The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Techniques used in microbiology.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (1/5277)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis. (2/5277)

A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment.  (+info)

Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov. (3/5277)

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium. (4/5277)

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. (5/5277)

Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (6/5277)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (7/5277)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (8/5277)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a healthcare worker or laboratory personnel while working in a laboratory setting, typically with infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These infections can be acquired through exposure to infected samples, equipment, or surfaces in the laboratory.

The risk of laboratory infection is higher in settings where high-risk agents are handled, such as in the study of highly infectious diseases like Ebola or SARS. The transmission of infectious agents in laboratories can occur through various routes, including:

1. Direct contact with infected samples or materials.
2. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment.
3. Inhalation of aerosols generated during procedures such as centrifugation or pipetting.
4. Exposure to infected personnel or animals in the laboratory.

To prevent laboratory infections, healthcare workers and laboratory personnel must follow strict safety protocols, including wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, and masks, and adhering to proper sterilization and decontamination techniques. Laboratories should also have ventilation systems that filter out infectious agents and should be designed with containment levels to minimize the risk of exposure.

Laboratory infections can have serious consequences for both the individuals involved and the broader community, including the potential for transmitting infectious diseases to others outside of the laboratory setting. Therefore, it is essential to have strict safety protocols and proper training for laboratory personnel to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
4. HIV/AIDS
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

The most common types of mycoses include:

1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.

Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

There are several types of abscesses, including:

1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.

The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:

* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)

If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:

* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.

Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Symptoms of wound infection may include:

* Redness, swelling, or increased pain around the wound
* Increased drainage or pus from the wound
* Bad smell or discharge from the wound
* Fever or chills
* Swollen lymph nodes

Treatment of wound infection usually involves antibiotics and may require surgical intervention to remove infected tissue. It is important to practice good wound care, such as keeping the wound clean and dry, changing dressings regularly, and monitoring for signs of infection to prevent the development of a wound infection.

Preventive measures include:

* Proper sterilization and technique during surgery or medical procedures
* Keeping the wound site clean and dry
* Removing any dead tissue or debris from the wound
* Using antibiotic ointment or cream to prevent infection
* Covering the wound with a sterile dressing

If you suspect that you have a wound infection, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate the wound and provide appropriate treatment to prevent further complications.

Ethmoid sinusitis is often caused by viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or other factors that block the normal drainage of the sinuses. Treatment options may include antibiotics, decongestants, nasal sprays, and saline irrigations to help clear out the infection and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain the sinuses or remove any blockages.

It is important for individuals with ethmoid sinusitis to seek medical attention if they experience persistent or severe symptoms, as untreated sinusitis can lead to more serious complications such as abscesses or meningitis.

Symptoms of maxillary sinusitis may include:

* Pain or pressure in the cheekbones or forehead
* Swelling of the eyelids or face
* Yellow or green nasal discharge
* Fever
* Cough
* Headache
* Toothache

Maxillary sinusitis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate any underlying infections, along with pain management and drainage of mucus from the sinuses. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to address any anatomical issues or abscesses that have developed.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated maxillary sinusitis can lead to complications such as meningitis or osteomyelitis (infection of the bone). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of maxillary sinusitis can be effectively managed and resolved with minimal long-term consequences.

Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:

1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.

Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Suppuration is a process of pus formation that occurs in response to an infection or inflammation. It is a natural defense mechanism of the body, which helps to eliminate pathogens and protect the surrounding tissues from further damage. Suppuration involves the accumulation of pus, a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris, within a specific area of the body.

Suppuration can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, lungs, and joints, and is typically associated with bacterial or fungal infections. The process of suppuration involves several stages, including:

1. Inflammation: The body's response to an initial injury or infection, characterized by increased blood flow, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area.
2. Neutrophil migration: White blood cells called neutrophils migrate to the site of infection and engulf the pathogens, releasing enzymes that help to break down the bacterial cell walls.
3. Bacterial killing: The neutrophils and other immune cells work together to kill the invading bacteria, releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other chemicals that damage the bacterial cell membranes.
4. Pus formation: As the bacteria are killed, the dying cells and their components, such as lipopolysaccharides, are engulfed by the neutrophils and other immune cells. This material is then converted into pus, which is a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris.
5. Resolution: The suppuration process eventually resolves as the pus is either absorbed by the body or drained through natural openings (such as the skin) or medical intervention (such as drainage).

