Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Bacteria, AnaerobicAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Communicable DiseasesPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.MycosesDrug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Hospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.History of MedicineHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.PhenazinesAgar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overSputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Microbiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Streptococcus milleri Group: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bartholin's Glands: Mucus-secreting glands situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the vestibule of the vagina.

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (1/5277)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis. (2/5277)

A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment.  (+info)

Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov. (3/5277)

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium. (4/5277)

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. (5/5277)

Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (6/5277)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (7/5277)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (8/5277)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

This project aims to map African soil microbiome and develop predictive toolkits based on soil microbiota and physico-chemical characteristics of soil to assess soil fertility and health. It will determine factors that influence microbial diversity and community structure in continentwide scale. This project will generate important knowledge on African soil microbiome and it will bridge current farming practices with the biotechnology industry, government agencies, and academia, and will fill the gaps between basic research and large-scale agricultural applications. At the same time, it will provide evidence of the economic and environmental benefits of improving predictive tools for assessing soil fertility and develop an index of soil microbiota richness that will improve fertilization recommendation in agroecosystems.. We are seeking highly motivated candidates with metagenomics, bioinformatics and biostatistics background or related fields. As the solution for such complex problem will ...
Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and
Previously... Re: [SANET-MG] Beneficial Soil Microbia] The question is how to get information on IM or IMOs, Indigenous Microorganisms. Well, there is a seminar on Indigenous Microorganisms at the Ecological Farming Conference in California, Jan. 22-25. Gil Carandang, a farmer from the Phillipines, will demonstrate some of the special cultures. http://www.eco-farm.org/efc/efc_main.html Concepts and practices on Indigenous Microorganisms, IM or IMO, originate with Han Kyu Cho and the Korean Natural Farming Association, or KNFA, going back 35 to 40 years. Yet, this knowledge has only come into English language in the last few years. There is one book in English, yet it is not available for-sale from any distributor that I can determine. Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p. Here is an address for KNFA: Korean Natural Farming Association (KNFA) 209-2 Woongok-ri, ...
div, The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.[1] Gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils, such as grassland, prairie, and pasture soil, as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils. This wide range of environments where Gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture.[2] A study conducted showed that the distribution of the Gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation, reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils.[3] The phylum Gemmatimonadetes is distinct from the phylum Cyanobacteria and may have diverged in early microbial evolution at least 3 billion years ago.[4] The first member of this phylum was discovered in 2003 in ...
The effects of monoterpenes on the degradation of 14C-2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were investigated in soils collected from areas surrounding monoterpene and non-monoterpene emitting vegetation. Indigenous microorganisms degraded 14C-2,4-DCP to 14CO2, after 1 d contact time. Degradation was enhanced by prior exposure of the soils to 2,4-DCP for 32 d, increasing mineralization extents up to 60%. Monoterpene amendments further enhanced 2,4-DCP degradation, but only following pre-exposure to both 2,4-DCP and monoterpene, with total 2,4-DCP mineralisation extents of up to 71%. Degradation was greatest at the higher monoterpene concentrations (≥ 1 μg kg-1). Total mineralisation extents were similar between concentrations, but higher than the control and the 0.1 μg kg-1 amendment, indicating that increases in monoterpene concentration has a diminishing enhancing effect. We suggest that monoterpenes can stimulate the biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by indigenous soil microorganisms and that monoterpene ...
Novel technologies continue to expand our understanding of microbial diversity and community structure. Metagenomic analysis [10, 45] has previously identified unexpectedly high bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity. The long-term sustainability of soil contamination requires detailed knowledge of its biodiversity coupled to profound understanding for its functioning. Previous studies with 16S rRNA-based analyses using clone libraries [46-48], microarrays (for example, PhyloChip and GeoChip) [49-52], pyrosequencing [7, 53] and other approaches [54] showed that soil microbial communities are highly diverse and complex.. Here, we took opportunity to explore microbial diversity and its functioning in edible oil contaminated soil using 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing approach. This study provides a comprehensive survey of the microbial richness and composition of long-term oil contaminated soil microbial communities. Upon taxonomic analysis using different approaches (RDP classifier and LCA ...
Soil microorganisms and their interactions The soil is considered as the land surface of the earth which provides the substratum for plant and animal life. The soil represents a favourable...
Compartmentalization of PDGF on extracellular binding sites dependent on exon-6-encoded sequences. Inclusion of methionine-S35 into liver slices of rats with alloxan diabetes in a medium containing glucose generic cialis or fructose Hence, fluopyram has a harmful effect on overall soil microbial activity, and tadalafil 20 mg rezeptfrei bestellen changed soil microbial community structure and function. Six males with type 2 diabetes mellitus and eight healthy controls were included.. Long sleep duration: a nonconventional indicator of arterial stiffness in Japanese at high risk of cardiovascular disease: side effects of cialis the J-HOP study. How does the number of susceptible cells influence the growth potential of the virus?. The presence of an osseous spur on the dorsoproximal aspect of MtIII in the absence of other radiological abnormalities may be an incidental finding. AfsR recruits tadalafil 5mg RNA polymerase to the afsS promoter: a model for transcriptional activation by SARPs. The ...
SUMMARY: The lipids of soil micro-organisms harvested from simple and complex media varied from 2 to 20% in bacteria, 10 to 20% in fungi, 2·5 to 15% (w/w) in algae. The bulk of the lipid usually consisted of polar compounds; paraffinic hydrocarbons comprised 0·008 to 2·7% in bacteria, 0·04 to 0·7% in fungi, 0·08 to 2·9% (w/w) in algae. Lipid contents of algae were more affected by growth medium composition than were those of the bacteria and fungi. Gas-liquid chromatography showed that the hydrocarbons were paraffins in the range C16-36. The hydrocarbon patterns varied with species and growth medium. A peak in the range C27-31 was usual in bacteria with sometimes a minor peak in the range C18-22. The fungi exhibited slightly more stable hydrocarbon patterns (except Trichoderma viride) than bacteria and most showed major and minor paraffin peaks in similar regions. The algae showed a peak at C17 regardless of the growth medium but Tetraspora gelatinosa showed an increase in C25 and C27 paraffin
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Methods: The researchers examined 18 different antibiotics ranging from natural, semi-synthetic to synthetic which could target a wide range of bacterial families and included ciprofloxacin, penicillin and kanamycin which are some of the more commonly prescribed antibiotics in medicine. Seventy-five bacterial samples were isolated from 11 diverse soil samples ranging from farm soil (cornfields fertilised with manure from cows fed with antibiotics), urban soil and pristine soil (untouched forest areas). This method ensured that the bacteria were isolated from areas with varying degrees of exposure to human-made antibiotics. More than half of the samples included bacteria from the phylogenetic order of Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales, both capable of inflicting disease in humans. Two antibiotic concentrations (20 mg/L and 1 g/L) were tested with one concentration (1 g/L) being 50 times greater than standard antibiotic resistance concentrations ...
Title: Uncultured soil bacterium clone SoilA-18 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. Accession Number: DQ906983. Link to Dataset: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nucleotide/DQ906983. Repository: GenBank. Data Type(s): Nucleotide Sequence. Experiment Type(s): Genomic DNA. Organism(s): Bacteria. Summary: Uncultured soil bacterium clone SoilA-18 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. Publication(s) associated with this dataset: h4.sbrppubs { padding: 0 5px 2px 5px; border-bottom: 1px solid #bfbeb5; margin: 1px 0 10px 0; text-align: left; } .pubs li { padding-bottom: 14px; } .pubs li img { border: 0px; } ...
