Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The contamination of indoor air.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Relating to the size of solids.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The motion of air currents.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The status of health in urban populations.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde (C3H4O), highly reactive, toxic and naturally occurring compound that can be found in certain foods, tobacco smoke and is produced as a result of environmental pollution or industrial processes.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp. (1/1002)

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

Formation of bound residues during microbial degradation of [14C]anthracene in soil. (2/1002)

Carbon partitioning and residue formation during microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil and soil-compost mixtures were examined by using [14C]anthracenes labeled at different positions. In native soil 43.8% of [9-14C]anthracene was mineralized by the autochthonous microflora and 45.4% was transformed into bound residues within 176 days. Addition of compost increased the metabolism (67.2% of the anthracene was mineralized) and decreased the residue formation (20. 7% of the anthracene was transformed). Thus, the higher organic carbon content after compost was added did not increase the level of residue formation. [14C]anthracene labeled at position 1,2,3,4,4a,5a was metabolized more rapidly and resulted in formation of higher levels of residues (28.5%) by the soil-compost mixture than [14C]anthracene radiolabeled at position C-9 (20.7%). Two phases of residue formation were observed in the experiments. In the first phase the original compound was sequestered in the soil, as indicated by its limited extractability. In the second phase metabolites were incorporated into humic substances after microbial degradation of the PAH (biogenic residue formation). PAH metabolites undergo oxidative coupling to phenolic compounds to form nonhydrolyzable humic substance-like macromolecules. We found indications that monomeric educts are coupled by C-C- or either bonds. Hydrolyzable ester bonds or sorption of the parent compounds plays a minor role in residue formation. Moreover, experiments performed with 14CO2 revealed that residues may arise from CO2 in the soil in amounts typical for anthracene biodegradation. The extent of residue formation depends on the metabolic capacity of the soil microflora and the characteristics of the soil. The position of the 14C label is another important factor which controls mineralization and residue formation from metabolized compounds.  (+info)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (3/1002)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).  (+info)

Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. (4/1002)

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)

Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples. (5/1002)

Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions.  (+info)

Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills. (6/1002)

The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities.  (+info)

Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. (7/1002)

The impact of heavy-metal contamination on archaean communities was studied in soils amended with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed a decrease in the percentage of Archaea from 1.3% +/- 0.3% of 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells in untreated soil to below the detection limit in soils amended with heavy metals. A comparison of the archaean communities of the different plots by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed differences in the structure of the archaean communities in soils with increasing heavy-metal contamination. Analysis of cloned 16S ribosomal DNA showed close similarities to a unique and globally distributed lineage of the kingdom Crenarchaeota that is phylogenetically distinct from currently characterized crenarchaeotal species.  (+info)

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. (8/1002)

Three crude oil bioremediation techniques were applied in a randomized block field experiment simulating a coastal oil spill. Four treatments (no oil control, oil alone, oil plus nutrients, and oil plus nutrients plus an indigenous inoculum) were applied. In situ microbial community structures were monitored by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to (i) identify the bacterial community members responsible for the decontamination of the site and (ii) define an end point for the removal of the hydrocarbon substrate. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift in all plots from primarily eukaryotic biomass to gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. PLFA profiles from the oiled plots suggested increased gram-negative biomass and adaptation to metabolic stress compared to unoiled controls. DGGE analysis of untreated control plots revealed a simple, dynamic dominant population structure throughout the experiment. This banding pattern disappeared in all oiled plots, indicating that the structure and diversity of the dominant bacterial community changed substantially. No consistent differences were detected between nutrient-amended and indigenous inoculum-treated plots, but both differed from the oil-only plots. Prominent bands were excised for sequence analysis and indicated that oil treatment encouraged the growth of gram-negative microorganisms within the alpha-proteobacteria and Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides phylum. alpha-Proteobacteria were never detected in unoiled controls. PLFA analysis indicated that by week 14 the microbial community structures of the oiled plots were becoming similar to those of the unoiled controls from the same time point, but DGGE analysis suggested that major differences in the bacterial communities remained.  (+info)

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and chlorine (Cl) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with chlorine atoms. The properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons can vary widely, depending on the number and arrangement of chlorine and hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been widely used in various industrial applications, including as solvents, refrigerants, pesticides, and chemical intermediates. Some well-known examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons are:

1. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) - a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, used as a solvent in various industrial applications, including the production of pharmaceuticals and photographic films.
2. Chloroform - a heavy, volatile, and sweet-smelling liquid, used as an anesthetic in the past but now mainly used in chemical synthesis.
3. Carbon tetrachloride - a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mildly sweet odor, once widely used as a solvent and fire extinguishing agent but now largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.
4. Vinyl chloride - a flammable, colorless gas, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and other synthetic materials.
5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a group of highly stable and persistent organic compounds that were widely used as coolants and insulating fluids in electrical equipment but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence.

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, depending on the specific compound and its physical state. Some chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to various health effects, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and cancer. Therefore, proper handling, use, and disposal of these chemicals are essential to minimize potential health risks.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made organic chemicals consisting of 209 individual compounds, known as congeners. The congeners are formed by the combination of two benzene rings with varying numbers and positions of chlorine atoms.

PCBs were widely used in electrical equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, and insulating properties. They were also used in other applications, including coolants and lubricants, plasticizers, pigments, and copy oils. Although PCBs were banned in many countries in the 1970s and 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence, they still pose significant health and environmental concerns because of their continued presence in the environment and in products manufactured before the ban.

PCBs are known to have various adverse health effects on humans and animals, including cancer, immune system suppression, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and endocrine disruption. They can also cause neurological damage and learning and memory impairment in both human and animal populations. PCBs are highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, leading to higher concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, including humans.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Epidemiological monitoring is the systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data pertaining to a specific population or community, with the aim of identifying and tracking patterns of disease or injury, understanding their causes, and informing public health interventions and policies. This process typically involves the use of surveillance systems, such as disease registries, to collect data on the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of health outcomes of interest, as well as potential risk factors and exposures. The information generated through epidemiological monitoring can help to identify trends and emerging health threats, inform resource allocation and program planning, and evaluate the impact of public health interventions.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Photochemical oxidants refer to chemical compounds that are formed as a result of a photochemical reaction, which involves the absorption of light. These oxidants are often highly reactive and can cause oxidative damage to living cells and tissues.

