Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Respiratory Tract DiseasesCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.AcroleinNitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp. (1/1002)

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

Formation of bound residues during microbial degradation of [14C]anthracene in soil. (2/1002)

Carbon partitioning and residue formation during microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and soil-compost mixtures were examined by using [14C]anthracenes labeled at different positions. In native soil 43.8% of [9-14C]anthracene was mineralized by the autochthonous microflora and 45.4% was transformed into bound residues within 176 days. Addition of compost increased the metabolism (67.2% of the anthracene was mineralized) and decreased the residue formation (20. 7% of the anthracene was transformed). Thus, the higher organic carbon content after compost was added did not increase the level of residue formation. [14C]anthracene labeled at position 1,2,3,4,4a,5a was metabolized more rapidly and resulted in formation of higher levels of residues (28.5%) by the soil-compost mixture than [14C]anthracene radiolabeled at position C-9 (20.7%). Two phases of residue formation were observed in the experiments. In the first phase the original compound was sequestered in the soil, as indicated by its limited extractability. In the second phase metabolites were incorporated into humic substances after microbial degradation of the PAH (biogenic residue formation). PAH metabolites undergo oxidative coupling to phenolic compounds to form nonhydrolyzable humic substance-like macromolecules. We found indications that monomeric educts are coupled by C-C- or either bonds. Hydrolyzable ester bonds or sorption of the parent compounds plays a minor role in residue formation. Moreover, experiments performed with 14CO2 revealed that residues may arise from CO2 in the soil in amounts typical for anthracene biodegradation. The extent of residue formation depends on the metabolic capacity of the soil microflora and the characteristics of the soil. The position of the 14C label is another important factor which controls mineralization and residue formation from metabolized compounds.  (+info)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (3/1002)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).  (+info)

Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. (4/1002)

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)

Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples. (5/1002)

Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions.  (+info)

Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills. (6/1002)

The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities.  (+info)

Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. (7/1002)

The impact of heavy-metal contamination on archaean communities was studied in soils amended with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed a decrease in the percentage of Archaea from 1.3% +/- 0.3% of 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells in untreated soil to below the detection limit in soils amended with heavy metals. A comparison of the archaean communities of the different plots by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed differences in the structure of the archaean communities in soils with increasing heavy-metal contamination. Analysis of cloned 16S ribosomal DNA showed close similarities to a unique and globally distributed lineage of the kingdom Crenarchaeota that is phylogenetically distinct from currently characterized crenarchaeotal species.  (+info)

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. (8/1002)

Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination of the site and (ii) define an end point for the removal of the hydrocarbon substrate. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift in all plots from primarily eukaryotic biomass to gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. PLFA profiles from the oiled plots suggested increased gram-negative biomass and adaptation to metabolic stress compared to unoiled controls. DGGE analysis of untreated control plots revealed a simple, dynamic dominant population structure throughout the experiment. This banding pattern disappeared in all oiled plots, indicating that the structure and diversity of the dominant bacterial community changed substantially. No consistent differences were detected between nutrient-amended and indigenous inoculum-treated plots, but both differed from the oil-only plots. Prominent bands were excised for sequence analysis and indicated that oil treatment encouraged the growth of gram-negative microorganisms within the alpha-proteobacteria and Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides phylum. alpha-Proteobacteria were never detected in unoiled controls. PLFA analysis indicated that by week 14 the microbial community structures of the oiled plots were becoming similar to those of the unoiled controls from the same time point, but DGGE analysis suggested that major differences in the bacterial communities remained.  (+info)