Suppuration is a natural process that helps to protect the body from infection and promotes healing. However, if the process becomes chronic or excessive, it can lead to complications such as abscesses or sepsis.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from person to person, but may include:

* Persistent coughing and wheezing
* Thick, sticky mucus that clogs airways and can lead to respiratory infections
* Difficulty gaining weight or growing at the expected rate
* Intestinal blockages or digestive problems
* Fatty stools
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Rectal prolapse
* Increased risk of liver disease and respiratory failure

Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in infancy, and treatment typically includes a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care. Management of the disease focuses on controlling symptoms, preventing complications, and improving quality of life. With proper treatment and care, many people with cystic fibrosis can lead long, fulfilling lives.

In summary, cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems, causing thick and sticky mucus to build up in these organs, leading to serious health problems. It can be diagnosed in infancy and managed with a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care.

Some common causes of bacteriuria include:

1. Escherichia coli (E. coli): This type of bacteria is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to the urinary tract through the bloodstream or through sexual contact.
2. Staphylococcus saprophyticus: This type of bacteria is also commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause UTIs.
3. Klebsiella: This type of bacteria can be found in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and respiratory tract, and can cause UTIs.
4. Proteus mirabilis: This type of bacteria is commonly found in the urinary tract and can cause UTIs.
5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: This type of bacteria can be found in the urinary tract and can cause UTIs, particularly in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

Bacteriuria can cause symptoms such as frequency, urgency, and painful urination, as well as cloudy or strong-smelling urine. If left untreated, bacteriuria can lead to more serious complications such as kidney infections or sepsis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as measures to manage symptoms such as drinking plenty of fluids and using a heating pad to alleviate pain.

In addition to UTIs, bacteriuria can also be a sign of other underlying medical conditions such as kidney stones, bladder cancer, or a blockage in the urinary tract. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of bacteriuria or UTI, particularly if you have a weakened immune system or underlying medical conditions.

The symptoms of peritonitis can vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain and tenderness
* Fever
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Loss of appetite
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Low blood pressure

Peritonitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as a CT scan, MRI or ultrasound. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove any infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prompt medical attention is essential for effective treatment and prevention of complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death.

Types of Infection:

1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Symptoms of Infection:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Headache
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
8. Coughing
9. Diarrhea
10. Vomiting

Treatment of Infection:

1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.

Prevention of Infection:

1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.

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1. Conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
2. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. Corneal ulcers can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection that occurs inside the eye, often as a complication of cataract surgery or other types of ocular surgery. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis.
4. Keratitis: This is an infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5. Retinitis: This is an infection of the retina, which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that senses light and sends visual signals to the brain. Retinitis can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Bacterial eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, pain, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments, and in more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a bacterial eye infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The common types of RTIs include:

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.

RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.

It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

People with pica may eat these items in secret and experience a sense of relief or satisfaction after consuming them. The condition is more common in children and adolescents, but it can also affect adults. Pica can lead to nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal problems, and other health issues if the eaten items are not digestible or contain harmful substances.

Treatment for pica usually involves addressing any underlying mental health issues and providing education on nutrition and healthy eating habits. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica, as early intervention can help prevent complications and improve overall health.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

There are several types of prosthesis-related infections, including:

1. Bacterial infections: These are the most common type of prosthesis-related infection and can occur around any type of implanted device. They are caused by bacteria that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
2. Fungal infections: These types of infections are less common and typically occur in individuals who have a weakened immune system or who have been taking antibiotics for another infection.
3. Viral infections: These infections can occur around implanted devices, such as pacemakers, and are caused by viruses that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
4. Parasitic infections: These types of infections are rare and occur when parasites, such as tapeworms, infect the implanted device or the surrounding tissue.

Prosthesis-related infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and fever. In severe cases, these infections can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream.

Prosthesis-related infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the type of microorganism causing the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to eliminate the infection, and may also involve surgical removal of the infected implant.

Prevention is key in avoiding prosthesis-related infections. This includes proper wound care after surgery, keeping the surgical site clean and dry, and taking antibiotics as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent infection. Additionally, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for caring for your prosthesis, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting the device and avoiding certain activities that may put excessive stress on the implant.

Overall, while prosthesis-related infections can be serious, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to effectively manage these complications and prevent long-term damage or loss of function. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to monitor for signs of infection and take steps to prevent and manage any potential complications associated with your prosthesis.

Symptoms of a UTI can include:

* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men

If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.

Preventive measures for UTIs include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.