In the context of environmental science, photochemical oxidants are primarily associated with air pollution and the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful oxidizing agents in the atmosphere. These pollutants are formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, particularly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemical oxidation can also occur in biological systems, such as within cells, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by the absorption of light by certain molecules. These ROS can cause damage to cellular components, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Overall, photochemical oxidants are a significant concern in both environmental and health contexts, and understanding the mechanisms of their formation and effects is an important area of research.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Fertilizers are substances that are added to soil to provide nutrients necessary for plant growth and development. They typically contain macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in forms that can be readily taken up by plants. These three nutrients are essential for photosynthesis, energy transfer, and the production of proteins, nucleic acids, and other vital plant compounds.

Fertilizers may also contain secondary nutrients like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) as well as micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo). These elements play crucial roles in various plant metabolic processes, including enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, and hormone production.

Fertilizers can be organic or synthetic. Organic fertilizers include materials like compost, manure, bone meal, and blood meal, which release nutrients slowly over time as they decompose. Synthetic fertilizers, also known as inorganic or chemical fertilizers, are manufactured chemicals that contain precise amounts of specific nutrients. They can be quickly absorbed by plants but may pose environmental risks if not used properly.

Proper fertilization is essential for optimal plant growth and crop yield. However, overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient runoff, soil degradation, water pollution, and other negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it's crucial to follow recommended fertilizer application rates and practices based on the specific needs of the plants and local regulations.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Cities" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a geographical and sociopolitical one referring to large, densely populated urban areas. If you're looking for information about health-related topics associated with cities, I would be happy to help! For example, there are many public health issues that are closely linked to city living, such as air pollution, infectious diseases, and chronic conditions like obesity and heart disease. Please let me know if you have any specific questions in mind!

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Environmental remediation is the process of treating, removing, or containing contamination from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the purpose of reducing the impact on human health and the environment. The goal of environmental remediation is to return the contaminated area to its original state, or to a state that is safe for use and poses no significant risk to human health or the environment. This process often involves various techniques such as excavation, soil washing, bioremediation, chemical treatment, and thermal treatment. The specific method used depends on the type and extent of contamination, as well as site-specific conditions.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is not typically included in standard medical textbooks or resources as it's more of a environmental and industrial chemical. However, I can provide you with an definition from a toxicological perspective:

Hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) is an organic compound that consists of a benzene ring with six chlorine atoms attached to it. It is a persistent organic pollutant, which means it does not break down easily and can accumulate in the environment and living organisms. HCB has been used as a pesticide, fungicide, and chemical intermediate in various industrial processes. Exposure to this compound can lead to several health issues, including skin lesions, damage to the nervous system, and impaired immune function. It's also considered a possible human carcinogen by some agencies. Long-term environmental exposure to HCB is of particular concern due to its bioaccumulation in the food chain and potential adverse effects on human health and the environment.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Acid rain is a form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, that has a pH level less than 5.6 and contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acids. These acidic compounds are formed primarily when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted into the atmosphere from human sources such as coal-fired power plants, industrial processes, and transportation vehicles. When these pollutants mix with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the atmosphere, they form acidic compounds that can fall to the earth as acid rain, harming both natural ecosystems and man-made structures.

The term "acid rain" was first coined in the 1960s by scientists studying the effects of air pollution on the environment. Acid rain can have a number of negative impacts on the environment, including damaging forests, lakes, and streams; harming aquatic life; eroding buildings, monuments, and sculptures; and contributing to respiratory problems in humans and animals.

To mitigate the effects of acid rain, many countries have implemented regulations aimed at reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from industrial sources and power plants. These efforts have helped to reduce the severity of acid rain in some areas, but the problem remains a significant concern in many parts of the world.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

An Atmosphere Exposure Chamber (AEC) is a controlled environment chamber that is designed to expose materials, products, or devices to specific atmospheric conditions for the purpose of testing their durability, performance, and safety. These chambers can simulate various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and contaminants, allowing researchers and manufacturers to evaluate how these factors may affect the properties and behavior of the materials being tested.

AECs are commonly used in a variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices, to ensure that products meet regulatory requirements and industry standards for performance and safety. For example, an AEC might be used to test the durability of a new aircraft material under extreme temperature and humidity conditions, or to evaluate the performance of a medical device in a contaminated environment.

The design and operation of AECs are subject to various regulations and standards, such as those established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These standards ensure that AECs are designed and operated in a consistent and controlled manner, allowing for accurate and reliable test results.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Sulfur oxides (SOx) are chemical compounds that contain sulfur and oxygen in various oxidation states. The term "sulfur oxides" is often used to refer specifically to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), which are the most common and widely studied SOx compounds.

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic eruptions and is also released into the air when fossil fuels such as coal and oil are burned for electricity generation, industrial processes, and transportation. Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Sulfur trioxide is a colorless liquid or solid with a pungent, choking odor. It is produced industrially for the manufacture of sulfuric acid and other chemicals. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage upon contact.

Both sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide contribute to air pollution and have been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, including respiratory problems, acid rain, and damage to crops and forests. As a result, there are regulations in place to limit emissions of these pollutants into the air.

Dioxins are a group of chemically-related compounds that are primarily formed as unintended byproducts of various industrial, commercial, and domestic processes. They include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dioxins are highly persistent environmental pollutants that accumulate in the food chain, particularly in animal fat. Exposure to dioxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects, including developmental and reproductive problems, immune system damage, hormonal disruption, and cancer. The most toxic form of dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) is a chemical compound that is formed as a byproduct when dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is metabolized or breaks down in the environment. DDE is an organochlorine pesticide and is similar in structure to DDT, with two phenyl rings and two chlorine atoms attached to a central ethylene molecule.

