Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil. (1/2707)

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium. (2/2707)

Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate.  (+info)

Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia. (3/2707)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (4/2707)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste. (5/2707)

A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The effect of soil freeze-thaw cycles was evident in the large proportion of empty sentinel oocysts. The potentially infective sentinel oocysts were reduced to <1% while the proportions in controls did not decrease below 50% potentially infective during the first field experiment. Microscopic observations of empty oocyst fragments indicated that abrasive effects of soil particles were a factor in oocyst inactivation. A similar pattern was observed in a second field experiment at the same site.  (+info)

The growth of demand will limit output growth for food over the next quarter century. (6/2707)

The rate of growth of world food demand will be much slower for 1990-2010 than it was for the prior three decades. The major factor determining the increase in food demand is population growth. Income growth has a much smaller effect. From 1960 to 1990, population growth accounted for approximately three fourths of the growth in demand or use of grain. For 1990-2010, it is anticipated that population growth will account for nearly all of the increase in world demand for grain. The rate of population growth from 1990 to 2020 is projected to be at an annual rate of 1.3% compared with 1.9% for 1960 to 1990-a decline of more than 30%. World per capita use of grain will increase very little-perhaps by 4%. The increase in grain use is projected to be 40% less than in 1960-1990. It is anticipated that real grain prices will decline during the period, although not nearly as much as the 40% decline in the previous three decades. Concern has been expressed concerning the deterioration of the quality and productivity of the world's farmland. A study for China and Indonesia indicates that there has been no significant change in the productive capacity of the land over the past 50 years. Contrary to numerous claims, the depth of the topsoil has not changed, indicating that erosion has had little or no impact.  (+info)

Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. (7/2707)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.  (+info)

Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. (8/2707)

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)

In the United States, twelve major soil texture classifications are defined by the United States Department of Agriculture.[1] The twelve classifications are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay.[5] Soil textures are classified by the fractions of each soil separate (sand, silt, and clay) present in a soil. Classifications are typically named for the primary constituent particle size or a combination of the most abundant particles sizes, e.g. "sandy clay" or "silty clay". A fourth term, loam, is used to describe equal properties of sand, silt, and clay in a soil sample, and lends to the naming of even more classifications, e.g. "clay loam" or "silt loam". Determining soil texture is often aided with the use of a soil texture triangle.[5] An example of a soil triangle is found on the right side of the page. One side of the triangle represents percent sand, the second side represents percent clay, and the ...
Neff and Associates is a full service litigation firm representing clients in Philadelphia, Delaware and New Jersey for 1967 The download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure of Symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1968 The Drums of Affliction. Weber, Max 1963 The download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase of Religion, tables. It remarks a download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase flow, with its interested cancer, which will be born Only. The acute surgical download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil to work enabled is that of artifact. download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction, put-togetherByR, carousel, Islam and Judaism. It starts, not, pretty not a download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase flow, non-intrusively of labeling the background. ...
Samadi, A. and Gilkes, R.J. (1999). Availability to plants of forms of inorganic phosphorus for calcareous soils of South Western Australia. 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. Pp,134-136. Samadi, A. and Gilkes, R.J. (1999). Distribution of forms of phosphorus and their contribution to soil P tests for calcareous soils of South Western Australia. 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. Pp.: 137-139.. Samadi, A. (2001). Changes in added available phosphorus with time in contrasting calcareous soils with Mediterranean type of climate. 7th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Bari, Italy. Pp.: 231-234.. Samadi, A. (2004). Use of sorption isotherms for evaluating the phosphate requirement of some calcareous soils of Western Azarbaijan province, Iran. 8th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Marrakech, Morocco. Pp 153-156.. Samadi, A. ...
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and total exchangeable cations (TEC) are two significant concepts in soil fertility. Cations refer to the positively charged nutrients in the soil, e.g. Ca2+ and K+. They are important as they give you an idea of how many cations a soil can potentially hold and how many cations are currently being held. Understanding exactly how these soil properties influence soil fertility and applying soil management systems that enhance these properties can assist in improving pasture quality and yield.. CEC is defined as the degree to which a soil can adsorb (hold/capture) and exchange cations with the soil solution1. This term is often confused with a soils TEC which refers to the number of basic cations that are held on the soil exchange sites (CEC sites) in comparison to the total sites and is usually reported in cmol(+)/kg soil. The ability of the soil to hold nutrients is greatly influenced by the soils organic matter (OM) content, which is mostly made up of carbon, as ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate a measuring technique for determining soil CO2 efflux from large soil samples having undisturbed structure under controlled laboratory conditions. Further objectives were to use the developed measuring method for comparing soil CO2 efflux from samples, collected in three different soil management systems at various soil water content values. The experimental technique was tested and optimised for timing of sampling by taking air samples after 1, 3 and 6 hours of incubation. Based on the results, the incubation time was set to three hours. The CO2 efflux measured for different soil management systems was the highest in the no-till and the lowest in the ploughing treatment, which was in accordance with measurements on accessible organic carbon for microbes. An increase in CO2 efflux with increasing soil water content was found in the studied soil water content range. Our results indicate that soil respiration rates, measured directly after tillage operations, ...
Introduction. The decline of soil organic matter as a result of agricultural land use was identified for review, with the ultimate aim of developing a soil protection strategy and policy for South Africa. Organic matter is of great importance in soil, because it impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. Physically, it promotes aggregate stability and therefore water infiltration, percolation and retention. It impacts on soil chemistry by increasing cation exchange capacity, soil buffer capacity and nutrient supply. Biologically, it stimulates the activity and diversity of organisms in soil.1. The organic matter content of soils is determined mainly by climate (rainfall and temperature), vegetation cover and, to a lesser extent, by topography, parent material and time. Changes in land use, however, can significantly impact on the organic matter content of soils. This impact usually results in the reduction of the organic matter content in soils. The largest of these ...
Cation exchange capacity indicates the ability of a soil to hold onto positively charged ions (cations) including plant nutrients such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium. The CEC is largely determined by clay content and organic matter. Clay has the greatest ability to hold cations, as it has a very large surface area compared to sand or silt (see Soil Texture in the Lab factsheet). Organic matter also has a high cation exchange capacity (up to 30 times greater than clay ...
Soil samples (0-60 cm) were collected from poplar based agro-forestry system varying in age from 2-20 years to study changes in total soil organic C (SOC), available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil plough layer (0-15 cm) had significantly higher SOC concentration by 34, 61 and 83%, compared with 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths, respectively. Soil organic C decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, regardless of the age of poplar plantation period. The concentration of available-P and K was significantly higher in the surface soil, and decreased with increasing soil depth. Available-P increased significantly (p|0.05) by 16.3-17.7% and available-K by 36.5-52.4% in soil plough layer (0-15 cm) under agro-forestry for 20-yrs, compared with soils under agro-forestry for 2-yrs. Soils under 20-yrs old agro-forestry system had 39.8% and 50.6% higher SOC in 0-7.5 cm and 7.5-15 cm soil depth, compared with soils under 2-yrs old plantation. These results revealed C and nutrients (P and K)
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT , RT , NT, while in the drier ...
Crop production requires adequate soil nitrogen; therefore a false conclusion may be made from only measuring carbon dioxide as a soil health indicator. In this study, one might conclude that sod was the most productive soil according to the field respiration test. However, soil nitrogen levels were the lowest in the sod treatment. This would result in poor crop performance. Soil health reports are needed that include nutrient levels, especially soil nitrogen. Soil conservation practices such as reduced tillage and cover crops have the ability to improve soil productivity. If farmers can measure these soil health improvements and the measurements correlate to crop production increases, then soil conservation will be practiced. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on soil nitrate, ammonium, and carbon dioxide can determine the accuracy of prediction for nitrogen availability (Clark, 2007). A soil health test conducted by V6 growth stage would be useful in corn production to allow farmers ...
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
The decline of soil fertility has been one of the major constraints to low level of agricultural productivity and it primarily referred to the exploitation of soil nitrogen. Nitrogen could be added to or lost from the soil via different natural and human-induced processes. The work area is located in lower bilate river basin within the ethiopian rift valley which was characterized by an arid climatic conditions. The core objectives of this work were modeling of the soil nitrogen balance and the plant available stock soil nitrogen by using GIS and Remote sensing and assessing the uncertainities and source of errors. The widely used methodology of Stoorvogel and Smaling was adapted for soil nutrient balance estimation while the plant available stock soil nitrogen was determined using empirical relations. This book described acomprehensive methodology which is spatially explicit for modelling soil nitrogen balance and is very useful to professionals working in agricultural land management and ...
PREFACE xi. INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ACRONYMS xiv. COMMON HYPHENATED INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ABBREVIATIONS xv. ABBREVIATED PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS xvi. CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF SOIL CHEMISTRY 1. 1.1 The 19th Century 3. 1.2 The End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century 8. 1.3 The 20th Century 11. 1.4 The End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century 14. 1.5 Conclusion 15. Problems 15. References 16. Bibliography 18. CHAPTER 2 SOIL BASICS PART I: LARGE FEATURES 19. 2.1. Horizonation 28. 2.2 Peds 33. 2.3 Soil Color 36. 2.4 Soil Naming 38. 2.5 The Landscape 39. 2.6 Relationship of Large Features to Soil Chemistry, Soil Analysis, and Instrumentation 40. 2.7 Conclusions 42. Problems 42. References 43. Bibliography 43. CHAPTER 3 SOIL BASICS PART II: MICROSCOPIC TO ATOMIC ORBITAL DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS 44. Soil Components Independent 45. 3.1 Soil Solids 45. Soil Components Interacting 53. 3.2. Bonding Considerations 53. Soil Components in Combination ...
Tripolyphosphates (TPP) have been commonly used as a phosphorus (P) source in slow release liquid fertilizers [1-3]. To be bioavailable to plant or microbial communities, TPP must first be hydrolyzed to phosphate monomers (ortho-P). Tripolyphosphate is believed to persist in the soil solution until undergoing hydrolysis, when it becomes bioavailable and reactive in the soil environment [4-6]. However, there is significant evidence that suggests TPP and other linear polyphosphates adsorb directly to metal oxide surfaces without having to first be hydrolyzed [7-11]. If TPP adsorbs directly to soil mineral surfaces, this could not only reduce TPP mobility in the soil solution but also reduce calcium phosphate (Ca-P) mineral precipitation. Calcium phosphate mineral formation immobilizes P from the soil solution, reducing the fraction of readily bioavailable P.. Tripolyphosphate or linear polyphosphate applications to calcareous soils may be a novel way to improve P nutrient availability. Since ...
