The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil. (1/2707)

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium. (2/2707)

Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate.  (+info)

Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia. (3/2707)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (4/2707)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste. (5/2707)

A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The effect of soil freeze-thaw cycles was evident in the large proportion of empty sentinel oocysts. The potentially infective sentinel oocysts were reduced to <1% while the proportions in controls did not decrease below 50% potentially infective during the first field experiment. Microscopic observations of empty oocyst fragments indicated that abrasive effects of soil particles were a factor in oocyst inactivation. A similar pattern was observed in a second field experiment at the same site.  (+info)

The growth of demand will limit output growth for food over the next quarter century. (6/2707)

The rate of growth of world food demand will be much slower for 1990-2010 than it was for the prior three decades. The major factor determining the increase in food demand is population growth. Income growth has a much smaller effect. From 1960 to 1990, population growth accounted for approximately three fourths of the growth in demand or use of grain. For 1990-2010, it is anticipated that population growth will account for nearly all of the increase in world demand for grain. The rate of population growth from 1990 to 2020 is projected to be at an annual rate of 1.3% compared with 1.9% for 1960 to 1990-a decline of more than 30%. World per capita use of grain will increase very little-perhaps by 4%. The increase in grain use is projected to be 40% less than in 1960-1990. It is anticipated that real grain prices will decline during the period, although not nearly as much as the 40% decline in the previous three decades. Concern has been expressed concerning the deterioration of the quality and productivity of the world's farmland. A study for China and Indonesia indicates that there has been no significant change in the productive capacity of the land over the past 50 years. Contrary to numerous claims, the depth of the topsoil has not changed, indicating that erosion has had little or no impact.  (+info)

Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. (7/2707)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.  (+info)

Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. (8/2707)

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Fertilizers are substances that are added to soil to provide nutrients necessary for plant growth and development. They typically contain macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in forms that can be readily taken up by plants. These three nutrients are essential for photosynthesis, energy transfer, and the production of proteins, nucleic acids, and other vital plant compounds.

Fertilizers may also contain secondary nutrients like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) as well as micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo). These elements play crucial roles in various plant metabolic processes, including enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, and hormone production.

Fertilizers can be organic or synthetic. Organic fertilizers include materials like compost, manure, bone meal, and blood meal, which release nutrients slowly over time as they decompose. Synthetic fertilizers, also known as inorganic or chemical fertilizers, are manufactured chemicals that contain precise amounts of specific nutrients. They can be quickly absorbed by plants but may pose environmental risks if not used properly.

Proper fertilization is essential for optimal plant growth and crop yield. However, overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient runoff, soil degradation, water pollution, and other negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it's crucial to follow recommended fertilizer application rates and practices based on the specific needs of the plants and local regulations.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

"Manure" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it is commonly referred to in agriculture and horticulture. Manure is defined as organic matter, such as animal feces and urine, that is used as a fertilizer to enrich and amend the soil. It is often rich in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth. While manure can be beneficial for agriculture and gardening, it can also pose risks to human health if not handled properly due to the potential presence of pathogens and other harmful substances.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

Environmental remediation is the process of treating, removing, or containing contamination from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the purpose of reducing the impact on human health and the environment. The goal of environmental remediation is to return the contaminated area to its original state, or to a state that is safe for use and poses no significant risk to human health or the environment. This process often involves various techniques such as excavation, soil washing, bioremediation, chemical treatment, and thermal treatment. The specific method used depends on the type and extent of contamination, as well as site-specific conditions.

A desert climate, also known as a hot desert climate or a BWh climate in the Köppen climate classification system, is characterized by extremely low rainfall, typically less than 10 inches (250 mm) per year. This type of climate is found in the world's desert areas, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Mojave Desert in North America, and the Simpson Desert in Australia.

In a desert climate, temperatures can vary greatly between day and night, as well as between summer and winter. During the day, temperatures can reach extremely high levels, often above 100°F (38°C), while at night, they can drop significantly, sometimes below freezing in the winter months.

Desert climates are caused by a combination of factors, including geographical location, topography, and large-scale weather patterns. They typically occur in regions that are located far from sources of moisture, such as bodies of water, and are situated in the interior of continents or on the leeward side of mountain ranges.

Living things in desert climates have adapted to the harsh conditions through various means, such as storing water, reducing evaporation, and limiting activity during the hottest parts of the day. Despite the challenging conditions, deserts support a diverse array of plant and animal life that has evolved to thrive in this unique environment.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Humic Substances" are not considered medical terms with a specific clinical definition. They are organic compounds that are commonly found in soil, sediments, and water, formed by the decomposition and transformation of plant and animal materials over time. Humic substances can have various complex structures and properties, and they play important roles in nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and water quality. However, they are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions or healthcare.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

Nitrification is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a process that is often referred to in the context of environmental science and public health.

In this context, nitrification is a microbial process by which ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4+) is converted into nitrite (NO2-) and then into nitrate (NO3-). This process is an important part of the nitrogen cycle and helps to remove excess nutrients from wastewater and other environments.

In some cases, nitrification can also be relevant in medical contexts related to environmental exposures or occupational health. For example, exposure to high levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a gas that can be produced during nitrification, can cause respiratory symptoms and exacerbate existing lung conditions. Additionally, certain industrial processes that involve nitrification, such as the production of fertilizers or explosives, can pose health risks to workers if appropriate safety measures are not in place.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oligochaeta" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically referring to a class of segmented worms, including earthworms and related species. They are characterized by having a simple circulatory system, and most have separate sexes. They are not directly relevant to human medical definition or healthcare context.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Actinomycetales is an order of Gram-positive bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous morphology and branching appearance, resembling fungi. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause diseases in humans and animals. The name "Actinomycetales" comes from the Greek words "actis," meaning ray or beam, and "mykes," meaning fungus.

The order Actinomycetales includes several families of medical importance, such as Mycobacteriaceae (which contains the tuberculosis-causing Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Corynebacteriaceae (which contains the diphtheria-causing Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and Actinomycetaceae (which contains the actinomycosis-causing Actinomyces israelii).

Actinomycetales are known for their complex cell walls, which contain a unique type of lipid called mycolic acid. This feature makes them resistant to many antibiotics and contributes to their ability to cause chronic infections. They can also form resistant structures called spores, which allow them to survive in harsh environments and contribute to their ability to cause disease.

Overall, Actinomycetales are important both as beneficial soil organisms and as potential pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals.

Agricultural irrigation is the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops. It involves supplying water to plants and soil through various methods, such as sprinklers, drip systems, or flood irrigation. The purpose of agricultural irrigation is to ensure that crops receive a consistent supply of water, which can be particularly important in dry or arid regions where rainfall may not be sufficient to support crop growth.

Irrigation can also help to improve crop yields and quality, as well as to protect against the effects of drought. However, it is important to manage irrigation systems efficiently to conserve water resources and prevent environmental impacts such as soil erosion and waterlogging.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nitrogen cycle" is not a medical term. It is a biological concept that refers to the process through which nitrogen, an essential element for life, is converted between various chemical forms as it circulates through the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and aquatic environments.