DDE is highly stable and does not break down easily in the environment, which means that it can persist for many years and accumulate in the food chain. It is lipophilic, meaning that it tends to accumulate in fatty tissues, and bioaccumulates in animals that are higher up in the food chain.

DDE has been shown to have toxic effects on both wildlife and humans. It can disrupt hormone systems, particularly those related to reproduction, and has been linked to reproductive problems in birds and other animals. In humans, exposure to DDE has been associated with increased risk of certain cancers, developmental delays in children, and other health problems.

DDE is no longer used as a pesticide in many countries, but it can still be found in the environment due to its persistence and ability to accumulate in the food chain. People can be exposed to DDE through contaminated food, water, or air, as well as through contact with soil or dust that contains DDE.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde with the chemical formula CH2CHCHO. It is a colorless liquid that has a distinct unpleasant odor and is highly reactive. Acrolein is produced by the partial oxidation of certain organic compounds, such as glycerol and fatty acids, and it is also found in small amounts in some foods, such as coffee and bread.

Acrolein is a potent irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat, and exposure to high levels can cause coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It has been shown to have toxic effects on the lungs, heart, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

In the medical field, acrolein is sometimes used as a laboratory reagent or as a preservative for biological specimens. However, due to its potential health hazards, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with this compound.

Nitrogen compounds are chemical substances that contain nitrogen, which is a non-metal in group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen forms compounds with many other elements due to its ability to form multiple bonds, including covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and halogens.

Nitrogen can exist in several oxidation states, ranging from -3 to +5, which leads to a wide variety of nitrogen compounds with different properties and uses. Some common examples of nitrogen compounds include:

* Ammonia (NH3), a colorless gas with a pungent odor, used in fertilizers, cleaning products, and refrigeration systems.
* Nitric acid (HNO3), a strong mineral acid used in the production of explosives, dyes, and fertilizers.
* Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), a white crystalline solid used as a fertilizer and explosive ingredient.
* Hydrazine (N2H4), a colorless liquid with a strong odor, used as a rocket fuel and reducing agent.
* Nitrous oxide (N2O), a colorless gas used as an anesthetic and laughing gas in dental procedures.

Nitrogen compounds have many important applications in various industries, such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and energy production. However, some nitrogen compounds can also be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment if not handled properly.

Pentachlorophenol is not primarily a medical term, but rather a chemical compound with some uses and applications in the medical field. Medically, it's important to understand what pentachlorophenol is due to its potential health implications.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a pesticide, wood preservative, and disinfectant. Its chemical formula is C6HCl5O. It is a white crystalline solid with a distinct, somewhat unpleasant odor. In the environment, pentachlorophenol can be found in soil, water, and air as well as in various organisms, including humans.

Pentachlorophenol has been associated with several potential health risks. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and as a possible human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Exposure to pentachlorophenol can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Potential health effects include irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; damage to the liver and kidneys; neurological issues; and reproductive problems.

In a medical context, pentachlorophenol might be relevant in cases where individuals have been exposed to this compound through occupational or environmental sources. Medical professionals may need to assess potential health risks, diagnose related health issues, and provide appropriate treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Humic Substances" are not considered medical terms with a specific clinical definition. They are organic compounds that are commonly found in soil, sediments, and water, formed by the decomposition and transformation of plant and animal materials over time. Humic substances can have various complex structures and properties, and they play important roles in nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and water quality. However, they are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions or healthcare.

Nitric acid is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HNO3. It is a highly corrosive mineral acid and is the primary constituent of nitric acid solutions.

Medically, nitric acid or its salts may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments. For example, nitrate or nitrite salts of potassium or sodium can be used as vasodilators to treat angina pectoris (chest pain) by improving blood flow and reducing oxygen demand in the heart muscle. Nitric acid itself is not used medically.

It's important to note that exposure to nitric acid can cause severe burns and tissue damage, so it should be handled with care and appropriate personal protective equipment.

Hazardous waste, as defined in the medical context, refers to any waste that poses a substantial danger to public health or the environment. These wastes can be generated from various sources, including industrial processes, healthcare activities, and household items. They often contain properties that make them harmful, such as being toxic, corrosive, reactive, or ignitable.

In the medical field, hazardous waste may include:

1. Infectious waste: Waste contaminated with potentially infectious materials, such as used needles, surgical instruments, and cultures from medical laboratories.
2. Pathological waste: Human or animal tissues, organs, or fluids that may pose a risk of infection.
3. Pharmaceutical waste: Expired, unused, or contaminated medications, including both prescription and over-the-counter drugs.
4. Chemical waste: Including solvents, disinfectants, heavy metals, and other chemicals used in medical laboratories, research facilities, and healthcare settings.
5. Radioactive waste: Materials that emit radiation, such as those used in medical imaging or cancer treatments.

Proper handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste are crucial to minimize the risks they pose to human health and the environment. Regulations governing hazardous waste management vary by country and region but generally require proper labeling, containment, transportation, and disposal methods to ensure safety.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of highly reactive gases, primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas, or biomass, and are emitted from various sources, including power plants, industrial boilers, transportation vehicles, and residential heating systems. Exposure to NOx can have adverse health effects, particularly on the respiratory system, and contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants like ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Meteorological Concepts" is quite broad and can refer to various ideas and phenomena related to the study of meteorology, which is the scientific discipline that deals with the atmosphere and its processes. Here are a few examples of meteorological concepts:

1. Air pressure: The force exerted by the weight of the air above a given point. It's usually measured in hectopascals (hPa), inches of mercury (inHg), or millibars (mbar).
2. Temperature: A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or environment, often reported in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F).
3. Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current water vapor content to the maximum possible content at a given temperature.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground, including rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
5. Wind: The horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. It's usually described in terms of its speed (measured in knots, miles per hour, or meters per second) and direction (often given as a compass bearing).
6. Clouds: Visible masses of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere. They form due to the condensation of atmospheric water vapor and are classified based on their appearance, altitude, and other characteristics.
7. Fronts: Boundaries between different air masses that have distinct temperature and humidity properties. These boundaries can lead to various weather phenomena, such as precipitation and severe thunderstorms.
8. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances in the atmosphere, often resulting from human activities like industrial processes or transportation.
9. Weather forecasting: The use of scientific principles, observations, and computer models to predict future weather conditions.
10. Climate: The long-term average of weather patterns and conditions in a specific region, typically over a period of 30 years or more.