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S soil formation cl (sometimes c) climate o organisms (soil microbiology, soil mesofauna, soil biology) r relief p parent ... see soil biomantle and stonelayer). Soil animals, including soil macrofauna and soil mesofauna, mix soils as they form burrows ... Soils at the bottom of a hill will get more water than soils on the slopes, and soils on the slopes that face the sun's path ... The soils found on mesas, plateaux, and plains are residual soils. In the United States as little as three percent of the soils ...
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nov., an actinomycete isolated from desert soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 68 (10): ... Streptomyces dengpaensis is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from desert soil from ...
For example, human food webs, agricultural food webs, detrital food webs, marine food webs, aquatic food webs, soil food webs, ... Trends in Microbiology. 17 (8): 378-387. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.05.004. PMID 19660952.[permanent dead link] Williams, R. J.; ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 55 (2): 311-321. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2005.00019.x. PMID 16420638. DeAngelis, D. L.; Mulholland, ... the community of decomposers in soil, biofilms, and periphyton). Feeding connections in the web are called trophic links. The ...
The BSF focuses on bioenergy, environmental and soil remediation and includes systems biology, microbial and cellular biology ... and biochemistry Chemistry Clinical medicine Engineering Environment and ecology Geosciences Materials science Microbiology ...
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Salas, Margarita (2007-10-01). "40 Years with Bacteriophage ø29". Annual Review of Microbiology. 61 (1): 1-22. doi:10.1146/ ... endospore-forming bacteria that is found in soil, as well as the gastrointestinal tracts of various marine and terrestrial ... Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 65 (2): 261-287. doi:10.1128/MMBR.65.2.261-287.2001. ISSN 1092-2172. PMC 99027. ... Microbiology. 166 (5): 425-427. doi:10.1099/mic.0.000922. ISSN 1350-0872. PMC 7376258. PMID 32391747. Reilly, Bernard E.; ...
ISBN 3-642-67724-X. Carl A., Batt (2014). Encyclopedia of food microbiology (2nd ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-384733-1. ... Streptomyces flaveolus is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from soil. Streptomyces ...
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... is a Gram-positive, aerobic and non-motile bacterium from the genus Hamadaea which has been isolated from soil ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 66 (4): 1818-22. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000949. PMID 26842996. ... nov., isolated from a soil sample and emended description of the genus Hamadaea". ...
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... is a bacterium species from the genus Streptomyces which has isolated from soil from the island Bikini ... Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 24 (8): 994-997. doi:10.1139/m78-163. PMID 356946. Wahid, SUH; Ferdouse, J; Anwar, MN (19 ...
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It lives in soils worldwide, but is considered as a rare human pathogen since only 38 cases were reported as of 2012. Saksenaea ... Ribes, J. A.; Vanover-Sams, C. L.; Baker, D. J. (1 April 2000). "Zygomycetes in human disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. ... Saksenaea vasiformis is normally present in soil and does not cause human infection unless it is introduced to the open site ... It was isolated from Patharia forest soil in India and distinguishably different from other species in morphology of sporangia ...
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These associations are mutualistic, because the fungus absorbs mineral nutrients from the soil and channels these into the ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 69 (2): 274-87. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00704.x. PMID 19508503. Halling RE, Muller GM. "Boletus ... sandy soil under scrub oak." In the United States, it is distributed from Maine south to Georgia, extending west to Tennessee ... typically on grassy or sandy soil, where it fruits between May and October. The fruit bodies of young specimens of B. ...
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Examination suggested that local soil was the source. Histoplasmosis is usually a subclinical infection that does not come to ... Kauffman, C. A. (2007). "Histoplasmosis: a Clinical and Laboratory Update". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (1): 115-132. doi ... Reid, TM; Schafer, MP (1999). "Direct detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in soil suspensions by two-stage PCR". Molecular and ... Emmons, C.W. (1961). "Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from soil in Washington, D.C." Public Health Reports. 76 (591-596): ...
Remaining soil humidity can be found in dry river beds (wadis) after rains occur, but these wadis are prone to flash floods. ... Environmental Microbiology 11(10): p.2598-2610. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01984.x/abstract ( ... The runoff water is slowed by the dam, thus flooding a small area and allowing the water to infiltrate into the soil. This way ... Also, grazers should be excluded from the site to prevent soil compaction which would in turn decrease water infiltration. ...