The nitrogen cycle includes several key processes:

1. Nitrogen fixation: Certain bacteria are capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3), a form that can be used by plants and other organisms. This process is called nitrogen fixation.
2. Nitrification: Some types of bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites (NO2-) and then into nitrates (NO3-). This two-step process is known as nitrification.
3. Denitrification: Certain bacteria can convert nitrates back into nitrogen gas, releasing it into the atmosphere. This process is called denitrification.
4. Assimilation: Plants and other organisms take up nitrogen in the form of ammonia or nitrates from the soil or water and incorporate it into their tissues through a process called assimilation.
5. Ammonification: When organisms die and decompose, or when they excrete waste products, nitrogen is released back into the environment in the form of ammonia. This process is known as ammonification.

While not a medical term, understanding the nitrogen cycle is important for many areas of science, including environmental science, agriculture, and ecology.

The carbon cycle is a biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of carbon atoms between the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. It involves the exchange of carbon between various reservoirs, including the biosphere (living organisms), pedosphere (soil), lithosphere (rocks and minerals), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere.

The carbon cycle is essential for the regulation of Earth's climate and the functioning of ecosystems. Carbon moves between these reservoirs through various processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, combustion, and weathering. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and convert it into organic matter, releasing oxygen as a byproduct. When plants and animals die, they decompose, releasing the stored carbon back into the atmosphere or soil.

Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have significantly altered the natural carbon cycle, leading to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and contributing to global climate change. Therefore, understanding the carbon cycle and its processes is crucial for developing strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change and promote sustainable development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA fragments (or PCR products) based on their melting behavior. This technique is particularly useful for the analysis of complex DNA mixtures, such as those found in environmental samples or in studies of microbial communities.

In DGGE, the DNA samples are subjected to an increasing gradient of denaturing agents (such as urea and formamide) during electrophoresis. As the DNA fragments migrate through the gel, they begin to denature (or melt) at specific points along the gradient, depending on their sequence and base composition. This results in a distinct melting profile for each DNA fragment, which can be visualized as a band on the gel.

The technique allows for the separation of DNA fragments that differ by only a few base pairs, making it a powerful tool for identifying and comparing different DNA sequences within a mixture. DGGE is often used in conjunction with PCR to amplify specific regions of interest in the DNA sample, such as genes or operons involved in specific metabolic pathways. The resulting PCR products can then be analyzed by DGGE to identify and compare different sequence variants (or "types") within a population.

Overall, DGGE is a valuable tool for studying the diversity and composition of complex DNA mixtures, and has applications in fields such as microbial ecology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering.

Denitrification is a microbial process that involves the reduction and conversion of nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) to gaseous forms of nitrogen, such as molecular nitrogen (N2) or nitrous oxide (N2O). This process occurs in anaerobic environments or in areas with low oxygen levels. It is a significant component of the nitrogen cycle and helps to regulate the amount of fixed nitrogen in the environment. Denitrification can also contribute to the degradation of certain pollutants, such as nitrate-contaminated water.

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rain" is not a medical term. In general, rain refers to water droplets that fall from the sky as part of the Earth's weather cycle. These drops form when moisture in the air condenses and cools, creating clouds which eventually become heavy enough to release the collected water.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Pica is a medical condition where an individual has an appetite for substances that are not typically considered food, and are not nutritionally beneficial. These substances can include things like dirt, clay, paper, hair, paint chips, or even feces. The behavior must be persistent and continue for a month or longer to be considered pica.

Pica can occur in children, pregnant women, and people with intellectual disabilities, but it can also affect typically developing adults. It's important to note that while some cultures may include non-food items in their diet, this does not necessarily mean they have pica.

The causes of pica are not fully understood, but it can be associated with nutritional deficiencies, mental health disorders, or developmental disabilities. It can lead to serious health complications, such as poisoning, intestinal blockages, and infections, so it's important to seek medical help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a type of synthetic auxin, which is a plant growth regulator. It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and mild characteristic odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone, and has a melting point of 130-140°C.

2,4-D is a widely used herbicide that is primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of settings, including agriculture, lawns, and golf courses. It works by mimicking the natural plant hormone auxin, which causes uncontrolled growth in susceptible plants leading to their death.

In medicine, 2,4-D has been used experimentally as a cytotoxic agent for the treatment of cancer, but its use is not widespread due to its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity. It is important to handle this chemical with care, as it can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

I apologize for any confusion, but "wetlands" is a term related to environmental science and ecology rather than medicine. Wetlands are transitional areas between land and water that are characterized by the presence of water, which can be permanent or temporary. They are critical ecosystems that provide various important functions, such as water filtration, flood control, and habitat for diverse plant and animal life, including many species of migratory birds.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

Nitrogen compounds are chemical substances that contain nitrogen, which is a non-metal in group 15 of the periodic table. Nitrogen forms compounds with many other elements due to its ability to form multiple bonds, including covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and halogens.

Nitrogen can exist in several oxidation states, ranging from -3 to +5, which leads to a wide variety of nitrogen compounds with different properties and uses. Some common examples of nitrogen compounds include:

* Ammonia (NH3), a colorless gas with a pungent odor, used in fertilizers, cleaning products, and refrigeration systems.
* Nitric acid (HNO3), a strong mineral acid used in the production of explosives, dyes, and fertilizers.
* Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), a white crystalline solid used as a fertilizer and explosive ingredient.
* Hydrazine (N2H4), a colorless liquid with a strong odor, used as a rocket fuel and reducing agent.
* Nitrous oxide (N2O), a colorless gas used as an anesthetic and laughing gas in dental procedures.

Nitrogen compounds have many important applications in various industries, such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and energy production. However, some nitrogen compounds can also be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment if not handled properly.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, to mitigate climate change. It can occur naturally through processes such as photosynthesis in plants and absorption by oceans. Artificial or engineered carbon sequestration methods include:

1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): This process captures CO2 emissions from large point sources, like power plants, before they are released into the atmosphere. The captured CO2 is then compressed and transported to suitable geological formations for long-term storage.

2. Ocean Sequestration: This method involves directly injecting CO2 into the deep ocean or enhancing natural processes that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, such as growing more phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants) through nutrient enrichment.

3. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Practices like regenerative agriculture, agroforestry, and cover cropping can enhance soil organic carbon content by increasing the amount of carbon stored in soils. This not only helps mitigate climate change but also improves soil health and productivity.

4. Biochar Sequestration: Biochar is a type of charcoal produced through pyrolysis (heating biomass in the absence of oxygen). When added to soils, biochar can increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration capacity, as it has a high resistance to decomposition and can store carbon for hundreds to thousands of years.

5. Mineral Carbonation: This method involves reacting CO2 with naturally occurring minerals (like silicate or oxide minerals) to form stable mineral carbonates, effectively locking away the CO2 in solid form.