The quality of your garden soil will contribute 50% to the success of your gardening business. Dont overlook its importance. Find out all you need to know
The taxonomic position of a soil isolate, strain E626, was evaluated using the polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have chemical and morphological features consistent with its assignment to
Addition of plant residue into soils improves soil physiochemical properties and its fertility. Rapeseed residue is an emerging N source to paddy soils via rice-rape double-cropping practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on chemical changes and enzyme activity in the rice paddy soil. The powdered eggshells at 0, 1, 3, and 5% were ap ...
Dirt microorganisms play key tasks in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as flower cover or edaphic guidelines. large proportion of Ascomycota phylum (fungi), mostly in non-rainforest formations, and Planctomycetes phylum (bacteria) in all formations were observed. Interestingly, such patterns could be indicators of past disturbances that occurred on different time scales. Furthermore, the bacteria and fungi were affected by varied edaphic parameters as well as from the interplay between these two soil areas. Another striking getting was the living of a site effect. Variations in microbial areas between geographical locations may be explained by dispersal limitation in the context of the biogeographical island theory. In conclusion, each plant formation at each site possesses is certainly very own microbial community caused by multiple connections between abiotic and biotic elements. Introduction Garden soil microorganisms play essential jobs ...
Dirt microorganisms play key tasks in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as flower cover or edaphic guidelines. large proportion of Ascomycota phylum (fungi), mostly in non-rainforest formations, and Planctomycetes phylum (bacteria) in all formations were observed. Interestingly, such patterns could be indicators of past disturbances that occurred on different time scales. Furthermore, the bacteria and fungi were affected by varied edaphic parameters as well as from the interplay between these two soil areas. Another striking getting was the living of a site effect. Variations in microbial areas between geographical locations may be explained by dispersal limitation in the context of the biogeographical island theory. In conclusion, each plant formation at each site possesses is certainly very own microbial community caused by multiple connections between abiotic and biotic elements. Introduction Garden soil microorganisms play essential jobs ...
Iqbal and Ashraf. 2017. Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. Antagonism between soil microorganisms is a common phenomenon.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xu-Hong Gao, Sheng Gao, Yu Zhou, Hui-Lin Guan, Yun-Jiao Zhang, Man Jia, Hua-Wei Huang, Dong-Xu Yang, Wen-Jun Li, Shu-Kun Tang].
also a known degrader of PAHs, however, was lower. Weighted and unweighted PCoA with UniFrac indicated that phylotypes were similar in the different treatments at day 0, but changed at day 1. After 14 days, phylotypes in the unamended and acetone-amended soil were similar, but different from those in the anthracene-spiked soil ...
Roses look beautiful in any garden and lawn. Generally, people choose the familiar varieties like pink, red and white roses for their gardens. However, one can
You are a graduate student working on a followship for a biotech companny .You are part of a group that will perform some scientiific research. You recieve various soil samples shipped to you from.
Its also available on Vimeo, but not on you tube. The guys named Doug Weatherbee. Why is it not on You tube? , I dont know. I hope you like it ...
You and your children will learn the basic principles of composting, build a compost container, and maintain the compost pile for a home-grown supply of free, organic compost to enrich your garden soil.
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Agricultural systems rely on healthy soils and their sustainability requires understanding the long-term impacts of agricultural practices on soils, including microbial communities. We examined the impact of 17 years of land management on soil bacterial communities in a New Zealand randomized-block pasture trial. Significant variation in bacterial community structure related to mowing and plant biomass removal, while nitrogen fertilizer had no effect. Changes in soil chemistry and legume abundance described 52% of the observed variation in the bacterial community structure. Legumes (Trifolium species) were absent in unmanaged plots but increased in abundance with management intensity; 11% of the variation in soil bacterial community structure was attributed to this shift in the plant community. Olsen P explained 10% of the observed heterogeneity, which is likely due to persistent biomass removal resulting in P limitation; Olsen P was significantly lower in plots with biomass removed (14 mg ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate a measuring technique for determining soil CO2 efflux from large soil samples having undisturbed structure under controlled laboratory conditions. Further objectives were to use the developed measuring method for comparing soil CO2 efflux from samples, collected in three different soil management systems at various soil water content values. The experimental technique was tested and optimised for timing of sampling by taking air samples after 1, 3 and 6 hours of incubation. Based on the results, the incubation time was set to three hours. The CO2 efflux measured for different soil management systems was the highest in the no-till and the lowest in the ploughing treatment, which was in accordance with measurements on accessible organic carbon for microbes. An increase in CO2 efflux with increasing soil water content was found in the studied soil water content range. Our results indicate that soil respiration rates, measured directly after tillage operations, ...
Crop production requires adequate soil nitrogen; therefore a false conclusion may be made from only measuring carbon dioxide as a soil health indicator. In this study, one might conclude that sod was the most productive soil according to the field respiration test. However, soil nitrogen levels were the lowest in the sod treatment. This would result in poor crop performance. Soil health reports are needed that include nutrient levels, especially soil nitrogen. Soil conservation practices such as reduced tillage and cover crops have the ability to improve soil productivity. If farmers can measure these soil health improvements and the measurements correlate to crop production increases, then soil conservation will be practiced. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on soil nitrate, ammonium, and carbon dioxide can determine the accuracy of prediction for nitrogen availability (Clark, 2007). A soil health test conducted by V6 growth stage would be useful in corn production to allow farmers ...
Relationship of microbial activity and abundance to soil properties in Yucatan SDTF.Due to the lower water supply, SDTFs usually have a lower decomposition rate (25), higher soil C and N concentrations (33), and a more open N cycle (characterized by high N inputs and losses) than their wet counterparts (34). These properties can explain why the organic C contents found in these soils are larger than values reported for any other tropical soil (35). These soils also contain variable amounts of organic matter, which are in the same range as those reported for other Yucatan forest soils (27, 31). Furthermore, the experimental plots are found in nutrient-poor areas because of the regions recent geological origin, where karstic substrate dominates the landscape (30). In particular, recent studies have documented that karst soils contain abundant organic matter, which is mainly stored in the soil surface (36, 37). In addition, the karstic soils of the Yucatan have high potential to form aggregates ...
How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, P and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg -1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N ...
The plan released today lays out a series of goals for its action teams (or committees) to tackle. Beth Mason, NACDs North Central Region representative and Soil Health Champions Network lead, serves as co-chair on the groups Communications and Education Action Team alongside Ron Nichols, soil health communications coordinator for NRCS.. Each of SHIs goals fall under a general category. For instance, under "Research," SHI proposes to enhance agricultural productivity and resilience through improved soil health by optimizing soils water holding capacity, water infiltration, and plant nutrient availability, and suppressing soil-borne diseases through soil health management systems. Its second research goal aims to quantify the environmental and human health benefits that result from improved soil health.. The group has also set out to determine how best to design and conduct large-scale soil health assessments, such as a National Soil Health Assessment. Other goals included quantifying the ...
Introduction. The decline of soil organic matter as a result of agricultural land use was identified for review, with the ultimate aim of developing a soil protection strategy and policy for South Africa. Organic matter is of great importance in soil, because it impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. Physically, it promotes aggregate stability and therefore water infiltration, percolation and retention. It impacts on soil chemistry by increasing cation exchange capacity, soil buffer capacity and nutrient supply. Biologically, it stimulates the activity and diversity of organisms in soil.1. The organic matter content of soils is determined mainly by climate (rainfall and temperature), vegetation cover and, to a lesser extent, by topography, parent material and time. Changes in land use, however, can significantly impact on the organic matter content of soils. This impact usually results in the reduction of the organic matter content in soils. The largest of these ...