These are just a few examples of meteorological concepts. There are many more aspects of atmospheric science that could be explored, such as the study of tornadoes, hurricanes, and other extreme weather events.

'Smog' is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" and refers to a type of air pollution typically formed when vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and other sources release large amounts of fine particles and gases (such as nitrogen oxides or ground-level ozone) into the air. These pollutants then react in the presence of sunlight to form smog.

However, exposure to high levels of smog can have negative health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smog can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Long-term exposure to smog has been linked to more serious health problems, including heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.

... also implements regular measurements of air pollutants and soil analyses. In 2003, a biomonitoring campaign with honey bees was ...
The pollutants then enter the soil where they decompose or can be broken down by bacteria in healthy soil. There are several ... Soil chemistry testing is also required to determine if the soil has a certain off-level of any pollutant. Phosphorus and high ... Bioswales work to remove pollutants through vegetation and the soil. As the storm water runoff flows through the bioswale, the ... levels of salinity in the soil are two common pollutants that should be attended to. Analysis of inflow and outflow pollutant ...
Plastics in landfills can leak pollutants into the surrounding soil; incinerating creates gaseous pollutants, such as carbon ... Plastics in the road can break down into microplastics and can find their way into the soil and bodies of water. These ... microplastics can also absorb other pollutants. Every time maintenance is performed on these modular roads the flow of power, ...
Earthworms have the ability to biomonitor soil pollutants. This is because of earthworms' burrowing habit serves to facilitate ... Megascolecidae form an important part of the soil ecosystem, in that they indicate soil health and maintain soil productivity. ... water flow and agrochemicals through the soil profile, so are able to perform carbon sequestration and reduce soil pollutants ... These species are commonly found in soil containing medium to high organic material. such as loamy soil. In Indonesia, 9 ...
... in the soil. Thirteen metals are considered priority pollutants (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, Zn, Hg). Soils and ... Microbial remediation is used in soils to remove contaminants and pollutants. Microbes play a key role in many biogeochemistry ... Many heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), at low concentrations are essential micronutrients in the soil, however they can be ... Heavy metals are added into soils through many anthropogenic sources such industry and/or fertilizers. Heavy metal interaction ...
The stratigraphy of the area plays an important role in the transport of pollutants. An area can have layers of sandy soil, ... Johnson LR, Hiltbold AE (1969). "Arsenic Content of Soil and Crops Following Use of Methanearsonate Herbicides". Soil Science ... the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through open fractures and caverns is not filtered ... containing the pollutants to prevent them from migrating further removing the pollutants from the aquifer remediating the ...
Larson, C. (2014). "China gets serious about its pollutant-laden soil". Science. 343 (6178): 1415-1416. Bibcode:2014Sci... ... Lal, Rattan (2017). "Urban Agriculture in the 21st Century". In Lal, Rattan; Stewart, B.A. (eds.). Urban Soils (1st ed.). Boca ... Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and a decline of agricultural yields. Other ... Land used for agriculture can be used for urbanization or lost to desertification, salinization, and soil erosion due to ...
13-. ISBN 978-0-07-137195-7. Schnoor J., 1986, Environmental Modeling, Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water, Air and Soil ... Paper 2472, May, 1960 Schnoor J. (1996). Environmental Modeling, Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water, Air and Soil. Wiley ... Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water, Air and Soil, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 978-0-471-12436-8 Gotovtsev A.V., 2010, ...
PCBs and other pollutants lay in a blanket just underneath the soil. In June 2009 it was announced that 200,000 cubic yards of ...
Some of the bacteria it hosts can degrade soil pollutants such as toluenes. It is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens ... The plant can grow on a variety of soil types, performing best on deep, light, friable, well-drained, higher-pH soils. It is ... 2006). Rhizosphere effect of Galega orientalis in oil-contaminated soil.[permanent dead link] Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38( ... It does not do as well on acidic, peaty, or water-logged soils. It responds well to supplemental phosphorus and potassium. Like ...
2018). "Study of Microbial Diversity of Soil and Water Polluted by Persistent Organic Pollutants". Eurasian Journal of Ecology ...
This happens through rainfall that washes pollutants from air and deposits it in soil. One of the most common ways of ... Thus, air pollutants, dust and smell end up in the urban air and worsen the situation. Heating material is secured from public ... The highest pollutant is the production of energy, with its annual CO2 contribution to global warming is 5.5 million tons. CO2 ... Air pollutants released in 2006 from Power Plants Kosovo A and B The District heating company "Termokos" operates a network ...
Fryling, Kevin (2019-01-22). "IU study predicts air pollutant increase from U.S. forest soils". News at IU. Retrieved 2019-01- ... In addition to contributing to smog, when nitrogen fertilizer is added to the soil and the excess is released in the form of NO ... When nitrogen fertilizer is added to the soil, excess ammonium and nitrate not used by plants can be converted to NO by ... A recent study conducted by the University of California Davis found that adding nitrogen fertilizer to soil in California is ...
Green Soil- A site for biological treatment of sludge with volatile pollutants. Dor Ecology- Part of Dor Chemicals group. ... Soil Pollution Netherlands, Volume 44, Numbers 3-4 / April, 1989 Grinberg, Mijal; Zafrir Rinat (September 11, 2007). "Report: ... Soil Pollution Netherlands, Volume 44, Numbers 3-4 / April, 1989 "A Socio-environmental Timeline", Bustan, 2006 Borger, Julian ... outcrops of the chalk under Ramat Hovav showed fractures potentially leading to serious soil and groundwater contamination in ...
Land pollution is when pollutants or harmful chemicals get into the soil and change its quality. There is currently a large ... In Hawthorne Park, the soil has traces of till, iron, calcium, salt, and magnesium. Calcium is found from the heavy ... Retrieved 2016-01-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Soil Health - part1". Archived from the original ...
"Surfactant-enhanced mobilization of persistent organic pollutants: Potential for soil and sediment remediation and unintended ... Hernández-Soriano Mdel C, Peña A, Dolores Mingorance M (2010). "Release of metals from metal-amended soil treated with a ... Anionic surfactants can be found in soils as the result of sewage sludge application, wastewater irrigation, and remediation ... Paria, Santanu (2008). "Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water". Advances in Colloid and ...