It is important to note that while carbon sequestration can help mitigate climate change, it should be considered as one of many strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition towards a low-carbon or carbon-neutral economy.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

"Pseudomonas fluorescens" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found in various environments such as soil, water, and some plants. It is a non-pathogenic species of the Pseudomonas genus, which means it does not typically cause disease in humans. The name "fluorescens" comes from its ability to produce a yellow-green pigment that fluoresces under ultraviolet light. This bacterium is known for its versatility and adaptability, as well as its ability to break down various organic compounds, making it useful in bioremediation and other industrial applications.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Microbial consortia refer to a group or community of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, that naturally exist together in a specific environment and interact with each other. These interactions can be synergistic, where the organisms benefit from each other's presence, or competitive, where they compete for resources.

Microbial consortia play important roles in various biological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, plant growth promotion, and wastewater treatment. The study of microbial consortia is essential to understanding the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and has implications for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Actinobacteria are a group of gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and various organic substrates. They are characterized by their high G+C content in their DNA and complex cell wall composition, which often contains mycolic acids. Some Actinobacteria are known to form branching filaments, giving them a characteristic "actinomycete" morphology. Many species of Actinobacteria have important roles in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For example, some produce antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds, while others play key roles in biogeochemical cycles such as the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Additionally, some Actinobacteria are pathogenic and can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