Soil samples (0-60 cm) were collected from poplar based agro-forestry system varying in age from 2-20 years to study changes in total soil organic C (SOC), available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil plough layer (0-15 cm) had significantly higher SOC concentration by 34, 61 and 83%, compared with 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths, respectively. Soil organic C decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, regardless of the age of poplar plantation period. The concentration of available-P and K was significantly higher in the surface soil, and decreased with increasing soil depth. Available-P increased significantly (p|0.05) by 16.3-17.7% and available-K by 36.5-52.4% in soil plough layer (0-15 cm) under agro-forestry for 20-yrs, compared with soils under agro-forestry for 2-yrs. Soils under 20-yrs old agro-forestry system had 39.8% and 50.6% higher SOC in 0-7.5 cm and 7.5-15 cm soil depth, compared with soils under 2-yrs old plantation. These results revealed C and nutrients (P and K)
Soils can vary on the same property. An easy way to identify your soil type is to fill a small jar with soil from your yard, shake it, and let the soil settle overnight. The following day you should notice distinct soil layers. Sandy soil tends to settle at the bottom, clay at the top, and silt in the middle.. Why Does Soil Matter?. Soil performs five essential functions; using the wrong type of soil or unhealthy soil can impede tree health by constricting roots from accessing the water and nutrients necessary. Soil helps regulate water, supports biodiversity, filters pollutants, provides physical support, and cycles nutrients. You can understand why attempting to plant a tree that requires less soil saturation may not thrive if its planted in silt or clay soil. Trees show signs of stress, possible signs that the soil isnt healthy include leaf discoloration, brittle limbs, and even stunted tree growth.. Its also important to dig a hole deep enough for tree roots to grow. Planting in shallow ...
First and foremost, we need to disturb soil less. The advent of no-till and reduced tillage methods have allowed us to increase the carbon content of soils.. No-till and direct-seeding methods place the seed directly into the soil, minimizing the disturbance associated with seedbed preparation. The lack of disturbance allows the roots and crop residues from the previous crops to form soil organic matter. It reduces the degradation of the soil organic matter already present in the soil.. In Canada, we are already benefiting from reduced tillage. In the Prairies, no-tillage agriculture has increased from less than five per cent of the land area in the early 1990s to almost 50 per cent in 2006.. The situation is a bit more complex in Eastern Canada. The regions soil type and climate make it less easy to build soil organic matter. At Dalhousies Atlantic Soil Health Lab, we are exploring the potential of various cropping practices to increase soil organic matter content in the soils of Atlantic ...
As a PhD student in the Department of Plant Pathology, I recently attended the Tilth Conference in Wenatchee, which provided me the opportunity to hear great presentations and spark my thinking on the topic of microbiomes. I am currently working on Brassica seed meal amendments for suppressing apple replant disease under the supervision of Dr. Mark Mazzola. Several presentations, including one by Dr. Mazzola, were inspiring to me at the conference.. "Soil is the living thin skin of our planet," said Dr. David Granatstein in his presentation. Farmers care a lot about their soils and they are eager to figure out what factors contribute to a healthy soil. It is not an easy question since there is not a single model that fits everything. Soil health can be related to several factors, such as disease suppression, plant access to the water and access to nutrients. Carbon and organic matter are also important elements in the soil system that contribute to the support of a microbiome that is relatively ...
The population of filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens in paddy field soils was 2.0×10,SUP,4,/SUP, MPN/g dry soil in the submerged condition. They were able to form colonies in a deep agar medium, but not in a roll tube. Filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens isolated from Kanagi, Japan (strain K-5) and Tsukuba, Japan (strain T-3) were divided into two types based on length of filaments. One type, strain K-5, formed a short chain which was dispersed easily by weak shaking. The other type, strain T-3, formed a long chain, which formed cotton-like flocs and was not dispersed by weak shaking. They had sheaths composed of a pair of adjacent membranes on the outside of the cell membranes. The 16S rRNA gene similarities of strain T-3 and K-5 to ,I,Methanosaeta concilii,/I, strain Opfikon were 100% and 99.5% respectively. Filamentous acetate-utilizing methanogens were also isolated from paddy field soils in various other regions of Japan. Our results suggest that ,I,Methanosaeta,/I, is ...
The uppermost layer of the earths crust is known as soil. It is a mixture of rock fragments and organic matter which has decomposed into constituent nutrients.Soil formation is influenced by the weathering and erosion processes that are defined by a regions climate. Apart from this, the nature of the parent rock, topography, vegetation cover etc., also determine the type of soil that is formed.Pedogenesis is the process of soil formation under the action of various forces of nature such as wind, flowing water etc.Soil can be classified into three types based on the texture of grains found in it.Sandy soils - if the size of soil grain is in the range of 2 to 0.05 mm.Silt - if the size of soil grain is in the range of 0.05 to 0.002 mm. It is usually found on the river bedsClayey soils - if the size of soil grain is less than 0.002 mmSandy soils have enough gaps between their grains to drain water quickly. Hence, these soils tend to be dry, light in weight, and well aerated.Clayey soils are more ...
Rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in soil carbon flow, through turnover of root exudates, but there is little information on which organisms are actively involved or on the influence of environmental conditions on active communities. In this study, a 13CO2 pulse labelling field experiment was performed in an upland grassland soil, followed by RNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) analysis, to determine the effect of liming on the structure of the rhizosphere microbial community metabolizing root exudates. The lower limit of detection for SIP was determined in soil samples inoculated with a range of concentrations of 13C-labelled Pseudomonas fluorescens and was found to lie between 105 and 106 cells per gram of soil. The technique was capable of detecting microbial communities actively assimilating root exudates derived from recent photo-assimilate in the field. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of bacteria, archaea and fungi derived from fractions obtained from ...
Inoculation of soil with bacteria (a Gram-negative rod [PD2] and a 4- membered consortium [DC1]) accelerated mineralization of phenanthrene and pyrene (but not naphthalene) added individually to a pristine sand and a pristine organic soil. The half-life of naphthalene was 3.5 days in both soils whether inoculated or non-inoculated. However, the half-life of phenanthrene decreased from 86 days in non-inoculated sand soil and 80 days in the non-inoculated organic soil to 3.6 days in the sand and 3.1 days in organic soil when inoculated with PD2, and to 6.6 days in the sand and 8.7 days in the organic soil when inoculated with DC1. Phenanthrene mineralization ceased after 23 days in DC1-inoculated soil and was 71.3 ± 3.6% (sand) and 63.3 ± 2.8% (organic). This compared with 96.8 ± 3.8% (sand) and 102.8 ± 2.5% (organic) after 8 days in PD2-inoculated soil. Inoculation with DC1 (but not PD2) also accelerated mineralization of pyrene, where the half-life decreased from 155 days to 18 days in the sand soil
The research results in recent years have shown an essential microbiological degradation of soils exposed to convenctional agricultural technologies. It was shown that the pedo-microbiological degradation of arable soils is much more advanced compared with humus degradation; the pedo-microbiological parameters were found to be more sensitive (comparing to the soil organic matter content) and, consequently, could be used for tracing and assessing the ecological changes in soil on relatively early stage. Quality and quantity pedo-microbiological criteria were suggested for estimation, monitoring and prediction of arable soil quality.. ...
