originally from the same object. If validated, Miranda and the other 27 moons could be attributed to as the cause ...
Discovered by William Herschel in 1785, NGC 246 is a large planetary nebula in a star-poor area of Cetus. It must have been quite challenging for him to find as he often used high powers and small fields when searching for nebulae. The central star, at 200,000 degrees Celsius, is one of the hottest known and is also one of the few such stars with obvious variability, as well as being a wide binary. More technically it is a PG1159 white dwarf which is likely to be the remnant of a Wolf Rayet-type central star.. The nebula itself shows obvious signs of interaction with the interstellar medium as the eastern limb is much brighter than the western limb. The star and the nebula appear to be moving in that direction as well. The complex structure within the limb of the nebula and the odd structure within the nebula is thought to be the result of shock waves as the stellar wind interacts with existing material. It is this detail that has given rise to its name as the Skull Nebula. The nebula is ...
LOS ANGELES - Voyager 1, the spacecraft famous for beaming back striking photos of Jupiter, Saturn and their moons more than 30 years ago, has made still another surprising discovery: the existence of an unpredicted zone at the very edge of the solar system.
left,thumb,200px,Maat Mons on the Surface of Venus, by radar imaging The surface of Venus is very different from the surface of the Earth. It is very dry and hot enough to melt lead. The pressure on the surface is very high. It is the same pressure as being 1 km (3,280 feet) below the surface of the sea on Earth. thumb,right,150px,Channels on the surface of Venus, looking like river channels on Earth Channels that look like rivers have formed on Venus. Scientists think these channels are formed from erupting lava. The lava flows along as it cools down, creating the channels. One feature only Venus seems to have is unusual volcanoes called arachnoids. These are volcanoes that have formed differently from other volcanoes we have found in the Solar System. We dont know exactly how they were formed. Venus also has volcanoes like those on Earth. Parts of the surface of Venus look something like continents. The largest of these areas is called Ishtar Terra (land of Ishtar, from the Babylonian goddess ...
The new model suggests that any gas giant would send wet material hurling inward as a consequence of their formation. While massive Jupiter-sized worlds were the most effective, Raymond found that any sized gas giant could trigger the growth. Thats good news for researchers hunting watery planets outside our solar system. In our own solar system, the model shows that ices from the outer solar system snowed down on the Earth in three waves. The first came as Jupiter swelled up. The second was triggered during Saturns formation. And the third would have occurred when Uranus and Neptune migrated inward before being blocked by the other two and sent back to the outskirts of the solar system ...
Astronomers report the first strong evidence for massive planets on wide orbits - like those of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune - around many stars. The research provides some of the strongest evidence so far that solar systems similar to our own, or even larger, are likely to exist.
Armelia Barci, Eco Solar System » The sun shines up to 300 days a year in Tirana, Albania, affording the community with accessible and sustainable opportunities for solar energy. Armelia Barci is taking advantage of this natural resource with her project, Eco Solar System, which aims to produce…
China 80W Solar AC Power System for Poor Electricity Area with Pure Sine Wave Inverter, Find details about China Solar System, Solar Power System from 80W Solar AC Power System for Poor Electricity Area with Pure Sine Wave Inverter - Just Solar-Lighting Industries Co., Ltd.
North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a spectacular fall migration. In contrast to summer butterflies, migrants are juvenile hormone (JH) deficient, which leads to reproductive diapause and increased longevity. Migrants also utilize time-compensated sun compass orientation to help them navigate to their overwintering grounds. Here, we describe a brain expressed sequence tag (EST) resource to identify genes involved in migratory behaviors. A brain EST library was constructed from summer and migrating butterflies. Of 9,484 unique sequences, 6068 had positive hits with the non-redundant protein database; the EST database likely represents approximately 52% of the gene-encoding potential of the monarch genome. The brain transcriptome was cataloged using Gene Ontology and compared to Drosophila. Monarch genes were well represented, including those implicated in behavior. Three genes involved in increased JH activity (allatotropin, juvenile hormone acid methyltransfersase, and takeout)
NASAs Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, is preparing for its 2018 observing campaign, which will include observations of celestial magnetic fields, star-forming regions, comets, Saturns giant moon Titan and more.
The orbital element distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with large pericenters has been suggested to be influenced by the presence of an undetected, large planet at 200 or more AU from the Sun. We perform 4 Gyr N-body simulations with the currently known Solar System planetary architecture, plus a 10 Earth mass planet with similar orbital parameters to those suggested by Batygin and Brown (2016) or Trujillo and Sheppard (2014), and a hundred thousand test particles in an initial planetesimal disk. We find that including a distant superearth-mass ninth planet produces a substantially different orbital distribution for the scattering and detached TNOs, raising the pericenters and inclinations of moderate semimajor axis (50 less than a less than 500 AU) objects. We test whether this signature is detectable via a simulator with the observational characteristics of four precisely characterized TNO surveys. We find that the qualitatively very distinct Solar System models that include a ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about ephemeris at Make research projects and school reports about ephemeris easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Kligat writes Scientists have found two asteroid belts around the star Epsilon Eridani, the ninth closest star to our solar system. Epsilon Eridani also possesses an icy outer ring similar in composition to our Kuiper Belt, but with 100 times more material, and a Jovian mass planet near the edge of...
Departure (ejection) from Solar System[edit]. If a comet is traveling fast enough, it may leave the Solar System. Such comets ... Although comets formed in the outer Solar System, radial mixing of material during the early formation of the Solar System is ... Exocomets beyond the Solar System have also been detected and may be common in the Milky Way.[111] The first exocomet system ... Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ...
a b Owen, T. C. (2001) "Solar system: origin of the solar system", Encyclopædia Britannica, Deluxe CDROM edition ... are not sufficiently precise to demonstrate the stability of the Solar System,[19] and indeed, the Solar System is understood ... Stability of the Solar System[edit]. Sir Isaac Newton had published his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 in ... He restated and developed the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the Solar System and was one of the first scientists to ...
See also: List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System. There are eight planets in the Solar System, which are ... The concept has expanded to include worlds not only in the Solar System, but in hundreds of other extrasolar systems. The ... Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... is a planet outside the Solar System. As of 1 August 2020, there are 4,301 confirmed exoplanets in 3,176 systems, with 703 ...
Other solar system bodies[edit]. See also: Asteroids in astrology. Some asteroids such as Pallas (. ) and Vesta (. ), as well ... is the smallest identified dwarf planet in the Solar System, but is significantly the largest object in the asteroid belt. It ... In medicine, Mercury is associated with the nervous system, the brain, the respiratory system, the thyroid and the sense organs ... The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system, around which the Earth and other planets revolve and provides us with ...
Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Gregg, Tracy K. P. (2004). Volcanic Worlds: Exploring The Solar System's Volcanoes. Springer-Praxis. p. ... Other bodies in the Solar System. As well as forming large parts of the Earth's crust, basalt also occurs in other parts of the ... Basalt is also an important rock type on other planetary bodies in the Solar System; for example, the bulk of the plains of ... Solar System. Basalt commonly erupts on Io (the third largest moon of Jupiter),[100] and has also formed on the Moon, Mars, ...
Solar SystemWikipedia:WikiProject Solar SystemTemplate:WikiProject Solar SystemSolar System articles. ... Unassessed Solar System articles and Category:Unknown-importance Solar System articles.. *Infobox : See Category:Solar System ... This article is within the scope of WikiProject Solar System, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of the Solar ... A hunt for "most out of date solar system body" could be fun ;-) Deuar 16:55, 26 March 2006 (UTC). For rotation to be stable ...
Timeline of the far future: expected remaining lifetime of the Earth; our solar system; the universe ... Bond, H. E.; Nelan, E. P.; Vandenberg, D. A.; Schaefer, G. H.; Harmer, D. (2013). "HD 140283: A Star in the Solar Neighborhood ... The concept of entropy dictates that if the universe (or any other closed system) were infinitely old, then everything inside ...
Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... A solar transit of Venus is an extremely rare event, and the last solar transit of the planet before 2004 was in 1882. The most ... Little to no solar energy could conceivably be collected by solar panels on a surface probe. In fact, due to the thick, highly ... This distance was measured in 2007 near the solar activity minimum.[33] Near the solar activity maximum it can be several times ...
Outline of the Solar System. Portals. Solar System. Astronomy. Earth sciences. Mars. Jupiter. Uranus. Cosmology. Solar System → ... "Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 29 October 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g h Schneider, N. M.; Bagenal, F. (2007). "Io's ... "JPL Solar System Dynamics.. *^ Showman, Adam P.; Malhotra, Renu (October 1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science. 286 (5437 ... Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Academic Press. pp. 419-431. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3.. ...
Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... Phobos could be a second-generation Solar System object that coalesced in orbit after Mars formed, rather than forming ... Thus there are no total solar eclipses on Mars, as the moons are far too small to completely cover the Sun. On the other hand, ... Outline of the Solar System. *. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Portals *Solar System ...
"Solar System Dynamics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2017-11-08.. *^ "NPL's Beginner's Guide to Length". UK National ... Typically, one measures the time needed for light to traverse some reference distance in the solar system, such as the radius ... it is common to use systems of natural units of measurement or the geometrized unit system where c = 1.[15][16] Using these ... International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 112, ISBN 92- ...
"JPL HORIZONS solar system data and ephemeris computation service". Solar System Dynamics. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ... Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... "JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 5 November 2007.. *^ Showman, A. P.; Malhotra, R. (1 October 1999). "The Galilean ... It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei[1] and was named after ...
"The Solar System - The Planet Jupiter - The Great Red Spot". Dept. Physics & Astronomy - University of Tennessee. Archived from ... Numerous authors] (1999). Beatty, Kelly J.; Peterson, Carolyn Collins; Chaiki, Andrew (eds.). The New Solar System (4th ed.). ... the largest in the Solar System, 22 degrees south of Jupiter's equator. Observations from 1665 to 1713 are believed to be of ... astronomers have defined three different systems for defining the longitude. System II is used for latitudes of more than 10 ...
"Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 29 September 2011.. *^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Retrieved 4 November 2011.. ... Total solar radiation received from the Sun by 1 square meter at the altitude of Earth's orbit per second (solar constant)[82] ... a b c The Earth has a cross section of 1.274×1014 square meters and the solar constant is 1361 watts per square meter. ... "NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. 2 July 2009. 1.355818. ...
"Cassini - In Depth , Missions - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Archived from the original on ... Saturn's rings are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System, and thus have been known to exist for ... Uranus' ring system lies between the level of complexity of Saturn's vast system and the simpler systems around Jupiter and ... Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ...
See also: List of Solar System objects by size. Ganymede is the largest and most massive moon in the Solar System.[41] Its ... is the largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons. The ninth-largest object (including the Sun) of the Solar System, ... "JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved November 5, 2007.. *^ Yeomans; Chamberlin. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System for Ganymede ( ... "NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved June 15, 2021.. *^ a b c d "Ganymede". October 31, 1997. Retrieved ...
Thérèse Encrenaz; J -P Bibring; M Blanc (2003). The Solar System. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 3-540-00241-3.. ... The tidal accelerations at the surfaces of planets in the Solar System are generally very small. For example, the lunar tidal ... R. S. MacKay; J. D. Meiss (1987). Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems: A Reprint Selection. CRC Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-85274-205-3.. ... Hence the tide-raising force (acceleration) due to the Sun is about 45% of that due to the Moon.[12] The solar tidal ...
Based on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System and that of other star systems, most other planetary systems ... The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the Solar System; if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5 ... "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System (sic)". The Harvard University ... Sparrow, Giles (2006). The Solar System. Thunder Bay Press. ISBN 978-1-59223-579-7. .. ...
Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... Traditionally, each of the seven "planets" in the solar system as known to the ancients was associated with, held dominion over ... The Ptolemaic system used in Greek astronomy placed the planets in order, closest to Earth to furthest, as the Moon, Mercury, ... Outline of the Solar System. *. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Portals *Solar System ...
Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group ... The vestibular system (motion and equilibrium system) - Due to the lack of gravity, all the movement of the astronauts changes ... Armstrong had to shut the control system off and use the reentry control system to stop the spin. The craft made an emergency ... Power (Batteries · Nuclear power · Solar power (for Earth) · Solar panels on spacecraft) ...
Quality code of 3. Summary figures at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) website and at the LCDB ... Quality code of 3-. Summary figures at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) website and at the LCDB ... Quality code of 3. Summary figures at the Center for Solar System Studies (CS3) website and at the LCDB ... Lightcurves of Jovian Trojan Asteroids from the Center for Solar System Studies". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (3): 265-270. ...