... biodiversity Soil liquefaction Soil moisture velocity equation Soil zoology Tillage erosion World Soil Museum Red soil ... Soil moisture measurement is an important factor in determining changes in soil activity. The atmosphere of soil, or soil gas, ... Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA- ... Short video explaining soil basics The Soil Water Compendium (soil water content sensors explained) Global Soil Partnership FAO ...
... es (soil atmosphere) are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The spaces between the solid soil ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ... Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. ... The composition of gases present in the soil's pores, referred to commonly as the soil atmosphere or atmosphere of the soil, is ...
In areas where native soil is of poor quality, the local population may weigh the risk of using night soil. The use of ... soil), which may have contributed to the term "night soil". Often the deposition or excretion occurred within the residence, ... Night soil is largely an outdated term used in historical contexts, while fecal sludge management remains an ongoing challenge ... Night soil is a historically used euphemism for human excreta collected from cesspools, privies, pail closets, pit latrines, ...
... s can be used to improve poor soils, or to rebuild soils which have been damaged by improper soil management. ... The most common use of soil conditioners is to improve soil structure. Soils tend to become compacted over time. Soil ... A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil's physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability ... Soil amendments can also greatly increase the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soils. Soils act as the storehouses of plant ...
European journal of soil science, 54(4), 809-818. Traina, S. J., & Laperche, V. 1999. Contaminant bioavailability in soils, ... Bioavailability is a function of soil properties, time, environmental conditions, and plant and microbial characteristics Soil ... Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments. Bioavailability of contaminants in soils and sediments: ... Because soils with higher ion exchange and organic matter content offer more opportunities for adsorption, typically they ...
... has been shown to suppress soil pathogens and cause an increase in plant growth. Suppressed soils promote ... Soil solarization enhances the soil towards promoting beneficial microorganism. Soil solarization creates a beneficial microbe ... and soil moisture. It may also be described as methods of decontaminating soil or creating suppressive soils by the use of ... and moisture soil conditions. Soil temperatures are lower when decreasing in soil depth and it is necessary to continue the ...
Porosity of a soil is a function of the soil's bulk density, which is based on the composition of the soil. Sandy soils ... From here, the soil can be classified using a soil texture triangle, which labels the type of soil based on the percentages of ... Soil and Soil Survey. In C. Ditzler, K. Scheffe, and H.C. Monger (eds.). Soil survey manual, USDA Handbook 18. Government ... Soil morphology is the branch of soil science dedicated to the technical description of soil, particularly physical properties ...
... of air and in the soil shading improvement of nutrient content in the soil and thus of soil fertility on previously raw soils ... Soil bioengineering is an effective tool for treatment of a variety of unstable and / or eroding sites. Soil bioengineering ... Soil bioengineering is now widely practiced throughout the world for the treatment of erosion and unstable slopes. Soil ... improvement of water regime by improved soil interception and storage capability as well as water consumption by plants soil ...
Serpentine soils, Types of soil, Soil in the United States, Geology of California, Pedology, Plant communities of California). ... which causes many serpentine soils to be rather shallow. The shallow soils and sparse vegetation lead to elevated soil ... Serpentine soil is an uncommon soil type produced by weathered ultramafic rock such as peridotite and its metamorphic ... Serpentine soils exhibit distinct chemical and physical properties and are generally regarded as poor soils for agriculture. ...
... fire seeding Soil stabilization Land improvement Geopolymer Geotechnical engineering Mechanically stabilized earth Polymer soil ... Soil stabilization is a general term for any physical, chemical, mechanical, biological, or combined method of changing a ... Another soil stabilization method called the Deep Mixing Method is non-destructive and effective at improving load bearing ... Soil can also be stabilized mechanically with stabilization geosynthetics, for example, geogrids or geocells, a 3D mechanical ...
... are invertebrates between 0.1mm and 2mm in size, which live in the soil or in a leaf litter layer on the soil ... Soil mesofauna do not have the ability to reshape the soil and, therefore, are forced to use the existing pore space in soil, ... Gobat, J-M; Aragno, M; Matthey, W (c. 2010). "The living soil. Bases of soil science". Soil Biology. Swift, M. J. (1979). ... soil biota and mineralization rates in grassland soils". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 25 (1): 47-55. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(93 ...
Soil is made up of layers called soil horizons, these make up a vertical soil profile. There are five master horizons O, A, E, ... Bulk soil is soil outside the rhizosphere that is not penetrated by plant roots. The bulk soil is like an ecosystem, it is made ... There are microbes in the bulk soil and the rhizosphere, the variation of microbes increases in the bulk soil and the abundance ... Stotsky, G. (2000). Soil Biochemistry. CRC Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-8247-9441-5. Volume 9. Stotsky, G. (1996). Soil ...
... and include all non-Earth soils in a new World Reference Base for Soil Resources Reference Group or USDA soil taxonomy Order, ... High concentrations of ice in soils are thought to be the cause of accelerated soil creep, which forms the rounded "softened ... Disagreement over the significance of soil's definition arises due to the lack of an integrated concept of soil in the ... Certini, G; Scalenghe, R; Amundson, R (2009). "A view of extraterrestrial soils". European Journal of Soil Science. 60 (6): ...
Soil Survey Staff. (1999). Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys (2nd ... AASHTO Soil Classification System Australian Soil Classification Canadian system of soil classification French soil ... A Compendium of On-Line Soil Survey Information - Soil Classification for Soil Survey by D. G. Rossiter OSHA Soil ... Soil classification can be approached from the perspective of soil as a material and soil as a resource. Inscriptions at the ...
Other sobriquet Soil violins are the Stradivari of 1708 and two by Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesù, 1733 and 1736. Soil Stradivarius ... The Soil was acquired by Yehudi Menuhin in 1950, who played on it for several decades. It was sold in 1986 to its current owner ... The Soil Stradivarius (pronounced [swal]) of 1714 is an antique violin made by Italian luthier Antonio Stradivari of Cremona ( ... The instrument was made during Stradivari's "golden period" and is named after the Belgian industrialist Amédée Soil. The ...
A list of unfavorable or difficult soil conditions for soil nailing can include dry, poorly graded cohesion-less soils, soils ... soil nail vertical and horizontal spacing, soil nail pattern on wall face, soil nail inclination, soil nail length and ... Finally, cost of the soil nail wall should be considered.: 13-14 Soil nail walls can be used for a variety of soil types and ... 144 Soil nail walls are not ideal in locations with highly plastic clay soils. Soils with high plasticity, a high liquid limit ...
... is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed ... British Natural farming Korean natural farming Effective microorganisms Soil biology Soil biomantle Soil life Tayyab, Muhammad ... Soil Biology. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989. Print Vieira (2020). "Bacterial colonization of minerals in grassland soils is ... The overall composition of the soil can determine the amount of bacteria growing in the soil. The more minerals that are found ...
Topsoil or horizon O is with sufficient soil organic matter for healthy soil structure and soil moisture retention; Soil pH in ... When soil is irrigated with high salinity water or sufficient water is not draining out from the irrigated soil, the soil would ... When soil is irrigated with high alkaline water, unwanted sodium salts build up in the soil which would make soil draining ... So plant roots can not penetrate deep into the soil for optimum growth in Alkali soils. When soil is irrigated with low pH / ...
For instance soil bulk density can be predicted using easily measured soil properties such as soil texture , pH, and organic ... is offered by many precision agriculture soil test service providers. This is generally referred to as grid soil testing. Soil ... Soil test may refer to one or more of a wide variety of soil analysis conducted for one of several possible reasons. Possibly ... As soil nutrients vary with depth and soil components change with time, the depth and timing of a sample may also affect ...
... is the seventh studio album by pioneering jazz group Soil & "Pimp" Sessions, from Japan. It was released on ... Performed and arranged by Soil & "Pimp" Sessions Toasting [Agitator] - Shacho Saxophone - Motoharu Trumpet - Tabu Zombie Piano ... "SOIL & "PIMP" SESSIONS , Official Web Site". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... Soil & "Pimp" Sessions albums, All stub articles, 2010s jazz album stubs). ...