Carbon sequestration is a process where carbon from the atmosphere is stored in the soil, which helps lessen global warming. Plants, ocean, and the soil all capture and store carbon.. The soil of the Everglades, called peat, is largely made up of waterlogged, decomposing plant and animal materials. The peat soil stores a large amount of carbon compared to other soils across the globe.. When the Everglades Agricultural Area was drained, the soil was exposed to higher levels of oxygen. Decomposition of the plant and animal materials happens much faster with more oxygen. When the carbon in the soil decomposes, it becomes carbon dioxide gas. The mass of the soil decreases, and gas goes into the atmosphere. Its a big chemistry equation.. "Its not easy to picture a soil that disappears," says Rodriguez. "The most challenging process I have to explain - and the most striking - is how carbon in the soil goes from the soil to the atmosphere.". The process of soil subsidence can release significant ...
In soils and sediments, microbial reduction of iron (hydr)oxides and consequent formation of secondary iron minerals are important factors influencing many biogeochemical cycles and processes that include microbial methanogenesis. Here, we investigated methanogenic activity and microbial community of a paddy soil enrichment in response to different biomineralization pathways of ferrihydrite, which was reduced and transformed to magnetite and vivianite in the absence and presence of phosphate, respectively. For methanogenic degradation of both acetate and propionate, CH4 production rates in the magnetite cultures were significantly enhanced compared with the vivianite cultures. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes from methanogenic soil microbial community indicated that, (i) biomineralization of ferrihydrite was an important factor affecting soil microbial community structure; (ii) Geobacteraceae was only enriched in the vivianite cultures for both acetate- and propionate-fed incubations; and (iii) the
Canadas Boreal forest covers 35% of the landmass, much of which is managed by the natural resources industry. As the largest exporter of wood products globally, the Canadian forestry industry relies on sustainable productivity of the soil. Microbial communities and bioavailability of nutrients are critical components of the sustainability of continuously harvested lands, thus assessing their response to harvesting was the overarching objective of this study. Microbial community biomass and composition was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and DNA fingerprinting of the bacterial community and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In situ nutrient availability and chemical soil parameters were also measured here. Six cutblocks similar to each other except for their age since harvesting were sampled in the summer of 2009 and 2010 in both the forest floor and mineral Ae horizons of Orthic Gray Luvisols of central Alberta in the Boreal Plain ecozone. Microbial communities of these ...
Soil Collection. A total of 98 soil samples that were distinct with respect to soil and site characteristics were collected from a wide array of ecosystem types in North and South America (see Table 3). Only soils unsaturated for the majority of the year were examined. Soils were collected near the height of the plant growing season at each location. To examine whether seasonal variation was important, an additional set of soil samples was collected 6 months after the initial collection at a subset of sites. At each site, the upper 5 cm of mineral soil was collected from 5-10 locations within a given plot of ≈100 m2 and composited into a single bulk sample. All soil samples were shipped to the University of California, Santa Barbara, within a few days of collection, where they were sieved to 4 mm, homogenized, and archived at -80°C.. Site and Soil Description. For sites in the U.S., climate information for each site was estimated from historical average data (1971-2000) provided by the ...
Now that weve established the composition and components of soil, and described a brief history of soil in Virginia, we can expand on what properties in soil promote growth. We can do this while examining different soils from around central grounds. Three areas we will highlight are Observatory Hill Field (Figure 2), Fayerweather Hall (Figure 3), and the Lawn (Figure 4).. Organic matter. Organic matter broadly alludes to the assortment of dead plant and animal material in the soil. This includes everything from ground-up leaves to compost. Organic matter is essential to soil for its wide range of benefits that it provides. These benefits include being able to "supply nutrients for plants by providing surfaces where nutrients can be held in reserve in the soil, facilitate better drainage by loosening soil structure, store water in soil, help increase air drainage, and increase the activity and numbers of soil microorganisms" (organic matter). The optimal level for organic matter in soil is about ...
Surfactants with solvent and wetting abilities are used in the formulation of herbicides to enhance spraying capabilities. These chemicals eventually enter into the soil and may disrupt different chemical, physical and biological processes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on nutrient uptake in corn and soil microbial community due to application of surfactants at different rates, herbicides, and surfactant-herbicide combinations in silt loam and silty clay loam soils. Surfactants used were Activator 90, Agri-Dex and Thrust. Herbicides used were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Corn was planted in fertilized soils and moisture levels maintained. After seven weeks, plant foliage were ground and stored for elemental analyses with Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP). Soil samples were analyzed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-DGGE) and Phospholipid Fatty Acids analyses (PLFA) to assess microbial diversity. The treatments did not greatly affect nutrient ...
The concentration of CO2 in the Earths atmosphere has increased over the last century. Although this increase is unlikely to have direct effects on soil microbial communities, increased atmospheric CO2 may impact soil ecosystems indirectly through plant responses. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of plants to elevated CO2 would impact soil microorganisms responsible for key nitrogen cycling processes, specifically denitrification and nitrification. We grew trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees in outdoor chambers under ambient (360 ppm) or elevated (720 ppm) levels of CO2 for 5 years and analyzed the microbial communities in the soils below the trees using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and clone library sequencing targeting the nitrite reductase (nirK) and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. We observed a more than twofold increase in copy numbers of nirK and a decrease in nirK diversity with CO2 enrichment, with an increased predominance of Bradyrhizobia-like nirK ...
Stock farming plays an important role in the agriculture of alpine regions although deleterious effects on the soils are most pronounced here. We investigated the effects of cattle trampling on soil physical, chemical and microbial properties in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture. About 10% of the study site was bare of vegetation as a result of repeated cattle trampling and the bulk density of these bare steps was 20% higher than of the soils unaffected by trampling. In the upper 25 cm, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and total SOC stocks were 35% and 20% respectively lower than on the vegetated slope. As compared with the vegetated slope, topsoils of the bare steps featured narrower C:N-ratios and were more enriched in the 15N isotope, with typical values of deeper soil layers. This indicates that bare soils primarily evolved by erosion and not by a compaction, which might, together with the reduced litter input, explain the lower SOC contents. The abundances of soil microbes, estimated by ...
Second, recognize that when we say healthy soils we are referring not only to oxygenated, aerobic soil structure but also to the abundance of beneficial microorganisms (microbes) that should exist in all productive soils. The famous adage Feed the Soil, Feed the Plant means that whatever we apply to the soil should feed the soil microbes and the plants too. We want our soils to be teaming with beneficial bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoans and micro-arthropods. Through the amazing work of Dr. Elaine Ingham, The Soil Foodweb, started in the mid 1990s, we now know of the incredible work that the invisible to the naked eye microbes do to grow and protect plants.. And we now know that plants give up to 80% of their manufactured photosynthesized food through the root system to directly attract and feed the microbes. The plant feeds the soil microbes and the soil microbes help the plants grow and protect them from diseases, pest insects and weeds. So to the soil do no harm. This is easily ...