Globally, soil and surface litter store 2 to 3 times more organic carbon than vegetation and 3 times more carbon than the atmosphere. The soil organic stock at a soil depth of 1 m is globally about 1500 to 1600 Pg (Pg = 1015 g). The amount of carbon and nitrogen stored in the soil is influenced by many factors. An important factor affecting soil properties, carbon and nitrogen storage is land use and land cover change (LULCC). Conversion of grasslands into tree plantations is common with the aim of increasing aboveground carbon stocks to mitigate climate change. This study investigated the changes that happened in the soil in the Glendhu catchment (Otago, New Zealand) after conversion of tussock grassland to pine plantation 36 years ago. The objectives of this study were to  Quantify the soil carbon and nitrogen stocks to 1 m soil depth  Determine the physical parameters of soil  Investigate the relationships between soil parameters, soil depths and land use types  Investigate the ...
Plant performance is, at least partly, linked to the location of roots with respect to soil structure features and the micro-environment surrounding roots. Measurements of root distributions from intact samples, using optical microscopy and field tracings have been partially successful but are imprecise and labour-intensive. Theoretically, X-ray computed micro-tomography represents an ideal solution for non-invasive imaging of plant roots and soil structure. However, before it becomes fast enough and affordable or easily accessible, there is still a need for a diagnostic tool to investigate root/soil interplay. Here, a method for detection of undisturbed plant roots and their immediate physical environment is presented. X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging are combined to produce projection images of soil sections from which root distributions and soil structure can be analyzed. The clarity of roots on the X-ray film is sufficient to allow manual tracing on an acetate sheet fixed over the ...
Composts provide fertility and many other benefits to soil that no other chemical fertilizers can provide. Composts contain both macro- and micro-nutrients in proportions not typically present in most fertilizer inputs. Nutrients in composts are released slowly, thus providing more balanced nutrition throughout the growing season while reducing leaching potential. Composts can also buffer soil acidity or alkalinity so as to develop a more optimal pH for plant growth. In addition to adding nutrients, the main benefit of using composts is the improvement of soil structure. Organic matter provided by compost amendments can promote soil aggregate formation, thus improving soil structure. Improved soil structure can lead to better water infiltration, air penetration, and plant-root establishment. The added organic matter also increases retention of soil nutrients and, if properly incorporated, reduces soil-erosion risk. Composts also foster diverse soil organisms; these bacteria, fungi, insects, and ...
Grazing by domestic ungulates can have substantial impacts on forests in arid and semi-arid regions, possibly including severe loss of carbon from the soil. Predicting net livestock impacts on soil organic carbon stocks remains challenging, however, due to the dependence on animal loads and on soil and environmental parameters. The objective of this study was to better understand grazing effects on soil organic carbon in seasonal tropical dry forests of north-eastern Brazil (Caatinga) by quantifying carbon stocks of the upper soil profile (0-5 cm depth) and greater soil depths (,5 cm depth down to bedrock) along a gradient of grazing intensity while accounting for other influencing factors such as soil texture, vegetation, landscape topography, and water availability. We analysed soil organic carbon, soil clay content, altitude above sea level, soil depth to bedrock, distance to the nearest permanent water body, species diversity of perennial plants and aboveground biomass on 45 study plots ...
Liu , X , Zheng , J , Zhang , D , Cheng , K , Zhou , H , Zhang , A , Li , L , Joseph , S , Smith , P , Crowley , D , Kuzyakov , Y & Pan , G 2016 , Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils Science of the Total Environment , vol 554-555 , pp. 259-265 . DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02. ...
The plan released today lays out a series of goals for its action teams (or committees) to tackle. Beth Mason, NACDs North Central Region representative and Soil Health Champions Network lead, serves as co-chair on the groups Communications and Education Action Team alongside Ron Nichols, soil health communications coordinator for NRCS.. Each of SHIs goals fall under a general category. For instance, under "Research," SHI proposes to enhance agricultural productivity and resilience through improved soil health by optimizing soils water holding capacity, water infiltration, and plant nutrient availability, and suppressing soil-borne diseases through soil health management systems. Its second research goal aims to quantify the environmental and human health benefits that result from improved soil health.. The group has also set out to determine how best to design and conduct large-scale soil health assessments, such as a National Soil Health Assessment. Other goals included quantifying the ...
A soil has a "soil texture" (sand and silt and clay) and it has organic matter mixed in it. But weather changes the soil. It is cold on the Earth near the north and south poles. It is hot near the equator of the Earth. Some places on Earth get a lot of rain and some places get no rain. Hot and wet weather make one kind of soil. Cold and dry weather make another kind of soil. Rain water makes small things in the soil move down with the water. When the things in the water get stuck in the soil those things make a layer in the soil. If you dig down into the soil you may find many layers in the soil. The layers may have different colors. The layers may have different "soil textures". The top part of the soil may have a lot of humus and sand. Below that layer there may be a layer of silt. Below that layer there may be a layer of clay. The sand stays on the top because it is large. The silt goes down a little with the water and makes a layer because it is small. The silt is smaller than some of the ...
A total APAL nutrient analysis enables you or your agronomist to formulate and exact foliar program.. Leaf/Soil analysis: There are significant differences between a soil and plant leaf analysis. LEAF (TISSUE) ANALYSIS. Represents plant nutrient levels and uptake of elements as a result of soil levels and soil imbalances.. A leaf analysis is not always an indication of soil levels.. SOIL ANALYSIS. Shows available soil elements and mineral imbalances.. Plant uptake can be different due to soil imbalances.. UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCE. BETWEEN A LEAF AND A SOIL ANALYSIS and the IMPORTANCE OF BOTH. A leaf analysis can often be seen as a reflection of the soil in that it reflects what nutrients the soils mineral balance is allowing the plant to extract eg. High soil potassium inhibit plant uptake of magnesium, high magnesium soils inhibit plant potassium, high sodium inhibits plant potassium and calcium and high soil calcium inhibits plant uptake of most trace elements, so we often see a mineral ...
First and foremost, we need to disturb soil less. The advent of no-till and reduced tillage methods have allowed us to increase the carbon content of soils.. No-till and direct-seeding methods place the seed directly into the soil, minimizing the disturbance associated with seedbed preparation. The lack of disturbance allows the roots and crop residues from the previous crops to form soil organic matter. It reduces the degradation of the soil organic matter already present in the soil.. In Canada, we are already benefiting from reduced tillage. In the Prairies, no-tillage agriculture has increased from less than five per cent of the land area in the early 1990s to almost 50 per cent in 2006.. The situation is a bit more complex in Eastern Canada. The regions soil type and climate make it less easy to build soil organic matter. At Dalhousies Atlantic Soil Health Lab, we are exploring the potential of various cropping practices to increase soil organic matter content in the soils of Atlantic ...
Soils can vary on the same property. An easy way to identify your soil type is to fill a small jar with soil from your yard, shake it, and let the soil settle overnight. The following day you should notice distinct soil layers. Sandy soil tends to settle at the bottom, clay at the top, and silt in the middle.. Why Does Soil Matter?. Soil performs five essential functions; using the wrong type of soil or unhealthy soil can impede tree health by constricting roots from accessing the water and nutrients necessary. Soil helps regulate water, supports biodiversity, filters pollutants, provides physical support, and cycles nutrients. You can understand why attempting to plant a tree that requires less soil saturation may not thrive if its planted in silt or clay soil. Trees show signs of stress, possible signs that the soil isnt healthy include leaf discoloration, brittle limbs, and even stunted tree growth.. Its also important to dig a hole deep enough for tree roots to grow. Planting in shallow ...
How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, P and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg -1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N ...
The experiment was implemented at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh to assess the effect of variety and vermicompost on the starch and sugar content activity of potato and their performance under ambient storage condition. The experiment consisted of two factors, i.e., factor A:- Potato varieties (V-4): V1: BARI TPS-1, V2: BARI Alu-28 (Lady Rosetta),V3: BARI Alu-25 (Asterix) and V4: BARI Alu-29 (Courage); factor B:-Vermicompost level (M-4): M1: 0 t ha-1 (Control), M2: 2 t ha-1, M3: 4 t ha-1 and M4: 6 t ha-1. Inferior quality is a major problem for potato production in Bangladesh. The application of vermicompost may enhance the processing quality of potato. The research revealed that vermicompost had a remarkable effect on most of the processing quality contributing parameters. Results also exhibited those processing parameters improved with increasing vermicompost level. Among the sixteen treatment combinations, Asterix with vermicompost at 6 t ha-1 showed the highest glucose, sucrose
AbstractSoil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal) treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m), consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T), a pair of cows (C) and a pair of donkeys (D). Undisturbed soil samples (120) were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The
Soil Tests. Soil samples are sent to Hills Laboratories in Hamilton. They take around 10 days to be analysed and show the CEC and mineral reserves in the soil. We require about 3 cups of soil or 15-20 soil cores, sampled to 150mm depth, taken from random places in the garden or paddock. Avoid sampling recently grazed paddocks. If sampling grazed pasture, avoid dung and urine patches, camping areas, water troughs and gateways. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) basic soil test (K, Ca, Mg, Na, pH, Olsen P, CEC, Base Saturation) plus S (includes SO4, extractable Organic S and Anion Storage Capacity) and an Organic Soil Profile (for checking soil carbon levels) costs $121 +GST per sample.. The above soil tests, plus Resin P (good for measuring available P in soils with low pH or if you have been using RPR) and total S costs $157 +GST per sample.. Herbage Tests. Herbage tests complement Reams soil tests and allow levels of trace minerals to be analysed. Herbage samplse are sent to Hills Laboratories in ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
Organo-mineral nutrient sources are promising soil amendments for sustainable crop production in Nigeria. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Cross River University of Technology Obubra during the 2016 cropping season. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and amended rice mill waste (RMW) on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). The treatments consisted of 10 kg ha-1 RMW as control and 10 kg ha-1 of RMW amended with 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 kg N ha-1. The 6 treatments were replicated 3 times under RCBD with each experimental plot size measuring 4 × 3 m. All the treatments including control increased the chemical properties of the soil over the initial soil properties including total N, available P, SOM, pH and the exch. Cations; Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+. RMW + 40 kg N ha-1 and RMW 50 kg N ha-1 produced tallest plants, highest number of leaves per plant and largest leaf area of maize plants.  RMW + 30
Soil organic matter (SOM) cycling has significant consequences for ecosystem processes and functioning. Studies of SOM have focused traditionally on soil microorganisms that regulate the fundamental biochemical processes of litter mineralization and organic matter formation. However, microbe-mediated processes rarely occur in isolation in natural systems without the involvement of soil fauna. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to soil fauna - e.g., the direct roles they play in SOM cycling, and indirect roles through changing microbial community composition, activity, and function to influence soil C and N dynamics. We combine traditional morphological characterization of soil invertebrates with microbial functional assays, and modern chemical techniques to identify relationships among soil fauna, microbe, plant residue inputs, and SOM. Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether/how soil fauna contribute to soil organic carbon storage, especially through their impacts on microbial ...