Water infiltration and movement in soil are controlled by six factors: Soil texture Soil structure. Fine-textured soils with ... Soil moisture is the water content of the soil. It can be expressed in terms of volume or weight. Soil moisture measurement can ... Depth of soil to impervious layers such as hardpans or bedrock The amount of water already in the soil Soil temperature. Warm ... "Quantifying soil structure and preferential flow in intact soil Using X-ray computed tomography". Soil Science Society of ...
... such as soil fertility or soil mechanics). It includes soil conservation, soil amendment, and optimal soil health. In ... Tilling the soil, or tillage, is the breaking of soil, such as with a plough or harrow, to prepare the soil for new seeds. ... Specific soil management practices that affect soil health include: Controlling traffic on the soil surface helps to reduce ... Soil management is an important tool for addressing climate change by increasing soil carbon and as well as addressing other ...
Soil management has a major impact on soil quality. Soil quality relates to soil functions. Unlike water or air, for which ... Soil quality in agricultural terms is measured on a scale of soil value (Bodenwertzahl) in Germany. Soil quality is primarily ... A typical soil test only evaluates chemical soil properties. Biological measures include diversity of soil organisms and fungi ... Soil quality refers to the condition of soil based on its capacity to perform ecosystem services that meet the needs of human ...
... is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil. Soil life, soil biota, soil fauna, or edaphon ... These glomalin-related soil proteins are an important part of soil organic matter. Soil fauna affect soil formation and soil ... Soil Biology New South Wales - Soil Biology Basics University of Minnesota - Soil Biology and Soil Management Soil-Net.com A ... Agricultural soil science Agroecology Biogeochemical cycle Compost Nitrification Nitrogen cycle Potting soil Soil food web Soil ...
USDA soil taxonomy World Reference Base for Soil Resources Soil biology Soil microbiology Soil chemistry Soil biochemistry Soil ... Soil Survey Staff (1993). Soil Survey: Early Concepts of Soil. (html) Soil Survey Manual USDA Handbook 18, Soil Conservation ... Soil science professionals commonly stay current in soil chemistry, soil physics, soil microbiology, pedology, and applied soil ... Carbon sequestration Environmental soil science Pedology Soil genesis Pedometrics Soil morphology Soil micromorphology Soil ...
Contaminated or polluted soil directly affects human health through direct contact with soil or via inhalation of soil ... The same amount of contaminant can be toxic in one soil but totally harmless in another soil. This stresses the need for soil- ... soil and water management. European Soil Portal: Soil Contamination At EU-level, the issue of contaminated sites (local ... Soil contamination, Environmental chemistry, Environmental issues with soil, Pollution, Soil chemistry). ...
Mesotrophic soils are soils with a moderate inherent fertility. An indicator of soil fertility is its base status, which is ... Mesotrophic lake v t e (Types of soil, All stub articles, Ecology stubs). ... expressed as a ratio relating the major nutrient cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) found there to the soil's ...
"Vangelis - Soil Festivities". DutchCharts. Retrieved August 25, 2016. Ivar de Vries. "Soil Festivities Review". Vangelis ... "Soil Festivities". Allmusic. Retrieved September 10, 2013. Soil Festivities at Vangelis Collector (Articles with short ... Soil Festivities is a studio album by the Greek electronic composer Vangelis, released in October 1984. This 1984 release was ... Dan Goldstein (November 1984), "Soil Festivities - Vangelis Speaks", Electronics & Music Maker, retrieved August 22, 2016 " ...
"Soils - Part 2: Physical Properties of Soil and Soil Water". unl.edu. Jordán, Antonio. 2013. What is soil structure? European ... Soil health Soil resilience Dexter, A.R. (June 1988). "Advances in characterization of soil structure". Soil and Tillage ... viewed May 2007 Soil Science Division Staff (March 2017). Soil Survey Manual - Ch. 3. Examination and Description of Soil ... Cambridge University Press Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). "Examination and Description of Soils". Handbook 18. Soil survey ...
The full text of 'Virgin Soil at Wikisource Virgin Soil by Ivan Turgenev at Project Gutenberg Virgin Soil public domain ... "Virgin Soil". Portifex. "Virgin Soil Summary". enotes. Retrieved 7 July 2014. Pritchett, V.S. "Turgenev and 'Virgin Soil'". The ... Virgin Soil (Russian: Новь, romanized: Nov') is an 1877 novel by Ivan Turgenev. It was Turgenev's sixth and final novel as well ...
Soil biodiversity Soil liquefaction Soil moisture velocity equation Soil zoology Tillage erosion World Soil Museum Red soil ... Soil moisture measurement is an important factor in determining changes in soil activity. The atmosphere of soil, or soil gas, ... Soil Survey Staff. 1975. Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA- ... Short video explaining soil basics The Soil Water Compendium (soil water content sensors explained) Global Soil Partnership FAO ...
Soil gases (soil atmosphere) are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The spaces between the solid soil ... the soil. This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. Not only are both soil air and soil water very ... Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. ... The composition of gases present in the soils pores, referred to commonly as the soil atmosphere or atmosphere of the soil, is ...
Buzz Aldrins bootprint on lunar soil. Regolith collected during Apollo 17 mission. Lunar soil is the fine fraction of lunar ... The differences between Earths soil and lunar soil mean that plants struggle to grow in it.[28][29] As a result long-term ... Lunar soil differs in its origin and properties significantly from terrestrial soil. ... Lunar soil typically refers to only the finer fraction of lunar regolith, which is composed of grains 1 cm in diameter or less ...
However, the majority of EU soils are considered unhealthy, with potentially 2.8 million sites being contaminated. ... Soil is a vital component of natural capital, hosting rich biodiversity and providing critical ecosystem services, such as food ... Soil moisture deficit: natures warning system. Soil moisture is essential for plant development. It regulates soil temperature ... Soil moisture also gives soil structure, prevents soil erosion, and helps determine land use suitability. ...
Dokuchayev viewed soil as the result of interaction between climate, bedrock, and organisms. In 1898 he introduced a ... Russia and introduced the term chernozem to describe the black soil, rich in carbonates and humus, that occurs in the temperate ... classification of Russian soils that showed that similar… ... In Heilongjiang: Soils. Black soils (chernozems) are prevalent ... In Moldova: Soils. …varied and highly fertile, with chernozem-rich black soils-covering three-fourths of the republic. The best ...
Congress responded to the dual threats of soil erosion and agricultural overproduction by passing the Soil Conservation [2] and ... Soil Conservation [1] and Domestic Allotment Act (1935) Kyle A. Loring On April 27, 1935, ... an environmentally or culturally important place or thing) from harm or destruction: the fu… Soil Conservation , Soil ... soil erosion The removal and thinning of the soil layer due to climatic and physical processes, such as high rainfall, which is ...
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1.12.6 Efficiency of Soils in the Fulfillment of the Natural Soil Functions and the Archival Function PDF-Document (9.1 MB) ... 01.12.6 Efficiency of Soils in the Fulfillment of the Natural Soil Functions and the Archival Function. * Table 1: Evaluation ... Table 1: Evaluation of the soil function Habitat for natural vegetation from the evaluation of Near-Naturalness, broken down ... Figure 1: Plan for the evaluation of soil functions GIF-Document (5.2 kB) ...
The State Soil Conservation Board (SSCB) will meet on Monday, Nov. 27, 2023, from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. ET at the Buck Creek ... State Soil Conservation Board Business Plan. Meetings. The SSCB meets approximately every two months. Meetings are normally ... The SSCB also provides guidance and support to Indianas soil and water conservation district leaders as they assist local ... Established within the Indiana State Department of Agriculture, the State Soil Conservation Board (SSCB) provides guidance and ...
Conserving healthy soils The health of soils is dependent on the variety of organisms they contain, known as soil biodiversity ... According to FAO, more than 25% of arable soils worldwide are degraded, and the equivalent of a soccer pitch of soil is eroded ... Agriculture and soil biodiversity Agriculture is a vital human activity that deeply impacts, but also deeply relies on nature. ... Agriculture and soil biodiversity, Business engagement, Climate change impacts on nature, Coasts and islands ...
... leached soils), cambisols (brown soils), dystric cambisols (rusty-brown soils), spodo-dystric cambisols (podzol brown soils), ... Near-natural Soil Associations SA 1 [1010] Luvisol (para-brown soil) - arenic cambisol (wedged sand-pit brown soil). (ground ... Anthropogenic soil erosion is caused by human use of soil. Soil inputs can occur both through natural translocation processes ... These two soil associations in East Berlin are listed as collective soil associations; these soil associations are listed ...
Education and information about Soil-Transmitted Helminths including Human Hookworm, Roundworm and Whipworm. ... Soil-transmitted helminths refer to the intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil (" ... eggs are deposited on soil. Ascaris and hookworm eggs become infective as they mature in soil. People are infected with Ascaris ... Soil-transmitted helminths live in the intestine and their eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If an infected ...