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... and sowing them in chalky soil. His experiment was successful, with truffles being found in the soil around the newly grown oak ... FEMS Microbiology Letters. 235 (1): 109-115. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2004.tb09574.x. ISSN 0378-1097. PMID 15158269. Demetri, ... "Soils and Techniques for Cultivating Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum in Europe", Soil Biology, Springer Berlin Heidelberg ... "Ectomycorrhizal mats alter forest soil biogeochemistry". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 42 (9): 1607-1613. doi:10.1016/j. ...
This species is a soil saprotroph that forms rhizoids, preferring soils enriched in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It has ... Khan (1975). "Wall Structure and Germination of Spores in Cunninghamella echinulata". Journal of General Microbiology. 90: 115- ... It has been reported from both cultivated and uncultivated soils, including soils from greenhouses and forests in the ... Soil depth and pH are not considered to be strongly influential on the growth properties of this fungus in vivo. This species ...
She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the ... She obtained her Ph.D. in biological sciences from Stanford University in 1999, her dissertation title was "Plant-soil ... Treseder, K. K., & Vitousek, Peter,. (1998). Plant-soil interactions across a fertility gradient in Hawaii: Nutrient ...
... is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from rhizospheric soil of a ... International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 69 (3): 688-695. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.003204. PMID 30605073. ... nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)". ...
Yamaguchi, Ai; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Jr, Milton H. Saier (2007-02-06). "Mercury Transport in Bacteria". Water, Air, and Soil ... FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 27 (2-3): 355-384. doi:10.1016/s0168-6445(03)00046-9. ISSN 0168-6445. PMID 12829275. Howell SC, ... Molecular Microbiology. 17 (1): 25-35. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.mmi_17010025.x. ISSN 0950-382X. PMID 7476206. S2CID ... Soil Pollution. 223 (7): 4443-4457. Bibcode:2012WASP..223.4443M. doi:10.1007/s11270-012-1208-3. ISSN 0049-6979. S2CID 83571260 ...
nov., isolated from the soil of a hay meadow". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 62 (Pt 8): ... nov., isolated from the soil of a hay meadow". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 62 (Pt 8): ... Streptomyces pratens is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from soil from a hay meadow ...
... was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample in Yunnan Province, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ... nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample * Yong-Xia Wang1, Man Cai1, Xiao-Yang Zhi1, Yu-Qin Zhang1 ... nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 713-716.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] ... nov., isolated from soil in northern China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1939-1944.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar] ...
What if there was a natural soil conditioner that was not only easy to source but could feed soil microbiology and remain ... Green Gardeners and Farmers Improve Soil with Biochar Stoney Tark , January 19, 2019 ... complex structure of any material on Earth and is excellent for improving soil retention while also protecting against soil- ...
Soil Biology & Biochemistry [electronic resource]. Material type: Computer file; Format: electronic Publication details: Oxford ... Pesticide effects on soil microflora / edited by L. Somerville and M. P. Greaves. by Somerville, L , Greaves, M. P. ... Human viruses in water, wastewater and soil : report of a WHO scientific group [meeting held in Geneva from 23 to 27 October ...
Water Air Soil Pollut. 28:407-425.. *Vaughn JM, Landry EF, Thomas MZ. [1983]. Entrainment of viruses from septic tank leach ... Bitton G. [1994]. Wastewater Microbiology. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, NY.. *Sinton LW. [1986]. Microbial contamination of ... The biological, chemical, and physical properties of the soil (such as pH, temperature, adsorption to surfaces, and predation ... are expected to provide inactivation during virus transit through the soil.17,18 If there are cases of concern that untreated ...
... soil microbiology Abstract. The effect of the pesticide Lindane on microbial populations was analyzed in soil with a history of ... Soil microcosms were amended with 100 mg Lindane/kg soil and microbial populations were monitored for 70 days. Bacterial cell ... Stability of bacterial populations in tropical soil upon exposure to Lindane Authors. * Roberto A. Rodríguez Laboratory of ... Results show the persistence of Lindane in the soil environment; at the end of the experiment, 70% of the added Lindane ...
The contribution of microbiology to agricultural production has an unsuspected potential (Gogoi et al, 2021). It is considered ...
Interests: microbiology; sustainability management; soil; forestry; climate change. Special Issues, Collections and Topics in ... assessement of soil health using soil invertebrates and their functionining as indicators; metabaroding; barcoding; soil ...
Anaerobic microbial ecology of wetland soils and sediments,Soil Microbiology Course, Leiden University. *Bodelier, P. (Teacher) ...