Soils naturally rich in heavy metals, such as serpentine soils, on the other hand do not seem to imprint significant changes on ... doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1986.tb00487.x. Dighton, J. "Mycorrhizae." Encyclopedia of Microbiology (2009): 153-162. Giron, David; ... In fact, the levels of fungal diversity in serpentine soils are comparable to those in non-serpentine soils and no serpentine ... Many other biotic and abiotic factors can mediate competition among EcM fungi, such as temperature, soil pH, soil moisture, ...
in Soil and Environmental Microbiology. References[edit]. *^ "Overview". University of Peradeniya. 2008. Retrieved 2011-01-09. ...
in Dry Soils". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 51 (1): 123-125. doi:10.1128/AEM.51.1.123-125.1986. PMC 238827. PMID ... "SOIL MICROBIOLOGY BIOL/CSES 4684. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27.. ... Azotobacter species are ubiquitous in neutral and weakly basic soils, but not acidic soils.[31] They are also found in the ... and relatively low pH values of these soils.[32] In dry soils, Azotobacter can survive in the form of cysts for up to 24 years. ...
Sláviková E, Vadkertiová R (2003). "The diversity of yeasts in the agricultural soil". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 43 (5): ... Barnett JA (2003). "Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research". Microbiology. 149 (3): ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64 (1): 34-50. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.1.34-50.2000. PMC 98985. PMID 10704473.. ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 69 (4): 565-584. doi:10.1128/MMBR.69.4.565-584.2005. PMC 1306807. PMID 16339736.. ...
soil biology . soil microbiology . species . speciation . stem cell . steroid . structural biology The branch of molecular ... Biomes are often defined by abiotic factors such as climate, topographical relief, geology, soils, and water resources. ... clinical microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. pH A numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity ( ... microbiology The study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline ...
isolated from soil, a member of the family Pseudonocardiaceae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... Microbiology. 66 (2): 939-945. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000814. PMID 26637823.. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q27438464 ...
Cartwright, C.D. (March 2000). "Biodegradation of diethyl phthalate in soil by a novel pathway". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 186 ... Biodegradation of DEP in soil occurs by sequential hydrolysis of the two diethyl chains of the phthalate to produce monoethyl ... This biodegradation has been observed in several soil bacteria.[10] Some bacteria with these abilities have specific enzymes ... if the soil is also contaminated with methanol, that would produce another three intermediate compounds, ethyl methyl phthalate ...
Modern Soil Microbiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-8247-2749-5. Coprinopsis variegata in Index Fungorum. ... van Elsas JD, Tam L, Finlay RD, Killham K, Trevors JT (2007). "Microbial interactions in the soil". In Trevors JT, van Elsas JD ... Coprinopsis variegata can attack soil bacteria, such as species of Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium, and use them as nutrient ... giving the appearance of growing in the soil. The fungus is found in the United States, in areas east of the Great Plains. ...
Veerasingham Dhuruvasangary - soil researcher; development engineer[46]. Military and police[edit]. *Cyril Herath - former Sri ... Malik Peiris, FRS Légion d'Honneur - Tam Wah-Ching Professor in Medical Science; Chair Professor, Department of Microbiology at ... "Gunadasa Amarasekera: The dentist - philosopher rooted in Sinhala soil". InfoLanka. 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2010.. ...
In A. J. B. Zehnder (ed.), Environmental Microbiology of Anaerobes. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. Tiso, M. and Schechter, A. N. ( ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Stevens, R. J. Laughlin R. J. and Malone, J. P. (1998). "Soil pH affects the ... FEMS Microbiology Letters. 7: 65-72. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kamp, Anja; Beer, Dirk de; Nitsch, Jana L ... Aquatic Microbiology: 1492. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01492. PMC 4686598 . PMID 26734001. Giblin, A.E., C.R. Tobias, B. Song, N. ...
Daniel, Rolf (2005-06-01). "The metagenomics of soil". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (6): 470-478. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1160. ... For example, in a single gram of soil, there can be up to 18000 different types of organisms, each with its own genome. ... Schloss, Patrick D; Jo Handelsman (2006-07-21). "Toward a Census of Bacteria in Soil". PLoS Comput Biol. 2 (7): e92. doi: ...
soil microbiology D.Sc. Department of Veterinary Microbiology immunologist, pathogenesist, virologist, molecular virology, and ...
nov., Isolated from Mountain Soil". Current Microbiology. 69 (3): 263-269. doi:10.1007/s00284-014-0580-1. PMID 24748437. ... rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Pontibacter which has been isolated from mountain soil in Korea. Parte, A ...
Plant Pathology and Microbiology; Poultry Science; Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences; Soil and Crop Sciences; and Wildlife ...
It is a common soil fungus worldwide and is known as a contaminant of a wide array of materials from the indoor environment to ... Murray, Patrick R.; Rosenthal, Ken S.; Pfaller, Michael A. (2013). Medical microbiology (7th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby. ISBN ... Domsch, K.H.; Gams, W; Anderson, Traute-Heidi (1981). Compendium of soil fungi. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0122204018. ... soil, fur, compost, dead bees, dung, animal nests, and wood submerged in seawater. The species is also known from indoor ...
Daniel R (2005). "The metagenomics of soil". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (6): 470-478. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1160. PMID ... These sources of eDNA include, but are not limited to, soils, ocean, subsurface, hot springs, hydrothermal vents, polar ice ... Keller M, Zengler K (February 2004). "Tapping into microbial diversity". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2 (2): 141-50. doi: ... Environmental Microbiology. 6 (9): 879-86. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00640.x. PMID 15305913. Tarrant MK, Cole PA (2009). " ...
Enzymes (1926) Humus: origin, chemical composition, and importance in nature (1936, 1938) Principles of Soil Microbiology (1938 ... held in July 1951 he urged the building of a facility for work in microbiology, named the Waksman Institute of Microbiology, ... "Man of the Soil". Time. April 4, 1949. Official Notice of Award Award Ceremony Speech "Foundation History". Archived from the ... The Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology of the National Academy of Sciences is given in his honor. Selman Waksman was ...
isolated from soil". Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea). 51 (2): 262-7. doi:10.1007/s12275-013-2563-5. PMID 23625231. ...
isolated from road soil". Archives of Microbiology. 197 (7): 883-8. doi:10.1007/s00203-015-1123-2. PMID 26007155. LPSN bacterio ... isolated from road soil". Archives of Microbiology. 197 (7): 883-8. doi:10.1007/s00203-015-1123-2. PMID 26007155. ... rod-shaped and non-motile bacteria from the genus of Sphingomonas which has been isolated from soil from Yongin-si from the ...
nov., Isolated from Chloroethylenes Contaminated Soil". Current Microbiology. 66 (6): 599-605. doi:10.1007/s00284-013-0313-x. ... isolated from soil in the ancient Khiyik river of Xinjiang, China". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (Pt 7): 2424-9. doi: ... Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68: 1548-1555. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.4.1548-1555.2002. PMC 123900 . PMID 11916667. NOTE: ...
nov., isolated from peat soil". Current Microbiology. 66 (3): 300-5. doi:10.1007/s00284-012-0270-9. PMID 23196702. Vandamme, P ... nov.: Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria from soil and rhizosphere soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... non-motile bacterium from the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae which was isolated from peat soil in Russia. ... Microbiology. 63 (Pt 12): 4707-18. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.048900-0. PMID 23959831. ...
nov., isolated from forest soil". The Journal of Microbiology. 46 (4): 396-401. doi:10.1007/s12275-008-0118-y. PMID 18758729. ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 49 (6): 2283-2285. doi:10.1128/JCM.00326-11. PMC 3122775 . PMID 21525230. Type strain of ... nonmotile bacterium from the genus Acinetobacter isolated from forest soil at Mt. Baekwoon in the Republic of Korea. . ...