Soil organic matter contains a large portion of the worlds carbon and plays an important role in maintaining productive soils ... We discuss implications of this view of the nature of soil organic matter for aquatic health, soil carbon-climate interactions ... Nevertheless, a consensus on the nature of soil organic matter is lacking. Johannes Lehmann and Markus Kleber argue that soil ... The exchange of nutrients, energy and carbon between soil organic matter, the soil environment, aquatic systems and the ...
Monthly soil erosion risk maps for Swiss permanent grassland. Monthly soil erosion risk maps for Swiss permanent grassland, ... Monthly soil erosion risk maps for Swiss permanent grassland, Sep.. Data status 2019 ... Monthly soil erosion risk maps for Swiss permanent grassland, Oct.. Data status 2019 ... Monthly soil erosion risk maps for Swiss permanent grassland, Dec.. Data status 2019 ...
We are looking for indicators for the state of soils and investigate how forest soils can be protected. ... WSL Home Forest Soil and cycles Soil protection Soil protection. Soil compaction, climate change and pollutants: Such processes ... Soil - a talent in many ways Mapping of various types of tracks (different soil deformation) and of the risk of compaction as a ... We are searching for indicators that reflect the state of soils and are looking for ways how to protect forest soils. ...
Get free shipping on qualified Vigoro Soil Amendments products or Buy Online Pick Up in Store today in the Outdoors Department. ...
Soil carbon study site characteristics. Contains fields: Plot, Natural Community, Biophysical Region and earthworm presence. ... Soil Carbon Site Characteristics is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY-SA - Attribution, Share alike 4.0 International ... Soil carbon study site characteristics. Contains fields: Plot, Natural Community, Biophysical Region and earthworm presence. ... Based on a work at https://www.uvm.edu/femc/data/archive/project/Soil_Carbon_Monitoring/dataset/soil-carbon-site- ...
See examples of NIGHT SOIL used in a sentence. ... See synonyms for night soil on Thesaurus.com. noun. *. human ... night soil. in a sentence. *. The decree touted the achievement of the progressive residents of Jiangnan Province who ... The manure sold under this name is a compound of night-soil with clay, charcoal, or gypsum, made into balls or cakes. ... Into this the night-soil is poured from carts built for the purpose, until the receptacle is about two-thirds full. ...
Release of substances into air and soil as a result of human activities. ... content/basf/www/si/sl/who-we-are/Sustainability/management-goals-and-dialog/management/topics/teaser-emissions-air-and-soil ... content/basf/www/si/sl/who-we-are/Sustainability/management-goals-and-dialog/management/topics/teaser-emissions-air-and-soil ... Release of substances into air and soil as a result of human activities. ...
... you may end up with a large amount of soil and no use for it. Ideally, the soil can be... ... Ways to easily and effectively get rid of your unwanted soil Whether youve just excavated your garden or finished a large ... Contact your local government if your soil is mixed with other materials. Mixed soil refers to any type of soil that is ... Drop the soil off and pay to have it disposed of if necessary. Drive your soil to the landfill and ask the clerk at the ...
Describe the meaning and importance of soil fertility. * Explain the role of organic matter, soil depth, surface slope, soil ... Explain soil components. * Describe the physical characteristics of soil and soilless media, i.e; color, texture, structure, ... Describe the chemical properties of soil and soilless media. * Explain the characteristics of water movement in soil and ... Plant & Soil Science 1. Printable Version (pdf) Course Introduction Students will develop knowledge and skills in a wide range ...
Below is a list of all articles, highlights, profiles, projects, and organizations related specifically to soil science. ... Scientists from Argonne will study the soil around ground-mounted solar panels and develop a national soil database to better ... Argonne team unravels mysteries of carbon release in permafrost soils Like detectives, Argonne scientists are studying clues ... Below is a list of all articles, highlights, profiles, projects, and organizations related specifically to soil science. ...
Download LandIS website , Format: HTML, Dataset: Soil Series Agronomy HTML 03 October 2013 Not available ... Cranfield Soil and Agrifood Institute, Cranfield University (pointOfContact). ISO 19139 resource type. dataset. Metadata ... This product contains many properties of soil series, most of which are agronomic in nature. The water available throughout the ... and the depth of soil to either a rock or gleyed horizons ...
A known antibiotic and antifungal compound produced by a soil microbe can inhibit another species of microbe from forming ... Compound from soil microbe inhibits biofilm formation. Date:. March 30, 2015. Source:. American Society for Microbiology. ... "Compound from soil microbe inhibits biofilm formation." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2015. /. 03. /. ... "Compound from soil microbe inhibits biofilm formation." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 March 2015. ,www.sciencedaily.com. /. ...
The worms just before they dissapear in the soil on Mars soil simulant, two different species, and the rucola plants. ... Smith helped create a type of soil called Mars 1A-from which the soil used by researchers like Wamelink is derived. ... A number of conditions make Earth hospitable for life as we know it, and one of them is the soil in which we grow our food. ... Worms] grab organic matter from the top of the soil-eat it, chew it-and when they poo it out, bacteria can break it down ...
Scientists grew plants in three samples of lunar soil brought to Earth by the Apollo missions, but the seedlings reacted as ... The plants fared the worst in the Apollo 11 soil, which was the most "mature," meaning the soil had been the most exposed to ... But the exact chemistry of lunar soil is unique and can provide scientists with insights that simulated soil never could. ... Scientists Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl work with lunar soil. (Image credit: Tyler Jones, UF/IFAS). All the plants grown in the ...
... the CP56B provides exceptional performance for cohesive and semi-cohesive soil compaction applications. ... MDP indicates soil stiffness by measuring rolling resistance. It is available on all Cat B-Series soil compactors- both smooth ... Vibratory Soil Compactors CP56B Request A Price Find Dealer Key Specs. Operating Weight - With Cab. 25849 lb. 11725 kg. Tires. ... B-Series Vibratory Soil Compactors are equipped with a large cooling package and a variable speed fan. The large system helps ...
Soil Systems, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... 0.02 mm in mulched soils and 0.10 ± 0.10 mm in non-mulched soils; soil loss was 0.20 ± 0.06 g/m2 in the mulched area and 0.60 ... p,Soil of El Ghab, Syria, Coordinates 34°9.84" N, 36°1635.79" E.,/p, Full article ">Figure 4. ,p,Soil of El Rouj plain, Syria ... p,Soil of Ansar farm, Syria, Coordinates 36°159.52" N, 38°4757.21" E.,/p, Full article ">Figure 2. ,p,Soil of El Rafeqa, ...
... make sure your soil is in tip-top shape. ... Sandy soil can mean water slips through the soil so easily that ... Promote better pH and element levels in your soil. To find out your gardens soil makeup, buy a soil testing kit (make sure to ... The first step in deciding if your soil is ready to start planting is figuring out what kind of soil you have. On a day in ... It aerates clay soil, creating space for roots to burrow deeper, and promotes growth aboveground. It also allows sandy soil to ...
Soil Science and Soil Conservation. Notes on Accessibility , Legal Notice , Privacy Policy , Login Form , Help Web Pages , Web ... Soil Science and Soil Conservation https://www.uni-giessen.de/en/faculties/research-centers/ifz/ifz-groups/soil-science-and- ... soil-conservation https://www.uni-giessen.de/@@site-logo/logo.png Document Actions ...
  • In the Swiss legislation on environment protection, soil protection is defined as the maintenance of soil fertility. (wsl.ch)
  • The main threats which endanger soil fertility in forests and which we investigate are soil compaction by heavy forest harvesters, soil contamination with harmful substances, climate change and its impact on soil organic matter as well as alterations of soil due to land-use change. (wsl.ch)
  • Under the research topic "Soil protection", we investigate the main threats and their effects on the soil functions and hence on soil fertility. (wsl.ch)
  • The breakdown of plant parts is the basis of good soil fertility and the health of the complex web of organisms that inhabit it. (independent.com)
  • Compacted soils reduce fertility and enhance runoff, which causes erosion. (uidaho.edu)
  • Dissemination of knowledge and exchange of opinions at the regional level on the sustainable management of soil fertility with emphasis on carbon sequestration in soils and efficient use of nitrogen fertilizers. (fao.org)
  • Identification of alternatives for sustainable management of soil fertility focused on recarbonization and optimization of the use of nitrogen fertilizers. (fao.org)
  • I would definitely concentrate on improving the SOM and the soil organisms will take care of the soil fertility. (ubcbotanicalgarden.org)
  • This first layer of soil is the key to the Midwest's immense fertility and agricultural strength, but a resource that is slow to rebuild after major losses like farms are currently experiencing. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Straw amendment is a prevalent agricultural practice worldwide, which can reduce air pollution and improve soil fertility . (bvsalud.org)