D. tsuruhatensis can degrade phenolic compounds and aniline, which are often pollutants of soil and water. D. tsuruhatensis can ...
Forests are crucial to avoid soil erosion, control pollutants, balance the eco-system, and so on. Forest products, including ...
... are used to reduce petroleum pollutants by introducing aerobic hydrocarbons to contaminated soils. However, the soil is ... This method disperses contaminated soil and aerates the soil by cyclically rotating. This process is an above land application ... is employed for removing environmental pollutants from air, water, soil, flue gasses, industrial effluents etc., in natural or ... Bioremediation can be used to mineralize organic pollutants, to partially transform the pollutants, or alter their mobility. ...
Wetlands also let pollutants settle and stick to soil particles, up to 70% of sediments in runoff. Some wetland plants have ... Without these functions, the waterways would continually increase their nutrient and pollutant load, leading to an isolated ... a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes ...
Prairie plants can absorb pollutants such as heavy metals and excess nutrients from water and soil that might enter into an ... The diverse community of microorganisms in prairie soils can break down and metabolize pollutants into less harmful ones. ... which can improve water quality by absorbing and filtering pollutants, and transforming soil compositions. The ability to ... and contribute to soil organic matter which are essential for maintaining soil fertility and structure. Prairie plants leaves ...
... where absorbent soil prevents runoff and vegetation filters out pollutants. Green infrastructure occurs at all scales. It is ... The city faced several challenges, including a high water table, tidal flows, clay soils, contaminated soil and water, and few ... The plants and soil provide more green space and insulation on roofs. Green and blue roofs also help reducing city runoff by ... As a result of years of discharges, storm water runoff, sewer outflows, and industrial pollutants, the canal has become one of ...
It also reduces the amount of pollutants that can contaminate the soil and water around the abandoned building. This can be ... It depends on the soil, where the plant is placed, if it is getting enough nutrients to thrive, etc. The plants end up being so ... Phytoremediation programs reduce contaminants in the soil, water and air through planting different types of plants. Important ... pollutant, or contaminant." Currently in the United States there are more than 450,000 brownfields, which when improved have ...
1-3. Herman Koren; Michael S. Bisesi (19 April 2016). Handbook of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition, Volume II: Pollutant ... Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil. CRC Press. pp. 488-. ISBN 978-0-8493-7800-3. Loran O'Bannon (6 December 2012). Dictionary ...
... s research interests focus on fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants in water, air, soils, and sediments. In ... "Soil protection commission of the German Federal Environmental Protection Agency". umweltbundesamt.de (in German). 27 May 2015 ... 1997-2003 he was member of the scientific advisory committee for soil protection of the Federal Government of Germany and since ... Grathwohl, P. (1990): Influence of organic matter from soils and sediments from various origins on the sorption of some ...
The slow flow of the water allows suspended sediments and pollutants to sink into the soil at the bottom. The upland areas at ... Soft-stemmed plants, like cattails (Typha), root in the soil and emerge out of the water. Marshes are high in nutrients and the ... Marshes are areas in Florida where the soil is saturated for most of the year, usually topped with water. ...
Vegetation and soil help capture and remove pollutants from stormwater in many ways like adsorption, filtration, and plant ... Annual maintenance through soil testing, visual inspection, and mechanical testing is also crucial to the health of a bioswale ... Vegetation, soil, drainage layer, roof barrier and irrigation system constitute green roof. Green roofs serve several purposes ... Often these layers include soil and vegetation, though they can also be artificial materials. The paradigm of SuDS solutions ...
Demolition can have major environmental impacts as it can pollute the soil, increase air pollutants, and increase water ... was also the largest student conference to have ever been organized by UBC and the largest student conference on Canadian soil ...
... through either accelerated or natural monitored attenuation be utilized to neutralize within the soil hydrocarbon pollutants. ... Within aerobic metabolism the nutrient added to the soil can be solely Oxygen. Anaerobic in situ bioremediation often requires ... Ozone is commonly introduced to the soil in either a dissolved or gaseous state. Within accelerated anaerobic in situ ... Naturally occurring within the soil are microbial populations that utilize hydrocarbons as a source of energy and carbon. ...
A year-long study (also from 2011) showed that methamphetamine in soils is a persistent pollutant. In a 2013 study of ... and by-products in soil". Chemosphere. 85 (6): 1002-9. Bibcode:2011Chmsp..85.1002P. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.102. PMID ...
Buy Emerging Pollutants in Sewage Sludge and Soils Paperback / softback by ISBN: 9783031076114 ... Emerging Pollutants in Sewage Sludge and Soils Editors: Manuel Arias-Estévez, Avelino Nunez-Delgado Format: Paperback / ... This book provides an authoritative overview of emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and soils. It traces the latest research ... removal and treatment of such pollutants in urban and industrial sewage sludge and soils. The book covers topics such as ...
There are many pollutants but Air, Water and Soil pollutants are most important among them. We can explain them as follows - ... Soil as Pollutant : Salt, minerally carbonic substances gases and water are fond proportionately in soil decomposers suffer on ... What is Pollution? Explain the Pollutants Air, Water and Soil. ByAdmin March 21, 2022. March 21, 2022. ... By separating the pollutants from the harmless gases and. *By converting the pollutants into innocuous products before their ...
... Österås, Ann Helén Utförare miljöövervakning, Företag, ... Major matrix was soil (n=42), but also samples of sewage sludge (n=2), crops (n=3) and earthworms (n=1) were studied. ... q Provide data on environmental levels of organic contaminants in soil and biota from arable land amended with sewage sludge. ... The study shows that PFOS, PBDE (47, 99, 100 and 209), galaxolide, tonalide and DEHP are enriched in sludge amended soils, as ...
Results of search for su:{Soil pollutants, Radioactive.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ...
Scott, W. C., & Dean, J. (2005). An assessment of the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants from contaminated soil. ... An assessment of the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants from contaminated soil. / Scott, Wanda C.; Dean, John. In ... Scott, WC & Dean, J 2005, An assessment of the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants from contaminated soil, ... An assessment of the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants from contaminated soil. In: Journal of Environmental ...