"Solar Disinfection , the Safe Water System". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 11 February 2018.. ... Ion exchange:[11] Ion exchange systems use ion exchange resin- or zeolite-packed columns to replace unwanted ions. The most ... In water systems subject to heating hardness salts can be deposited as the decomposition of bicarbonate ions creates carbonate ... Water distribution systems disinfected with chloramines may experience nitrification, as ammonia is a nutrient for bacterial ...
Small Solar System bodies. Minor planets. *Designation. *Groups. *List. *Moon. *Meanings of names ...
Between 2015 and 2017, photometric observations by Daniel Coley and Robert Stephens at the Center for Solar System Studies, ... Stephens, Robert D.; Coley, Daniel R. (July 2017). "Lightcurve Analysis of Trojan Asteroids at the Center for Solar System ... Dec 2015/Jan 2016 and Feb 2017 by Daniel Coley and Robert Stephens at the Center for Solar System Studies (U81). Quality code ... Lightcurves of Jovian Trojan Asteroids from the Center for Solar System Studies". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (3): 265-270. ...
Earth → Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → ... It takes the Solar System about 240 million years to complete one orbit of the Milky Way (a galactic year),[14] so the Sun is ... Garlick, Mark Antony (2002). The Story of the Solar System. Cambridge University. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-521-80336-6.. ... The Milky Way is the galaxy[nb 1] that contains our Solar System. The descriptor "milky" is derived from the galaxy's ...
a b c d Mike Brown, How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? Archived October 18, 2011, at the Wayback ... "JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 2014-03-31.. *^ a b "AstDyS-2, Asteroids - Dynamic Site". Retrieved 2018-04-03. Objects ... Solar System as of 2 October 2018[update][11] Object name Distance from the Sun (AU) Apparent. magnitude Absolute. magnitude (H ... List of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun in 2015 ... List of Solar System objects. *List of Solar System objects by ...
"Science Strategy - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. ... Interplanetary spaceflight - Spacecraft travel between planets of the Solar System. *Life on Mars - Scientific assessments on ... phase of space exploration was conducted as much to make a political statement as to make observations of the solar system. ... "Cislunar Habitation & Environmental Control & Life Support System" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved March 31, 2017.. ...
The density of impact craters is used to determine the surface ages of Mars and other solar system bodies. The older the ... A study with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) ...
"Calendars" [The solar Hejrī (Š. = Šamsī) and Šāhanšāhī calendars]. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved July 4, 2017.. ... The present-day calendar system was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on March 31, 1925.[97] Iran's Nowruz celebrations ... Nowruz marks the beginning of the New Year in Iran's official calendar, the Solar Hejri calendar. ... Nowruz is the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian solar calendar. ...
Sometimes this system is even further reduced to just a single /s/. On the other hand, in some areas final /s/ is produced as / ... Alvárez Castrillón, José A., Los Oscos en los siglos X-XII, prólogo Ignacio de la Peña Solar, Oviedo 2001, p. 144-234. ... There are three main sibilant systems, all derived from the medieval Galician one, which were richer and more complex:[43] *The ... In the Limia Baixa region an old six sibilant system is still preserved, with voiced/voiceless opposition: /ʃ/ - /ʒ/; /s̺/ - /z ...
Immune system evasion. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV ... about the size of a laptop and solar-powered, allows testing to be done in remote areas.[260] ... This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation.[medical citation needed] ... The potential for widespread infections in countries with medical systems capable of observing correct medical isolation ...
The X-rays are thought to be generated by the interaction between comets and the solar wind: when highly charged ions fly ... The solar wind plays a minor role in the destruction of water compared to photochemistry.[1] Larger dust particles are left ... At this distance the solar wind becomes strong enough to blow the gas and dust away from the coma, enlarging the tail.[9] ... produced from photoionization of water molecules by solar radiation, and not photons from the Sun as thought earlier, are ...
Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic.[46] Upper Paleolithic cultures were probably able to time the ...
... this refers to mean solar time, not to apparent solar time. The Sun will not be in exactly the same position in the sky during ... World Geodetic System. References[edit]. *^ Tscherbakova, N. N.; Beletskii, V. V.; Sazonov, V. V. (1999). "Stabilization of ... Special cases of the Sun-synchronous orbit are the noon/midnight orbit, where the local mean solar time of passage for ... Diagram showing a Sun-synchronous orbit from a top view of the ecliptic plane with Local Solar Time (LST) zones for reference ...
1983). A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System, Physical Science (1925-1980). AT&T Bell Laboratories. p. 102.. ... Solaristor (from solar cell transistor), a two-terminal gate-less self-powered phototransistor. ... The Bell Systems Memorial on Transistors. *IEEE Global History Network, The Transistor and Portable Electronics. All about the ... D. Kahng and S. M. Sze, "A floating gate and its application to memory devices", The Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 46, no ...
C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ... "The Leeds Revised Acne Grading System" (PDF). The Leeds Teaching Hospitals. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November ... acnes and the immune system have shown promise for improving acne in early clinical trials.[91] Another avenue of early-stage ... acnes readily grows and can cause inflammation within and around the follicle due to activation of the innate immune system.[10 ...
Solar Systems - 154MW Victorian Project. *↑ Vo Francúzsku uviedli do prevádzky najväčšiu solárnu elektráreň v Európe [online]. ... Austrálska spoločnosť Solar systems chce týmto projektom ukázať unikátne nové technológie, ktoré vyprodukujú 154 MW. Tie sú ... What Solar Power Needs Now Renewable Energy Access, 13 August 2007. *↑ news and Official EP resolution of 25 September 2007 on ... Thin Film Could Soon Make Solar Glass and Facades a Practical Power Source [online]. Energy Priorities, May 22, 2006, [cit. ...
But now, thanks to people like Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, we know that the Sun is the center of the Solar System, and the ... which gave a good idea of the movements of the planets because he found that the orbits of the planets in our Solar System are ...
... and adheres to Ptolemaic cosmology with the Earth at the centre of the solar system.[13] ...
The organizations activate public warning systems such as sirens and the Emergency Alert System (EAS), and they forward the ... Solar storms similar to tornadoes have been recorded, but it is unknown how closely related they are to their terrestrial ... The low pressured atmosphere at the base of the tornado is essential to the endurance of the system.[52] Meanwhile, the RFD, ... Typically, systems as weak as landspouts and gustnadoes can rotate anticyclonically, and usually only those which form on the ...
Encyclopedia of the Solar System 3판. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier. 861-882쪽. ISBN 978-0-12-416034-7.. ...
In the Solar SystemEdit. Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common ... Lodders, Katharina (2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements". The Astrophysical Journal. ... in the Solar System. The heavier alkali metals are also less abundant than the lighter ones as the alkali metals from rubidium ... but the planets acquired different compositions during the formation and evolution of the solar system. In turn, the natural ...
In typical imaging systems, this improves the efficiency since less light is lost due to reflection. In complex systems such as ... Examples include anti-glare coatings on corrective lenses and camera lens elements, and antireflective coatings on solar cells. ...
... and of concentrated solar gained from his 15 years working with Stirling engine solar collector systems at Sandia..." ... Retrieved April 24, 2008 Citat: "... "Solar can potentially provide all the electricity and fuel we need to power the planet," ... American Chemical Society (2008, April 11). Expert Foresees 10 More Years Of Research & Development To Make Solar Energy ... Harry Gray, Ph.D...In his talk at the ACS Presidential Symposium, Gray cited the vast potential of solar energy, noting that ...
Solar System * sw:Mfumo wa Jua. Solid * sw:Solid. Song * sw:Song. Sophocles * sw:Sophocles. Sorghum * sw:Sorghum. Soul * sw: ... Coordinate system * sw:Coordinate system. COPD * sw:COPD. Copper * sw:Copper. Cotton * sw:Cotton. Cricket * sw:Cricket. ... International System of Units * sw:International System of Units. Internet * sw:Internet. Iran * sw:Iran. Iraq * sw:Iraq. Iron ... Sensory system * sw:Sensory system. Seoul * sw:Seoul. Sergei Eisenstein * sw:Sergei Eisenstein. Set theory * sw:Set theory. Sex ...
solar neutrino flux can be calculated to be 2.40. ±. 0.03. (. s. t. a. t. .. ). −. 0.07. +. 0.08. (. s. y. s. .. ). ×. 10. 6. c ... Monitoring system[edit]. Online monitoring system[edit]. An online monitor computer located in the control room reads data from ... The computer system consists of 3 major sub-systems: the data server, the CPU farm and the network at the end of Run I.[7] ... Because of this, the data structures are based on ZEBRA bank system developed in CERN as well as the ZEBRA exchange system.[7] ...
Energy Systems Language. *f-ratio. *Feed conversion ratio. *Feeding frenzy. *Mesotrophic soil ...
Astronomers discover a nearby star system just like our own Solar System. JAC/UCLA. [24 March 2005]. (原始内容存档于2005年11月10日).. ... Astronomers discover a nearby star system just like our own Solar System. JAC/UCLA. 1998-07-08 [2008-07-28]. (原始内容存档于2006-05-03 ... Solar system's young twin has two asteroid belts. Harvard-Smithosonian Center for Astrophysics. 2008-10-27 [2008-11-10].. 引文使用过 ... Analog to the Young Solar System. The Astrophysical Journal. 1998, 506 (2): L133-L137 [2008-07-29
Soluble contaminants, such as aluminum hydroxide, itself a product of corrosion by halide ions, clog the fuel system over time ... Increased electrical conductivity promotes electric, galvanic, and ordinary corrosion in the fuel system. ...
"JPL (Solar System Dynamics). 2010-10-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11.. *↑ Karkoschka, Erich (2003). "Sizes, shapes, and albedos of the ...
The school's one-megawatt solar photovoltaic system includes nearly 3,500 panels on the school's rooftops, and earned the ... "Foreign System Schools (FSS) or Private Education Institutions (PEI)". Archived from the original on 10 November ... "Singapore American School Selected for Solar Pioneer Award". Newswire. 13 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 ... four theaters, including the school auditorium with Constellation Sound System[67]. *three large and several smaller ...
"Annular Solar Eclipse of 2009 Jan 26" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 9 July 2010. Gray, Richard; Dobson, Roger (January 31, 2009). " ... 1 February - The Cospas-Sarsat satellite search-and-rescue system stops monitoring for outdated 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz (Class B ... 22 July - A total solar eclipse - the longest-lasting total eclipse of the 21st century - takes place. 23 July - Two teams of ... 26 January - An annular solar eclipse takes place. January - The first animal from an extinct species to be recreated ...
Poor, Charles Lane (1908). The solar system: a study of recent observations. Science series 17 (G. P. Putnam's sons). p. 193. ... "Solar System Exploration. NASA. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-03-06. More than one of ,author=. ഒപ്പം ,last=. specified (സഹായം) ... "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. യഥാർത്ഥ സൈറ്റിൽ നിന്ന് 2009- ... "Estimated Habitable Zone for the Solar System". Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Purdue University. ശേഖരിച്ചത് ...
The Church of Scotland, a form of Protestantism with a Presbyterian system of ecclesiastical polity, is the third most numerous ... "Catastrophic flooding origin of shelf valley systems in the English Channel". Nature. 448 (7151): 342-5. Bibcode:2007Natur.448 ...
This class of biofuels includes electrofuels[7] and photobiological solar fuels.[22] Some of these fuels are carbon-neutral. ... This system allows the relatively larger oil molecules more time to burn. Some older engines, especially Mercedes, are driven ... Biogas can be recovered from mechanical biological treatment waste processing systems. Landfill gas, a less clean form of ... Electronically controlled 'common rail' and 'unit injector' type systems from the late 1990s onwards may only use biodiesel ...
This era overlaps the beginning of the Late Heavy Bombardment of the Inner Solar System, produced possibly by the planetary ... Some other planets and moons in the Solar System have sufficiently rigid structures to have preserved records of their own ... "Planetary accretion in the inner Solar System" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 223 (3-4): 241-252. Bibcode:2004E& ... except in a Solar System context. The existence, timing, and terrestrial effects of the Late Heavy Bombardment are still a ...
Solar thermal energy[edit]. ILs are potential heat transfer and storage media in solar thermal energy systems. Concentrating ... "Novel ionic liquid thermal storage for solar thermal electric power systems". International Solar Energy Conference: 445-451.. ... solar thermal facilities such as parabolic troughs and solar power towers focus the sun's energy onto a receiver, which can ...