  • Soil acts as an engineering medium, a habitat for soil organisms, a recycling system for nutrients and organic wastes, a regulator of water quality, a modifier of atmospheric composition, and a medium for plant growth, making it a critically important provider of ecosystem services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soils provide readily available nutrients to plants and animals by converting dead organic matter into various nutrient forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exchange of nutrients, energy and carbon between soil organic matter, the soil environment, aquatic systems and the atmosphere is important for agricultural productivity, water quality and climate. (nature.com)
  • Otherwise [without worms] you deplete the nutrients in the soil," Wamelink explains. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Sandy soil can mean water slips through the soil so easily that the roots can't soak up the vital nutrients. (oprah.com)
  • The soil will be thick enough to hold on to water and nutrients but thin enough to allow roots to take hold. (oprah.com)
  • It also allows sandy soil to clump together better, giving roots better access to the nutrients and water stored in the ground. (oprah.com)
  • They have also taken nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the soil along with other trace-mineral necessities like manganese and iron to complete their life cycle. (independent.com)
  • These crops provide a variety of nutrients to the soil, reduce weeds, and provide food for animals. (shopify.com)
  • Healthy, fertile soil, with a good structure, allows plants to absorb water and nutrients, and encourages strong growth. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • These materials release nutrients slowly, improve soil conditions, and stimulate essential microorganisms. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Chalky soils (high pH) will need plenty of compost (such as chicken manure pellets) not just to restore deficiencies in nutrients, but also to improve soil structure. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Excess nutrients are another source of soil pollution. (europa.eu)
  • And carbon, the building block of the rich humus that gives soil its density and nutrients, has more than tripled. (deccanherald.com)
  • Plants can only survive as a result of the nutrients provided to them by the soil they grow from and the sun the shines upon them. (greengeeks.com)
  • The course explores the processes underlying biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients, soil formation and erosion, and we examine how human activities alter these processes. (lu.se)
  • Such interactions and reactions determine, for example, the transport and bioavailability of nutrients and pollutants in the environment, and whether soil organic material breaks down into carbon dioxide or is stored in soils for longer periods of time. (lu.se)
  • 60-75% of EU agricultural soils have excessive nutrient inputs . (europa.eu)
  • O n April 27, 1935, Congress responded to the dual threats of soil erosion and agricultural overproduction by passing the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P.L. 46-74, 49 Stat. 163), the nation's first national soil conservation program. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The pH values of agricultural soils are higher because of fertilizers and liming. (berlin.de)
  • Both of the bacteria from this study are associated with plant roots, and understanding their interactions using DAPG and other secreted compounds could be important for creating healthy microbial soil communities for plants to grow in, possibly boosting agricultural yields, said Shank. (sciencedaily.com)
  • To both Wamelink and Smith, figuring out a natural process to remove perchlorate from Martian soil remains the largest hurdle in the way of growing a sustainable agricultural system on the planet. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Agricultural production systems should at least produce healthy food (SDG2 and 3), protect ground- and surface water quality (SDG6), mitigate climate change (SDG13), avoid soil degradation, and support biodiversity (SDG15). (mdpi.com)
  • Since these agricultural practices began, more than half of the carbon in the Earth's soil has been released into the atmosphere-about 80 billion tons. (shopify.com)
  • Agricultural emissions come from things like using fossil fuels to power equipment, producing fertilizer and adding it to the soil, and even cow burps that release methane. (shopify.com)
  • Hotspots for human exposure to soil pollution are contaminated sites, certain agricultural and urban soils, and land that has previously been flooded. (europa.eu)
  • Many things - such as erosion control, identification of prime farm lands, establishment of sound agricultural practices, planning for urban growth - are based on the properties, location and distribution of soils. (missouri.edu)
  • Each identified soil is described by its chemical and physical properties, is classified with a national classification system, and is interpreted for agricultural, engineering, recreational and urban uses. (missouri.edu)
  • Some counties use soil surveys to determine agricultural use value grades required under the statewide reassessment program. (missouri.edu)
  • Soil surveys can be useful aids for government officials, land use planners and others involved in decisions regarding building permits, planning utility extension, preserving prime agricultural land or reclaiming mined lands. (missouri.edu)
  • The fertilizer crisis presents a unique opportunity to scale up alternative sustainable fertilization management practices that enable soil recarbonization, giving a promising approach not only to improve soil health, increase food security and agricultural incomes, but also to mitigate climate change (FAO, 2019). (fao.org)
  • What methods can we use to reduce emissions and increase removals of greenhouse gases in agricultural soils? (lu.se)
  • The seminar was attended by Katarina Hedlund from Lund University who presented methods for carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, and by Åsa Kasimir from the University of Gothenburg who focused on rewetting of organogenic agricultural soils - both members of BECC. (lu.se)
  • Soil compaction, climate change and pollutants: Such processes hamper the manifold functions of soils. (wsl.ch)
  • Soil that has been exposed to any harmful chemicals, pesticides, or pollutants is mixed for all intents and purposes since it is contaminated. (wikihow.com)
  • There is evidence that pollutants are accumulating in soil above critical thresholds set to protect soil health. (europa.eu)
  • this is because toxic pollutants degrade soils over the long term. (europa.eu)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Soil pollutants, Radioactive. (who.int)
  • As a deliverable under the soil strategy, the European Commission proposed in July 2023 a new Soil Monitoring Law to protect and restore soils and ensure that they are used sustainably. (europa.eu)
  • The State Soil Conservation Board ( SSCB ) will meet on Monday, Nov. 27, 2023, from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. (in.gov)
  • Seminar: January 22, 2023: How to detect radioactive contamination in soil and aerosol after an accident at the ESS? (lu.se)
  • Soil, also commonly referred to as earth, is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support the life of plants and soil organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • tillage usually increases the rate of soil respiration, leading to the depletion of soil organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical soil is about 50% solids (45% mineral and 5% organic matter), and 50% voids (or pores) of which half is occupied by water and half by gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which diffuses through the soil such as from landfill wastes, mining activities, and contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons which produce volatile organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-standing theory suggests that soil organic matter is composed of inherently stable and chemically unique compounds. (nature.com)
  • Instead, soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. (nature.com)
  • We discuss implications of this view of the nature of soil organic matter for aquatic health, soil carbon-climate interactions and land management. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Traditional and emergent views of the nature of soil organic matter affect how we predict and manage soil, air and water. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Reconciliation of current conceptual models for the fate of organic debris into a consolidated view of a SCM of organic matter cycles and ecosystem controls in soil. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Weighing up the empirical information supporting either the historic or evidence-based interpretation of the nature of soil organic matter. (nature.com)
  • Paradigm shifts in soil organic matter research affect interpretations of aquatic carbon cycling: transcending disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries. (nature.com)
  • Trumbore, S. E. Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change. (nature.com)
  • Schnitzer, M. & Monreal, C. M. Quo Vadis soil organic matter research? (nature.com)
  • Jenkinson, D. S. & Rayner, J. H. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. (nature.com)
  • Soil is considered mixed if it has more than an incidental amount of some organic material. (wikihow.com)
  • Worms] grab organic matter from the top of the soil-eat it, chew it-and when they poo it out, bacteria can break it down further. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Adding decomposed organic matter like compost or humus-which you can buy at garden centers-will help both kinds of soil. (oprah.com)
  • Lots of that sugar travels from the plant down into its roots, feeding all kinds of organic matter in the soil and pumping carbon into the earth. (shopify.com)
  • The more biodiversity you allow, the more you'll improve the soil's health and resilience to pests and diseases, and the more organic matter (and carbon) you'll add to the soil. (shopify.com)
  • Animal hooves gently compact the soil, crushing leaves and stalks into mulch that adds more organic matter into the earth. (shopify.com)