Bioaccessibility of organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated soil and soil-like material ... Soil quality. Bioaccessibility of organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated soil and soil-like material. Estado : En ... In the test system presented here, the mobilisation of organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated particles is tested ... a method for testing the availability for absorption or bioaccessibility of substances from contaminated soils and soil-like ...
I. Pollution of soil, water, the atmosphere, plants and fodder] ... Water Pollutants / analysis Substances * Air Pollutants * Soil ... I. Pollution of soil, water, the atmosphere, plants and fodder] Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 1981;32(5-6):393-405. ...
While searching for organic farming pest control and remediation of soil pollutants, why not check out our sharing on the Best ... organic farming pest control and remediation of soil pollutants. Cons:. *Similar to all gardening, it takes a period of time ... 50+ Medicinal Plants To Grow In Your Garden And How To Use Them organic farming pest control and remediation of soil pollutants ... organic farming pest control and remediation of soil pollutants. If a wide array of vegetables and fruits is your top priority: ...
Effects of pollutants on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) - Part 2: Determination of effects on reproduction ... Soil quality. Effects of pollutants on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Part 2: Determination of effects on reproduction. Status : ...
Soil nematocides , such as dichlopropene, methyl isocyanate, chloropicrin, and methyl bromide, are broad-spectrum soil ... Most are nonpersistent, but triazines can persist in the soil for several years, are slightly toxic to soil organisms and ... Although transient in soil, they may have drastic ecological effects on soil systems. ... All organochlorines are relatively insoluble, persist in soils and aquatic sediments, can bioconcentrate in the tissues of ...
Earthworms have the ability to biomonitor soil pollutants. This is because of earthworms burrowing habit serves to facilitate ... Megascolecidae form an important part of the soil ecosystem, in that they indicate soil health and maintain soil productivity. ... water flow and agrochemicals through the soil profile, so are able to perform carbon sequestration and reduce soil pollutants ... These species are commonly found in soil containing medium to high organic material. such as loamy soil. In Indonesia, 9 ...
... synergistic association for remediation of PHCs is comprehensive and it is an effective tool for reclamation of soil and ... Excessive use of PHCs leads to pollution in the agriculturally important soils and the ultimate source of potability of water, ... may enhance the pollutant bioavailability by competing with the original pollutant for absorption/adsorption sites in the soil ... Contamination of soil results in deterioration of soil properties leads to the damage of crop and the soil may remain not ...
CI: Copyright (c) 2013; JID: 9318488; 0 (Diethylamines); 0 (Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); ... Certified reference soil was used to evaluate the cold fiber SPME system. Several organic solvents were used to improve the ...
Chemical brownfields: forest soil is very slow to forget. New map shows old pollutant loads. Click to enlarge. Forest soil ... they produce oxygen and their soil purifies rainwater. But forest soil also stores pollutants, making it a good indicator of ... forest soil persistent organic pollutant POP polychlorinated biphenyls DDT polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ... "Our soil pollutant data do not indicate any direct threat to the population, but we cannot give the all-clear either. Once ...
Categories: Soil Pollutants Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 18 ...
These moral entitlements include protection of soils, air, and water from diverse pollutants; the preservation of biodiversity ...
Their vegetation and soil filter pollutants, improving water quality and creating healthier environments for us all. ...
Soils contaminated by industrial or human pollutants pose considerable threat to anyone who eats them. Reports abound of lead ... My children ate dirt with surprising gusto, garden soil, road soil, leaf-mush soil, sod soil, bug-body soil-even gutter soil. ... "soil pica," is associated with several psychological abnormalities. But all ingestion of soil is not soil pica. How much soil a ... Contaminated food, soiled hands, and inhaled dust add soil to our diets. Children ingest considerable amounts of soil in these ...
Pollutants may be absorbed by the soil and leach into groundwater sources. The main pathways for human exposure to pollutants ... Key Pollutants. Chromium is the most pervasive and hazardous pollutant found in the tannery processes. Trivalent chromium is ... "Pollutants in Tannery Effluents." United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Regional Programme for Pollution Control ... "Pollutants in Tannery Effluents." United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Regional Programme for Pollution Control ...
This area developed from her PhD at Cambridge University investigating the migration of pollutants in soil using numerical and ... Hellawell, E.E., Kemp, A.C. and Nancarrow,D.J. (2001) A GIS Raster Technique to Optimise Contaminated Soil Removal, Engineering ... Hellawell, E.E. and Hughes, S.J. (2020) The potential use of local government planning data for soil contamination analyses, ... Soil contamination data on brownfield (former industrial) sites is generated as part of the UK planning process. This includes ...
Theyll take samples of the air, water, and soil to test for pollutants. They may also take pictures or videos of the property ... Theyll be able to identify any pollutants that might be present and make recommendations on how to improve the air quality. ...
A metal-free tanning method is more respectful of the environment as it results in less water, air, and soil pollutants. Our ...
Several eco-conscious options exist to keep waterways and soil pollutant-free. Phytomining allows experts to extract the metals ... Wetlands house many pollutants and countless nutrients for plant growth. It allowed researchers to run tests without fertilizer ... Though flowers cannot sap toxins and pollutants of all types, their capabilities provide a safe enough home for aquatic life to ... How Do Floating Flowers Clean Pollutants?. The marigolds help clean waterways by acting as natural suction for undesirable ...
The performance of biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil often depends on abiotic conditions and the bioavailability of ... fungal networks may dramatically improve initially adverse conditions for biodegradation of pollutants in soil, and (2) the ... Under such conditions, dispersal networks have the highest potential for improving the bioavailability of pollutants to ... Bacterial model; Bioremediation; Organic pollutants; Bioavailability; Fungal networks. Abstract. ...