First, theres the incredible story about the Moon, Earth, and Sun in orbit, teaching us about our solar system, alignments, ... In the outer Solar System, worlds like Europa, Enceladus, and Pluto are too far… ... Eight other worlds in our solar system might have life beyond Earth (Synopsis). ... Tricia Talbert Jupiters Great Red Spot is one of the enduring mysteries and wonders of our Solar System. The spot was first ...
... s solar system [2] is comprised of the Sun [3] , nine major planets, some 100,000 asteroids larger than 0.6 mi (1 km) in ... Solar system. Earths solar system is comprised of the Sun , nine major planets, some 100,000 asteroids larger than 0.6 mi (1 ... Solar system inventory. One of the central and age-old questions concerning the solar system is, "How did it form? From the ... See N. Booth, Exploring the Solar System (1996); P. R. Weissman et al., ed., Encyclopedia of the Solar System (1998); J. K. ...
The solar system is the Sun, the planets and their moons, the comets, the asteroids, and the interplanetary dust and gas. ... solar system - Childrens Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11). The solar system consists of the sun and everything that orbits, or travels ... Together, the Sun and all its smaller companions are known as the solar system. The solar system itself orbits the center of ... Solar system exploration) *variations in meteorite craters (in meteorite crater: Variations in craters across the solar system ...
Solar Disinfection Cdc-pdf. [PDF - 2 pages]. Solar disinfection (SODIS) was developed in the 1980s to inexpensively disinfect ... The drawbacks of Solar Disinfection are:. *Need to pretreat water of higher turbidity with flocculation and/or filtration ... The benefits of Solar Disinfection are:. *Proven reduction of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa in water ... For more information about solar disinfection for developing countries visit:. *CBO Kenya Water for Health OrganisationExternal ...
... the outer planets will help scientists understand more about planet Earth and the formation and evolution of the solar system. ... NASAs Planetary Science missions to the outer planets help reveal secrets about the solar system by observing those outer ... Outer Solar System. NASAs Planetary Science missions to the outer planets help reveal secrets about the solar system by ... It helps protect Earth by steering comets either towards the sun or ejecting them to the outer reaches of the solar system or ...
A new solar air heating system on the roof of Kingsbury Hall will not only save the University of New Hampshire money over the ... Solar system. Solar air heating system at UNH lauded for efficiency, cost-savings. ... A Canadian-made system called the Lubi solar air system was applied over the existing roof wall, creating about 2,400-square ... DURHAM - A new solar air heating system on the roof of Kingsbury Hall will not only save the University of New Hampshire money ...
The MPI for Solar System Research offers the PhD programme "International Max-Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Solar System ... The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (abbreviation: MPS; German: Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung) ... "Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research - New building".. *^ Ehmert, A. (1964). "In memoriam Julius Bartels". Space ... Homepage International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Solar System Science. Coordinates: 51°33′37″N 9°56′58″E /  ...
The solar system may once have had an extra giant planet that was hurled into interstellar space when our gas giants were ... The tighter orbits of extrasolar planet systems support this idea.. But the great gravitational bullies of the solar system, ... "Our solar system looks calm and quiet now, but we pretty much know that it had this violent past," Nesvorny says. "The question ... The solar system once had five giant gaseous planets rather than the four it has today. Thats the conclusion from a computer ...
Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments ... A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. ... A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. ... A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced- ...
A trusted equation for calculating the age of the solar system may need rewriting. New measurements show that one of the ... Age of Solar System Needs to Be Recalculated. A trusted equation for calculating the age of the solar system may need rewriting ... To really say we know the age of the solar system based on the age of the rock, its essential that they all agree. ... Those differences could mean that current estimates of the age of the solar system overshoot that age by 1 million years or ...
Ices in the Solar System. Editors: Klinger, J., Benest, D., Dollfus, A., Smoluchowski, R. (Eds.) ... The recent exploration of the outer parts of the Solar System by spacecraft focused the attention of a large community of ... NATO responded to this new interest by agreeing to sponsor an Advanced Research Workshop "Ices in the Solar System", provided a ... Evolution of Titans Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System and Interaction of Ocean with Bedrock ...
Its planets are Jupiter-sized and its discovery suggests that solar systems such as our own may be commonplace in the Universe ... The first solar system other than our own has been discovered only 44 light years away. ... This isnt a "Solar system" this is a "plantary system." Sol, the Sun, is ours. Not theirs. They cant have a "Solar System" ... 1) first extra solar planets? Hardly. 2) first extra solar multi planet system? No. *Most* of the extra solar planetary systems ...
... be another giant leap for mankind when NASAs Voyager 1 spacecraft becomes the first manmade object to venture past the solar ... systems edge and into the uncharted territory of interstellar space. But did this giant leap already occur? ... For two years now, data beamed back to Earth by Voyager 1 has hinted at its close approach to the edge of the solar system, a ... New data from the spacecraft indicate that the historic moment of its exit from the solar system might have come and gone two ...
This unexpected finding allows Ceres to join other small bodies in the solar system, including Saturns moon Enceladus and ... Water Plumes Discovered on the Solar Systems Largest Asteroid. An artists conception of the watery outgassing on Ceres. ... Water Plumes Discovered on the Solar Systems Largest Asteroid. An artists conception of the watery outgassing on Ceres. ... According to the Nice model of the solar systems origin (named for the town in France, not the enjoyable formation scenario) ...
Solar energy Energy consumption Control systems Sun and solar Wings Vehicle occupants Comfort ... Citation: Hu, Z., Tan, G., Li, Z., Xu, H. et al., "Solar Powered Vehicle Parking Ventilation System Pre-Cooling Analysis," SAE ... Solar Powered Vehicle Parking Ventilation System Pre-Cooling Analysis 2015-01-0367. ... which requires relatively complex control system and limits the systems operating time because of energy consumption. ...
Turns out the Solar System isnt so parched. We survey the moons and planets where scientists are finding water in all its ... Still, it speaks to the abundance in our solar system, and the ways our views have changed from a dry solar system with a pale ... 23 Places Weve Found Water in Our Solar System. Oceans, Ices, Vapors: Turns out the Solar System isnt so parched. We survey ... Titan has some of the most abundant pools of liquid found anywhere in the solar system, but those come in the form of methane, ...
Water older than the solar system. A new study suggests up to half of Earths water originated in the molecular gas and dust ... Use these social-bookmarking links to share Water older than the solar system. ... Use this form to email Water older than the solar system to someone you know:. ... cloud which formed our Sun and solar system Source: Bill Saxton, NSF/AUI/NRAO. ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Small solar system Hey guys,. Just built a shed and was deciding wether I would run power to it or not. All I really need is a ... Since my system is pretty simple I just got the solar panel off Amazon though others like Northern Tool and many others also ... I was thinking instead of running power maybe it would be fun to build a small Solar system to to power a battery that would ... I have a small solar system in my shed. It uses a battery similar to a motorcycle battery. I have a fairly bright 12vdc LED ...
Its not a nearby "solar system." The term Solar System is a proper noun, not a generic term. Its a nearby planetary system. I ... You think that a Red Dwarf solar system is statistically important? Its funny that the article would even consider this solar ... Nearby Solar System Looks Like Home 62 Posted by samzenpus on Friday December 07, 2012 @05:32AM. from the mirror-image dept. ... Imagine solar systems are disks.. The ONLY ones we have a chance of (currently) detecting are the ones that happen to be edge- ...
Scientists have developed a new prediction of the shape of the bubble surrounding our solar system. ... The Cassini spacecraft, using its radar system, has discovered very strong evidence for hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. Dark ... Las nubes de Venus albergan un nuevo fenómeno atmosférico nunca visto en nuestro sistema solar. ... dark expanse of the outer solar system. ...
Def. "the material which fills the solar system and through which all the larger solar system bodies such as planets, asteroids ... These may have been formed at the beginning of the solar system or be a product or partial product of the solar binary ... "NASA Solar System Exploration web site. NASA. Retrieved 2011-08-08.. *↑ "Oort cloud". Wikipedia (San Francisco, California: ... Def. "[t]hat part of outer space between the planets of a solar system and its star"[13] is called interplanetary space. ...
Mother Earth News recently featured an extensive article covering instructions on building your own small-scale solar heating ... system for as low as $30. The 9 page tutorial includes step ... Family-sized Solar Car to Race in World Solar Challenge. Solar ... Affordable DIY Solar Heating System. Posted in Photovoltaic Cells , Solar Power. Mother Earth News recently featured an ... Tulip Shaped Solar Plants to be Installed in Ethiopia. AORA Solar has announced that it will begin construction of its solar- ...
The Solar system (or solar system)[1] is the home stellar system for human beings and all known forms of life. The solar system ... The remaining objects in the solar system were classified as small solar system bodies (SSSB). The IAU used the term SSSB to ... All solar system objects are immersed in either the solar plasma, known as the solar wind, the interstellar plasma of the Milky ... The solar systems position in the Milky Way galaxy and the Earths position in the solar system are remarkably well-suited for ...
NASA Sends Probe To Outer Limits Of Solar System. by Sam Savage ... solar wind reaches far beyond the planets to the solar systems ... blows against this interstellar material and forms a humongous protective bubble around the solar system known as the ... The solar wind, a stream of electrically conducting gas continuously moving outward from the sun at 1 million mph (1.6 million ... small spacecraft on a two-year mission that will give scientists their first view of the outermost reaches of our solar system. ...
... solar battery hybrid system will save 13.1 million liters heavy fuel oil annually, while cutting on CO2 emissions at the Fekola ... B2Gold (BTG) Initiates Solar Battery Hybrid System at Fekola Mine. Read full article. *. ... Notably, this solar system is likely to save13.1 million liters of heavy fuel oil annually.. In July 2019, B2Gold approved the ... B2Gold Corp BTG has commissioned the worlds largest off-grid solar battery hybrid system at the Fekola gold mine in Mali in a ...
By sifting through minuscule remnants of ancient solar-system crashes, called micrometeorites, researchers found that the most ... The Strangest Asteriods in the Solar System]. Meteorites come from flying debris after a collision of two bodies in the solar ... "You can say these are tails of different events; the results of different [collision] events in the solar system, in the ... All results can be fitted into models of the events, increasing their accuracy and our understanding of the solar systems ...
It specializes in battery-powered audio devices able to harness alternative power sources like solar energy. ... Ive got an NFC/bluetooth receiver for my stereo system as well. The trouble with that is that it requires two wall outlets to ... Speaking of outdoor use, though, the back of the enclosure is covered by a solar panel that deploys to charge the built-in ... Charge the battery through an integrated solar panel while you top off your cell phone? Sure, why not? Thats a great way to ...
Many dating methods establish a maximum age for many earth and space systems that is much too small to confirm the evolutionary ... Age of the Solar System. by Roger Patterson on January 13, 2011 ... What Your Textbook Says about the Age of the Solar System. ... What We Really Know about the Age of the Solar System. If you were to ask most people how we determine the age of the earth and ... Young-earth creationists believe that the earth was formed on Day One and the rest of the solar system and universe on Day Four ...
The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is ... This animation portrays an artists concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins ... This animation shows the first-ever map of the surface of an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system. The map,... ... This animation portrays an artists concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins ...