Cover crops can help resolve a host of soil health and environmental concerns, especially nutrient retention, according to research conducted at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canadas (AAFC) Harrow Research and Development Centre in Ontario.. "Cover crops are an amazing tool that producers have available to them," says Dr. Craig Drury, soil management and biochemistry researcher at Harrow. "The cover crop increases soil organic carbon, improves soil structure and overall soil quality, and can also improve the drainage of soil.". Cover crops are planted in the late summer or early fall following the harvest of a cereal crop, or inter-seeded into an annual row crop, such as corn. They can capture the residual nitrogen that remains in the soil at the end of the growing season and effectively tie it up over winter. The nitrogen is then released into the soil when the cover crop decomposes in the following spring. This is important because, as Drury says, farmers "want to hold a nutrient like nitrogen in ...
Loss of soil resource capacity can be defined as points at which one or more of these outcomes are realised. In terms of the first and second outcomes, the most readily quantifiable point for soil resource loss is 1 mg/kg for total soil cadmium. This is both the current recommended limit for cadmium in agricultural soils, and a default human health protection limit for Waikato properties being subdivided to residential or rural-residential land. The recommended agricultural soil cadmium limit is set partly with respect to current and anticipated expectations of New Zealands international trading partners. The third outcome, non-compliance with food standards, relates mainly to particular types of horticultural and arable crops. The exact point at which soil cadmium has become high enough to cause food standards to be exceeded can be difficult to predetermine, as it depends on crop and soil conditions. However, this outcome has been observed to occur at soil cadmium concentrations below the ...
Several physical and chemical reactions take place: dissolution in water, reaction with soil organic matter and clay, and attachment of resulting ammonium ions on the soil cation exchange complex. These reactions all tend to limit the movement of ammonia, with water having the greatest initial effect. The highest concentration of ammonia is at/near the point of injection, with a tapering of the concentration toward the outer edge of the retention zone. Usually the greatest ammonia concentration is within the first inch or two of the injection point, with the overall retention zone being up to 3-4 in. in radius in most soils. The size of the ammonia retention zone, and shape, vary greatly depending upon the rate of application, knife spacing, the soil and soil conditions at injection (soil texture, soil structure, organic matter and moisture status).. Ammonia moves farther at injection in coarse-textured soils and soils low in moisture. Also, if the injection knife causes sidewall smearing (when ...
Healthy soil is more productive, has better drainage, holds on to nutrients, resists erosion, and has better water holding capacity. What does it take to have a healthy soil? Good levels of organic matter support populations of microbes and this combination improves and stabilizes soil structure.. Erosion prevention is crucial to soil health. Scientists estimate that it takes 100 years for one inch of topsoil to form. Learn how to keep your soil on your farm in the Erosion Prevention section. The Improving Soil Health section describes ways to get the most out of your soil, including the use of cover crops.. Soils vary in texture, drainage, susceptibility to erosion, water holding capacity, and other traits. These characteristics and how they affect the potential of a soil are described in the soil survey for each county. Free, printed copies are available at the East Multnomah SWCD office, but we recommend you use the online version at http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov. This site allows you ...
The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to 29% of the total soil respiration before harvesting. The root to soil respiration ratio increased rapidly during the young seedling stage, i.e. first five months, then declined and finally got stabilized during yield formation and ripening stages, respectively. In addition, the results from the measurements confirmed that soil respiration was positively correlated with soil moisture content.
Actual transpiration decreased with decreasing soil moisture content and increasing potential transpiration. Average soil suction in the root zone when the actual transpiration rate fell below the potential rate varied from 12 bars when the potential transpiration rate was 1.4 mm. per day to 0.3 bar when the potential rate was 6 to 7 mm. per day.. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under View to the left.. Copyright © . . ...
Relationship of microbial activity and abundance to soil properties in Yucatan SDTF.Due to the lower water supply, SDTFs usually have a lower decomposition rate (25), higher soil C and N concentrations (33), and a more open N cycle (characterized by high N inputs and losses) than their wet counterparts (34). These properties can explain why the organic C contents found in these soils are larger than values reported for any other tropical soil (35). These soils also contain variable amounts of organic matter, which are in the same range as those reported for other Yucatan forest soils (27, 31). Furthermore, the experimental plots are found in nutrient-poor areas because of the regions recent geological origin, where karstic substrate dominates the landscape (30). In particular, recent studies have documented that karst soils contain abundant organic matter, which is mainly stored in the soil surface (36, 37). In addition, the karstic soils of the Yucatan have high potential to form aggregates ...
Recognition of the detrimental influence of accelerated soil erosion on agricultural societies dates back to Plato and Aristotle, and several now-classic studies have attributed the bare rocky slopes of the classical world to ancient soil erosion (1-3). In recent decades, archaeological studies confirmed pronounced episodes of soil erosion associated with the rise and subsequent decline of civilizations in the Middle East, Greece, Rome, and Mesoamerica, as well as other regions around the globe (4-8). Most commentators, however, generally attribute such erosional episodes to the effects of deforestation (9-12) and neglect the role of agriculture in maintaining accelerated erosion in upland environments.. Soil erosion is a complex process that depends on soil properties, ground slope, vegetation, and rainfall amount and intensity (13). Changes in land use are widely recognized as capable of greatly accelerating soil erosion (14-16), and it has long been recognized that erosion in excess of soil ...
This study examined the change of soil carbon affected by the increase of biomass crops and more phenol and organic acid input in soil due to elevated CO_2 concentration.A culture experiment using soil from a field after being cultured one year under FACE platform with two CO_2 levels(ambient CO_2 and elevated CO_2)and two N levels(normal N and low N)was conducted in a greenhouse at the same N treatment with the field.The results indicated that compared to soil from ambient CO_2,turnover of different soil particles in soil from elevated CO_2 was increased and affected by added straw and nitrogen levels.Soil carbon content in particles of size 250 and 53 μm was increased due to input of phenol and organic acid under straw added or not condition.Soil carbon content in each particle per unit of soil was increased and the increase magnitude was larger in particles 53 μm.The change was larger at normal N with no straw and at low N with straw added.The results indicated that straw,phenol and organic acid
Stock farming plays an important role in the agriculture of alpine regions although deleterious effects on the soils are most pronounced here. We investigated the effects of cattle trampling on soil physical, chemical and microbial properties in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture. About 10% of the study site was bare of vegetation as a result of repeated cattle trampling and the bulk density of these bare steps was 20% higher than of the soils unaffected by trampling. In the upper 25 cm, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and total SOC stocks were 35% and 20% respectively lower than on the vegetated slope. As compared with the vegetated slope, topsoils of the bare steps featured narrower C:N-ratios and were more enriched in the 15N isotope, with typical values of deeper soil layers. This indicates that bare soils primarily evolved by erosion and not by a compaction, which might, together with the reduced litter input, explain the lower SOC contents. The abundances of soil microbes, estimated by ...
The uppermost layer of the earths crust is known as soil. It is a mixture of rock fragments and organic matter which has decomposed into constituent nutrients.Soil formation is influenced by the weathering and erosion processes that are defined by a regions climate. Apart from this, the nature of the parent rock, topography, vegetation cover etc., also determine the type of soil that is formed.Pedogenesis is the process of soil formation under the action of various forces of nature such as wind, flowing water etc.Soil can be classified into three types based on the texture of grains found in it.Sandy soils - if the size of soil grain is in the range of 2 to 0.05 mm.Silt - if the size of soil grain is in the range of 0.05 to 0.002 mm. It is usually found on the river bedsClayey soils - if the size of soil grain is less than 0.002 mmSandy soils have enough gaps between their grains to drain water quickly. Hence, these soils tend to be dry, light in weight, and well aerated.Clayey soils are more ...
Waste products from industry have often been disposed in landfills without regard for any beneficial uses of the product in agricultural production. This research was conducted to determine the effect of a refractory metal processing waste product on (a) soil chemical and physical properties, (b) perennial ryegrass forage quality and seed yield, and (c) percolation water quality. Refractory metals processing waste was applied either as a slurry or dried to Dayton silty clay loam (sicl) at rates of 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 tons/acre. Ammonium nitrate, concentrated superphosphate, muriate of potash, calcium sulfate, and lime were added to optimize plant growth. Lime, gypsum, and phosphorus fertilizer variables were incorporated into the study to investigate specific beneficial or problems areas associated with the waste product. The waste and fertilizers were tilled into the soil, and all plots seeded with perennial ryegrass (var. Linn) and irrigated. Elements found in the waste in excess of one ...
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural
Soil tillage practices have a profound influence on the physical properties of soil and the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. However there have been very few integrated studies on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil biophysical and chemical characteristics under different soil management systems. We recorded a significantly higher net global warming potential under conventional tillage systems (26-31% higher than zero tillage systems). Crucially the 3-D soil pore network, imaged using X-ray Computed Tomography, modified by tillage played a significant role in the flux of CO2 and CH4. In contrast, N2O flux was determined mainly by microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture content. Our work indicates that zero tillage could play a significant role in minimising emissions of GHGs from soils and contribute to efforts to mitigate against climate change.. ...
Second, recognize that when we say healthy soils we are referring not only to oxygenated, aerobic soil structure but also to the abundance of beneficial microorganisms (microbes) that should exist in all productive soils. The famous adage Feed the Soil, Feed the Plant means that whatever we apply to the soil should feed the soil microbes and the plants too. We want our soils to be teaming with beneficial bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoans and micro-arthropods. Through the amazing work of Dr. Elaine Ingham, The Soil Foodweb, started in the mid 1990s, we now know of the incredible work that the invisible to the naked eye microbes do to grow and protect plants.. And we now know that plants give up to 80% of their manufactured photosynthesized food through the root system to directly attract and feed the microbes. The plant feeds the soil microbes and the soil microbes help the plants grow and protect them from diseases, pest insects and weeds. So to the soil do no harm. This is easily ...
