Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Solanum nigrum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.Solanum melongena: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Solanaceous Alkaloids: Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Solanum glaucophyllum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that causes CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1a,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (CALCITRIOL).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Strychnos: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Strychnaceae).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Strychnos nux-vomica: A plant genus of the genus STRYCHNOS, family LOGANIACEAE that is the source of STRYCHNINE.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Ribes: A plant genus of the family GROSSULARIACEAE. GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID is obtained from the black currant oil of the seeds.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Books

Study of apoptosis in human liver cancers. (1/177)

AIM: To investigate the action of apoptosis in occurrence of liver carcinomas in vivo and the biological effect of Solanum lyratum Thumb on BEL-7404 cell line inducing apoptosis in vivo. METHODS: The apoptosis in the liver carcinoma was detected with terminal deoxynucl neotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); the cancer cells cultured in DMED medium were treated with extract of Solanum lyratum Thumb and observed under microscope, and their DNA was assayed by gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: In vivo apoptotic cells in the cancer adjacent tissues inceased; in vivo treatment of liver cancers with extract of Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the cells to manifest a typical apoptotic morphology. Their DNA was fractured and a characteristic ladder pattern could be found using electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: In vivo the apoptosis of carcinomas was lower; maybe the cells divided quickly and then the cancers occurred. In the cancer adjacent tissues,the apoptosis pricked up, and in vivo Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells.  (+info)

Bower decorations attract females but provoke other male spotted bowerbirds: bower owners resolve this trade-off. (2/177)

Elaborate secondary sexual traits offset the costs that they impose on their bearer by facilitating reproductive benefits, through increased success in intrasexual contests or increased attractiveness to choosy mates. Some traits enhance both strategies. Conversely, I show that spotted bowerbirds Chlamydera maculata may face a trade-off. The trait that best predicts their mating success, numbers of Solanum berries exhibited on a bower, also provokes increased intrasexual aggression in the form of bower destructions by neighbouring bower owners, which reduce the quality of the male's bower. At natural berry numbers, levels of mating success in the population are skewed, but levels of destruction do not vary with berry number. When berry numbers are artificially exaggerated, increased levels of destructions occur, but mating success does not increase. When offered excess berries, either to add to the bower or artificially placed on the bower, bower owners preferred to use numbers of berries related to the number that they displayed naturally. This decision is made without direct experience of the attendant changes in destruction or mating success. This indicates that bower owners may assess their own social standing in relation to their neighbours and modulate their display accordingly.  (+info)

The role of 2n gametes and endosperm balance number in the origin and evolution of polyploids in the tuber-bearing Solanums. (3/177)

Polyploidization has played a major role in the origin and evolution of polyploid species. In this article we outline the unique characteristics of 2n gametes and implications of their participation in the evolution of polyploid Solanum species. The genetic consequences of 2n gametes indicate that sexual polyploidization results in greater variability, fitness, and heterozygosity than does somatic doubling. Further, the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation and the frequency of 2n gamete-forming genes in present polyploids and their ancestral species provide additional evidence of their involvement. Equally important is the endosperm, via the endosperm balance number (EBN) incompatibility system, in complementing the role of 2n gametes. In fact, the EBN system acts as a screen for either 1n or 2n gametes, depending on the EBN and chromosome numbers of parental species. EBN in combination with 2n gametes maintains the ploidy integrity of diploid ancestral species, while providing the flexibility for either unilateral or bilateral sexual polyploidization.  (+info)

The starch from Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill. fruit is not a hypoglycemic agent. (4/177)

We have investigated the hypoglycemic effect induced by the starch obtained from the unripe fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae). Per os administration of the starch (1000 or 2000 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days, N = 6) did not change glycemia levels of nondiabetic female Swiss mice weighing 25-30 g. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, similar treatment with the starch did not change the elevated glycemia 3 h after the last dose (diabetic treated with saline = 288 17/309 18; starch 1000 mg/kg = 295 +/- 33; starch 2000 mg/kg = 258 +/- 37; N = 5). In animals fasted for 15 h, per os administration of glucose (600 mg/kg) significantly increased glycemia 1 h later. Previous (-30 min) treatment of the animals with the starch (1000 or 2000 mg/kg; N = 5) did not change the increase of glycemia. Per os administration of the starch (1000 or 2000 mg kg-1 day-1, twice daily for 7 days) did not induce body weight gain or loss. The chemical analysis of the starch indicated the presence of glycoalkaloids, a finding that represents a reason for concern since many of these substances are generally toxic. In interviews with 56 diabetic patients, 29 medicinal plants were reported as useful in their treatment of diabetes and S. lycocarpum was the sixth most frequently mentioned. All patients interviewed reported that they also used insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs. The results of the present study do not provide evidence for a hypoglycemic effect associated with the polysaccharide fraction of S. lycocarpum in either normal or hyperglycemic mice. These data demonstrate the need for adequate pharmacological investigation of the natural products widely used in folk medicine.  (+info)