  • This technique requires cleanup crews to introduce healthy bacteria into the soil, where they gradually break down harmful materials and restore the balance of the soil. (
  • Decomposition of waste in the soil also creates foul odors that can impact quality of life. (
  • Officials admitted that the soil survey results only provide an aggregate, macro picture of soil quality in China because the variability of conditions makes it difficult to be comprehensive or accurate using only points. (
  • nov., a phenolic acid-degrading bacterium isolated from acidic forest soil ," published Feb. 6 in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology . (
  • Microbial cultures and associated biotechnology can be helpful to reduce such types of pollution from soil without affecting their natural habitat or niche. (
  • They created the system that we live in, and they sustain it," said Dan Buckley, professor of microbial ecology in the Section of Soil and Crop Sciences in the School of Integrative Plant Science. (
  • Scottish soil and their effects on gas depth profiles monitored as indicators of microbial processes of the soil ecosystem. (
  • No-tillage and crop-rotation practices also have positive effects on soil, although no-tillage's benefits for earthworms are often absent on farms that use herbicides and other pesticides. (
  • The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of soil pollutants on diversity and abundance of earthworms in a winter vegetable crop (cauliflower). (
  • Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. (
  • After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. (
  • Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. (
  • In these areas, weak precipitation rate causes salt accumulation at high level on the soil surfaces, leading to drastic modifications in soil properties, affecting hence the environment, human health and civil engineering infrastructure and facilities. (
  • Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. (
  • I will highlight recent successes in the application of biochars to mitigate pollutant phyto-accumulation and markedly reduce the cancer risks in China's Cancer Villages. (
  • Crop production problems in agriculture are encountered when excess salinity ( salt accumulation) occurs in soils in arid climates where the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation . (
  • Toxicity from B (boron) is also common because of the accumulation of boron-containing minerals in arid soil environments . (
  • Deterioration of storage facilities used for the stockpiles, improper storage practices, and past production and use of POPs also have resulted in contamination of soils around the world. (
  • The tool could be used to assess measures designed to decontaminate animals or to prevent contamination, such as grazing regimes that aim to reduce the risk of cows eating soil accidentally. (
  • Contamination of soil and water contributes to the reduction of economic income, and also has an impact on economic development and management organizations and services. (
  • The Libyan oil industry has left a significant legacy of contamination and methods are required to remediate oil-contaminated soils in the area. (
  • At sufficiently high concentrations, the salts pose a toxicity hazard from Na + , HCO 3 − (bicarbonate) and Cl − (chloride) and interfere with water uptake by plants from soil. (
  • The research activity in this area would contribute towards developing advanced bioprocess technology to reduce the toxicity of the pollutants and also to obtain novel useful substances. (
  • As an element with well-known toxicity, excessive thallium (Tl) in farmland soils, may threaten food security and induce extreme risks to human health. (
  • Microbes play a key role in many biogeochemistry cycles and can effect a variety of soil properties, such as biotransformation of mineral and metal speciation, toxicity, mobility, mineral precipitation, and mineral dissolution. (
  • ROME, Jun 23 2017 (IPS) - Soils are polluted due mostly to human activities that leave excess chemicals in soils used to grow food, the United Nations reports. (
  • Abstract: The seminar will begin by introducing the fundamentals of how chemical and physical phenomena underpin soil-pollutants interactions. (
  • The Handbook of Environmental Health-Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil includes Nine Chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of Chapters 8 and 9. (
  • This study comprehensively reviews the sources, fate, and dispersion of MPs in the soil environment, discusses the interactions and effects of MPs on soil biota, and highlights the recent advancements in detection and quantification methods of MPs. (
  • This document describes onsite wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS), which have the potential to achieve high treatment efficiencies over a long life service at low cost. (
  • SIEGRIST, R.L. TYLER, E.J. JENSSEN, P.D. (2000): Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems. (
  • The fate and dispersion of MPs in the soil environment are mainly associated with the soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and diversity of soil biota. (
  • Completely revised and updated to include new analytical techniques as well as additional chemical structures and reactions, this second edition retains the features - clarity of prose, pertinent examples, and authoritative coverage of a wide range of toxic pollutants - that made the first edition a bestseller. (
  • It presents the tools and techniques required to measure a wide range of toxic pollutants in our environment. (