Physicochemical properties of the soil samples from various sites were determined using standard procedures. Some selected soil ... Physicochemical properties of the soil samples from various sites were determined using standard procedures. Some selected soil ... These findings revealed that cypermethrin had effects on the soil bacteria at higher concentration inhibiting their growth but ... These findings revealed that cypermethrin had effects on the soil bacteria at higher concentration inhibiting their growth but ...
Water Microbiology. en. dc.subject.mesh. Soil Microbiology. en. dc.subject.mesh. Viruses. en. ... Human viruses in water, wastewater and soil : report of a WHO scientific group [‎meeting held in Geneva from 23 to 27 October ... Human viruses in water, wastewater and soil : report of a WHO scientific group [‎meeting held in Geneva from 23 to 27 October ... WHO Scientific Group on Human Viruses in Water Wastewater and Soil. en. ...
8th International Conference on Environmental Microbiology, Soil Microbiology & Microbial Biogeochemistry Montreal, Canada. ... Microbiology Diabetes & Endocrinology Nursing Healthcare Management Neuroscience Immunology Gastroenterology Genetics & ... Geology & Earth Science Immunology & Microbiology Informatics Materials Science Mathematics Medical Sciences Nanotechnology ... Ecosystem-Level Measuring, Spatial Distribution, Phytoplankton Abundance, Semiarid Ecosystem Soil Properties, Ecology and ...
Microbiology; Bacteria; Mycobacterium; Genomics; Genotype; Genes; Environmental contamination; Soil bacteria; Multidrug ... Ubiquitous in soil and water worldwide, MAC members cause a diverse array of infections in humans and animals that are often ...
Soils, sediments, sludges, slurries and bio-solids-Procedures for sample preparation. ... AS 4276.23:2016 - Water microbiology Method 23: Soils, sediments, sludges, slurries and bio-solids-Procedures for sample ... AS 4276.23:2016 - Water microbiology Method 23: Soils, sediments, sludges, slurries and bio-solids-Procedures for sample ... AS 4276.17.2:2016 - Water microbiology Method 17.2: Spores of Clostridium perfringens-Estimation of most probable number (MPN) ...
Our results revealed relationships between soil diazotrophic community and associated soil properties, adding to our ... Soil pH, SWC, and C and N availability were related to the variability of diazotrophic community composition. ... One reason for their low N requirement is that C4 grasses may benefit from soil diazotrophs and promote biological N fixation. ... One reason for their low N requirement is that C4 grasses may benefit from soil diazotrophs and promote biological N fixation. ...
Solids/soil hazardous waste. To ensure reliable solid and soil monitoring, our dried soil/solid standards meet PT requirements ... Microbiology. Microbiological PT samples are placed in vials containing a Vitroid™ disk, a small disk that consists of viable ... In addition, our inorganics PT include anions, Cr (IV), cyanide, nutrients, solids and sulfide in the soil matrix, metals in ... and metals in soil, dioxins and furans in tissue, free liquids in paint, PBDE/PCBs in sediment, PCB congeners in fish tissue, ...
Categories: Soil Microbiology Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Soils hold massive amounts of carbon that hangs in the balance of microbial respiration and climate warming. Here the authors ... However, the magnitude and dynamics of such stimulations of soil respiration are highly uncertain at the global scale, ... However, global heterotrophic respiration (Rh) derived from microbial decomposition of soil C increased in 1987-2016 (P < ... 0.001), suggesting accumulated soil C losses. Given the warmest years on records after 2015, our modeling analysis shows a ...
Emerging Challenges and Opportunities in Soil Microbiology 1 Sep 2014, Loughborough University. Loughborough, UK ... The soil preparation and sowing are very weather dependent and the wet spring of 2013 made sowing impossible for that year. ... Despite the careful soil preparation described last month, the vagaries of the English climate meant the establishment was not ... A team in France have now cast doubt on that assumption after studying bacteria in the soil around the roots of plants. They ...
In: Zinsser Microbiology, 20th ed., pp. 1091-1112. W.K. Joklik; H.P. Willett; D.B. Amos; C.M. Wifert, Eds. Appleton and Lange, ... In addition to soil disinfection, formaldehyde has also been reported to be effective for disinfecting H. capsulatum-infected ... In: Zinsser Microbiology, 20th ed., pp. 1135-1157. W.K. Joklik; H.P. Willett; D.B. Amos; C.M. Wifert, Eds. Appleton and Lange, ... A primary source of H. capsulatum is soil, especially in regions of bird or bat habitats. While wind is probably the most ...
Soil microbiology; (iv) Organo-mineral interactions in soil; (v) Analytical and methodological advances in soil study. Keynote ... Commisssion 2.5, Soil chemical, physical and biological interfacial reactions. Who. Commisssion 2.5, Soil chemical, physical ... There will be five sessions (i) Macro and micronutrient dynamics in soil; (ii) Dynamics of pollutants in soil; (iii) ... Soil message. We are delighted to invite you to join us in Montreal for the inter-Congress conference of the Commission, the ...
Sterilization (microbiology), killing or inactivation of micro-organisms. *Soil steam sterilization, a farming technique that ...