Pollen performance before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth. (5/177)

For species with bicellular pollen, the attrition of pollen tubes is often greatest where the style narrows at the transition between stigmatic tissue and the transmitting tissue of the style. In this region, the tubes switch from predominantly autotrophic to predominantly heterotrophic growth, the generative cell divides, the first callose plugs are produced, and, in species with RNase-type self-incompatibility (SI), incompatible tubes are arrested. We review the literature and present new findings concerning the genetic, environmental and stylar influences on the performance of pollen before and during the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition of pollen tube growth. We found that the ability of the paternal sporophyte to provision its pollen during development significantly influences pollen performance during the autotrophic growth phase. Consequently, under conditions of pollen competition, pollen selection during the autotrophic phase is acting on the phenotype of the paternal sporophyte. In a field experiment, using Cucurbita pepo, we found broad-sense heritable variation for herbivore-pathogen resistance, and that the most resistant families produced larger and better performing pollen when the paternal sporophytes were not protected by insecticides, indicating that selection during the autotrophic phase can act on traits that are not expressed by the microgametophyte. In a study of a weedy SI species, Solanum carolinense, we found that the ability of the styles to arrest self-pollen tubes at the autotrophic-heterotrophic transition changes with floral age and the presence of developing fruits. These findings have important implications for selection at the level of the microgametophyte and the evolution of mating systems of plants.  (+info)

Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight. (6/177)

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. Control of late blight in the United States and other developed countries relies extensively on fungicide application. We previously demonstrated that the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum is highly resistant to all known races of P. infestans. Potato germplasm derived from S. bulbocastanum has shown durable and effective resistance in the field. Here we report the cloning of the major resistance gene RB in S. bulbocastanum by using a map-based approach in combination with a long-range (LR)-PCR strategy. A cluster of four resistance genes of the CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat) class was found within the genetically mapped RB region. Transgenic plants containing a LR-PCR product of one of these four genes displayed broad spectrum late blight resistance. The cloned RB gene provides a new resource for developing late blight-resistant potato varieties. Our results also demonstrate that LR-PCR is a valuable approach to isolate genes that cannot be maintained in the bacterial artificial chromosome system.  (+info)

Cytotoxic activity of steroidal glycosides from solanum plants. (7/177)

Since some Solanum-genera plants have traditionally been used as anti-cancer and anti-herpes agents from olden times, we examined the cytotoxic activity of typical steroidal glycosides with the framework of spirostane, furostane, spirosolane, and pregnane obtained from Solanum plants. Among these steroidal glycosides, the spirostanol glycosides having a beta-lycotetraosyl moiety were the most effective against PC-12 and HCT-116 cell lines. The potency of activity was observed to be decreased in the order of spirostane, furostane, spirosolane, and pregnane type steroid glycosides. It was also suggested that the activity depend on the kind of oligosaccharide moiety and aglycone moiety.  (+info)

Sheltered load associated with S-alleles in Solanum carolinense. (8/177)

Bud pollinations allowed me to examine the effects of homozygosity at loci in the area of suppressed recombination around the S-locus in Solanum carolinense, whose S-alleles show surprisingly low diversification rates. The total number of seeds produced was lower for incompatible than compatible pollinations, revealing that self-incompatibility was only somewhat overcome by bud pollination. However, low seed set in incompatible crosses was not due solely to the incompatibility response; crosses between distinct plants sharing the same alleles at the S-locus led to dramatically high seed abortion, nearly equal to that found upon selfing. An excess of heterozygotes in the surviving progeny supports the supposition that these high abortion rates are due to sheltered load, that is, previously unexpressed load accumulated due to enforced heterozygosity and recombination suppression around the S-locus. Of the seven alleles examined in total, two showed evidence of severe load and five did not. The magnitude of load was consistent with terminal branch length in some, but not all, cases.  (+info)