Urban and periurban areas are often contaminated by several pollutants. Phytoremediation is considered to be an effective and ... These features can change the performance of these soils with respect to pollutants ([126], [112]). As stated by Cunningham & ... The most common contaminated soils are probably former industrial sites, which may display residual pollutants at different ... Huinink JTM (1998). Soil quality requirements for use in urban environments. Soil and Tillage Research 47 (1-2): 157-162.. ...
... but otherwise short-term concentration of pollutants in the soil, air and bodies of water. (Related: Find out more about the ... "Understanding how these pollutants interact with the environment, including snow, is crucial if we are to reduce the hundreds ... The research team also found that once the air pollutants interact with snow, they may undergo certain chemical transformations ... "We found that snow absorbs certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are organic pollutants known to be toxic and ...
2001) Prediction of complete bioremediation periods for PAH soil pollutants in different physical states by mechanistic models ... environmental pollutants, food additives, prostaglandins, fatty acids, lipid hydroperoxides, steroid hormones, biogenic amines ...
"They become more susceptible to diseases driven by malnourishment, and air, water and soil pollutants." ... Contamination of the soil and erosion spreads microbes and toxins, resulting in additional disease and death. Global warming ... water and soil, which, combined with population growth, increase the susceptibility of 3.7 billion people to disease and ...
Soil runoff, a problem in itself and a vector for adsorptive pollutants ... But on feedlots, too much of a good thing becomes a nonpoint pollutant. Cities in the upper Santa Ana River basin must provide ... have always, ... wanted something more than their ... share of the soil; not because they were driven by a felt need of doing ... While waiting for urban sprawl to reach them they farm with the mindset of short-term tenants, caring nothing for soil ...
  • A procedure to assess the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil samples has been developed. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • According to the researchers, some persistent organic pollutants released in the Arctic atmosphere were semi-volatile and may instantly evaporate out of storage. (newstarget.com)
  • EDTA) Behaves as a persistent environmental pollutant enhancing the mobility and bio-availability and re-mobilization of heavy metals…and is a major concern. (plantessentials.biz)
  • Salt, minerally carbonic substances gases and water are fond proportionately in soil decomposers suffer on account of some harmful chemicals. (informativeindia.com)
  • Eldon James specializes in producing safe, efficient, and high quality products, all of which are made from Eco-friendly resins that will not leach pollutants or contaminate water, liquBarbs, gases, soil, or even other recyclable materials. (fishersci.com)
  • By releasing oxygen, absorbing pollutant gases (ozone, carbon monoxide and others) and filtering harmful particulates from the air, trees benefit human health and reduce medical costs. (takingroot.info)
  • Soil erosion, leaching of minerals from rocks, decaying of organic matter are natural sources of water pollution. (informativeindia.com)
  • This change in the proportion and mass of different substances in soil is called Soil Pollution . (informativeindia.com)
  • Fertilizers for agricultural purpose is one of the causes of soil pollution. (informativeindia.com)
  • Mixed with soil a part of it is dislodged from one place to another causing soil pollution. (informativeindia.com)
  • Excessive use of PHCs leads to pollution in the agriculturally important soils and the ultimate source of potability of water, that is, groundwater which is gaining significant attention throughout the world. (intechopen.com)
  • Understanding how these pollutants interact with the environment, including snow, is crucial if we are to reduce the hundreds of thousands of premature deaths caused by mild air pollution in North America. (newstarget.com)
  • By holding soil in place, softening rainfall impact and slowing and absorbing storm water runoff, trees reduce water pollution, stabilize stream banks and hillsides and protect against landslides, which are prevalent in our region where soils are prone to slippage. (takingroot.info)
  • In addition, agriculture and industry play a major role (principally the chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper, and metallurgical plants), and municipal wastewater is also a major contributor to water pollution in Romania.Soils are also polluted both by agriculture and some industries (like the metallurgical sector). (nachhaltigkeit.info)
  • Advanced Materials for Sustainable Environmental Remediation: Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments presents detailed, comprehensive coverage of novel and advanced materials that can be applied to address the growing global concern of the pollution of natural resources in waters, the air and soil. (elsevier.com)
  • Concentrations of the FTOHs ranged from 3.5 to 37.9 ng/g (dw) and from 6.5 to 141.0 ng/g (dw), respectively, in the vegetables and soils collected nearby fluorochemical factories, which warrants further investigations on FTOH pollution and food safety concerns for which the developed method will be useful. (bvsalud.org)
  • This serves as a reminder to reduce our plastic waste and the pollution of soils. (lu.se)
  • Finding fungi that can specifically collect nanoplastics from the soil solution may help other organisms to sustain the pollution better, and perhaps attract bacteria that can break down plastics. (lu.se)
  • Water pollution can be due to leaks from contaminated soils, and can result in contamination of the food chain. (who.int)
  • Researchers said further research and environmental monitoring may help determine the most toxic pollutants. (newstarget.com)
  • SuperTrace is fully chelated with an organic acid that degrades rapidly in soil and presents no environmental concerns. (plantessentials.biz)
  • Dr. Anthony R. Lupo is a Professor of Atmospheric Sciences in the Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Missouri. (sciforum.net)
  • The prevention of exposure to carcinogenic environmental pollutants requires both regulatory action and community commitment. (who.int)
  • Plant-microbe synergistic association for remediation of PHCs is comprehensive and it is an effective tool for reclamation of soil and environment from these kinds of undesirable materials. (intechopen.com)
  • He assists clients with the characterization and remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with both priority pollutants and emerging contaminants. (geosyntec.com)
  • His efforts have specifically focused on the development and evaluation of advanced oxidation processes for ex situ and in situ remediation of PFAS impacted soil, groundwater, and investigation derived waste. (geosyntec.com)
  • I am very interested to study the effects of these pollutants on the ecology and function of soil microbial communities using biochemical (PLFA) and molecular biology techniques. (moa.gov.cy)
  • Additionally the implementation of analytical chemistry regarding the fate of these pollutants in the environment will also help us to understand their relation with microbial community. (moa.gov.cy)