UFZ Department of Environmental Microbiology. [email protected] UFZ press office. Susanne Hufe. Phone: +49 341 235-1630. ... More than 202,000 metagenomes, i.e. the entire genetic information contained in a given soil sample, can be found in the two ... Helping discover the diversity in soil. UFZ researchers develop meta-database for terrestrial microorganisms ... reveal a great deal of information about the state of soils. All around the world, a lot of research is being performed on this ...
Agricultural Microbiology Agricultural Zoology Soil Agricultural Technology American History Canadian History Central American ...
... soil microbiology, soil genesis and classification, and soil fertility.. Master of Soil Science (MR). The Master of Soil ... Master of Soil Science Online. Interested in a masters degree in soil science, but want the flexibility online classes offer? ... Soil Science. Our graduate education opportunities in soil science will prepare students for careers with public and private ... Interested in Soil Science?. Mike Mullen. Director of Soil Science Graduate Programs. Phone: 919.515.3727. Email: ...
We investigate how properties and functions of forest soils (e.g. nutrient availability) and biogeochemical processes. ... Frontiers in Microbiology, 14: 1178474 (16 pp.). doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1178474 ... RICH-SOIL: Radiocarbon Inventory of Swiss Soils RICH-SOIL gains insight into soil C cycling by determining radiocarbon ... SwissSPOT- Swiss forest Soil water POTential network SwissSPOT is a network to monitor soil water down to 2m soil depth at ...
Microbiology. Multiple languages. Refereed:. Yes. URI:. http://kups.ub.uni-koeln.de/id/eprint/15130. ... Distinct communities of Cercozoa at different soil depths in a temperate agricultural field. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 95 (4). ... Protists are the most important predators of soil microbes like bacteria and fungi and are highly diverse in terrestrial ... However, the structure of protistan communities throughout the soil profile is still poorly explored. Here, we used Illumina ...
Environmental Microbiology: Advanced Research and Multidisciplinary Applications. Biopolymers Towards Green and Sustainable ... Soil health or soil quality is governed by a continuous, functional interplay between the soil and its microbiota, plants and ... As ecosystem regulators, fungi enhance the structure of soil formation and regulate physiological processes within the soil, ... Mycobiota - Role in Soil Health and as Biocontrol Agent. Author(s): S. Vanitha* and *Department of Biochemistry Bhavans ...
My project is on the degradation of pesticides in Brazilian soils. Brazilian soils are weathered soils with a low pH and ... BSc (Hons) Immunology & Microbiology, University of Strathclyde. Email: e dot monaghan dot 1 at warwick dot ac dot uk , ... MBio (Hons) Medical Microbiology with Virology, University of Warwick (Integrated Masters). Email: jessica dot palmer at ... My current work is part of the Roots of Decline project, looking at the composition of the microbiome in soil and the ...
  • Soil ecology is the study of the interactions among soil organisms , and between biotic and abiotic aspects of the soil environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contribution of microbiology to agricultural production has an unsuspected potential (Gogoi et al, 2021). (rizobacter.com)
  • Among them, soil harbors the most diverse diazotrophic microbial communities. (frontiersin.org)
  • ABSTRACT This research compared the numbers and types of different Mycobacterium species in soil samples taken from 2 areas of Golestan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1 with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and 1 with a low prevalence. (who.int)
  • Predominant catalase-negative soil bacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Investigating the antibiotic properties of the soil, under an ICBG grant, the team led by Dr. Nicholas Oberlies of the Research Triangle Institute found that injecting the bacteria M. luteus and S. aureus beneath the soil's surface led to production of antimicrobial compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Proliferation of Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria and Concomitant Antibiotic Production as the Basis for the Antibiotic Activity of Jordan's Red Soils. (nih.gov)
  • In the present investigation, a total of 30 soil samples were collected from five different sites in Makurdi metropolis to investigate the effect of cypermethrin on some soil bacteria. (academicjournals.org)
  • Some selected soil bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (academicjournals.org)
  • These findings revealed that cypermethrin had effects on the soil bacteria at higher concentration inhibiting their growth but tolerated at lower concentration. (academicjournals.org)
  • Diazotrophs belonging to phyla Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria are typically the most abundant N-fixing bacteria in soil ( Gaby and Buckley, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. (nih.gov)
  • Position Summary: The Department of Soil Science seeks applications for a tenure track faculty position in soil microbiology. (fems-microbiology.org)
  • Overall, no effect of Lindane was observed on the metabolic versatility and genetic diversity in these soils, demonstrating the ability of these bacterial populations to tolerate the pressure caused by the addition of pesticides. (iec.cat)
  • Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. (nih.gov)