Soil is a natural resource that is fundamental for all human uses. Soil is primarily used for agriculture and soil erosion plays a major role in causing serious disruption in agricultural activity. Soil erosion occurs mainly due to natural disasters like floods and droughts. Prevention and mitigation are effective ways to manage this problem. GIS in conjunction with the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) can be used to evaluate the risk area of soil erosion. The USLE is the most commonly used estimator of soil loss caused by overland erosion. It is used in most parts of the world including India ...
Agricultural systems rely on healthy soils and their sustainability requires understanding the long-term impacts of agricultural practices on soils, including microbial communities. We examined the impact of 17 years of land management on soil bacterial communities in a New Zealand randomized-block pasture trial. Significant variation in bacterial community structure related to mowing and plant biomass removal, while nitrogen fertilizer had no effect. Changes in soil chemistry and legume abundance described 52% of the observed variation in the bacterial community structure. Legumes (Trifolium species) were absent in unmanaged plots but increased in abundance with management intensity; 11% of the variation in soil bacterial community structure was attributed to this shift in the plant community. Olsen P explained 10% of the observed heterogeneity, which is likely due to persistent biomass removal resulting in P limitation; Olsen P was significantly lower in plots with biomass removed (14 mg ...
Designed to provide students with fundamental knowledge of soil and soil composition. Includes study of soil types, formation factors, physical properties, biological properties, and basic soil chemistry. Units covering tillage, conservation, pH, soil management, plant nutrients, and fertilizer sources are also included. Students gain the skills required to interpret soil test reports and soil survey maps and recognize qualities of various soil types. Students perform soil sampling, residue measurements, compaction assessments, and soil loss determinations per crop rotation guidelines.. ...
Soil requirements[edit]. Lentils can grow on various soil types, from sand to clay loam, growing best in deep sandy loam soils ... A soil pH around 7 would be the best. Lentils do not tolerate flooding or water-logged conditions.[2] ... It is also important that the soil is made friable and weed-free so that seeding could be done at a uniform depth.[2] ... "Crop Profile for Lentils in Idaho". Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Science, University of Idaho (web site). 2000. ...
Soil and climate requirements[edit]. Basella alba grows well under full sunlight in hot, humid climates and in areas lower than ... It grows best in sandy loam soils rich in organic matter with pH ranging from 5.5 to 8.0. ...
Two scientists prepare samples of soil mixed with oil to test a microbe's ability to clean up contaminated soil. ... in the soil.Thirteen metals are considered priority pollutants (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, Zn, Hg).[10] Soils ... Such interactions occur in the geosphere (rocks, minerals, soils, and sediments), the atmosphere and the hydrosphere.[2] ... Microbes play a key role in many biogeochemistry cycles and can effect a variety of soil properties, such as biotransformation ...
Soil depletion is also a negative effect of mono-cropping. Crop rotation plays an important role in replenishing soil nutrients ... the soil can become dry and begin to erode. As the soil becomes arid and useless, the need for more land becomes an issue, ... as it damages the soil ecology (including depletion or reduction in diversity of soil nutrients) and provide an unbuffered ... Soil ecology[edit]. While economically a very efficient system, allowing for specialization in equipment and crop production, ...
Although the soil of the hill area is fertile but mostly soil is stony. In plain region domat, loam and clay soils are found. ... In many areas, the top soil is completely washed away by the rains. Various methods of soil conservation has been adopted in ... Soil[edit]. Being in the Himalayan region, the district of Garhwal contains little level ground. The slope of the hills is ... Finer soils are to be found only in the river valleys where they widen out. Those portion of the district which are covered ...
Typically urban soil has had the topsoil stripped away and has led to soil with low aeration, porosity, and drainage. Typical ... However, the soil must be tested for heavy contamination in city soil because of vehicle exhaust and remnants of old ... Plants can be used as a method to remove chemicals and also to hold the soil and prevent erosion of contaminated soil ... One way of identifying soil contamination is through using already well-established plants as bioindicators of soil health. ...
Soil[edit]. The thin top layer of the Earth's crust on land is largely made up of soil colored different shades of brown.[31] ... Rich and fertile soils tend to be darker in color; the deeper brown color of fertile soil comes from the decomposing of the ... Layers of soil in Ireland. Dark brown soil usually contains a high amount of decayed organic matter. ... Half the color of soil comes from minerals it contains; soils containing iron turn yellowish or reddish as the iron oxidizes. ...
Finally, restoration ecology has a stronger focus on soils, soil structure, fungi, and microorganisms because soils provide the ... "European Journal of Soil Science. 54 (4): 801-808. doi:10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0559.x. ISSN 1351-0754.. Check date values in: ... Soil heterogeneity effects on community heterogeneity[edit]. Spatial heterogeneity of resources can influence plant community ... European Journal of Soil Science. 54, 801-808.. Harris, J.A., Hobbs, R.J, Higgs, E. and Aronson, J. (2006) Ecological ...
Soil[edit]. Most soil in the mountains is covered by an organic rich layer over layers rich in clay.[65] Soils are commonly ... The last major soil type are vertisols which are thin mineral poor soils. Soils at higher elevations experience more leaching, ... due to increased rainfall.[66] Acidic soils may have lower calcium content, leading to lower plant soil quality. Soils along ... which block water from being absorbed into the soil, larger rock particles in the soil help reduce runoff and soil losses from ...
Battleground: Wars on Our Soil, from earliest times to 1885[edit]. This gallery explores the history of war on Canadian soil ... 2.1 Battleground: Wars on Our Soil, from earliest times to 1885. *2.2 For Crown and Country: The South African and First World ... It includes major permanent exhibitions on wars that have been fought on Canadian soil, the total wars of the twentieth century ...
Soil[edit]. One of the most difficult retrofits is that required to prevent damage due to soil failure. Soil failure can occur ... The likelihood of landslide or soil failure may also depend upon seasonal factors, as the soil may be more stable at the ... The wall is used both to retain the soil and so enable the use of a shorter span and also to transfer the weight of the span ... If the soil fails where a bridge terminates, the bridge may become disconnected from the rest of the roadway and break away. ...
... soil science and pesticide resistance. During World War II, aiming to increase crop yields for a nation at war, a team under ...
Soil ecosystems[edit]. About 90% of nematodes reside in the top 15 cm of soil. Nematodes do not decompose organic matter, but, ... and tomato crops without harming beneficial nematodes in the soil.[49] Soil steaming is an efficient method to kill nematodes ... One roundworm of note, C. elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire ... Nyle C. Brady & Ray R. Weil (2009). Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780135014332 ...
Soil Requirements[edit]. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) can grow on a wide range of different soil types. Preferably in fertile, ... Thanks to taproots, the guar plant can access soil moisture in low soil depths.[3] Additionally, this legume develops root ... medium-textured and sandy loam soils that are well-drained because waterlogging decreases plant performance. In respect of soil ... Date: soil temperature , 21 °C (optimum: 30 °C); monsoon-regions: after first rain event in June or early July ...
Soil[edit]. There are three types of soil in the Jerez district for growing the grapes for Sherry:[20] ... and by law 40 percent of the grapes making up a sherry must come from albariza soil. The barros and arenas soil are mostly used ... The benefit of the albariza soil is that it can reflect sunlight back up to the vine, aiding it in photosynthesis. The nature ... Albariza: the lightest soil, almost white, and best for growing Palomino grapes. It is approximately 40 percent chalk, the rest ...
Fonio is mainly grown on sandy soils, but can also grow on rocky soils. It also thrives on acidic clay soils with a high ... On heavy soils, most varieties thrive badly. This crop is low demanding and can cope with unfavourable climate and soil ... Climate and soil requirements[edit]. Fonio is cultivated in West Africa under tropical climate, with a pronounced dry season, ... Also Digitaria exilis germinated well in various soil types like sand and loam.[22] The crop requires little input with ...
Soil and pests[edit]. Quinoa has gained attention for its adaptability to contrasting environments such as saline soils, ... Quinoa plants do best in sandy, well-drained soils with a low nutrient content, moderate salinity, and a soil pH of 6 to 8.5. ... nutrient-poor soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems.[27] Yields are maximised when 170-200 kg/ha (150-180 lb/acre ... "SALTMED Model to Simulate Yield and Dry Matter for Quinoa Crop and Soil Moisture Content Under Different Irrigation Strategies ...
Soils and mineral resources[edit]. Soil cover is closely related to the relief, climate, flora of the region and the economical ... There are various soil types, mostly maroon soils (about 50%) which are very suitable for growing oleaginous cultures and herbs ... The alluvial soils are high-productive - they are represented by arable lands of I, II and III category. They cover two-thirds ... The arable lands related to this soil type are inclined and that leads to the degradable effect of the plane, linear and ravine ...
Soil conditioner[edit]. Vermicompost can be mixed directly into the soil.. The dark brown waste liquid, or leachate, that ... These species are not the same worms that are found in ordinary soil or on pavement when the soil is flooded by water. ... Enriches soil with micro-organisms (adding plant hormones such as auxins and gibberellic acid)[citation needed] ... Microbial activity in worm castings is 10 to 20 times higher than in the soil and organic matter that the worm ingests [38] ...
Soil[edit]. The soil profile of chalk downland in England is a thin soil overlaying the parent chalk. Weathering of the chalk ... Unlike many soils in which there are easily distinguished layers or soil horizons, a chalk rendzina soil consists of only a ... were formed by the movement of soil downhill, a process known as soil creep. ... In the valleys below the downs there is typically a clay soil, and at the interface between the two a springline can occur ...
Orography and soil[edit]. In the territory are predominant, from north to south sandstone and rocks. ...
Role in soils[edit]. In soils, it is assumed that larger amounts of phenols are released from decomposing plant litter rather ... Natural phenols can be involved in allelopathic interactions, for example in soil[97] or in water. Juglone is an example of ... In the soil, soluble phenols face four different fates. They might be degraded and mineralized as a carbon source by ... The virA gene on the Ti plasmid in the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes is used by these soil ...
Phosphorus is found in the soil in both inorganic and organic forms[18] and makes up approximately 0.05% of soil biomass.[21] ... The most important factors for an individual site are climate, soil, nutrients, and water. Of the four, water and soil quality ... Soil steaming can be used as an ecological alternative to chemicals for soil sterilization. Different methods are available to ... The phenomenon is being called peak soil as improper soil management techniques in some areas of the world are jeopardizing ...