  • Four planets-Jupiter through Neptune-have ring systems, and all but Mercury and Venus have one or more moons. (
  • The remaining objects of the Solar System (including the four terrestrial planets, the dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets) together comprise less than 0.002% of the Solar System's total mass. (
  • Europa, which orbits Jupiter, is one of several moons in the outer solar system suspected of having an ice-covered ocean of liquid water. (
  • At least six moons in the outer solar system are likely to have oceans of water beneath icy facades. (
  • LOS ANGELES - Voyager 1, the spacecraft famous for beaming back striking photos of Jupiter, Saturn and their moons more than 30 years ago, has made still another surprising discovery: the existence of an unpredicted zone at the very edge of the solar system. (
  • Solar System models, especially mechanical models, called orreries, that illustrate the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the Solar System have been built for centuries. (
  • A montage of the planets and some of the moons in our solar system, not to scale. (
  • It also adds a bizarre new planetary focus for scientists hunting alien life on nearby planets - a search that is now leading them to increasingly strange and unexpected parts of the solar system, from the frozen moons of Jupiter to the methane-filled lakes of Titan , the largest moon of Saturn. (
  • Moons: This count includes only the moons orbiting the eight planets in our solar system. (
  • Further, that in some cases, a close third-body inclusion within a relatively stable system can also achieve similar results by occasionally birthing moons, but mostly begetting much smaller debris such as cometary-type nuclei, asteroidal objects, proto-meteor debris, dust, gas and the development of external ring systems. (
  • These close encounters result in the loss of objects (essentially dormant cometary nuclei located in the outer Oort cloud ) that are on, or near, the boundary of the solar system. (
  • Yet the solar system and its immediate outer boundary still represent the limit of our physical reach, and they remain the core of our theoretical understanding of the cosmos as well. (
  • The recent exploration of the outer parts of the Solar System by spacecraft focused the attention of a large community of scientists on the problem of ices, which playa major role in the accretionary processes in space except for the close neighborhood of the Sun and of other stars. (
  • As Voyager scientists explained in a paper published last month in Nature, the perplexing collapse of the solar wind at the edge of the heliosphere left them without a working model for the outer solar system. (
  • Okay, so this article is Colonizing the Outer Solar System, and is actually part 2 of our team up with Fraser Cain of Universe Today, who looked at colonizing the inner solar system . (
  • There is no official demarcation between the inner and outer solar system but for today we will be beginning the outer solar system at the Asteroid Belt. (
  • Cassini carried a passenger to the Saturn system, the European Huygens probe -the first human-made object to land on a world in the distant outer solar system. (
  • First landing in the outer solar system. (
  • At the perimeter of the heliosphere is the heliosheath, a turbulent region at the outer edge of the solar system . (
  • Use principles from physics, chemistry, biology, and geology to understand the latest from Mars, comprehend the outer solar system, ponder planets outside our solar system, and search for habitability in our neighborhood and beyond. (
  • And while scientists have known about this dynamic for years, they've now discovered, thanks to the Voyager 2 space probe, that the region around the outer edge of our 'shield' made up of solar wind, which clashes with the interstellar plasma soup, consists of an 89,000 F (49,500 C) wall of (low density) plasma. (
  • That hydrogen wall is the outer boundary of our home system, the place where our sun's bubble of solar wind ends and where a mass of interstellar matter too small to bust through that wind builds up, pressing inward. (
  • 2. The system according to claim 1, wherein said sensor further includes a body member having an outer face defining said spherical surface and formed with a plurality of radially-extending, radiation-conducting passageways leading to said solar-radiation detectors and shielding same against all solar radiation except that progressing along said radial lines. (
  • 3. The system according to claim 2, wherein said body member is of material which is substantially non-conducting with respect to solar radiation, said radiation-conducting passageways being bores extending radially through the body member from its outer face to the solar radiation detectors. (
  • 7. The system according to claim 5, further including a semispherical transparent cover overlying the outer face of the body member. (
  • Specifically carbonates and primitive organic matter or amorphous carbon were widespread in the comet-forming regions of the outer protoplanetary disk and not all comets contain as much inner solar system material as has been inferred for comet 81P/Wild 2. (
  • Astronomers have discovered another small object in the outer solar system, the most distant solar system object yet known. (
  • Indeed, it's the Planet 9 possibility that makes this new discovery of another small object in the outer solar system so tantalizing. (
  • After all, there must be many small outer solar system bodies, moving through space, unknown to earthly astronomers. (
  • This means that these extremely distant objects can be probes of what is happening in the solar system's outer reaches. (
  • A Canadian-made system called the Lubi solar air system was applied over the existing roof wall, creating about 2,400-square feet of perforated plastic panels backed by a dark solar absorber, with a gap in between. (
  • I contracted for the installation of solar panels on my own home through the Geostellar platform,' added Mark Platt , Senior Vice President for Business Services at Gundersen Health System. (
  • DIY solar panels are used along with other components from reliable manufacturers. (
  • Grid Connect benefits are obvious when your solar panels are producing more power from the sun than the home is using. (
  • Their solar panels often generates surplus electricity during the day. (
  • Building a solar power installation isn't as simple as buying a few panels, wiring them up to a battery, and putting an inverter in the mix. (
  • Solar panels have an IV curve, and this changes with how much sunlight they're getting. (
  • Full modules are available in small quantities for under $1/W. So for a 500W system, the panels are going to cost ~$500. (
  • Dawn is propelled through space by a cutting-edge ion engine, which uses a high electrical charge generated by its 65-foot-wide (20 meters) solar panels to expel xenon gas fuel at a high velocity. (
  • GivePower began its efforts in providing clean energy to struggling communities by first installing solar panels on 2,500 schools in 17 countries. (
  • Solar panels have always been a key part of Musk's vision for Tesla, which seeks to eliminate the need for fossil fuel transportation. (
  • The photovoltaic system supplies DC power to electrodes embedded within the conductive concrete panels. (
  • It is a term used for solar panels to denote the power output under optimal conditions with maximum solar radiation. (
  • While roofs across the world sport photovoltaic solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity, a Duke University engineer believes a novel hybrid system can wring even more useful energy out of the sun's rays. (
  • Instead of systems based on standard solar panels, Duke engineer Nico Hotz proposes a hybrid option in which sunlight heats a combination of water and methanol in a maze of glass tubes on a rooftop. (
  • The sun provides 1.2 × 10 5 TW of light for the earth and only a small fraction of the total solar energy is needed to solve the global energy problem should it be used efficiently for direct electricity generation through solar cell panels and/or clean fuel (e.g., hydrogen production through water splitting). (
  • Amorphous silicon has been used for solar cell panels with only limited efficiency and its production is based on energy-intensive techniques. (
  • The project is based on 'energy systems' planning approach and has installed two sets of 5 kW wind turbines complimented by 2 kWp of solar PV panels to satisfy the village's electricity demand of 43.6 KWh per day. (
  • She built a computer model to illustrate how electricity from solar panels pointed at those spots would compare to electricity produced by fixed-position panels and created a computer program to control her tracker's motor and the position of the solar panels. (
  • The system stretches across 10 acres and consists of over 11,000 solar photovoltaic panels that are broken down into two main sites. (
  • Over its life expectancy, the panels will provide the equivalent CO 2 reduction as planting over 261,000 trees," said Bob Goodwin, director of facilities at Santa Sweets , who led the construction of the solar energy system. (
  • The system provides interior lighting that uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. (
  • By use of ozone-friendly refrigerants and ability to utilize the renewable energy sources, the adsorption systems can be preferred as an alternative to the conventional refrigeration systems [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Wind and Solar Power Systems stands as the most modern, complete book available on renewable energy. (
  • Bret Parker expertise has always been in the Solar Electricity and Renewable Energy Industries. (
  • Make a Solar Panel package a self contained training program, engineered to teach the skills he has mastered to everyone interested in the renewable energy as alternative power. (
  • As we curled up to create our gift registry, we talked about the kind of life we wished to lead," recalled Sarah Lozanov, a renewable energy specialist at Solar Service in Illinois. (
  • At the SRRL, researchers use pyranometers, pyrheliometers, pyrgeometers, photometers, and spectroradiometers to provide the solar resource information necessary for renewable energy research and development. (
  • If someone is really interested in renewable energy, and they want to get involved somewhere, a solar hot water system is probably the best place to start," says Rod Hyatt, owner of In Hot Water Heat & Power in Eden, Utah. (
  • Details on how to market solar thermal technologies, a review of relevant simulation tools and data on selected regional, national and international renewable energy programmes are also provided. (
  • Jaipur: The Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation Limited has approved a proposal to equip stand-alone mini-drinking water supply systems to 200 villages with solar power . (
  • CEDARVILLE, NJ--(Marketwire - October 12, 2010) - Santa Sweets , one of the country's leading conventional and organic tomato growers specializing in the grape and heirloom varieties, completed a 2 megawatt solar panel farm in Cedarville, N.J., marking one of the largest renewable energy investments undertaken by a fresh tomato grower. (
  • The reshuffling could also have disturbed the still-forming Kuiper belt and Oort cloud - reservoirs of proto-planets that lie beyond the current orbit of Neptune - flinging debris toward the inner solar system. (
  • Set the color used to draw solar system object orbit lines. (
  • The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. (
  • Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, the dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. (
  • Instead of circling around the "ecliptic" - the plane on which planets, asteroids, comets and other solar system objects orbit the sun - this new thing approached from above. (
  • Their biggest clue is its hyperbolic orbit: rather than endlessly circling the sun in an ellipse, the object's path extends into the unknown far beyond our solar system. (
  • Dwarf Planets: This new class of worlds helps us categorize objects that orbit the Sun but aren't quite the same as the rocky planets and gas giants in our solar system. (
  • The crafts traveled in opposite directions along the Earth's orbit en route to positions on opposite sides of the sun. (
  • But it was found in a similar location on the sky to the other known extreme solar system objects, suggesting it might have the same type of orbit that most of them do. (
  • The Sun and our Solar System have been located in a stable orbit within our galaxy for the last 4.5 billion years. (
  • Such an encounter would certainly lead to the ejection of Mercury from the Solar System, and an alteration of the orbit of Venus. (
  • It will be another giant leap for mankind when NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft becomes the first manmade object to venture past the solar system's edge and into the uncharted territory of interstellar space. (
  • The solar system comprises the Sun , all the objects gravitationally bound to it, and the heliosphere, an enormous magnetic bubble enclosing most of the known solar system, including the solar wind and the entire solar magnetic field. (
  • All solar system objects are immersed in either the solar plasma, known as the solar wind , the interstellar plasma of the Milky Way galaxy, or a mixture of the two in a region lying just inside the heliopause, the diaphonous boundary of the heliosphere. (
  • Data received from the probe indicate that it is still within the so-called heliosphere , which is a large bubble of solar plasma and solar magnetic fields that the sun blows around itself. (
  • Despite these often-discussed changes, only a very small number of people, mostly Russian scientists, are aware that the entire Solar System (heliosphere) is experiencing these changes. (
  • They arrived at that date because that's when Voyager recorded a permanent drop in heliosphere-produced particles and an increase in galactic cosmic rays from outside the solar system. (
  • The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. (
  • Speaking to reporters from the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, Krimigis and former Jet Propulsion Laboratory director Edward Stone described the newfound region as a "magnetic highway" that connects the heliosphere, the bubble surrounding the solar system, to the vast expanse of space beyond. (
  • Cosmologists and Astronomers assert that the solar system was formed through the collapse of a spinning cloud of interstellar gas and dust. (
  • All this information is scrutinized in attempts to understand in detail the origin and evolution of the solar system-a goal toward which astronomers continue to make great strides. (
  • Astronomers have struggled for decades to explain the solar system's current structure. (
  • Once, many astronomers believe, the solar system was full of comet nuclei, chunks of ice and dust left over from the formation of the sun. (
  • For example, in the late 19th century, and for much of the 20th, most astronomers were confident they would one day find life in the solar system. (
  • Astronomers believe a newly discovered asteroid came from another solar system in our galaxy. (
  • This excess means that future geochemists will have to first measure the quantities of uranium-235 and uranium-238 in early solar system materials before determining their ages. (
  • The team also determined that the extra uranium-235 comes from trace amounts of a radioactive element called curium present in the early solar system and formed only in certain types of supernova explosions. (
  • One model that I know of suggests that many jupiter-sized gas giants are formed in the early solar system. (
  • Most clumped together to form planets, leaving a relative handful-averaging perhaps a few miles wide, with temperatures as low as minus 400 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 240 degrees Celsius)-as time capsules of the early solar system. (