  • Emerging studies provide some of the most groundbreaking ideas that harnessing soil microorganisms for sustainable biomass yield offers one of few untapped reservoirs to agriculture green transition. (agristok.net)
  • Although soils converted alachlor to organic products, microorganisms able to mineralize the pesticide could not be isolated. (epa.gov)
  • There are currently 71 recognized or proposed species of Mycobacterium [1], all of which, except M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae, are considered as environmental mycobacteria and can usually be isolated from environmental samples including water, soil and dust [2]. (who.int)
  • The smallest creatures (microbes) use the micropores filled with air to grow, whereas other bigger animals require bigger spaces, macropores , or the water film surrounding the soil particles to move in search for food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the large potential, it is challenging to precisely manage the species-rich soil microbes. (agristok.net)
  • Therefore, indiscriminate use of insecticides should be avoided and more eco-friendly means of pest control should be employed to reduce the negative impact of synthetic pesticides on beneficial soil organisms. (academicjournals.org)
  • Soil is a variable mixture of broken and weathered minerals and decaying organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soils are complex systems and their complexity resides in their heterogeneous nature: a mixture of air, water, minerals, organic compounds, and living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil extracellular enzymes are produced by the plant and microbial assemblages to catalyze the degradation of organic matter, providing novel insights to understand the complex plant-microbial feedbacks. (agristok.net)
  • A culture of soil and organic debris from the fishing site yielded B. dermatitidis. (nih.gov)
  • The fate of an organic contaminant in soil depends on many factors, including sorption, biodegradation, and transport. (nih.gov)
  • Soil microbiology is a core research area in the Department of Soil Science at the University of Wisconsin‐Madison, and this position is integral to undergraduate and graduate programs in soil and environmental sciences. (fems-microbiology.org)
  • 3 Department of Microbiology, Lahijan Free University, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Metabolism of Alachlor and Propachlor in Suspensions of Pretreated Soils and in Samples from Ground Water Aquifers. (epa.gov)
  • Physicochemical properties of the soil samples from various sites were determined using standard procedures. (academicjournals.org)
  • 1. Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples in North-Western Iran. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples. (nih.gov)
  • Soils, while unglamorous, form the basis of the terrestrial biosphere and are ultimately the source of the majority of the food that we eat, yet fundamental aspects of how soils form and how they store carbon are poorly understood. (findaphd.com)
  • Wetlands provide a range of vital ecosystem services and may store around half of all terrestrial soil carbon. (findaphd.com)
  • Our objective was to evaluate the impact of N fertilization rates (0, 67, and 202 kg N ha -1 ) and grass species (switchgrass [ Panicum virgatum ] and big bluestem [ Andropogon gerardii ]) on the abundance, activity, diversity, and community composition of soil diazotrophs over three agricultural seasons (grass green-up, initial harvest, and second harvest) in a field experiment in East Tennessee, United States. (frontiersin.org)
  • Soil is made up of a multitude of physical , chemical , and biological entities, with many interactions occurring among them. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993. Fluorescent response of fuels in soils: Insights into fuel-soil interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. Genetic analysis among environmental strains of Balamuthia mandrillaris recovered from an artificial lagoon and from soil in Sonora, Mexico. (nih.gov)
  • Soil fauna is crucial to soil formation , litter decomposition, nutrient cycling , biotic regulation, and for promoting plant growth . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Consequently, the horizontal patchy distribution of soil properties (soil temperature, moisture, pH, litter/nutrient availability, etc.) also drives the patchiness of the soil organisms across the landscape, [4] and has been one of the main arguments for explaining the great diversity observed in soil communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diversity and abundance of soil life exceeds that of any other ecosystem . (wikipedia.org)
  • We utilized fabricated ecosystem (EcoFAB) devices to grow the model grass Brachypodium distachyon in three distinct media across four laboratories: phosphate-sufficient and -deficient mineral media allowed assessment of the effects of phosphate starvation, and a complex, sterile soil extract represented a more natural environment with yet uncharacterized effects on plant growth and metabolism. (osti.gov)
  • However, evidence is accumulating on the strong influence of abiotic filters , such as temperature, moisture and soil pH , as well as soil habitat characteristics in controlling their spatial and temporal patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • BioViSo aims to identify abiotic and biotic key drivers and keystone species influencing or being a proxy for soil quality. (uibk.ac.at)