... and soil aggregates in organic tomato production". Plant and Soil. 282: 209-225. doi:10.1007/s11104-005-5847-7. Requena, N; ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67: 495-498. doi:10.1128/aem.67.2.495-498.2001. Cardoso, Irene M.; Kuyper, Thomas W. ( ... "Moisture retention in a mycorrhizal soil". Plant and Soil. 230: 87-97. doi:10.1023/a:1004891210871. Cavagnaro, T; Jackson, L; ... Rhizophagus irregularis (previously known as Glomus intraradices) is an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus used as a soil inoculant ...
nov., isolated from peat soil". Current Microbiology. 66 (3): 300-5. doi:10.1007/s00284-012-0270-9. PMID 23196702. UniProt. ...
nov., isolated from a soil". Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea). 54 (4): 283-9. doi:10.1007/s12275-016-5386-3. PMID ... sedentarius is a Gram-negative and non-motile bacterium from the genus of Hymenobacter which has been isolated from soil. Parte ...
Trends in Microbiology. 17 (8): 378-387. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2009.05.004. PMID 19660952.. [permanent dead link] ... Top Left: A four level trophic pyramid sitting on a layer of soil and its community of decomposers. Top right: A three layer ... FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 55 (2): 311-321. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2005.00019.x.. ... The energy flow continues on its path if the frog is ingested by predators, parasites, or as a decaying carcass in soil. This ...
soil (1). *soil microbiology (1). *spectrometry mass, matrix- assisted laser desor... (1) ... It may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (e.g., horses, cattle, chickens) and humans. Earthworms ...
Biology and Microbiology. Date made live:. 20 Apr 2010 11:38 +0 (UTC). ... 2009 Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus ... Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus ... is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker ...
The authors and editors have taken the care to highlight links between environmental microbiology and topics important to our ... Urban Environmental Microbiology • Bacterial Communities in Natural Ecosystems • Global Change and Microbial Infectious Disease ... this edition relates environmental microbiology to the work of a variety of life science, ecology, and environmental science ... For microbiology and environmental microbiology courses, this leading textbook builds on the academic success of the previous ...
Soil ecology, Soil Microbiology, Technique, Ecology, Science/Mathematics, Fungi, Soil biochemistry, Soil fertility, Soil ... Soil microbiology 333 works Search for books with subject Soil microbiology. Search. ... Accessible book, Soils, Protected DAISY, Congresses, Microbiology, ...
Professorship of General and Soil Microbiology Search Site. only in current section ... Cardinale M., Suarez, C., Steffens, D., Ratering, S. and Schnell, S. (2019) Effect of different soil phosphate sources on the ... different amendments revealed by microbial 13C-labelled wheat root decomposition and efflux-mediated metal resistance of soil ...
... Committee. Mission Statement. The mission of the Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases ... The Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee will promote dialog among its members about contemporary issues in soil ... can discuss contemporary issues in soil microbiology, root pathology and health, and recent advances and challenges in the ... Plant and Soil Sciences Bldg.. East Lansing MI 48824. USA. Phone: (517) 802-1349. Fax: (517) 337-6782. Email: [email protected] ...
... or soil food web, transfers nutrients through the soil, makes other nutrients into forms plants can use, and helps protect ... Soil Life: Microbiology on the farm Soil Life: Microbiology on the farm. Posted on Wednesday, December 12th, 2012 at 9:07 pm.. ... Tags: rodale institute, farming, research, soil health, microorganisms. 7 Responses to "Soil Life: Microbiology on the farm". * ... Since different agricultural practices affect these complex communities in different ways, the microbiology of your soil can ...
Soil Microbiology. Academic Program Description and Profile with links to related occupation profiles and colleges and ... soil-plant and soil-animal interactions, and the biological components and effects of soil management strategies. Includes ... Soil Microbiology. Academic Program Description. (NEW) A program that focuses on application of microbiological theory and ... instruction in microbiology and related biological sciences, applicable animal and plant sciences, soil chemistry and physics ...
The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction ... The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction ... and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ... and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ...
... economically and environmentally sound forest system also emphasizing soil microbiology and ecosystem services. ... She is currently full professor of soil microbiology and biotechnology in the Department of Soil Science at University of São ... Soil, Microbiology and Ecosystem Services Editors: Cardoso, E., de Moras Gonçalvez, J.L., Balieiro, F., Franco, A.A. (Eds.) ... in Microbiology from the University of New South Wales (Australia), a PhD in Soil Science from the University of California- ...
... we discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and provide a perspective on emerging technologies for soil ... and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses ... Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of ... commonly used traditional as well as new culture-independent molecular methods to assess the diversity and function of soil ...
Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that ... Natural farming Korean natural farming Effective microorganisms Soil biology Soil life Rao, Subba. Soil Microbiology. Fourth ed ... Microorganisms in soil are important because they affect soil structure and fertility. Soil microorganisms can be classified as ... Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1998. Print. Haney, Cara H.; Ausubel, ...
Removal of Dibenzofuran, Dibenzo-p-Dioxin, and 2-Chlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin from Soils Inoculated withSphingomonas sp. Strain RW1 ... Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Populations in Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soils C. Del Val, J. M. Barea, C. Azcón- ... Biodegradation of Atrazine by Agrobacterium radiobacter J14a and Use of This Strain in Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil J. K ... ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH MICROBIOLOGY. Development and Testing of a Bacterial Biosensor for Toluene-Based Environmental ...
Plant Microbiology. Selection of Specific Endophytic Bacterial Genotypes by Plants in Response to Soil Contamination Steven D. ... Public Health Microbiology. Composition of Soil Microbial Communities Enriched on a Mixture of Aromatic Hydrocarbons E. Anne ... Combined Use of 16S Ribosomal DNA and 16S rRNA To Study the Bacterial Community of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Polluted Soil ... Evaluation of Inoculum Addition To Stimulate In Situ Bioremediation of Oily-Sludge-Contaminated Soil Sanjeet Mishra, Jeevan ...
tags: soil carbon x microbiology x disease/medicine x The Scientist. » soil carbon, microbiology and disease/medicine ...
Habitats for soil microbiology. Discussion in Organic Lawn Care started by phasthound, Mar 15, 2012. ... I was actually giving an example of overwatering to an extreme, and whether Trichoderma would survive long in a soil that would ... I was actually giving an example of overwatering to an extreme, and whether Trichoderma would survive long in a soil that would ... But they can begin to modify the soil habitat to favor them.. The best way to succeed with this method is to look at the entire ...
Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests ... Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests ... While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification ... While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification ...
Marker Genes in Soil Microbiology. In: Varma A., Buscot F. (eds) Microorganisms in Soils: Roles in Genesis and Functions. Soil ... Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 3). Keywords. Marker Gene Appl Environ Soil Microbiology Methane ... Prosser JI (2002) Molecular and functional diversity in soil micro-organisms. Plant Soil 244:9-17CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Ranjard L, Richaume A, Jocteur-Monrozier L, Nazaret S (1997) Response of soil bacteria to Hg(II) in relation to soil ...
... invites applications for a Research Scientist position with specialization in soil microbiology. The Centre, located in Harrow ... Research Scientist- Soil Microbiologist On behalf of the Government of Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) provides ... The focus of the incumbents research will be on plant-soil microbe interactions, and how these can be exploited for optimizing ... Expected outcomes of the incumbents research will be new knowledge concerning soil-microbe-plant interactions that will be ...