  • To study the early solar system, the researchers examined samples of the most primitive type of meteorite known-type I carbonaceous chondrites, or CI chondrites. (
  • Although these isotopes have by now decayed completely, researchers can infer their presence in the early solar system by looking for an excess abundance of their decay isotopes. (
  • Zinner, Ernst (2003) An isotopic view of the early solar system. (
  • Tachibana, S. and Huss, G. R. (2003) Iron-60 in troilites from an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite and the initial Fe-60/Fe-56 in the early solar system. (
  • While her research did not find a "smoking gun," definitively proving that the radioactive isotopes were injected by a shock wave, Telus did show that the amount of Fe-60 present in the early Solar System is consistent with a supernova origin. (
  • In May 2018, the organization began installing its first micro-grid water desalination system in order to turn the ocean saltwater into fresh drinking water. (
  • They installed their first system in Kiunga, Kenya in May 2018 to massive success. (
  • Solar system distances to scale showing the newly discovered 2018 VG18 - nicknamed Farout - compared to other known solar system objects. (
  • Pluto is currently at about 34 AU, making 2018 VG18 more than 3 1/2 times more distant than the solar system's most-famous dwarf planet. (
  • 2018 VG18 was discovered as part of the team's continuing search for extremely distant solar system objects, including a suspected Planet X (with the X standing for unknown ), also sometimes called Planet 9 . (
  • As the most distant object yet found in our solar system, 2018 VG18 has the distinction of being slower-moving than any other observed solar system object. (
  • Bottom line: 2018 VG18 is the most distant object yet known in our solar system. (
  • The solar system occupies the Milky Way galaxy's relatively narrow "habitable zone" where the intensity of gamma rays , x-rays , and other radiation from surrounding stars is not too great to block the development of life by sterilizing planetary surfaces. (
  • As solar radiation heats the comet, the ice within sublimates, escaping as gas from vents at the surface. (
  • The intermittency of the sunshine, the risks associated with the reflected radiation, and the lack of cultural acceptance are some of the factors which have limited the use of solar cookers in Mozambique, as discussed by Otte [ 7 ]. (
  • Since 1981, NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components, and has expanded its expertise to include integrated metrology, optics, electronics, data acquisition capabilities, and outdoor performance testing. (
  • A solar radiation sensor comprises a semispherical or spherical body member formed with a plurality of radially-extending passageways leading to individual solar-radiation sensors individually oriented and shielded so as to intercept only solar radiation progressing along the radial lines towards the. (
  • and means for providing a measurement of the direct solar radiation intensity, comprising, a neighbour selector circuit which selects the detectors nearest to the one having the peak output, an averager circuit which averages the outputs of the detectors selected by said neighbour selector circuit, and a subtractor circuit which subtracts the output of said averager circuit from that of the detector having the peak output. (
  • 4. The system according to claim 3, wherein the body member further includes an optical fiber element in each bore for conducting the solar radiations intercepted thereby to their respective solar radiation detectors. (
  • 6. The system according to claim 5, wherein the underface of the semispherical body member is substantially flat, and said solar radiation detectors are disposed on said flat underface. (
  • 10. A system according to claim 1, wherein said means for producing a measurement of the direct solar radiation intensity further includes a second averager circuit which is effective, if more than one detector outputs a peak reading, to average the outputs thereof and to supply the averaged output to said subtractor circuit. (
  • The present invention relates to a solar radiation sensor, and also to a system including such a sensor for measuring solar radiation distribution. (
  • The sensor and system of the present invention may be used for determining the available solar energy radiation in a number of possible applications, as will be described more fully below. (
  • This landing site proved to be unfavourable: Philae is likely to be strongly inclined to the side and is situated in a hollow or a hole, so that the solar cells receive very little solar radiation for the power generation. (
  • By approaching the sun, the solar radiation onto the solar cells increased. (
  • A major area of study concerns the Sun, its atmosphere, the interplanetary medium as influenced by the solar wind, as well as the impact of solar particles and radiation on the planets. (
  • On the other hand, if they formed in the solar nebula by intense radiation close to the Sun, then it would prove some hypotheses about the young Sun and jets of radiation from it. (
  • 60 Fe cannot be produced by intense, energetic solar radiation, so it must have been made before the Solar System began to form. (
  • The gas would have only remained in the Solar System for a short time before the Sun's radiation blew it out of the Solar System, implying that the gas giant came together quickly. (
  • Part 1: Solar Radiation and Arguments for its Use Solar Radiation. (
  • Part 6: Solar Concentrating Systems Concentration of Solar Radiation. (
  • University of New Hampshire Campus Energy Manager Matt O'Keefe checks out the newly installed solar air heating system on the roof of Kingsbury Hall in Durham. (
  • O'Keefe said he expects the system to provide about 75 percent of the heated air needed for the south wing, and expects it will save the university between $8,000 and $15,000 in energy costs each year. (
  • Some luxury vehicles, like Audi A8[ 1 ], reduce the internal temperature through operating air-condition in advance or using on-board battery to drive the cabin ventilator, which requires relatively complex control system and limits the system's operating time because of energy consumption. (
  • The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 Section 523 requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of hot water demand using solar hot water equipment if it is life-cycle cost effective. (
  • Follow the steps below to calculate approximate solar hot water system size and cost needed to meet the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 Section 523 solar hot water requirement for new Federal construction and major renovations. (
  • This hybrid battery system combines solar energy with conventional energy generation and battery storage, providing uninterrupted power supply day and night in off-grid areas. (
  • In fact, Fekola's six heavy oil generators will be switched off during the day, with its new 30 MW solar system, while energy production from the remaining three generators can also be lowered. (
  • It specializes in battery-powered audio devices able to harness alternative power sources like solar energy. (
  • Solar Energy Systems Designers must master practical applications of engineering, science and technology. (
  • In this expanse, the flow of solar wind, which consists of charged particles that stream from the sun, has calmed down, our solar system's magnetic field appears to be compressed, and high-energy particles from inside the solar system seem to be leaking out into interstellar space . (
  • The conventional refrigeration systems require mechanical energy as the driving source and are responsible for the emission of CO 2 and the other greenhouse gases such as CFCs and HFCs which are considered major cause for ozone layer depletion. (
  • From this context, the adsorption refrigeration system attains a considerable attention in 1970s due to the energy crisis and ecological problems related to the use of CFCs and HFCs. (
  • In comparison with the vapour compression refrigeration systems, adsorption refrigeration systems have the benefits of energy savings if powered by waste heat or solar energy, like simpler control, absence of vibration, and low operation cost. (
  • Recently some works about the use of ANN in energy systems have been published [ 10 - 17 ]. (
  • From the brief literature review cited, it can be observed that many investigators have used the artificial neural network for the performance prediction of various thermal energy systems. (
  • WASHINGTON and SAN FRANCISCO , July 12, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Geostellar , the nation's first and largest online solar marketplace, today announced at Intersolar North America the launch of Solar.Clinic , a program for health care systems to go solar and offer solar energy to their employees, patients and community members. (
  • Solar.Clinic is a simple, convenient way for health systems to power their operations and promote clean, affordable solar energy in their communities. (
  • Participating health systems receive discounts on solar energy installation, equipment and financing for their own facilities and for the homes of employees, patients and community members. (
  • Geostellar also provides an online platform, communications program and distribution support for increasing the deployment of solar energy across each health system's service area. (
  • We 're proud to work together to promote both the economic and environmental benefits of solar energy within the health sector and the communities they serve. (
  • Our patented platform makes solar energy more competitive and helps homeowners save more on electric bills. (
  • - Wind and solar energy are pollution-free sources of abundant power. (
  • It provides the fundamentals of wind and solar power generation, energy conversion and storage, and the operational aspects of power electronics and the quality of power. (
  • The heat-transfer fluid in some solar energy systems sometimes provides the bridge over which this exchange of electrons occurs. (
  • The UL University program will streamline and standardize the education installers need to ensure the solar industry can fulfill its role as one of the primary energy sources of the future," said Bill Brooks, Professional Engineer of Brooks Solar and expert in the consulting and training needs of the PV industry. (
  • Offers a solar energy package for home designs. (
  • Therefore, direct collection of solar thermal energy can be an energy source for multiple domestic needs (cooking, baking, frying, hot water, pasteurization, etc.) in rural areas of Mozambique, both as stand-alone units or as units integrated in hybrid systems (solar PV, wind, and hydropower). (
  • [Nathaniel]'s Solar Energy Generator does just that. (
  • While the Solar Energy Generator is designed for off the grid applications, this could easily augment a home installation on the cheap. (
  • For that reason, the existence of yet another district at our cosmic neighborhood's edge was completely unexpected, said Stamatios Krimigis, a solar physicist at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., and leader of the team that operates Voyager's low-energy charged particle instrument. (
  • The study can also be used as a basis for maximizing the solar energy usage and perform component optimization. (
  • The most common approach for capturing the solar energy is to use PV cells, other approaches do exist. (
  • This time it's Elon's solar power venture, Tesla Energy Operations, that's taking the heat. (
  • The power industry is now ready for clean energy such as solar energy. (
  • Carbon dioxide electroreduction may constitute a key technology in coming years to valorize CO 2 as high value-added chemicals such as hydrocarbons and a way to store intermittent solar energy durably. (
  • The approach uses a conventional photovoltaic system to supply energy to a conductive concrete slab that would function as a surface overlay on runways. (
  • For various reasons, including the fact that it is grid-energy independent, our system could put a huge dent in this budget. (
  • The components of the photovoltaic system include an array of cells that convert sunlight into energy, a battery storage bank and a regulator to control energy between the array and the batteries. (
  • Solar hot water systems can be used wherever the sun shines, although their efficiency depends on the amount of solar energy received. (
  • Hot water heating is one of the most efficient and cost-effective ways of harnessing solar energy. (
  • The paper describing the results of Hotz's analysis was named the top paper during the ASME Energy Sustainability Fuel Cell 2011 conference in Washington, D.C. Hotz recently joined the Duke faculty after completing post-graduate work at the University of California-Berkeley, where he analyzed a model of the new system. (
  • A rooftop system large enough to supply all of a winter's electrical needs would produce more energy than needed in summer, so the owner could decide to shut down portions of the rooftop structure or, if possible, sell excess energy back to the grid. (
  • Enormous progress has been made in recent years toward efficient and economic solar energy conversion systems. (
  • As an alternative to crystalline silicon, low-cost, stable, and high-efficiency solar cells have been developed to capture solar energy to produce electricity. (
  • Therefore, new solar energy conversion devices that can support efficient light absorption and hole carrier/exciton transport are highly desirable. (
  • Direct water splitting through photoelectrochemical systems continues to hold the promise of providing a practical method for producing high purity hydrogen which can be further used for energy generation, industrial processes and storage. (
  • A solar energy system that doesn't require sunlight is almost as bizarre as a tidal power system that doesn't use water - however that's exactly what researchers at MIT have cooked up. (
  • The team just unveiled a new photovoltaic energy conversion system that can be powered by heat, the sun's rays, a hydrocarbon fuel, or a decaying radioisotope. (
  • Hebei Mutian Solar Energy Scientech Development Co., Ltd. (
  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) handed over its pilot project on wind solar hybrid energy system to Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Ministry of Environment at a function organized at the Nepal Resident Mission today. (
  • The success of this project has demonstrated that it is indeed viable to provide reliable energy access to rural Nepal through solar wind hybrid systems as one of the clean energy options," said Kenichi Yokoyama, ADB's Country Director for Nepal, speaking at the event. (
  • The transfer document was signed by Yongping Zhai, Director, Energy Division, South Asia Department, ADB and Ram Prasad Dhital, Acting Executive Director, AEPC which marked the official handover of the wind-solar hybrod system from ADB to AEPC starting 13 June 2014. (
  • This will provide access to electricity and facilitate productive energy use activities in rural locations from various sources of energy like mini hydro, wind energy, solar energy and wind solar hybrid energy systems," he further added. (
  • Computer Simulations of Solar Energy Systems. (
  • In recent years, computer simulation has become a standard tool for analyzing solar energy systems. (
  • This chapter is devoted to the development and application of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method to solar energy systems. (
  • For example, since we are close to a star that puts out a significant amount of energy, it seems that within our solar system and between the planets, space around our neighborhood should be higher. (
  • Scientists have developed a system that taps into photosynthetic processes to produce efficient and inexpensive solar energy. (
  • Prof Barry Bruce, project leader from Tennessee University, said: 'As opposed to conventional photovoltaic solar power systems, we are using renewable biological materials rather than toxic chemicals to generate energy. (