  • Therefore, soil textural properties together with the depth of the water table are also important factors regulating their diversity, population sizes, and their vertical stratification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diazotroph population size and activity were directly related to soil water content (SWC) based on structural equation modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ubiquitous in soil and water worldwide, MAC members cause a diverse array of infections in humans and animals that are often multidrug resistant, intractable, and deadly. (cdc.gov)
  • His research interest then turned to soil microbiology and microbial biochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • Native C 4 grasses have become the preferred species for native perennial pastures and bioenergy production due to their high productivity under low soil nitrogen (N) status. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is a dynamic reciprocity between plants and their environment: soil physiochemical properties influence plant morphology and metabolism, and root morphology and exudates shape the environment surrounding roots. (osti.gov)
  • Yet soil organisms remain underrepresented in studies on soil processes and in existing modeling exercises. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, all article in International Microbiology will be available on the Internet to any reader at no cost. (iec.cat)
  • Relationship of plants, soils, and the environment, and how they relate to cultural practices and society in agroecosystems with an emphasis on Hawai'i as a model system. (hawaii.edu)
  • To interact with their environment, plants not only adapt morphology and release complex metabolite mixtures, but also selectively deplete a range of soil-derived metabolites. (osti.gov)
  • Recent analysis of the L. longbeachae genome has demonstrated that it is highly adapted to the soil environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Ultimately, the structure of the soil communities strongly depends not only on the natural soil forming factors but also on human activities (agriculture, forestry, urbanization) and determines the shape of landscapes in terms of healthy or contaminated, pristine or degraded soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field and analytical methods for exploring the origin, development, properties, and management of soils, with an emphasis on tropical and Hawaiian soils. (hawaii.edu)
  • Jordan's red soil has long been thought to contain properties that can cure skin infections. (nih.gov)
  • Our results revealed relationships between soil diazotrophic community and associated soil properties, adding to our understanding of the response of soil diazotrophs to N fertilization and grass species in native C 4 grass systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biochar has the most complex structure of any material on Earth and is excellent for improving soil retention while also protecting against soil-borne diseases. (gardenculturemagazine.com)
  • Batch and column experiments performed with a sandy loam soil mixture under saturated and unsaturated conditions were used to determine the effects of sorption and biodegradation on the fate and transport of 2,4-D. Sorption of 2,4-D was found to have a slight but significant effect on transport of 2,4-D under saturated conditions (retardation factor, 1.8) and unsaturated conditions (retardation factor, 3.4). (nih.gov)
  • [5] Because soils also show vertical stratification of their elemental constituents along the soil profile as result of microclimate , soil texture , and resource quantity and quality differing between soil horizons, soil communities also change in abundance and structure with soil depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Free-Living Amoebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba) in the Farmland Soils and Recreational Places in Iran. (nih.gov)
  • Suspensions of soils treated in the field with alachlor (2-chloro-2',6'diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide) and propachlor (2-chlor-N-isopropylacetanilide) were tested for their ability to metabolize these herbicides. (epa.gov)
  • What if there was a natural soil conditioner that was not only easy to source but could feed soil microbiology and remain stable for thousands of years? (gardenculturemagazine.com)
  • There was no evidence of inherent antibiotic activity in the soil itself, and because lab experiments induced a compound that fights the staphylococcus found on human skin, they suggested in the May issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology that "application of Red Soils to an infected area of skin. (nih.gov)
  • Excessive fertilization (202 kg N ha -1 ) resulted in fewer nifH transcripts compared to moderate fertilization (67 kg N ha -1 ) and decreased both richness and evenness of diazotrophic community, reflecting an inhibitory effect of high N application rates on soil diazotrophic community. (frontiersin.org)
  • One reason for their low N requirement is that C 4 grasses may benefit from soil diazotrophs and promote biological N fixation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effect of the pesticide Lindane on microbial populations was analyzed in soil with a history of contamination with various chemicals, including this pesticide. (iec.cat)
  • 2) Acute, severe pulmonary histoplasmosis usually occurs in small epidemics involving exposure to an aerosol containing numerous spores resulting from the disturbance of highly infected soil. (cdc.gov)