The mineral content of the soil is determined by the parent material; thus, a soil derived from a single rock type can often be ... Properties of well-weathered soils. Three groups of minerals often remain in well-weathered soils: silicate clays, very ... Extreme release of chelating compounds can easily affect surrounding rocks and soils, and may lead to podsolisation of soils.[9 ... Certain frost-susceptible soils expand or heave upon freezing as a result of water migrating via capillary action to grow ice ...
Soil[edit]. "The general soils in the Pelican Island Refuge are Canaveral-Captiva-Palm Beach, which is characterized by the ... Augustine, which is characterized by level, somewhat poorly drained soils mixed with sand and shell fragments."[6] Other soils ... gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to moderately drained sandy soils with shell fragments, and McKee-Quartzipsamments-St. ...
The results provide a magnitude of uncertainty discount for soil carbon offsets and the budget margin of safety, and may assist ... Uncertainty has been a widely stated reason for not including soil carbon sequestration in the portfolio of greenhouse gases ... Benefit and cost uncertainty in provisioning of ecosystem services are investigated in the context of soil carbon sequestration ... "Ecosystem Services under Benefit and Cost Uncertainty: An Application to Soil Carbon Sequestration," Land Economics, University ...
Pseudomonas species play key roles in soil, for instance in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens and in ... in soil was developed. On the basis of this molecular method as well as cultivation-based approaches, the diversity of ... The genus Pseudomonas is one of the best-studied bacterial groups in soil, and includes numerous species of environmental ... pseudomonas, bacterial diversity, soil, polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, antifungal activity ...
Among the inorganic P fractions in calcareous soil, only RS-P; and in acidic soil, Ca-P and Fe-P significantly correlated to ... Journal of soil science and plant nutrition. versión On-line ISSN 0718-9516. Resumen. ABOLFAZLI, F; FORGHANI, A y NOROUZI, M. ... Effects of phosphorus and organic fertilizers on phosphorus fractions in submerged soil. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. [online]. ... In acidic soil, significant amounts of P fractions were found only in Fe-P and RS-P fractions. Accordingly, Fe-P fraction ...
Biochemical responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to cadmium-contaminated soil with long duration. Yang, Xiaoxia, Song ... Biochemical responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to cadmium-contaminated soil with long duration ... 1 soil) for up to 8 weeks were investigated, aiming to evaluate the sublethal effects of Cd with long exposure and to explore ... Biochemical responses of earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to cadmium-contaminated soil with long duration, Bulletin of ...
The Soil Dynamics Research is located in Auburn, AL and is part of the Southeast Area.. The Research Leader is Henry Torbert.. ...
"Essentially, all life depends upon the soil ... There can be no life without soil and no soil without life; they have evolved ... "The nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself." - Franklin Delano Roosevelt. "If we have declared a war against the soil ... Soil organisms include fungi, and the mycellium which is technically the largest organism in the world, and have a special ... Given how the fate of the soil, is our own fate, we can no longer stand by as distant observers as the modern, biotech and ...
Soil carbon includes both inorganic carbon as carbonate minerals, and as soil organic matter.[1] Soil carbon plays a key role ... Carbonate minerals are the dominant form of soil carbon in desert climates. Soil organic carbon is present as soil organic ... Soil regeneration and climate change. References[edit]. *^ Jobbágy, E.G (2000). "The vertical distribution of soil organic C ... Managing soil carbon[edit]. Natural variations in soil carbon occur as a result of climate, organisms, parent material, time, ...
Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with excess irrigation water. Soil salinity control involves ... Visibly salt-affected soils on rangeland in Colorado. Salts dissolved from the soil accumulate at the soil surface and are ... Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.[1] Salts ... Since soil salinity makes it more difficult for plants to absorb soil moisture, these salts must be leached out of the plant ...
soil (third-person singular simple present soils, present participle soiling, simple past and past participle soiled) ... soil (third-person singular simple present soils, present participle soiling, simple past and past participle soiled) ... The refugees returned to their native soil.. Kenyan soil. *That which soils or pollutes; a stain. *Dryden A ladys honour […] ... "Cognate with Old Saxon sulian ("to soil, mire"), Middle Dutch soluwen, seulewen ("to soil, besmirch"), Old High German solagōn ...
The role of soil in shaping Earths environment and human society is explored in articles published on nature.com during the ... Deep influence of soil microbes Soil microorganisms have long been known to aid plants through nitrogen fixation and water and ... Climate-smart soils The potential of soils to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions has not been exploited; here we discuss and ... Biogeochemistry: Soil carbon in a beer can Decomposition of soil organic matter could be an important positive feedback to ...
Education and information about Soil-Transmitted Helminths including Human Hookworm, Roundworm and Whipworm. ... Soil-transmitted helminths refer to the intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil (" ... eggs are deposited on soil. Ascaris and hookworm eggs become infective as they mature in soil. People are infected with Ascaris ... Soil-transmitted helminths live in the intestine and their eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If an infected ...
... soil: The soil profile: Soils differ widely in their properties because of geologic and climatic variation over distance and ... Even a simple property, such as the soil thickness, can range from a few centimetres to many metres, depending on the intensity ... In soil: The soil profile. Soils differ widely in their properties because of geologic and climatic variation over distance and ... It is essential to consider soil properties to a depth of 1.5 to 1.8 metres (5 to 6 feet) because the layer in the soil that ...
In agriculture [2], soil is the medium that supports crop plants, both physically and biologically. ... soil, surface layer of the earth, composed of fine rock material disintegrated by geological processes; and humus [1], the ... The lowest soil layer, the C horizon, represents the weathered mineral parent substance. Soil Fertility and Conservation. Soil ... Excessive cropping or grazing can depress soil-nutrient levels and degrade soil structure.. Soil conservation techniques have ...
soil management (uncountable). *The sum total of all operations, practices and treatments used to protect soil and enhance its ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=soil_management&oldid=45962583" ...
The ecological balance of soil bacteria is affected beneficially, contributing to the holistic effect. An arthropod knock-down ...
We need to better understand the interplay of chemical, physical and biological processes that govern soil carbon cycling and ... Soils store vast quantities of carbon and have the potential to help mitigate or exacerbate climate change. ... Soil organic carbon is composed of soil microbes, decaying organic matter and degradation products like humus. The long-term ... reveals that permafrost soils contain the oldest soil organic carbon pool on Earth. This implies that the accumulation and ...
4.1.2 Soil Conservation and Water Conservation. There are always strong links between measures for soil conservation and ... The approach by soil conservationists in the 1980s is moving away from using mechanical works and structures in soil ... 4. SOIL CONSERVATION. 4.1 PRINCIPLES. 4.1.1 The Extent of Erosion. The lower rainfall in semi-arid areas compared with that in ... Soil Management. 2. Bench terraces built in a single operation Figure 4.1 and Plates 4.6 and 4.7. ...
Soil Taxonomy. Inceptisols are soils of relatively new origin and are characterized by having only the weakest appearance of ... One of the 12 soil orders in the U.S. ... Inceptisol, one of the 12 soil orders in the U.S. Soil Taxonomy ... soil. the biologically active, porous medium that has developed in the uppermost layer of the Earths crust. Soil is one of the ... horizon (soil). a distinct layer of soil, approximately parallel with the land surface, whose properties develop from the ...
... mapping and quantifying soil profile properties, and deriving depth functions o ... This book is about digital soil morphometrics which is defined as the application of tools and techniques for measuring, ... Soil profile properties Soil profile imaging Soil depth functions Digital soil morphometrics - Soil mapping Digital soil ... The pedon is at the heart of digital soil morphometrics. The use of digital soil morphometrics exceeds the pedology and soil ...
Plant and Soil publishes original papers and review articles exploring the interface of plant biology and soil sciences, and ... Plant and Soil publishes original papers and review articles exploring the interface of plant biology and soil sciences, and ... Changes in soil phosphorus fractions following sole cropped and intercropped maize and faba bean grown on calcareous soil ... Plant and Soil is published under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Society of Agricultural Science. ...
Mulches retain soil moisture and improve soil quality. *Water your plantings with a soaker hose or a drip irrigation system. ... Cultivate Healthy Soil You dont need to use chemical fertilizers to have a thriving garden. Creating garden beds and ... Choosing native plants that are adapted to regional rainfall and soil moisture content is a great way to conserve this precious ... often carrying pollutants and soil with it. Reducing your lawn in favor of densely planted garden beds helps minimize runoff, ...
... Researchers in the School of Life Sciences are increasing our knowledge of soil organisms and looking for ways to ... Managing soil conditions and other soil microbiota seem likely to be the route to sustainable management of this disease ... Integrated control of soil borne diseases of onion Developing alternative and more sustainable ways of reducing the impact of ... Soil microbial diversity and functioning Environmental microbiology with emphasis on understanding the structure and ...
Nelsons Soil Fertility class also determined the removal of soil to alternate fields and pastures would not overload the ... They tested the soil and reported on the nitrate concentration and distribution at the site. The students saw an opportunity to ... The unified classes submitted a report suggesting four possible plans of action: doing nothing; removing contaminated soil to a ... Students collaborate with state environmental agency to reduce soil nitrates. Kansas State University Department of Agronomy ...
The soil is mixed, dried and crushed, and weighed out (usually 5g of sample), and then digested on a hot block with aqua regia ... The preparation method is critical to assessing the concentration of metals in a soil sample. The following are questions to be ...
This list of tarp products is provided solely for determining soil fumigant buffer zone credits in accordance with soil ... Soil fumigant applications can qualify for buffer zone reduction credits if applicators use tarps that are highly impermeable ... The tarps listed below qualify for buffer zone credits for soil fumigant products that contain the following active ingredient( ...
  • Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils: Discounting for Uncertainty ," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie , Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 53(4), pages 375-384, December. (repec.org)
  • On the basis of this molecular method as well as cultivation-based approaches, the diversity of Pseudomonas species in soil under different agricultural regimes (permanent grassland, arable land either under rotation or under monoculture of maize) was studied. (rug.nl)
  • The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that agricultural regimes influence the structure of Pseudomonas populations in soil, with specific antagonistic subpopulations being stimulated in grassland as compared to arable land. (rug.nl)
  • The trials were carried out in calcareous and acidic soils. (conicyt.cl)
  • Results of this study showed that Ca-P was the predominant form of P in calcareous soil while Fe-P and Al-P were predominate in acidic soils. (conicyt.cl)
  • Benefit and cost uncertainty in provisioning of ecosystem services are investigated in the context of soil carbon sequestration. (repec.org)
  • Uncertainty has been a widely stated reason for not including soil carbon sequestration in the portfolio of greenhouse gases reduction measures. (repec.org)
  • The results provide a magnitude of uncertainty discount for soil carbon offsets and the budget margin of safety, and may assist in formulating carbon sequestration policy. (repec.org)
  • Ecosystem Services under Benefit and Cost Uncertainty: An Application to Soil Carbon Sequestration ," Land Economics , University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 86(4), pages 668-686. (repec.org)
  • The genus Pseudomonas is one of the best-studied bacterial groups in soil, and includes numerous species of environmental interest. (rug.nl)
  • Pseudomonas species play key roles in soil, for instance in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens and in bioremediation of pollutants. (rug.nl)
  • In calcareous soil, all forms of P under submerged conditions had been increased because of using PFs both alone and in combination with OFs. (conicyt.cl)
  • Soils that are high in clay-size particles usually cannot be drained by subsurface improvements. (britannica.com)
  • The arrangement of particles, known as soil structure, largely determines the soil's pore space and density, which translates into its capacity to hold air and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When you hear the term texture in regards to soil, it means the size of the soil particles. (ehow.com)
  • Its particles are visible to the eyes, making it the largest particles of all the soil classes. (ehow.com)
  • Lead-contaminated soil particles can also be brought inside as lead dust or on shoes, clothing, or pets. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. 10 OPPORTUNITIES IN SOIL SCIENCE to centimeters), the soil 'architecture' is governed by relationships among porosity, the zonation of inorganic and organic constituents, and the structures of aggregates (heterogeneous masses of solid particles bound together). (slideshare.net)
  • A collection of information sheets and presentations that look at the nature of soil particles and the nutrient requirements of plants. (rsc.org)
  • many land managers engage in the practice of burning crop stubble in order to accommodate for later yields, but this leaves the soil surface unprotected and soil particles are more easily loosened by wind or water (especially heavy rain). (everything2.com)
  • Dirt is essentially loose particles of soil that no longer support plant life and often end up unwanted on our floor or under our fingernails. (nature.org)
  • The nature of soil particles (inorganic and organic) and of soil water affects plant growth and, in particular, the availability of nutrients essential for the growth of quality crops in high yield. (rsc.org)
  • Some of the organisms secrete sticky substances (polysaccharides), which hold soil particles together. (blm.gov)
  • A fraction of the enzymes in soil microorganisms, released when the latter die, migrate to soil particles and re-initiate the process of respiration. (inra.fr)
  • These molecules, including the enzymes involved in respiration, are in contact with soil particles. (inra.fr)
  • Enzymes and their substrates are concentrated within soil particles, thus increasing the likelihood of a chemical reaction. (inra.fr)
  • Soil particles play a major role in protecting enzymes from respiration. (inra.fr)
  • Although we cannot make any generalisations for the moment, it appears that the texture and pH of a soil affect the intensity of the Exomet: the finer the soil particles, the more the enzymes appear to be stabilised by absorption, and the better the extracellular respiration. (inra.fr)
  • In addition, this link to soil particles makes the metaorganism resistant to high temperatures and high pressure. (inra.fr)
  • P K and N are often limiting to plant growth because soil particles do not attract and hold them well. (bio.net)
  • Soil microorganisms have long been known to aid plants through nitrogen fixation and water and nutrient exchange. (nature.com)
  • Excessive cropping or grazing can depress soil-nutrient levels and degrade soil structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Growing the perfect garden means using the perfect soil for the specific plants you want to raise, taking drainage, pH balance, nutrient levels and other factors into account. (ehow.com)
  • Moreover, soils here form very slowly, are generally nutrient-poor and are very shallow - a very substantial problem indeed. (everything2.com)
  • Soil is also essential for ecosystem health: it purifies and regulates water, it is the engine for nutrient cycles and a reservoir for genes and species, supporting biodiversity. (europa.eu)
  • The EEA equally publishes ad-hoc assessments on specific soil-related topics , such as soil resource efficiency in urbanised areas, or soil nutrient and metal loads to the environment. (europa.eu)
  • If your soil is deficient in a specific nutrient, the test results will tell you how much of it to add. (diynetwork.com)
  • Lime can be used to raise the pH of acidic soils and add calcium (an essential plant nutrient). (amazonaws.com)
  • To achieve future food security, the management of soils in a sustainable manner will be the challenge, through proper nutrient management and appropriate soil conservation practices. (hindawi.com)
  • They argue that this farmer-oriented, low-cost system of managing soil, water, and nutrient resources could not only improve agricultural productivity but also alleviate the negative environmental impacts of land degradation in this region. (hindawi.com)
  • Drastic changes in climate 60 million years ago gave birth to hardwood forests and their soils, which are a major asset for nutrient and energy conservation. (mofga.org)
  • The research team is also exploring the effects of different inputs (i.e. chicken litter, municipal biosolids) on soil quality and the dynamics of plant nutrient use. (astate.edu)
  • Compaction damages the natural soil structure and delicate plant roots struggle to grow through hard and compacted soil. (amazonaws.com)
  • Overgrazed pastures are often suffering from compaction and weeds are much more competitive than pasture grasses in compacted soils. (amazonaws.com)
  • The roots reduce soil compaction and improve overall soil structure by improving water filtration beneath the soil surface, and the shade the crop produces means soil loses less water to evaporation. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Compaction is a problem that must be addressed to ensure that there is no 'pan' or layer of compacted soil. (tesco.com)
  • New-build soils will inevitably require double digging in order to address compaction and improve the quality of the soil. (tesco.com)
  • Soil structure management involves both improvements to the structure of the topsoil and the prevention or repair of subsoil compaction. (wur.nl)
  • Salts occur naturally within soils and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salts are a natural component in soils and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human practices can increase the salinity of soils by the addition of salts in irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with excess irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lime (CaCO 3 ) deposits that can prevent the penetration of plant roots are found deeper in the soil profile in climates with higher mean annual rainfall than in climates where there is little water to transport the lime through the soil. (britannica.com)
  • There are always strong links between measures for soil conservation and measures for water conservation, and this applies equally in semi-arid areas. (fao.org)
  • Soil is one of the principal substrata of life on Earth, serving as a reservoir of water and nutrients, as a medium for the filtration and breakdown of injurious wastes, and as a. (britannica.com)
  • This includes both fundamental and applied aspects of mineral nutrition, plant-water relations, symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, root anatomy and morphology, soil biology, ecology, agrochemistry and agrophysics. (springer.com)
  • In suburban and urban areas, much of the water that hits the landscape washes away down the storm drains, often carrying pollutants and soil with it. (nwf.org)
  • The students chose to plant native grasses like big and little bluestem and cottonwood trees to reduce nitrate levels and water movement within the soil. (k-state.edu)
  • You may need to fertilize the soil more often and water it more often to keep it hydrated and to add back in nutrients. (ehow.com)
  • Established within the Indiana State Department of Agriculture, the State Soil Conservation Board (SSCB) provides guidance and coordination to the state's 92 Soil and Water Conservation Districts as they provide local leadership in the protection of Indiana's soil and water resources. (in.gov)
  • The soil provides nutrients and water needed to produce food. (slowfood.com)
  • The loss of fertile soil makes land less productive for agriculture, creates new deserts, pollutes waterways and can alter how water flows through the landscape, potentially making flooding more common. (worldwildlife.org)
  • Water and chemical movement or retention, mineral synthesis or weathering, plant root environments, and microorganism habitats all are influenced strongly by microscale soil architecture. (slideshare.net)
  • Kayla Goggans, a fourth grade Pinewood Elementary student, works on assembling a seed ball from soil, clay, seed and water while participating in the Seed, Soil and Students program at the state fairgrounds in Timonium on Wednesday, June 8. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Pinewood Elementary students, form lines to create seed balls from soil, clay, seed and water while participating in the Seed, Soil and Students program at the state fairgrounds in Timonium on Wednesday, June 8. (baltimoresun.com)
  • To avoid transmission of these, night soil should be composted before use, uncomposted night soil should not be allowed to contaminate any water that is going to come into contact with humans, and foods fertilized by night soil should be washed and/or cooked before eating. (everything2.com)
  • Additionally, soil not ploughed along the contour lines of sloped land increases water speed and erosive force. (everything2.com)
  • Shop our wide variety of Soil Water Bottles to express your personality and shrink your environmental footprint. (cafepress.com)
  • Mean CO2 fluxeswere best explained by soil C concentrations and a composite redox indicator, and not water addition. (upenn.edu)
  • How clumps of soil cohere determines the availability of pore spaces for air and water to enter, and how easily roots can penetrate. (slate.com)
  • This book is written for all those involved in measurement of soil water phenomena, whether they be environmental scientists, field technicians, agronomists, meteorologists, hydrogeologists, foresters, physical geographers, civil or water engineers or students in these subjects. (wiley.com)
  • It contains a comprehensive description of all the major methods used for measurement of soil water content and potential, solute concentration, transport and balance of water and solutes, including recharge to groundwater aquifers. (wiley.com)
  • His work has focussed mainly on field measurement of soil water and solute fluxes and of soil hydraulic properties in a wide variety of lithologies and areas of the world, including at several sites in southern England, northern France, Kenya, Niger, Mauritius, India and China. (wiley.com)
  • He has contributed to advances in measurement of soil water content by neutron, capacitance and time domain reflectometry techniques, hydraulic properties measurement methods in situ in the field and soil water potential measurement using mercury manometer and pressure transducer tensiometers over extended periods at both shallow and deep depths, down to at least 60 metres. (wiley.com)
  • 2 How Does Water in Soil Interact with the Soil Matrix, Air, Roots, Gravity and Other Substances Present? (wiley.com)
  • Soil is crucial for clean water . (nature.org)
  • Healthy soil can also capture and store large amounts of water. (nature.org)
  • Bare soil in pastures, paddocks, and driveways is quickly lost as water moves across the surface. (amazonaws.com)