  • Likewise, our system will require less time, land, water and input of fossil fuels to produce energy than most biofuels. (
  • atmosfair, in partnership with the local organization Solar Lights, offers a cost-efficient, sustainable and health-friendly alternative for light and energy production. (
  • Solar Home Systems allow the people in the rural areas to use the sunlight's energy for charging their mobile phones, operating other electronic devices or for simply lighting up their homes. (
  • Solar Industry offers industry participants probing, comprehensive assessments of the technology, tools and trends that are driving this dynamic energy sector. (
  • The decision is in accordance with the Rajasthan Solar Energy Policy , 2019 and Rajasthan's 2020-21 Budget announcement, mandating RRECL to run 200 water supply systems with solar energy on a pilot basis, an official statement said on Friday. (
  • The latest CSP launch, Ivanpah solar electric generating system is an engineering marvel that delivers on the full promise of solar energy. (
  • rolling out CSP systems offers both performance and competitive energy prices. (
  • CSP Solar provides a crucial energy solution that is utility scale and works 24 x 7 in combination with back-up stationary fuel cells. (
  • Based on typical utility pollution and the expected energy produced from the two sites, the system will prevent emissions of over 86,000 tons of carbon dioxide, over 380 tons of sulfur dioxide and over 120 tons of nitrogen oxide. (
  • The solar energy system is a centerpiece of Santa Sweets' environmental, sustainability and social responsibility program and the company is planning to expand this initiative to its other packing facilities across the country. (
  • Long-period comets in particular have suffered considerable dynamical evolution, first to become members of the Oort cloud , and second to become comets visible in the inner solar system. (
  • It requires modelling interactions over millions of years, and taking into account things such as how the orbits of the gas giant planets-specifically Jupiter and Saturn-affected how the Inner Solar System planets came to be. (
  • Until this most recent work, the largest number of simulations, a total of 12, were described in a 2009 research paper called "Building the terrestrial planets: Constrained accretion in the inner Solar System. (
  • It is believed that Jupiter and Saturn formed before the Inner Solar System because they have so much gas inside of them. (
  • For that reason, the model started with the assumption that Jupiter and Saturn existed when the Inner Solar System was still being formed. (
  • We formed two to six Inner Solar System planets in our simulations, usually," Fischer says. (
  • This animation shows the path of A/2017 U1 as it passed through our inner solar system in September and October. (
  • The inset shows the object's path through the inner solar system. (
  • 1998. The earth-moon system and the dynamical stability of the inner solar system. (
  • After more than 30 years of traveling through the cosmos, a far-flung NASA spacecraft has entered an uncharted region between our solar system and interstellar space, scientists announced today (Dec. 5). (
  • It had been thought that the NASA probe had already been passing through the outermost section of the solar system on its way toward the heliopause - the boundary where the solar wind ends and interstellar space begins. (
  • NASA researchers said in September that they thought that Voyager 1 might pass out of the solar system by the end of the year. (
  • Our solar system now is tied for most number of planets around a single star," NASA said in a statement yesterday. (
  • This illustration made available by NASA shows a comparison of the planets in the solar system and those orbiting the star Kepler-90. (
  • There's a "hydrogen wall" at the edge of our solar system, and NASA scientists think their New Horizons spacecraft can see it. (
  • Stellarium Video: NASA's New Upper Stage J-2X Engine Passes Major Test NASA conducted a successful 500-second test firing of the J-2X rocket engine on Wednesday, Nov. 9, marking another important step in development of an upper stage for the heavy-lift Space Launch System (SLS). (
  • NASA Snaps the First 360-degree Image of the Sun - Technology News by ExtremeTech A little more than four years ago, NASA launched a twin pair of spacecraft as part of their STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) mission. (
  • The solar system's position in the Milky Way galaxy and the Earth's position in the solar system are remarkably well-suited for the emergence and sustenance of life on Earth. (
  • It was also during this eon - roughly 4.48 billion years ago (or 70-110 million years after the start of the Solar System) - that the Earth's only satellite, the Moon, was formed. (
  • They searched the solar twins for elements such as thorium and uranium, which are essential to Earth's plate tectonics because they warm our planet's interior. (
  • Another first … it's the first solar system object to be detected at a distance of more than 100 times Earth's distance from the sun. (
  • Although the asteroids and short-period comets satisfy, in a general sense, the same dynamical constraints as the major planets, we have to remember that such objects have undergone significant orbital evolution since the solar system formed. (
  • Read a National Geographic magazine article about the Age of Comets and get information, facts, and more about the solar system. (
  • Comets are leftovers, scraps of material that didn't make it to planethood in the events creating our solar system. (
  • This is helpful stuff because comets are believed to incorporate matter from the Solar System's formative era. (
  • Grigg-Skjellerup's dust tells us that all comets are not the same in terms of composition, giving us the chance, as Nittler says, to "…use them as tracers for different processes that occurred in the solar system four-and-a-half billion years ago. (
  • Comets preserve material that hasn't been changed via the magmatism on and under the surface of larger bodies, like the planets and dwarf planets, which has effectively erased that very early history of the solar system from them. (
  • Thus we believe the oldest meteorites (and comets, should we ever get to sample them) hold clues about the early phases of solar system evolution. (
  • For two years now, data beamed back to Earth by Voyager 1 has hinted at its close approach to the edge of the solar system , a pressure boundary called the heliopause. (
  • Scientists had expected to see the solar wind veer sideways when it met the heliopause, like water hitting a wall, rather than screech to a halt. (
  • In short, in late August, cosmic ray collisions sharply rose, and solar particle collisions sharply fell: two indicators of a transition through the heliopause. (
  • At the edge of the heliosheath is the heliopause, a demarcation line that bounds our solar system from interstellar space. (
  • As the craft neared the heliopause, scientists expected to detect fewer particles of solar wind and more cosmic rays pouring in from interstellar space. (
  • Gary Zank, a space physicist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, said he wasn't convinced Voyager 1 was still contained within the solar system and that it would take several months to figure out whether the probe had crossed the heliopause after all. (
  • In the above video, which comes via Digital Journal , Petrov discusses one of NASA's latest discoveries, made when its Voyager 2 space probe (launched in '77) began passing through a region surrounding our solar system known as the heliopause . (
  • The region of nested bubbles is carried by the solar wind to the north and south filling out the entire front region of the heliopause and the sector region in the heliosheath. (
  • In this new view, the heliopause is not a continuous shield that separates the solar domain from the interstellar medium, but a porous membrane with fingers and indentations. (
  • In this view, scientists expected the heliopause, the boundary that separates where the solar wind dominates from where the interstellar wind dominates, to be smooth and the associated smooth magnetic field to shield us from the interstellar medium and galactic cosmic rays. (
  • The compositional make-up of the various solar system bodies offers several important clues about the conditions under which they formed. (
  • Today the amount of information on the motions, properties, and compositions of the planets and smaller bodies has grown to immense proportions, and the range of observational instruments has extended far beyond the solar system to other galaxies and the edge of the known universe . (
  • Located at the centre of the solar system and influencing the motion of all the other bodies through its gravitational force is the Sun, which in itself contains more than 99 percent of the mass of the system. (
  • This StelObjectModule derivative is used to model SolarSystem bodies. (
  • Massive monuments-such as Stonehenge in England and pyramids in Egypt and the Americas-attest to ancient peoples' profound efforts to observe and predict movements of the solar bodies, and the active fields today of both astrology and solar astronomy demonstrate the continued importance of the solar system in human life. (
  • The current solar system model with the powerful central sun guiding from afar the planets and other solid bodies and radiating the light and heat that sustain life itself embodies an archetype that has been adopted into other fields. (
  • Improvements in observational astronomy and the use of uncrewed spacecraft have since enabled the detailed investigation of other bodies orbiting the Sun. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99.86% of the system's known mass and dominates it gravitationally. (
  • Similar conditions could allow for ice-covered oceans on planetary bodies in other solar systems too. (
  • What are the prospects for life on other planetary bodies in our Solar System and how do we go about searching for it? (
  • A new study suggests that temperatures in some parts of the disk were warm enough for liquid water to exist on the first solid bodies in the solar system just 20 million years after they had formed. (
  • The objects that did not accrete to form large enough bodies to differentiate retain the chemical composition of the original condensed solar nebula. (
  • Discovery of these hard-to-destroy meteoritic materials helps prove that their parent bodies do contain the dust of pre-solar stars. (
  • In 2010, Voyager passed the point where the solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outward from the sun, seemed to reach the end of its leash. (
  • The probe's detectors indicated that the wind had suddenly died down, and all the surrounding solar particles were at a standstill. (
  • Since May, the spacecraft has experienced a steady rise in the number of collisions with particles whose energies are greater than 70 Mega-electron-volts, indicating they are probably cosmic rays emanating from supernova explosions far beyond the solar system. (
  • Based on the predominant model of Solar System formation, scientists assert that several billion years ago, our Solar System was nothing but a cloud of cold dust particles swirling through empty space. (
  • Since late July, Krimigis said, the intensity of the solar wind particles had decreased a thousand-fold, while cosmic ray intensities rose. (
  • The currently accepted theory on how giant planets in our solar system formed is known as core accretion, in which a planet is formed around the young star in a protoplanetary disc made primarily of hydrogen, helium, and particles of ices and dust composed of other chemical elements. (
  • Presolar grains - dust particles formed in previous star generations and in supernovae before the birth of the Solar System - provided the biggest surprise. (
  • The green solar cell consists of small tubes made of zinc oxide that are bioengineered to attract PSI particles and quickly become coated with them. (
  • This cloud of gas and dust was disturbed, perhaps by the explosion of a nearby star (a supernova), and the cloud of gas and dust started to collapse as gravity pulled everything together, forming a solar nebula - a huge spinning disk. (
  • O ne of the most amazing discoveries in space science is the unambiguous evidence from meteorites that the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust in which the Sun and planets formed) contained radioactive isotopes with half-lives so short that they no longer exist. (
  • More than that, the material can help scientists better understand what went into the solar nebula - the cloud of dust and gas which condensed into our sun and its planets. (
  • Material that formed the solar nebula originated mainly in oxygen rich stars. (
  • The finding encourages the expectation that scientists will be able to get a new perspective on the origin of the solar nebula. (
  • The nonprofit organization GivePower is helping to change that with its solar desalination system, which turns salt water into potable water. (
  • This research adopts the solar wing as the ventilation power supply and accomplishes the cabin real-time heat rejection by achieving the steady air circulation for both inside and outside environment. (
  • Use of artificial neural network has been proposed to determine the performance parameters of the system, namely, coefficient of performance, specific cooling power, adsorbent bed (thermal compressor) discharge temperature, and solar cooling coefficient of performance. (
  • Furthermore, solar-power-based refrigerator is simple and is adaptable for small, medium, or large systems [ 2 ]. (
  • Wind and Solar Power Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of this rapidly growing segment of the power industry. (
  • It covers in detail the design, operation, and control methods applicable to stand-alone as well as grid-connected power systems and discusses the present status of and the on-going research in renewable power around the world. (
  • With solar power expected to generate 10 percent of the world's total electricity by 2035 1 , the safety of installed systems will become even more important. (
  • July 14, 2010 - PRLog -- Learn how to solar charge your home, design and Installation of solar power grid, off grid systems. (
  • You can use solar power to run your home, business, houseboat, camper or holiday cabin. (
  • Bret is often asked the solar power system requirements for a "standard" house. (
  • Homeowner's power requirement is different, and if you want a solar system that works, you must ensure that it is large enough to generate sufficient power for your needs. (
  • Provide enough excess power to store in the home system batteries to last you through periods of bad weather. (
  • They couldn't afford the 1.7kw solar system needed to power their 800 sq. ft. condo by themselves. (
  • Read on to find out how they educated their families about solar power and what commitments they had to make to their homeowner's association. (
  • Want Solar Power Our friends at the Daily Green have a nice heart-warming story about Sarah and Kiril Lozanov, a young couple who decided to use their wedding registry to go solar. (
  • It can handle up to 500 Watts, sucks power down from a bank of solar cells and spits that out to a battery. (
  • Average daily solar insolation in the most populated parts of the populated word works out to ~3kWh/kW, so on an average day a 500W system would provide 1.5kWh of power. (
  • Using batteries to store solar power is a very small niche. (
  • Wind turbines and solar power plants - where to construct which system? (
  • Numerical model of the Solar System Historical models of the Solar System Infinite Corridor Power & Light District to Union Station Possibly the first accurate scale model after the measurement of the astronomical unit in 1769. (