Modern genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic methods are linked with approaches based on soil ... Ecology of Soil Microorganisms 2018 - Digging deeper Helsinki, Finland. The ESM conference is an interdisciplinary platform ... Ecology of Soil Microorganisms 2018 - Digging deeper. Helsinki, Finland.. The ESM conference is an interdisciplinary platform ... Launch Event - A Sustainable Future: The role of microbiology in achieving the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development ...
Stability of soil microbial structure and activity depends on microbial diversity. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 6: 173- ...
Assistantship-Plant-Soil Interactions Boise State University, Boise ,Idaho, U.S.A. GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP (Ph.D. in Ecology, ... PhD Plant-Soil Interactions - BSU Ph.D. Assistantship-Plant-Soil Interactions. Boise State University,. Boise ,Idaho,. U.S.A.. ... 2) how diversity in belowground plant traits affects soil organismal biodiversity and plant-soil feedbacks. Our research is ... Minimum Qualifications: a B.S. or M.S. degree in Biology, Environmental Science, Soil Science or a related field. The position ...
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2013, 114, 6, 1625. Wiley Online Library ... Genome and proteome analysis of phage E3 infecting the soil-borne actinomycete Rhodococcus equi. Authors. *. Samson P. Salifu, ... We report on the characterization and genomic analysis of bacteriophage E3 isolated from soil and propagating in Rhodococcus ...
Cool video about soil microbiology. I just watched this video on this site. Its 45 minutes long, but its chock full of great ...
Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production (Repost) - Free epub, mobi, pdf ebooks download, ebook torrents download. ... PDF] Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production. - Removed. * 2011-08-08Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop ... Geoffrey R. Dixon, Emma L. Tilston, Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production S,..er , ISBN: 9048194784 , 2010 , PDF ... Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production (Repost). ISBN: 9048194784. Category: Technical. Tag: Science/Engineering. ...
  • Andrea Rocha (Tennessee) co-authored an article entitled "Construction of Viable Soil Defined Media Using Quantitative Metabolomics Analysis of Soil Metabolites" that was published in Frontiers in Microbiology on December 22, 2017. (geosyntec.com)
  • however, only 0.2 % of total cultivation in India is on organic soils (FAOSTAT, 2017). (nature.com)
  • . Morten Dencker Schostag (2017) Living in the cold - Microbial community and function dynamics in Arctic soils at changing temperatures. (ku.dk)
  • Up to 10 billion bacterial cells inhabit each gram of soil in and around plant roots, a region known as the rhizosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • To evaluate the viability of the SDM, we examined the growth of 30 phylogenetically diverse soil bacterial isolates from the ORFRC field site. (geosyntec.com)
  • Two bacterial strains (JC247 T and JC248) were isolated from soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • and stimulation and augmentation promoting bacterial production of calcite for improvement of soil mechanical properties. (asu.edu)
  • One hundred and forty four soil samples were pyrosequenced and 183,317 bacterial V6 sequences were obtained. (edu.au)
  • Using pyrosequencing, the bacterial community in soil with background levels of U was different from those in soil with elevated U. Indicator species analysis showed that bacterial OTUs closely related to members of Kitasatospora, Sphingobacteria, Candidate_division_WS3 and Rhodobium were only present at medium, high and very high U sites during all the sampling times. (edu.au)
  • A significant seasonal and temporal change in bacterial community was also measured as a result of seasonal and temporal change in soil U and other physicochemical variables. (edu.au)
  • The successful candidate will conduct ANR-funded research (Rhizorg project) on the analysis/visualization of bacterial pure cultures and soil samples using fluorescence microscopy (bacterial cell-labelling using Fluorescence in situ hybridization: FISH technique) combined with FT-Raman spectroscopy . (clirspec.org)
  • Rhizosphere priming of soil organic matter by bacterial groups in a grassland soil" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • It covers cutting-edge methods in soil microbial ecological studies, rhizosphere microflora, the role of organic matter in plant productivity, biological nitrogen fixation and its genetics, microbial transformation of plant nutrients in soil, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and organic matter transformation. (helsinki.fi)
  • The professorship, founded in honor of the late UW-Madison bacteriologist Oscar N. Allen, is designated to help support a faculty member in the Department of Soil Science doing work in the field of symbiotic nitrogen fixation or soil microbiology. (wisc.edu)
  • Rutgers University President Robert Barchi and Robert Goodman, Executive Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources, welcomed the delegation along with Joachim Messing, Director of the Rutgers Waksman Institute of Microbiology, and Amy Vollmer, President of the Waksman Foundation. (rutgers.edu)
  • The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction between different processes and properties, with a strong effect on the activity of soil microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • To apply the use of soil microbiota for industrial and agricultural benefits. (edu.pk)
  • Soil microbiota represent one of the ancient evolutionary origins of antibiotic resistance and have been proposed as a reservoir of resistance genes available for exchange with clinical pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • This book explores current knowledge for each of these aspects of soil microbiology and indicates where future progress is most likely to aid in increasing crop productivity by means which are environmentally benign and beneficial. (ebookee.com)
  • Modern Soil Microbiology highlights a range of applied aspects of soil microbiology, including the nature of disease-suppressive soils, the use of biological control agents, biopesticides and bioremediation agents, and the need for correct statistics and experimentation in the analyses of the data obtained from soil systems. (nhbs.com)
  • Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. (frontiersin.org)
  • Even small changes in the carbon balance of desert soils will also be important locally, where soil organic matter underpins fragile ecosystems currently supporting millions of poor pastoral farmers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Priming or a "Priming Effect" is said to occur when something that is added to soil or compost affects the rate of decomposition occurring on the soil organic matter (SOM), either positively or negatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The very structure and health of your land is directly influenced by this complex set of biological and chemical interactions which decompose, retain, and recycle nutrients within the soil. (rodaleinstitute.org)
  • NEW) A program that focuses on application of microbiological theory and methods to the study of the organismic properties of soils, soil-plant and soil-animal interactions, and the biological components and effects of soil management strategies. (careers.org)
  • It covers bio-fertilizers and their role in sustainable agriculture and soil health, biological control of insect pests and plant pathogens, and the latest tools of omics in soil microbiology, i.e. genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, which offer pioneering approaches to the exploration of microbial structure and function. (helsinki.fi)
  • However, one of the important aspects in organic farming is soil biological health, which the Indian 'Soil Health Cards' are not taking into account to a considerable extent. (nature.com)
  • If a conventional farmer wants to switch over to an organic farming he or she should know, whether his or her soil biological health is fit for the conversion of organic matters into plant nutrients. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, the Indian 'Soil Health Cards' should also consider addressing the soil biological health parameters. (nature.com)
  • In the video I explain how we extracted DNA from the sand of the Kalahari in Botswana, which we then used to identify the microbial communities that glue the desert surface together into a 'biological soil crust' (biocrust). (drelliott.net)
  • or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. (replacedbyrobot.info)
  • Identify degraded or contaminated soils and develop plans to improve their chemical, biological, or physical characteristics. (replacedbyrobot.info)
  • Biological and metabolic activities in the root-soil interface are one of the most important factors controlling plant health and productivity. (naturesafe.com)
  • . Inês Nunes (2016) Coping with Stress: Exploring the use of RNA-based approaches for the study of soil microbial communities. (ku.dk)
  • The Microbiology Graduate PhD Program is an MIT-wide program that is designed to provide students with broad exposure to modern areas of microbiology and depth in the chosen area of thesis work. (mit.edu)
  • Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro: Dr. Balieiro holds a PhD in soil science from Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) where he also was a post doc fellow. (springer.com)
  • in Microbiology from the University of New South Wales (Australia), a PhD in Soil Science from the University of California-Davis (USA) and a post doc from the University of Queensland (Australia). (springer.com)