  • Eastern black nightshade ( Solanum ptychanthum ), was confirmed to be resistant to group 22 herbicides (bipyridiliums), specifically Gramoxone (paraquat) in Chatham-Kent recently. (
  • Many formerly independent genera like Lycopersicon (the tomatoes) and Cyphomandra are now included in Solanum as subgenera or sections . (
  • Here, we have assessed the ability of Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces antibioticus and Streptomyces champavatii to provide disease protection against Rhizoctonia solani in Solanum lycopersicon and have also examined associated changes in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes. (
  • Kangaroo apple (Solanum aviculare) is regarded as an environmental weed in South Australia and Western Australia (Weeds of Australia Biosecurity Queensland Edition). (
  • Solanum heteropodium in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) , U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. (
  • In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes ( Solanum sect. (
  • Most species within the genera Solanum are poisonous and should not be consumed by humans or wildlife. (
  • Solanum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species ( butterflies and moths ) - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Solanum . (
  • Anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of typical steroidal glycosides with the frameworks of spirostane (including nuatigenin glycoside), furostane, solasodane, tomatidane and ergostane (including dimer) obtained from Solanum plants. (
  • There are also a number of Solanum plants used primarily in the past by native people or in folk medicine. (
  • Giant devil's fig is being studied for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis, and in the future, who knows what medical uses may be found for Solanum plants. (
  • Using the AFLP technique highly informative DNA fingerprints were generated from 19 taxa of Solanum sect. (
  • Giannattasio, R. B., Spooner, D. M. , 1994: A reexamination of species boundaries between Solanum megistacrolobum and Solanum toralapanum ( Solanum sect. (
  • Solanum albidum is a species of nightshade that is native to western South America, from southern Ecuador to northern Argentina, and grows well at mid elevations in the Andes. (
  • Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans ) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' ( RB ) gene. (
  • In the orthologous cluster in Solanum habrochaites , a new sesquiterpene synthase gene was created by a duplication event of a monoterpene synthase followed by a localized gene conversion event directed by a diterpene synthase gene. (
  • The Solanum gene cluster also contains an ortholog of Nt -CPS2 , but it appears to encode a nonfunctional protein. (
  • Thus, the Solanum functional gene cluster evolved by duplication and divergence of TPS genes, together with alterations in substrate specificity to utilize cis -prenyl diphosphates and through the acquisition of CPT genes. (
  • A resistance gene against potato late blight originating from Solanum Ã- michoacanum maps to potato chromosome VII. (
  • High Resolution Mapping of a Novel Late Blight Resistance Gene Rpi-avl1, from the Wild Bolivian Species Solanum avilesii. (
  • Another unusual Solanum for you rare fruit growers! (
  • The most effective means of controlling Solanum is the prevention of fruit production . (
  • D. E. Symon, "Fruit diversity and dispersal in Solanum in Australia," Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Garden , vol. 1, pp. 321-331, 1979. (
  • M. T. A. Fandino, Management of Bombus Atratus Bumblebees to Pollinate Lulo ( Solanum quitoense L), a Native Fruit from the Andes of Colombia , Ecology and Development Series no. 50, 2007, edited by P. L .G. Vlek, M. Denich, C. Martius, C. Rodgers, and N. van de Giesen. (
  • Amin M, Anwar F, Janjua MRSA, Iqbal MA, Rashid U. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles through Reduction with Solanum xanthocarpum L. Berry Extract: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities against Helicobacter pylori . (
  • Brihati (Solanum indicum) is a spiny and highly branched shrub, usually dispersing or diffused, growing up to 1-5 meters in height. (
  • Natural Area Weeds: Invasive Solanum spp. (
  • Solanum is Latin for quieting, reference to the narcotic properties of some species, while xanti is named for Janos Xantus (1825-1894) a Hungarian botanical collector. (
  • Morphological data and single- to low-copy nuclear DNA restriction enzyme site data were used to test subspecies circumscriptions of Solanum bulbocastanum and S. cardiophyllum. (
  • The packet says solanum melanocerasum- garden huckelberry. (