  • Utility-scale solar power stations with electric power capacity of more than 50 MW and the capability to feed excess power back to the electric grid for future consumption, are being built to meet the growing demand for solar power. (
  • A utility-scale solar power plant can consist of hundreds to thousands of solar collectors. (
  • The wind-solar hybrid system was installed in Dhaubadi village of Nawalparasi district in December 2011 under ADB's regional technical assistance (RETA) for Effective Development of Distributed Small Wind Power Systems in Asian Rural Areas for which the AEPC was the implementing agency in Nepal. (
  • ADB is now supporting the Government of Nepal to scale up similar initiatives in other rural areas of the country under its proposed SASEC power system expansion project," said Mr. Zhai. (
  • Under the proposed SASEC power system expansion project, the off-grid component with more than 4.0 MW of mini hydro and 500 kW mini grid based solar or solar and wind hybrid system will be added. (
  • Georgia's more efficient and cost-effective solar power system relies on data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to determine where the sun will be at any date and time. (
  • Concentrating Solar Power CSP Systems Market To. (
  • WinterGreen Research announces that it has published a new study Concentrated Solar Power (CSP): Market Shares, Strategy, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2014 to 2020. (
  • Worldwide markets are poised to achieve significant growth as the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) integrates molten salt storage technologies and leverages the existing steam electrical power generating capacity. (
  • The concentrated solar power market is set to explode despite environmental objections to the technology. (
  • Concentrating solar power is one of several preferred methods of solar electricity production. (
  • But heat and light are not the only power of the sun over the solar system. (
  • What Cassini found at Saturn prompted scientists to rethink their understanding of the solar system. (
  • NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft has entered a new region between our solar system and interstellar space, which scientists are calling the stagnation region. (
  • In April 2010, scientists reported that the outward speed of solar wind had diminished to zero, which indicated the start of the new region. (
  • However, the issue of whether or not the spacecraft has left the solar system continues to inspire heated debate among scientists. (
  • Scientists have discovered that the wall of hot plasma around our solar system is a whopping 89,000 F (49,500 C). (
  • S ome scientists analyze meteorites to determine the abundances of things that no longer exist in the Solar System. (
  • Or, the simulation may show scientists that the assumptions they have about the Solar System need to be revisited. (
  • Boston - Scientists who study the origin of the solar system have found some of the oldest material yet known. (
  • It provides a link between what scientists can study in their laboratories today and ancient cosmic events that contributed to our solar system. (
  • With the continuing growth in the capabilities and sophistication of computer systems, scientists are gaining the ability to model the dynamics of the Solar System and ask 'what if' questions regarding the presence and size of planets. (
  • Curtin University planetary scientists have shed some light on the bombardment history of our solar system by studying a unique volcanic meteorite recovered in Western Australia. (
  • The discovery of water vapour in the atmospheres of three exoplanets includes the most precise measurement of any chemical in a planet outside the solar system, and has major implications for planet formation and the search for water on Earth-like habitable exoplanets in future. (
  • All life on Earth needs water so the search for aliens in the solar system has followed the search for water. (
  • The solar system is much larger, therefore, than the distance to the remotest known planet, Pluto, which orbits the Sun at a mean distance of 39.44 AU. (
  • The tighter orbits of extrasolar planet systems support this idea. (
  • As the solar system evolved there is a transfer of angular momentum between the orbits of these stars and the gas and dust and crap still remaining in the protoplanetary ring. (
  • The eight-planet system that was discovered with the help of NASA's Kepler space telescope and artificial intelligence orbits a star called Kepler 90 some 2,545 light years away. (
  • The eight-planet system -- the largest known outside of ours -- orbits a star called Kepler 90 some 2,545 light-years away. (
  • Saturn's Nightside Dynamics During Cassini's F Ring and Proximal Orbits: Response to Solar Wind and Planetary Period Oscillation Modulations. (
  • In particular, Uranus and Neptune couldn't have formed where they are today - the disc of gas that congealed into the planets would have been too thin at the edge of the solar system to account for the ice giants' bulk. (
  • But the great gravitational bullies of the solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, would not have gone quietly to their new homes. (
  • Previous simulations show that at least one planet, usually Uranus or Neptune, should have been ejected from the solar system in the shuffle. (
  • Neptune is the only planet in our solar system that was known to exist before it was visually discovered. (
  • At an average solar distance of 2.8 billion miles (over 30 times farther out than Earth), Neptune is the most distant planet of the solar system. (
  • Ice Giant Systems: The scientific potential of orbital missions to Uranus and Neptune. (
  • 2015 TG387 and 2012 VP113 never get close enough to the solar system's giant planets, like Neptune and Jupiter, to have significant gravitational interactions with them. (
  • The ANN used in the performance prediction was made in MATLAB (version 7.8) environment using neural network tool box.In this study the temperature, pressure, and solar insolation are used in input layer. (
  • Maximum solar insolation is 1.3 kw per m 2 and the area of 500 m. of pipe would be just under 10m 2 , so it can't be putting out 65.7 kw. (
  • This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. (
  • Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. (
  • And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. (
  • However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet's magnetic field. (
  • The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors and dynamos, models of solar wind interaction, measurement of ancient terrestrial rocks and meteorites, and laboratory investigations. (
  • All of the planets, including the earth are surrounded by a teardrop shaped magnetosphere generated by the interaction of the magnetic field of the solar wind with that of each planet. (
  • We continue to find our models need to be improved as we learn more about the complex interaction between solar wind and interstellar wind. (
  • To follow up these observations, mission managers rolled Voyager 1 four times this spring and summer to investigate whether the solar wind was blowing strongly in another direction. (
  • The planet does have a weak magnetic field, though, thought to be caused by the interaction between solar wind and the planet's atmosphere. (
  • It turns out the Sun does kind of the same thing as the water falling from the faucet, only instead of flinging water outward, it flings solar wind in every direction, and instead of standing water around it, there's a particle soup made up of interstellar plasma. (
  • Needless to say, we earthlings are ridiculously lucky to have that solar-wind shield. (
  • The sun moves through the galaxy encases in a bubble formed by its own solar wind. (
  • On one side are the last vestiges of solar wind. (
  • Instruments developed by MPS aboard the space- craft SOHO and Ulysses have provided fundamentally new insights: Measurements of the ultraviolet spectrometer SUMER on board SOHO played a decisive role in recognising the significance of the magnetic field for dynamic processes and Ulysses measured the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind for the first time. (
  • As the solar wind speed decreases past the termination shock, the sectors squeeze together, bringing regions of opposite magnetic field closer to each other. (
  • This was the pilot for the hybrid wind and solar system in Nepal. (
  • And be aware that the solar wind is at a much higher temperature than that, since it is not in radiative equilibrium like the planets are. (
  • But I didn't think about the solar wind. (
  • I know the solar wind happens every few days, and bigger storms on the order of weeks. (
  • Does the solar wind significantly increase the temperature between the planets? (
  • I know it could also vary depending on the distance from the sun, and I would be interested in how the solar wind temperature depends on sun distance. (
  • The solar wind fills the interplanetary space with warm plasma, so although there are periods where it increases during storms, it's always there. (
  • I'm sure there's a fine Wiki on the solar wind. (
  • I'll look at the solar wind in a moment, but I did think of one other thing based on the above comment. (
  • I'll neglect solar wind for this moment right now. (
  • Nearly all meteorites we locate come from Vesta, the second largest asteroid in the solar system . (
  • The exterior of Philae is covered by solar cells supplying the required electricity for the instruments aboard. (
  • and a system in which photovoltaic cells turn sunlight into electricity which is then stored in different types of batteries (with lithium ion being the most efficient). (
  • The installation costs per year including the fuel costs, and the price per amount of electricity produced, however showed that the (hybrid) solar scenarios can compete with the fossil fuel-based system to some degree," Hotz said. (
  • Concentrating Solar Thermal Systems for Electricity Generation. (
  • The mainstream cost of electricity from the grid can be complemented by solar systems. (
  • The system produces direct current electricity when sunlight hits the solar modules. (
  • While the major planets lie within 40 Astronomical Units (AU) - the average distance of Earth to the Sun - the outermost boundary of the solar system stretches to 1 million AU, one-third the way to the nearest star. (
  • The extent of the solar system is determined by the gravitational attraction of the Sun. Indeed, the boundary of the solar system is defined as the surface within which the gravitational pull of the Sun dominates over that of the galaxy. (
  • To overcome some of the limitations of direct solar cookers, a thermal storage can be incorporated in the solar system. (
  • The intrinsic thermal-mass properties of the concrete mix also enable the slab to absorb large amounts of heat from ambient temperature conditions, which minimizes the cost of the photovoltaic system. (
  • The thermal output of the system is 67.5kWp with a maximum flow rate of 65L/h. (
  • Solar thermal systems available today offer efficiency and reliability. (
  • This fully updated edition of 2004's bestselling guide offers clear guidance on planning and installing a solar thermal system, crucial to the successful uptake of this technology. (
  • Beginning with resource assessment and an outline of core components, it details solar thermal system design, installation, operation and maintenance for single households, large systems, swimming pool heaters, solar air and solar cooling applications. (
  • In short, the book offers comprehensive guidance for professionals who wish to install solar thermal technology and is a highly valued resource for architects and engineers alike who are working on new projects, electricians, roofers and other installers, craftsmen undertaking vocational training and anyone with a specialized and practical interest in this field. (
  • Part 2: Components of Solar Thermal Systems How Does a Solar Thermal System Work? (
  • Part 10: Simulation Programs for Solar Thermal Systems Introduction. (
  • The Sothern Europe Initiative: European Network of Solar Thermal Marketing Campaigns. (
  • This diagram of our solar system shows the dramatic path of A/2017 U1 (dashed line) as it crossed the plane of the planets (known as the ecliptic) and then turned and headed back out. (
  • Learn about the science behind the current exploration of the solar system in this free class. (
  • [1] The exploration of the solar system is the central theme for research done at this institute. (
  • The J-2X engine is critical to the development of the Space Launch System,' Dan Dumbacher, NASA's deputy associate administrator for exploration systems development, said after the test at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. (
  • NORTHBROOK, Ill., April 26, 2010 - Underwriters Laboratories (UL), a global leader in safety testing and certification, announced today the introduction of a new program to train and certify installers of photovoltaic (PV) products and systems. (
  • If you're haunted by horror stories of the 70s and '80s, when fly-by-night installers, more interested in selling tax credits than reliable systems, left unwitting homeowners with poorly designed, difficult-to-maintain systems-it's time to shed those fears. (
  • The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. (
  • But Alice, the instrument on board New Horizons responsible for this finding, is much more sensitive than anything the Voyagers had on board before beginning their own journey out of the solar system , the researchers wrote. (
  • By calibrating the timing of an event that occurred within the first several million years of the 4.5-billion-year-old solar system, the researchers have accomplished the equivalent of determining at 3-day intervals the infant characteristics of a person now 45 years of age, notes Ian D. Hutcheon of the Lawrence Livermore (Calif.) National Laboratory. (
  • Engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas are developing an anti-icing system that could make airport runways safer and less expensive to maintain during winter months. (
  • The researchers will continue testing the system through the 2011-12 winter season. (
  • Habitable Environments Elsewhere in our Solar System? (
  • A good idea about how begin and the evolution of life in our world and possible habitable extraterrestrial worlds in our solar system or planets orbiting stars, based in our own world. (
  • Predicting what conditions would form the eight planets of our solar system, however, is an extreme challenge. (
  • Did NASA's Voyager 1 Spacecraft Just Exit the Solar System? (
  • New data from the spacecraft indicate that the historic moment of its exit from the solar system might have come and gone two months ago. (
  • Voyager 1, the most distant spacecraft from Earth, has reached a new milestone in its quest to leave the Solar System. (
  • NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has measured the largest object discovered in the solar system since the discovery of Pluto 72 years ago. (
  • The solar collectors on this home, owned by Aspen, Colorado's Community Office of Resource Efficiency, provide more than half of its domestic hot water. (
  • The other benefit of leaving the pool system in place is that we may get a small efficiency increase from the PV modules due to cooling effect of pool water circulating below them. (
  • For example, from meteorites we are familiar with the first centimetre-sized mineral aggregates in the solar system, but we know very little about how they formed. (
  • The new finding, based on a highly accurate method for the radioactive dating of primitive meteorites, pinpoints one of the earliest and most important events in the solar system-the time at which frozen water became liquid. (
  • New data from meteorites indicates that formation of the Solar System was triggered by a supernova. (
  • Solar disinfection (SODIS) was developed in the 1980s to inexpensively disinfect water used for oral rehydration solutions. (