  • Water moves across the surface of compacted soils instead of filtering down through the soil and into groundwater. (amazonaws.com)
  • Soil is a valuable asset on the farm, but quickly becomes a pollutant when it gets in the water! (amazonaws.com)
  • Soil with enough humus and water will be dark. (constantcontact.com)
  • They can leach from the soil into ground water. (constantcontact.com)
  • Water retention is a major hydrological property of soil. (europa.eu)
  • We have developed an accessible system for the world's most vulnerable farmers that notifies them of their crop's soil water levels, and helps them make decisions that significantly boost their crop yields. (www.csiro.au)
  • Without economic access to advanced soil water probes, farmers in these regions are prone to over‐watering - often incorrectly seen as a way of ensuring a successful crop. (www.csiro.au)
  • The development of an inexpensive, easy‐to‐use and effective system to monitor soil water levels is a vital step towards increasing crop yields to feed the world's growing population, while lifting farmers from many of the world's poorest regions out of poverty. (www.csiro.au)
  • We have developed the Chameleon soil water sensor system, in a project funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). (www.csiro.au)
  • The Chameleon soil water system has been designed to be inexpensively manufactured, simple to install, and easy to understand. (www.csiro.au)
  • Combined, the Chameleon soil water sensor system helps farmers make informed management decisions. (www.csiro.au)
  • Soil erosions by wind and water are the main processes by which topsoil is lost. (hindawi.com)
  • Clay: A soil that holds water. (usda.gov)
  • Scientists are using Global Positioning Systems technology to map and analyze soil in the field so that farmers apply just the right amount of water and fertilizer. (usda.gov)
  • Field of knowledge and interest: Humic material chemistry/Water,soil and sediment quality monitoring/ Remediation/Biomarkers/Mass spectroscopy. (earthworks-jobs.com)
  • Soils data analyst with experience creating suitability analyses for water resource conservation and management. (earthworks-jobs.com)
  • Interested in any type of water resources, soils analysis, or environmental consulting work in the western U.S (but would travel anywhere). (earthworks-jobs.com)
  • Soil and Water Enhancement (20% of REAP funds) - These funds are available to landowners for soil and water conservation and enhancement projects and practices. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Practices money is directed towards reforestation, woodland protection and enhancement, wildlife habitat preservation and enhancement, protection of highly erodible soils, and water quality protection. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Dr. Steve Green, associate professor of Soil and Water Conservation, is reviving production of camelina, experimenting to determine which varieties are best adapted to Arkansas. (astate.edu)
  • Examines key issues in pollution of soil and water. (uvm.edu)
  • Topics include type of pollutants, their reactions in soil and water, pollution prevention and bioremediation. (uvm.edu)
  • Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are both soil air and soil water very dynamic parts of soil, but both are often inversely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil conditioners may be used to improve water retention in dry, coarse soils which are not holding water well. (wikipedia.org)
  • We establish long-term systematic arable and vegetable crop experiments on clay, sand and peat soils to assess the effects of soil management measures on the various soil processes. (wur.nl)
  • The ecological balance of soil bacteria is affected beneficially, contributing to the holistic effect. (google.com)
  • The study found bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle, which replenishes nutrients in the soil, seem to be particularly affected. (redorbit.com)
  • In addition the microbial population of the soil changed as fungi replaced the bacteria suppressed by the antibiotics. (redorbit.com)
  • Mycobacterium vaccae, a naturally occurring friendly bacteria found in soil, has been the focus of research in the United States, England and elsewhere for more than a decade, and the findings are impressive. (newsday.com)
  • Starting with a general overview of the key levels of communication between bacteria, further reviews examine the various aspects of intracellular as well as intercellular biocommunication between soil microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • Fungi: Fungi is also very small, numerous in the soil, and works along with bacteria in breaking down dead matter found throughout the soil. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers from the University of Nottingham and University of Maastricht found that an ancient strain of harmless bacteria, which is common in the soil, can be used to kill tumors by using it as a drug delivery vehicle. (ibtimes.com)
  • Its sponsored researchers have crafted nanowires from genetically modified Geobacter, a bacteria you find in soil just about everywhere on Earth. (engadget.com)
  • By feeding the soil, you enhance the entire garden ecosystem. (verticalresponse.com)
  • Biocommunication in Soil Microorganisms" provides a in-depth review of many aspects of this topic for microorganisms and their viruses that inhabit the soil ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • DAVID PIMENTAL and DONALD L. SPARKS "Soil as an Endangered Ecosystem," BioScience 50(11), 947, (1 November 2000). (bioone.org)
  • for example, when manure is not mixed thoroughly in the soil. (redorbit.com)
  • Manure, for example, is an excellent amendment that not only supplies some nutrients, but also improves soil texture. (diynetwork.com)
  • You can apply manure to the soil in late fall and turn it under in spring - or incorporate rotted manure at any time. (diynetwork.com)
  • Manure is the best material for improving the structure of the soil, but it can be heavy and an effort to move about. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Some of those methods include no-till, minimum till, and conventional tillage with different crop rotations to preserve nutrients in the soil. (usda.gov)
  • Our experts in fertilisation, soil biology, tillage systems, mechanisation, cropping systems and management systems cooperate with businesses, government authorities and scientists from other fields of study. (wur.nl)
  • Silt is a healthy soil for farming, but it erodes easily. (ehow.com)
  • Mr. Berry credits soil, or rather healthy soil , with a tremendous purpose - the cornerstone of life as we know it. (nature.org)
  • The Nature Conservancy understands the importance of healthy soil, and is working with farmers and an array of other private and public partners to promote sustainable agricultural practices. (nature.org)
  • There are more microorganisms in a handful of healthy soil than the number of people who have ever lived! (nature.org)
  • Soil is a precious resource, and we can all do our part to ensure that healthy soil is part of the legacy we leave for future generations. (amazonaws.com)
  • Soil type is determined by the proportions of sand, silt and clay in the soil. (ehow.com)
  • If you squeeze a ball of silt soil in your hand, it doesn't break, but changes shape easily. (ehow.com)
  • It's a combination of all the soil types, but usually has about half and half sand and silt with a little bit of clay soil mixed in. (ehow.com)
  • Silt: Soil that looks like fine grains or tiny pieces of rock. (usda.gov)
  • Learn how amending garden soil in the fall can make things a lot easier come spring. (diynetwork.com)
  • Although at first sight your garden soil appears solid and robust, it is a fragile living environment that must be at the very least protected, and wherever possible improved by certain rules of good soil cultivation. (tesco.com)
  • The make-up and management of soils, and their influence on human health and extreme poverty, are some of the topics investigated. (nature.com)
  • Because of the projected increase in world population and the consequent necessity for the intensification of food production, the management of soils will become increasingly important in the coming years. (hindawi.com)
  • But the world's soils are increasingly under pressure from climate change, population growth and poor land management. (nature.com)
  • Microbial populations are typically higher in the rhizosphere than in adjacent bulk soil . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) is a map of Australia's soil microbial diversity, covering the entire continent. (www.csiro.au)
  • It has put Australia at the forefront of both understanding soil microbial biology and using genomics for environmental science. (www.csiro.au)
  • This has severely limited Australia's ability to measure and manage soil microbial diversity to achieve positive outcomes for agriculture and the environment. (www.csiro.au)
  • To identify the microbial species present in each soil sample we used next-generation DNA sequencing, solving the challenge of handling more than 90 billion DNA sequences. (www.csiro.au)
  • An increase in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events with climate change is likely to affect soil redox reactions that control the production and emissions of greenhouse gases. (upenn.edu)
  • Where building or landscaping has mixed up different soils, it can be very difficult to tell what type of soil you have, and it may change markedly over a short distance. (rhs.org.uk)
  • But there isn't much you can do about the type of soil you have-clay or sand. (slate.com)
  • We observed this kind of extracellular respiration in every type of soil we tested. (inra.fr)
  • Climate, which encompasses temperature, rainfall and snow, plays an important role in breaking down rocks and determining the type of soil. (reference.com)
  • A product-soil differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics. (wiktionary.org)
  • Soil pH is a pivotal factor in crop growth through a number of biological and chemical factors. (everything2.com)
  • They can also be reliably used to study aspects of soil development that occur between temporally linked sites over time-scales of centuries to millennia, sometimes independently of their application to shorter-term plant and soil biological communities. (upenn.edu)
  • Correlations between chemical and biological evaluation procedures for the determination of heavy metal availability from soils. (worldcat.org)
  • If so, you ve just discovered the biological soil crust. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts are common worldwide in arid and semi-arid shrublands, grasslands and woodlands. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts are highly variable in appearance. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts are distinguishable from bare soil by a bumpy appearance, forming sort of a mini-landscape on the soil surface complete with hills and valleys. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts are not physical or chemical crusts. (blm.gov)
  • They also lack the biological characteristics that make biological soil crusts unique. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts are, literally, a carpet of photosynthetic life. (blm.gov)
  • That is one way to describe a healthy biological soil crust. (blm.gov)
  • Biological soil crusts make the soil more fertile. (blm.gov)
  • Because of their functions in rangeland systems, biological soil crusts have been adopted by scientists and land management professionals in the U.S., Australia, and South Africa as a visible indicator of rangeland health. (blm.gov)
  • BASE solved a major national science challenge by measuring and modelling the biological and functional diversity of Australia's soil microbiome at a continental scale - a world first. (www.csiro.au)
  • Scientists at the Northern Plains research lab in Sidney, MT, are studying ways to improve, maintain and save our agricultural soil through both biological and mechanical methods. (usda.gov)
  • We improve the physical, chemical and biological quality of soils using an integrated and systematic approach. (wur.nl)
  • Quantities of CO₂ emissions varied between the different soils, however. (inra.fr)
  • Inceptisol soil profiles give some indication of clay minerals, metal oxides, or humus accumulating in layers, but such accumulation is not sufficient to classify the soil into an order defined by characteristic surface or subsurface horizons. (britannica.com)
  • The test results will indicate whether you need to add other nutrients or minerals to the soil. (diynetwork.com)
  • Certain parts of eastern and central Africa have soil from volcanic rocks formed more than 2.5 million years ago, and irritant minerals can cause itching, pain and eventual swelling and scarring after prolonged exposure. (cnn.com)
  • The region's soil comes from volcanic rocks formed more than 2.5 million years ago, and irritant minerals in remaining volcanic soil can cause itching, pain and eventual swelling and scarring after prolonged exposure. (cnn.com)
  • The soil minerals can be obtained and replenished in a number of ways. (bio.net)
  • Cultivation, especially with heavy machinery, can degrade soil structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With our integrated approach to soil and cultivation, we regularly develop innovative solutions that contribute to better yields for farmers and less pollution. (wur.nl)