  • The section of Soil Science was among the oldest units of the Faculty of Agriculture teaching all soil science and related courses in the faculty. (ac.ke)
  • The department launched a Bachelors and Master's degree programme in Soil Science and thereafter a Doctoral programme. (ac.ke)
  • The Department of Applied Microbiology and Food Science offers a diverse graduate program in the food sciences. (gradschools.com)
  • The Microbiology Society collaborates with several organisations to push the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) agenda forward. (microbiologysociety.org)
  • The authors have used their years of teaching microbiology and microbiology laboratory at all levels to identify and relate the fundamental concepts that are important to the understanding of the science and students' success in their future field. (ecampus.com)
  • Most importantly, the authors hope this manual will help students experience the thrill of bench science and share some of the enthusiasm they have for microbiology, a field of science that is dynamic, exciting and touches every aspect of your life. (ecampus.com)
  • Thea Whitman , assistant professor of soil science, has been appointed to the O.N. Allen Professorship in Soil Microbiology. (wisc.edu)
  • The UW-Madison Department of Soil Science is pleased to welcome David Montgomery, professor at U Washington, and author of Dirt: Erosion of Civilizations , The Hidden Half of Nature: The Microbial Roots of Life and Health , and Growing a Revolution: Bringing our Soil back to Life . (wisc.edu)
  • After the talk, there will be a reception at 1:30 in the Jackson-Tanner Commons in the Soil Science building, where students will present their end-of-year soil microbiology group project posters. (wisc.edu)
  • Priyanka Patel Department of microbiology, Shree Ramkrishna Institute of Computer Education and Applied Science, Athwalines, Surat-395001, India. (advancejournals.org)
  • The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy is issuing a national Call to Action and forming an interagency group to protect America's soil. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Currently, he is Professor of Food Microbiology, in the Faculty of Food Engineering at University of Campinas in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where he teaches Microbiology of Food Processing, Thermobacteriology Applied to Food Processing, and Microbiology and Fermentations for undergraduate course in Food Engineering, and Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing and Quantitative Aspects of Food Stability and Safety for the Graduation Program in Food Science. (wiley.com)
  • 15 or more semester credits in soil-science courses from an accredited institution. (mass.gov)
  • Soil Science education challenge: what and how do we teach them? (copernicus.org)
  • The mission of the Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee is to provide a forum where practitioners and researchers, including faculty, graduate students, and postdoctoral associates, from academia, government, and industry, can discuss contemporary issues in soil microbiology, root pathology and health, and recent advances and challenges in the management of soilborne plant pathogens and the diseases they cause. (apsnet.org)
  • The Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee will promote dialog among its members about contemporary issues in soil microbiology and root pathology and health, emerging diseases, and recent advances and challenges in the management of soilborne pathogens and the diseases they cause. (apsnet.org)
  • Plant pathogens are not great competitors in soil, but they are very good survivors, particularly in soils with low levels of microbial activity. (naturesafe.com)
  • However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing is an invaluable resource for students, scientists, and professionals of both food engineering and food microbiology. (wiley.com)
  • However, how soil microbial communities respond to crop planting and ultimately affect crop health still remain unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study would deepen our understanding about succession mechanism of soil microbial communities during crop cultivation and their relationship with crop health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researches in this area make it possible to control pathogen populations before they cause severe crop disease [ 3 , 4 ], but few studies explore the relationship between succession of soil microbial communities and plant health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is difficult to summarize a general response pattern, because a kind of crop (e.g., wheat, tobacco) could be planted in farmlands with different climates, soil properties and rotation systems, resulting in spatial and temporal variability of soil microbial communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to these variations, studies about soil microbial communities of a same crop were usually not complied with each other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a word, the spatial and temporal variabilities of microbial communities are ubiquitous, therefore such background noises must be excluded, at least taken into consideration, when exploring general response pattern of soil microbial communities to crop planting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thereafter, soil cards are being issued to farmers which are carrying strength and weaknesses of their soils, measures to deal with them and crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required for their farms. (nature.com)
  • This book explores our current knowledge of a number of the complex interrelationships in soil microbiology and indicates where future progress is most likely to aid efforts to increase crop productivity by means which are environmentally benign. (comunidadcodigo.mx)
  • May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity. (replacedbyrobot.info)
  • Two extremely halophilic archaea, strains YIM 93745 T and YIM 93707, were isolated from a saline soil sample collected from Loulan, China. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Groups of archaea and eucarya important in soils will also be discussed briefly. (asu.edu)
  • Catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH targeting the gene encoding subunit A of ammonia monooxygenase ( amoA ) mRNA and 16S rRNA of archaea also revealed ammonia-oxidizing archaea to be numerically relevant among the archaea in this soil. (pnas.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a diverse and dynamic contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in soil to nitrification and CO 2 assimilation and that their importance to the overall archaeal community might be larger than previously thought. (pnas.org)
  • However, it still is unclear whether ammonia-oxidizing archaea in soil also have an autotrophic metabolism and to what extent they are functionally active. (pnas.org)
  • DNA-SIP of grassland soil revealed autotrophic ammonia oxidation of archaea ( 19 ), but exactly which groups of archaeal ammonia oxidizers contributed to this process remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase ( nirK and nirS ) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carolyn Odori Achieng Senior Technologist, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT) College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.She is a specialist in Microbiology techniques. (ac.ke)
  • India is promoting organic farming to save its people and agricultural soils from the adverse effects of chemicals used in agriculture. (nature.com)
  • Her theory is that "Conventional" agriculture is all about trying to get people to buy inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and minerals that inadvertently kill of the beneficial life (both flora and fauna) in the soil, so they are never able to do the jobs that nature intended them to do. (ozturners.com.au)
  • Although protozoa are distributed principally in the upper few centimeters of a soil profile , they are also found at depth, over 200 m deep in groundwater environments (Sinclair and Ghiorse, 1989). (ecologycenter.us)
  • As with the protozoa, rotifers, and tardigrades, nematodes live in water films or water-filled pore spaces in soils. (ecologycenter.us)
  • While they may not be listed in major compendia of soil biota (Dindal, 1990), they are a genuine, albeit secondary, component of the soil fauna (Wallwork, 1976). (ecologycenter.us)
  • As part of my current professorship , we are bringing Dr. Montgomery to campus as our student-nominated speaker for the end-of-year symposium in my Soil Microbiology course (SOIL SCI / MICROBIO 523). (wisc.edu)
  • Sulfate ester formation and hydrolysis: a potentially important yet often ignored aspect of the sulfur cycle of aerobic soils. (asm.org)
  • We study plasmid transfer in various natural environments such as wastewater, soil and animal model systems. (ku.dk)
  • Soil protists are also useful in applied research as bioindicators of soil quality, as models in ecotoxicology and as potential biofertilizers and biocontrol agents. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this research, we explored how soil microbial communities shifted during tobacco cultivation under different rotation systems (control, maize rotation, lily rotation and turnip rotation). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Microbiology Society identified a need for policy-makers and decision-makers to have access to appropriate evidence-based scientific information and expert opinion about research on microbiomes, and have developed a report on the topic. (microbiologysociety.org)
  • These rotations will help provide students a broad exposure to microbiology research and will be used to select a lab for their thesis research by the end of the first year. (mit.edu)