  • These findings are continuing to chip away at the once-held belief that the solar system was dry and barren, bereft of water. (
  • It seems there are few places in the solar systems without some amount of water, whether liquid or solid. (
  • Here's the breakdown of all the water we know about in the solar system, and what form it comes in. (
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share Water older than the solar system . (
  • Use the FEMP solar hot water calculator to estimate what size of solar system will work best for your Federal facility and how much it will cost. (
  • Design large PV, solar hot water or space heating systems. (
  • The two major factors affecting the performance of properly sited and installed solar water heating systems include scaling (in liquid or hydronic-based systems) and corrosion (in hydronic and air systems). (
  • Domestic water that is high in mineral content (or "hard water") may cause the buildup or scaling of mineral (calcium) deposits in hydronic solar heating systems. (
  • If your system uses water as the heat transfer fluid , scaling can occur in the collector, distribution piping, and heat exchanger . (
  • In systems that use other types of heat-transfer fluids (such as glycol, an anti-freeze), scaling can occur on the surface of the heat exchanger that transfers heat from the solar collector to the domestic water. (
  • Changing to solar hot water will substantially reduce costs. (
  • But the system isn't going anywhere, and it now produces enough clean drinking water for 35,000 people every day. (
  • If you're interested in helping GivePower in its mission to provide access to clean drinking water using solar-powered technology, a $20 dollar donation will give a person potable water for at least 20 years. (
  • Now, the system provides 35,000 people with clean water every day. (
  • Our water measurement in one of the planets, HD 209458b, is the highest-precision measurement of any chemical compound in a planet outside the solar system, and we can now say with much greater certainty than ever before that we've found water in an exoplanet," said Dr Nikku Madhusudhan of the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, who led the research. (
  • That's because the interiors of any terrestrial planets in these systems are likely warmer than Earth--up to 25 percent warmer, which would make them more geologically active and more likely to retain enough liquid water to support life, at least in its microbial form. (
  • Water flowed early in the solar system. (
  • The existence of liquid water so early in the solar system may have hastened the creation of life on Earth, notes McSween. (
  • Greg Pahl explains how you can save money using a solar hot water system for your homestead, includes solar shopping tips, types of solar heaters and real-life solar applications. (
  • Flat-plate collectors are most commonly used in residential solar hot water systems. (
  • They provide up to 70 percent of the home's domestic hot water needs by using a solar hot water system. (
  • Coupled with R-43 straw bale walls, the solar hot water heating system keeps the greenhouse toasty warm, even in the depths of a Midwestern winter. (
  • Active, closed-loop solar hot water systems use a heat- transfer fluid, like antifreeze, to absorb heat. (
  • Learn how you can save money by using a solar hot water system to cut water heating costs. (
  • Installing a solar domestic hot water system can reduce your hot water heating bill by 60 percent to 95 percent, potentially saving you hundreds of dollars a year. (
  • Invest in a solar hot water system for $3,000 to $6,000 and, in some cases, you might recoup the costs within only four to six years. (
  • instead of fossil fuels, solar hot water systems emit none of the pollutants and greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, sulfur oxides - produced when natural gas or oil is burned. (
  • And solar hot water systems can be used wherever the sun shines. (
  • In concert with an electric or gas-fired backup unit, solar domestic hot water can reduce the requirement for conventional water heating by two-thirds or more. (
  • The total amount the solar hot water system can contribute depends on your household's hot water consumption, and the amount of sunshine the collectors receive daily and throughout the year. (
  • In general, most solar systems are designed to meet one-half to three-quarters of a family's domestic hot water need. (
  • During the summertime, the system may usually meet all of their hot water needs. (
  • How would I calculate the temperature of the water coming out of the system? (
  • By comparison, a standard solar collector can only heat water between 60 and 70 degrees Celsius. (
  • Thus, one needs to either apply an external electrical bias or couple the hematite electrode with a solar cell in order to enable the water splitting reaction. (
  • The modules will be mounted about 4" above an existing solar pool water heating system which consists of a mat of black rubberlike tubes where the pool water circulates to pick up heat from the sun. (
  • Our thinking is that we will still get some pool water heating from the mat system --- better than nothing --- at no cost. (
  • Systems for Heating Domestic Water. (
  • If Jupiter flung the lost ice giant from the solar system, it would have lost angular momentum and receded from the sun. (
  • The result of this angular momentum transfer is that the gas giant closest to the star will spiral into that star, then the next gas giant in line spirals into the star, and so on, until the gas and crap in the solar system is blown out of the system by the star and this process stops. (
  • That's why the hunt for extraterrestrial life (quite doubtfully of an intelligent sort, though we've found some quite remarkable octopuses on Earth) has turned from distant solar systems to our own cosmic backyard. (
  • Cosmochemistry: Understanding the Solar System through analysis of extraterrestrial materials. (
  • Chapter by chapter, Hand lays out the evidence for the existence of distant oceans in our solar system. (
  • The second-most-distant observed solar system object is Eris , at about 96 AU. (
  • Research has proved that the adsorption refrigeration technology has a promising potential for competing with the conventional vapour compression refrigeration systems. (
  • The low COP and SCP values as compared to the conventional refrigeration systems are the barriers for the commercialization of the adsorption refrigeration systems [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • The hybrid system achieved exergetic efficiencies of 28.5 percent in the summer and 18.5 percent in the winter, compared to 5 to 15 percent for the conventional systems in the summer, and 2.5 to 5 percent in the winter," said Hotz, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Duke's Pratt School of Engineering. (
  • We performed a cost analysis and found that the hybrid solar-methanol is the least expensive solution, considering the total installation costs of $7,900 if designed to fulfill the requirements in summer, although this is still much more expensive than a conventional fossil fuel-fed generator," Hotz said. (
  • Voyager tells us now that we're in a stagnation region in the outermost layer of the bubble around our solar system," Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist at Caltech in Pasadena, Calif., said in a statement. (
  • After that, the parameters of the solar wing are determined according to the control target of the cabin internal air temperature. (
  • The results show that the system can reduce the cabin air temperature with a maximum of 15°C, therefore, the occupant entering comfort is improved when vehicle is parking under the hot sun. (
  • Solar Salt as a Phase Change Material (PCM) can be an attractive small scale heat storage solution, as the melting temperature of about 220°C can be suitable for cooking purposes. (
  • In a commentary accompanying the Nature article, he writes that in order to melt ice so early in the solar system, the temperature of the parents of the CI chondrites must have risen from less than 150 kelvins to about 420 kelvins in at most 15 million years. (
  • Temperature in the space between planets of our solar system? (
  • Or is this pretty much the temperature in our solar system also, assuming a coordinates some distance away from any of our planets but still within our solar system? (
  • NATO responded to this new interest by agreeing to sponsor an Advanced Research Workshop "Ices in the Solar System", provided a proper organizing body could be set up. (
  • Oceans, Ices, Vapors: Turns out the Solar System isn't so parched. (
  • Christiaan Huygens With a field-of-view encompassing 150,000 stars, NASA's Kepler mission delivered an overwhelming prize when it came to hunting worlds beyond our own Solar System: thousands of new exoplanets. (
  • With the discovery of an 8th planet orbiting another star 2,500 light years away, we now have another solar system that ties ours for number of worlds! (
  • This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. (
  • For example, unassisted solar hydrogen production can be achieved by incorporating hematite in a tandem cell configuration. (
  • The study also finds evidence bolstering the idea that a low-mass supernova exploded nearby shortly before the solar system was born, providing heavy elements to build planets. (
  • The best bet is that much of it was made during the supernova explosion that triggered the formation of the Solar System. (
  • Washington, DC - According to one longstanding theory, our Solar System's formation was triggered by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. (
  • There are not many options for how an excess of iron-60-which later decayed into nickel-60-could have gotten into a primitive Solar System object in the first place-one of them being a supernova. (
  • My findings indicate that a supernova shock wave is still the most-plausible origin story for explaining the short lived radioactive isotopes in our Solar System," Boss said. (
  • One million years is still an eyeblink at this scale, representing the difference between 4.566 and 4.567, but this difference is important in understanding the infant solar system. (
  • Perform site-specific engineering analysis of commercial, industrial, or utility-scale solar projects. (
  • Scale buildup reduces system performance in a number of ways. (
  • The enormous ratio of interplanetary distances to planetary diameters makes constructing a scale model of the Solar System a challenging task. (
  • Many towns and institutions have built outdoor scale models of the Solar System. (
  • Some planetaria and related museums often use a scale model of the Solar System featuring a planetarium dome representing the Sun. Examples of this can be seen in planetaria like the Adler Planetarium, the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History, the Clark Planetarium, the Griffith Observatory, the Louisiana Arts and Science Museum, the Adventure Science Center, etc. (
  • Part 5: Large-scale Systems Systems. (
  • B2Gold Corp BTG has commissioned the world's largest off-grid solar battery hybrid system at the Fekola gold mine in Mali in a bid to lower CO2 emissions by 39,000 tons. (
  • Off-grid systems suit remote country or isolated households. (
  • Could see this as being useful with smaller applications of Solar like Home boats, and off grid habitats. (
  • There is a move in the solar industry to achieve grid-parity. (
  • Individual solar cells are cheap now - 40-50c/W according to Digitimes and SolarBuzz. (
  • One of the most promising solutions is installing an array of solar cells in residential areas. (
  • Governments have big tax incentives for individuals that install and use solar cells in their households. (
  • The operation of the scientific instruments was only possible by using the on-board batteries, whereas the recharging via the solar cells was not possible at that time. (
  • In July 2019, B2Gold approved the plant's construction after completion of the feasibility study by a Germany-based solar project consultancy Suntrace and its partner BayWa. (
  • For months, this interstellar interloper - a fragment of an alien solar system - has been hanging around our cosmic neighborhood. (
  • Over the past year, instruments onboard Voyager 1 also found that the intensity of the solar magnetic field in the stagnation region had doubled. (
  • The ambitious Solar Orbiter Mission, based on a suggestion from the Institute, will see a probe approach our star to within a fifth of the Earth-Sun distance in order to investigate the magnetic field and its effects in the various layers of the solar atmosphere. (
  • In addition, US interplanetary probes that began to explore the solar system's remoter edges returned data that also raised hopes. (
  • That's the conclusion from a computer simulation of the solar system's evolution, which suggests the fifth giant was hurled into interstellar space some 4 billion years ago, after a violent encounter with Jupiter. (
  • This jumping Jupiter theory is very difficult to achieve for the four-planet system. (
  • Its planets are Jupiter-sized and its discovery suggests that solar systems such as our own may be commonplace in the Universe. (
  • What is new about these results is that Marcy is claiming to have found an entire *system* of 3 jupiter-sized planets around another star. (
  • Historically, the solar system has been the key performer in the greatest and grandest show on earth, the drama of the sky with the sun moving across it each day and with the fixed stars of the constellations providing each night a slowly moving backdrop against which the more agile moon, and five visible planets-Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn-performed their routines. (
  • In the absence of the Earth-moon system, the orbital period of Jupiter sets up what is called resonance over the period of 8 million years. (
  • Earth 's solar system is comprised of the Sun , nine major planets, some 100,000 asteroids larger than 0.6 mi (1 km) in diameter, and perhaps 1 trillion cometary nuclei. (
  • They are stored in the Oort cloud, a huge, diffuse sphere of cometary nuclei in the far reaches of the solar system. (
  • For the first time, a space rock from another solar system has been spotted cruising through our corner of the universe. (
  • A "Solar Salt" (NaNO 3 -KNO 3 60 : 40 molar mixture) latent heat storage has been charged by direct solar illumination. (
  • This is a system where portable heat batteries can be charged, during sunshine hours, and then provide heat for cooking during evening times. (
  • Solar heat can then be collected while the sun is available and stored for later use. (
  • Concentrating Systems Providing Process Heat. (
  • In India he witnesses a total solar eclipse - when the link to the light and heat that sustains us is cut off for a few precious minutes. (
  • One very important constraint for testing theories of Solar System formation is meteorite chemistry. (
  • Taking this latest meteorite research into account, Boss revisited his earlier models of shock wave-triggered cloud collapse, extending his computational models beyond the initial collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation, when the Sun was first being created, an important next step in tying together Solar System origin modeling and meteorite sample analysis. (
  • Meteorite sample older than sun sheds light on solar system. (
  • Earlier this year, Mr. Anders's team announced isolation of diamonds - another pre-solar material - in a sample of the Murchison meteorite that fell in Australia in 1969. (
  • These ages are pretty old by terrestrial standards, but quite young for a meteorite since most are dated at 4.57 billion years old, when the solar system began," Dr Jourdan said. (
  • Eton does claim its system is suitable for outdoor use, but stops short of making any guarantees about the speakers ability to repel rain or dust. (
  • Like other planets in the Solar System, the Earth arose from a cloud of gas and dust about 5 billion years ago. (