  • Pedology is foremost an integrative discipline that seeks to elucidate developmental processes governing the observed properties and distribution patterns of soils worldwide (collectively termed the pedosphere) in relation to landform evolu- tion, biogeochemical envi- ronments, and organism habitats. (slideshare.net)
  • It's a shame: The tale of soil is full of weird characters and fascinating processes we understand barely, if at all. (slate.com)
  • Physical and chemical crusts are formed by different processes and tend to form a hard, impermeable layer on the soil surface. (blm.gov)
  • High levels of organic C develop in soils supporting wetland ecology , flood deposition , fire ecology , and human activity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Soil ecology from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • He spent 23 years as a soil physicist with the UK Institute of Hydrology, later the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), followed by 12 years as Head of the Hydrological Instruments Group at CEH. (wiley.com)
  • A valuable source of information for scientists in microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and soil ecology. (springer.com)
  • Aridisol soil profile, showing a low-humus surface layer atop a clay and calcium carbonate horizon. (britannica.com)
  • Soil acidity can be decreased by addition of calcium carbonate or increased by addition of sulfuric acid . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, knowing the soil pH provides various clues about soil properties (such as the presence of calcium-rich materials like portland cement) and is easily determined. (cement.org)
  • On a fertile soil with good rainfall it may be sensible to invest a lot of labour or money in sophisticated schemes for controlling the run- off, but not in semi-arid areas with low and unreliable yields. (fao.org)
  • It takes thousands of years to create a few centimeters of fertile soil, but just a few decades to destroy it. (slowfood.com)
  • And as land loses its fertile soil, agricultural producers move on, clear more forest and continue the cycle of soil loss. (worldwildlife.org)
  • Before the builders started work, the dark fertile top-soil (loam) would have been the top layer and this should be put back - but often isn't. (tesco.com)
  • Aim to keep the fertile top soil on top and the sub-soil below. (tesco.com)
  • Multiple linear regression models with ammonium oxalate extractable iron and aluminum, dithionite-citrate-extractable iron and aluminum, and clay contents explained as much as 74% of the variation in C concentrations, and indicated that organo-mineral complexation may be more limited in poorly developed valley soils. (upenn.edu)
  • The soil microbiome is one of the most genetically and ecologically diverse communities on Earth, but is poorly understood. (www.csiro.au)
  • Most living beings responsible for pedogenesis perform underground and are invisible to the human eye, so "soils are the most poorly researched habitats on earth. (mofga.org)
  • An equivalent 60 GtC/yr is respired from soil, joining the 60G tC/yr plant respiration to return to the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant and Soil publishes original papers and review articles exploring the interface of plant biology and soil sciences, and that enhance our mechanistic understanding of plant-soil interactions. (springer.com)
  • Plant and Soil is published under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Society of Agricultural Science. (springer.com)
  • It's difficult to plant in clay soil since it hardens to a consistency nearly as hard as concrete. (ehow.com)
  • Plant grass on areas of bare soil or cover the soil with grass seed, mulch, or wood chips, if possible. (cdc.gov)
  • The minor in Plant and Soil Science requires 18 hours of course work (Not including prerequisites). (uky.edu)
  • Plus nine more hours of plant and soil science courses chosen from the following prefixes: PLS, PPA. (uky.edu)
  • 1. Chronosequences and associated space-for-time substitutions are an important and often necessary tool for studying temporal dynamics of plant communities and soil development across multiple time-scales. (upenn.edu)
  • Put an end cap on each spike, and pound it into the soil around the drip line (the outer edge of the leafy top part of the plant). (diynetwork.com)
  • Then, when it comes time to plant those, till the cover crop back into the soil first. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The nutrients within the tissues of the plant are returned to the soil for use by the next crop. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The seed germinates at a soil temperature of 45 F or higher, and the plant will emerge about three to five days after planting. (popularmechanics.com)
  • About three weeks before you intend to plant the new crop in its place, chop the cover crop's roots and remaining plant material into the soil with a spade or rototiller. (popularmechanics.com)
  • They also don't feed the soil, they feed the plant, and its nutrients are insufficient for soil health over the long term. (constantcontact.com)
  • The first lecture 'Plant - soil interactions' was held for Bachelor students. (uni-ulm.de)
  • The second lecture, 'Soil anoxia and plant response' revealed plant reactions and adaptations under hypoxic and anoxic conditions. (uni-ulm.de)
  • After planting your official test garden, explore how soil temperatures could affect plant growth by asking questions, making hypotheses, and planning investigations in which you collect and analyze soil data. (learner.org)
  • How do soil temperatures affect plant growth? (learner.org)
  • A plant/soil scientist, Ph.D., based in Arizona, with national/international faculty experience. (earthworks-jobs.com)
  • For centuries people have been adding things to poor soils to improve their ability to support healthy plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soils act as the storehouses of plant nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil conservation techniques have been developed to address the range of soil management issues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • publications of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The approach by soil conservationists in the 1980s is moving away from using mechanical works and structures in soil conservation programmes paid for by a government or a donor-funded project. (fao.org)
  • The subsistence farmer cannot afford to respond to philosophical or emotional appeals to care for the soil, and this means that conservation measures must have visible short-term benefits to the farmer. (fao.org)
  • If we accept the argument that soil conservation must be cost- effective to be acceptable to the farmer, then the low value of production from semi-arid soils means that only cheap and simple solutions are appro- priate. (fao.org)
  • The record of soil conservation in north Africa is striking. (fao.org)
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Soil Quality Institute and Grazing Lands Technology Institute. (blm.gov)
  • Soil Conservation Districts designate high priority watersheds in which REAP funds can be expended. (iowadnr.gov)
  • This portion of REAP is administered by the Division of Soil Conservation in the Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Grant applications and information are available at any of Iowa's 100 Soil Conservation District offices, normally located in county seats. (iowadnr.gov)
  • The Gold Ridge and Sonoma Resource Conservation Districts and the North Coast Soil Health Network request grape growers to complete the anonymous online survey below. (constantcontact.com)
  • We used a 24-day rainfall manipulation experiment to evaluate temporal and spatial trends of surface soil (0-20 cm) redox-active chemical species and greenhouse gas fluxes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. (upenn.edu)
  • Part 4: Measuring Contaminant Concentrations in Soil (PDF) (52 pp, 575 K) Addresses sampling schemes for measuring soil contaminant levels during the soil screening process. (epa.gov)
  • Contaminant diffusion in sediments, soil and waste materials. (worldcat.org)
  • If the spring tails were to undergo a mysterious demise, together with the mites that live in soil and the minute fungi upon which they feed, quite soon there would be an ecological crisis of a magnitude we can scarcely imagine. (slate.com)
  • At the Northern Plains research lab in Sidney, MT, scientists are studying ways to fight C. beticola using "friendly fungi" that lives in the soil. (usda.gov)
  • Sidney scientists are also studying ways to increase the number of another beneficial fungi found in the ground that helps to aggregate the soil and may also aid in weed control. (usda.gov)
  • Furthermore, trials revealed a very different effect on the soil: Branches from deciduous trees produce stable humus. (mofga.org)
  • This stable humus is the basis of the living soil. (mofga.org)
  • Soil geochemist (PhD completion in May 2016 at UC Berkeley) looking for research job opportunities in the greater San Diego area (Southern California). (earthworks-jobs.com)
  • Healthy and productive soils are central to achieving a number of the 17 sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly this year. (nature.com)
  • We hope that the collection supports this aim and that the Year of Soils is a starting point for improved understanding, better protection and sustainable management of this precious resource. (nature.com)
  • The aim is to collect a million signatures across Europe in twelve months, asking the European Parliament to recognize the soil as a common good and produce a law for its sustainable management. (slowfood.com)
  • The European Commission's Soil Thematic Strategy from 2006 highlights the need to protect soil functioning as an essential element of sustainable development. (europa.eu)
  • Understanding soil quality is very important - it is our single best indicator of sustainable land management. (amazonaws.com)
  • It comprises 16 papers arising from the Soil Management for Sustainable Agro-Food Systems Session at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly in April 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Our experts develop strategies and measures for sustainable soil management and optimum fertilisation application. (wur.nl)
  • Most of our research is conducted as part of public-private partnerships in the Agri-Food 'top sector' (the Sustainable Soils PPP and the Roughage Production and Soil Management PPP). (wur.nl)
  • The right soil structure is important for efficient and sustainable agricultural production. (wur.nl)
  • We conduct research into measures and systems for the sustainable maintenance or improvement of soil structures together with businesses and farm machinery suppliers. (wur.nl)
  • Farmers are finding that soil health is key to sustainable farming, enhancing on-site resources, and increasing climate resilient systems. (constantcontact.com)
  • Rizvi said these words at the launch of the Greenpeace report, Of Soils, Subsidies and Survival, in Delhi on February 3, 2011, elaborating on how a mammoth subsidy of Rs 50,000 crore in the name of the Indian farmers goes to the chemical fertilizer industry every year. (greenpeace.org)
  • Soil scientists -in my experience -are similar to composters and farmers and like to share resources and what they've learned. (slideshare.net)
  • The health of soil is a primary concern to farmers and the global community whose livelihoods depend on well managed agriculture that starts with the dirt beneath our feet. (worldwildlife.org)
  • Farmers moved in and cleared the area, triggering the onset of exposure to these soils. (cnn.com)
  • This methodology will enable the farmers of the future to choose measures that will have a positive effect on both the soil and their yields. (wur.nl)
  • To get the best results, farmers will need to conduct a limited set of soil surveys to ensure that they are familiar with the properties of their own soils. (wur.nl)
  • Upland humid tropical forest soils are often characterized by fluctuating redox dynamics that vary temporally and spatially across the landscape. (upenn.edu)
  • This collection brings together a selection of articles that explore soil in its manifold roles in shaping the Earth's environment and human society. (nature.com)
  • The Earth's Soil Is at Risk. (slowfood.com)
  • People4Soil has developed another interesting piece of material with brilliant infographics to help clarify the need to protect the Earth's soil. (slowfood.com)
  • Soil is the earth's fragile skin that anchors all life on Earth. (worldwildlife.org)
  • In other words, soil is the thin outermost layer of the Earth's crust that forms the basis for existence of life on this planet. (amazonaws.com)
  • A perception of the limited and indispensable nature of soil is not as widespread and deeply-rooted as it should be. (slowfood.com)
  • This prevented the weeds from germinating and the wind and sun from drying out the soil. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Buckwheat is also effective at extracting phosphorous from the soil, suppressing weeds and attracting beneficial insects, such as honeybees. (popularmechanics.com)
  • BASE is now being used across the innovation sector, creating positive impact for Australia in mineral exploration, restoration biology, agricultural, land management and commercial development of soil-related products. (www.csiro.au)