  • The individual and simultaneous effects of Cu and cypermethrin upon glycosidase, phosphomonoesterase and the total microbial activity of soil. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Enzymatic and microbial assays are frequently used in the determination of the response of soil organisms to external pollutants. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • This study chose β- glycosidase, phosphomonoesterase and the total microbial activity of soil to establish the chemical disturbance of pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin and CuSO4, the main chemical component of widely used Bordeaux mixture. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • This highlights the need for further studies that can explain how the microbial stress response might affect soil functions," says Micaela Mafla Endara. (lu.se)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Soil pollutants, Radioactive. (who.int)
  • Such interactions and reactions determine, for example, the transport and bioavailability of nutrients and pollutants in the environment, and whether soil organic material breaks down into carbon dioxide or is stored in soils for longer periods of time. (lu.se)
  • We found that snow absorbs certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are organic pollutants known to be toxic and carcinogenic," said researcher Yevgen Nazarenko . (newstarget.com)
  • The research team also found that once the air pollutants interact with snow, they may undergo certain chemical transformations that create more pollutants of varying toxic and carcinogenic levels. (newstarget.com)
  • Drinking-water, or water used for agricultural or recreational activities, can be polluted by naturally occurring carcinogenic contaminants, such as arsenic, or by anthropogenic pollutants, including chlorinated agents, perfluorinated alkylated substances, and metals. (who.int)
  • The three most common are soil, nutrients, and bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The successful utilization of fertilizer by plants is directly related to the availability of nutrients in the soil and the mechanism of uptake by the plant. (plantessentials.biz)
  • SuperTrace and SoilSeeds assist by providing chelated micro-nutrients and by re-establishing a healthy micro-biological community in the soil. (plantessentials.biz)
  • These pollutants will eventually drain into a stream, river, wetland, or lake and will cause harm to the aquatic ecosystem and possibly to the health of the community. (tinkerscreek.org)
  • This study indicates that the enzymes most at risk from Cu/cypermethrin toxicity are soil phosphatases, which are enzymes intrinsic to plant growth and development. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Nanoplastics have been proven to induce toxicity in diverse organisms, yet very little is known about how this new pollutant is affecting the soil ecosystem. (lu.se)
  • There are many pollutants but Air, Water and Soil pollutants are most important among them. (informativeindia.com)
  • Their vegetation and soil filter pollutants, improving water quality and creating healthier environments for us all. (patagonia.com)
  • A metal-free tanning method is more respectful of the environment as it results in less water, air, and soil pollutants. (balenciaga.com)
  • According to Nazarenko, these releases may result in increased, but otherwise short-term concentration of pollutants in the soil, air and bodies of water. (newstarget.com)
  • Across Europe, for example, 28% of all healthcare waste is incinerated, releasing pollutants such as heavy metals and particulates into air, soil and water, and creating toxic ash that can be released into the air as well as potentially polluting our waterways after it goes to landfill. (aol.co.uk)
  • The main purpose of our research is to contribute with fundamental knowledge about the complex processes that take place at naturally occurring interfaces in soil and water, thereby contributing to the basic understanding of our environment. (lu.se)
  • Machine learning (ML) models were developed for understanding the root uptake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) under complex PFAS-crop-soil interactions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The major pollutant from these are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and lead. (informativeindia.com)
  • Rhizosphere microbiota are an important factor impacting plant uptake of pollutants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Second, the process of recycling plastic can release harmful pollutants into the environment. (globalsciencenews.com)
  • Joseph G, Schramm PJ, Vaidyanathan A, Breysse P, Goodwin B. " Evidence on the Use of Indoor Air Filtration as an Intervention for Wildfire Smoke Pollutant Exposure [PDF - 3.61 MB] " BRACE Technical Report Series 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings give insight into the mechanism underlying low pollutant accumulation, filling the knowledge gap regarding the profound effects of rhizosphere microflora and N transformation processes on antibiotic accumulation in crops. (bvsalud.org)
  • it is a risk based target concentration for contaminated sites and contaminates soils. (mokkka.hu)
  • Other methods of conversion of pollutants include chemical neutralization of acids and bases. (informativeindia.com)
  • Enzymes and soil microorganisms are particularly used as bioindicators to determine the health and quality of soil following a chemical disturbance. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • A method based on single-factor experiments and response surface methodology design was developed for simultaneous analysis of three common FTOHs in vegetables and soils, using single extraction, dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization. (bvsalud.org)
  • It gives a holistic perspective on pollutants where dispersal, chemical properties, persistence, and effects from cell to ecosystem level, are studied. (lu.se)
  • In the environment they tend to be associated with ash, soil, or any surface with a high organic content, such as plant leaves. (cdc.gov)
  • It was successfully applied to determine the FTOHs in real vegetables and soils, demonstrating its feasibility for routine analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The procedure is based on the use of simulated in vitro gastrointestinal extraction to remove POPs from soil matrices. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The remaining soil residue is then extracted using pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) followed by GC-MSD analysis to assess the residual fraction. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • By converting the pollutants into innocuous products before their release in the atmosphere. (informativeindia.com)
  • A depletion of this enzyme in the rhizosphere has serious implications to soil health and subsequent potential damage to agricultural harvests. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Whether carelessly discarded into nature, leaking from landfills, or scoring from materials such as car tires and synthetic clothes - large amounts of micro- and nanoplastics end up in our soils," says Micaela Mafla Endara, biology researcher at Lund University. (lu.se)
  • Considered an indoor pollutant, radon is emitted by hard, rocky soils found in many areas of New Jersey. (daahomeinspector.com)
  • Overall, we found that nanoplastics can cause a direct negative effect on the soil microbes. (lu.se)
  • The procedure was applied to four soil samples i.e. an aged, spiked soil and three certified reference materials (CRMs) contaminated with POPs. (northumbria.ac.uk)