  • The air-soil equilibrium status of POPs suggested the Tibetan soils may be partial "secondary sources" of HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs and will likely continue to be "sinks" for the less volatile DDE and DDT. (
  • Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil nutrient addition on the growth of Phragmites australis under different drying-rewetting cycles. (
  • The frequency of soil drying-rewetting cycles is predicted to increase under future global climate change, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are symbiotic with most plants. (
  • Although human exposure to these substances is primarily through inhalation or drinking water , soils play an important role because they affect the mobility and biological impact of these toxins. (
  • In the Midwest, University of Illinois researchers are using a smartphone camera and its processing power to perform sophisticated laboratory-equivalent tests for allergens, pathogens, and toxins in food or soil. (
  • One of the heavy metals naturally present in soils is thallium. (
  • New Zealand has traces of several heavy metals in its rocks that can become pollutants. (
  • Biochar is a promising alternative to remedy the soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds through adsorption and immobilization due to its large surface area, charged surface, and functional groups. (
  • Heavy metals are added into soils through many anthropogenic sources such industry and/or fertilizers. (
  • Using plants to help clean up heavily polluted soils has been successfully tested for many years and shown to be a cheap and environmentally friendly way to clear heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, zinc and chromium from contaminated land. (
  • The GSP Plenary Assembly is a unique, neutral and multi-stakeholder platform to discuss global soil issues, to learn from good practices, and to deliberate on actions to secure healthy soils for an effective provision of ecosystem services and food for all," said Maria Helena Semedo, FAO Deputy Director-General, Climate and Natural Resources. (
  • The parent material of most soils is either sediment or solid rock. (
  • Ore, calcines, dump material, soil, sediment and suspended particles from the three sites have been considered in the study. (
  • Professor Gang Pan and his team have developed a novel technique that can use modified local soil (MLS technology) to remove algae, improve water quality, remediate polluted sediment, reduce internal loads and make the excess harmful nutrients in eutrophic water a resources for aquatic ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. (
  • Charged chemicals usually cling to the mineral content, but non-ionic chemicals tend to make themselves at home in the soil s natural organic matter. (
  • the efflux of soil colloids, dissolved organic matter and agrochemicals. (
  • Adding compost, manure, and other forms of organic matter to farmland soil can boost earthworm numbers, crop yield, and the stability of soil, finds a recent analysis of long-term case studies. (
  • It is indicated that amending BC into soil improves the structure and properties of soil, such as the water-holding capacity, organic matter content, aeration condition, pH value, cationic exchange capacity (CEC), and the formation of aggregates of soil [ 7 , 12 - 15 ]. (
  • Soil is made up of four main components: mineral grains, organic matter, water, and air. (
  • Through consumption, digestion, and excretion of soil organic matter, soil arthropods help improve soil structure and change nutrients into forms available to plants. (
  • Characterization of atrazine binding to dissolved organic matter of soil under different types of land use. (
  • The quantity and the depth at which soil characteristics such as organic matter, clay, iron and soluble salt content occur are some of the factors that are used to define the major soil classes. (
  • As the result, we got accurate functional dependences of sufficiently step height of soil and the concentration of nitrate ions and those can find a specific application in agriculture for these two types of soil, and may be sufficiently adequate substitution for the field investigations. (
  • How many types of soil exist in the world today? (
  • Some explanation for the changes in soil gas concentration was provided by reference to the microorganism assemblages and the gases associated with biochemistry of nitrification, denitrification, methane oxidation and methanogenesis. (
  • While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. (
  • Recently, it is reported that conversion of biomass into BC can not only result in the renewable energy (synthetic gas and biooil), but also decrease the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere, which reveal more research on the effect and behaviour of BC in soil [ 8 - 11 ]. (
  • Jayasekera, S,: Stabilising volume change characteristics of expansive soils using electrokinetics: a laboratory based investigation. (
  • One-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the needed steam permeability and decontamination rate of a particular pollutant during steady-state steam flow. (
  • A team of researchers at Washington State University , Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico have developed a catalyst that can reduce pollutants at the lower temperatures anticipated in advanced engines. (
  • Laboratory of Soil Science. (
  • Due to the ongoing situation with COVID-19 the Cornell Soil Health Laboratory is temporarily closed. (