  • Good organic soil management is vital if plants are to grow well. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Growing green manures is another organic technique for soil improvement. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • See the Garden Organic Soil Pack for further information on how to create and manage your perfect soil. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • It is best organic practice to work with the soil you have. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • So these sediments and these soils rich, with organic matter and nutrient, won't be carried to lakes and rivers, and basically is going to create a lot of environmental problems, clean up, and loss of productivity in the short term and the long term. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Soil fungi in particular, influence C cycling via organic matter (OM) decomposition and formation of soil aggregates that are particularly important for physical C stabilization in soils. (lu.se)
  • Although geologists had first warned the White House about the dangers of soil erosion in 1908, the federal government did not begin to react to this hazard until Hugh Bennet, a soil scientist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, published Soil Erosion: A National Menace in 1928. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a result, in 1929 Congress authorized soil conservation experiment stations and then in 1933 established the Soil Erosion Services (SES) to provide farmers with planning assistance and equipment, seeds, and seedlings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This catastrophe convinced Congress that the soil erosion caused by conditions in the Dust Bowl truly did pose a menace to the national welfare, and led directly to the enactment of the act. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When it created the act, Congress "recognized that the wastage of soil and moisture resources on farm, grazing, and forest lands of the Nation, resulting from soil erosion, is a menace to the national welfare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The act stated that its ultimate goal was "to provide permanently for the control and prevention of soil erosion and thereby to preserve natural resources, control floods, prevent impairment of reservoirs, and maintain the navigability of rivers and harbors, protect public health , public lands and relieve unemployment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To do so, the act authorized the secretary of agriculture to survey and research soil erosion and methods for its prevention, to carry out preventive measures, to cooperate with state agencies or individuals, and to acquire any lands necessary to carry out the purpose of the act. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The act established the Soil Conservation Services (SCS - now called the Natural Resources Conservation Service) as the successor to the SES and empowered it to conduct a national program of soil erosion prevention through technical and financial aid to farmers who agreed to implement soil conservation practices. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Symbols on the map identify soil phases, including information on surface texture, slope and estimated erosion. (missouri.edu)
  • Interpretations help predict soil irrigation potential, drainage needs, farm pond suitability and necessary erosion control practices. (missouri.edu)
  • Home builders can use the soil survey to aid in evaluation of lots and homesites for concerns such as flooding, seepage, foundation stability, erosion and septic system suitability. (missouri.edu)
  • They also make for thin soil that is vulnerable to erosion and less able to retain water, so yields suffer quickly in times of drought. (deccanherald.com)
  • Mahdi Al-Kaisi, a soil scientist at Iowa State University, explains why erosion is bad news for farmers, and how the damage from this flood event could ripple for years to come. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Hyperspectral satellite data for mapping and surveillance of soil erosion in Lebanon and Tunisia. (lu.se)
  • Because the surface layer of the soil is eroded, deeper parts of a soil are exposed, which usually has a somewhat different reflection than the surface layer, and therefore it is possible to estimate which parts of a landscape that are prone to erosion. (lu.se)
  • Black soils (chernozems) are prevalent in the foothills, and mountain brown forest soils higher up. (britannica.com)
  • We are searching for indicators that reflect the state of soils and are looking for ways how to protect forest soils. (wsl.ch)
  • In addition, extention and maintenance of the data base of soil chemical and physical properties serve as an important tool in order to deduce indicators of soil health, pedotransfer functions and ecological standards for the validation of forest soils. (wsl.ch)
  • The functional gene diversity found in different soils did not group the sites accordingly to land management. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a field spectrometer, reflectance data for different soils collects over the wavelength bands from about 350 to 1050 nanometers. (lu.se)
  • Soil is a vital component of natural capital, hosting rich biodiversity and providing critical ecosystem services, such as food production, water purification and carbon storage. (europa.eu)
  • In many parts of the world, intensification and expansion of agriculture has degraded soils and ecosystems, depleted water sources and reduced biodiversity. (iucn.org)
  • Overuse of inputs is harming the long-term viability of farming, because it damages soils, reduces biodiversity and ultimately impairs our capacity to feed the world's growing population. (iucn.org)
  • For example, repeated pesticide application is a significant issue because it lowers soil biodiversity and resilience, and could lead to the contamination of food and feed. (europa.eu)
  • This year's motto is "Keep soil alive, protect soil biodiversity. (greengeeks.com)
  • The primary soil gases are nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil contains carbon and nitrogen, which can be released into the atmosphere depending on how we use the land. (europa.eu)
  • Wamelink also enriched the soil with nitrogen by adding a type of fertilizer called pig slurry. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • To find out your garden's soil makeup, buy a soil testing kit (make sure to get one that also measures nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) from a hardware or gardening store, and check in on it throughout the growing season. (oprah.com)
  • When he mixes clover and oats in the same field, the clover fixes nitrogen into the soil. (deccanherald.com)
  • A large amount of knowledge is becoming available concerning the microbial enzymes responsible for the key steps of the major nutrient cycles in soil (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, etc. (hindawi.com)
  • The greater humus and clay contents in the topsoil give luvisols (para-brown soils) a distinctively greater nutrient supply than podzoluvisols (leached soils). (berlin.de)
  • The manure sold under this name is a compound of night-soil with clay, charcoal, or gypsum, made into balls or cakes. (dictionary.com)
  • Clay soil means that plants will have trouble digging deep with their roots. (oprah.com)
  • It aerates clay soil, creating space for roots to burrow deeper, and promotes growth aboveground. (oprah.com)
  • and it will break up and aerate heavily compacted soil, such as clay. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • In heavy clay soils, I prefer to plant trees high, with the trunk flare 2 to 4 inches above grade. (chicagotribune.com)
  • C : N ratio showed a significant positive correlation with clay and soil pH. (hindawi.com)
  • He adds that, following the completion of these soil sampling programmes, the company will be in a position to prioritise areas for follow-up drilling alongside the Jacks copper project where Tertiary Minerals completed extensive soil sampling at the end of the 2022 field season and a preliminary drill programme. (miningweekly.com)
  • Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil has four important functions: as a medium for plant growth as a means of water storage, supply and purification as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere as a habitat for organisms All of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil and its properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gram of soil can contain billions of organisms, belonging to thousands of species, mostly microbial and largely still unexplored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil has a mean prokaryotic density of roughly 108 organisms per gram, whereas the ocean has no more than 107 prokaryotic organisms per milliliter (gram) of seawater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen is critical because it allows for respiration of both plant roots and soil organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even a small patch of soil can teem with life, ranging from tiny organisms to fungi and earthworms , all playing a vital role in the functioning of the soil ecosystem. (europa.eu)
  • Dokuchayev viewed soil as the result of interaction between climate, bedrock, and organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Aeration is critical for the growth of plant roots and the existence and activity of soil organisms. (berlin.de)
  • All these essential elements can and will be returned to the soil through the actions of myriad "lower" organisms. (independent.com)
  • Given the importance of both soil gases to soil life, significant fluctuation of carbon dioxide and oxygen can result in changes in rate of decay, while changes in microbial abundance can inversely influence soil gas composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both processes hydrate the soil and increase nutrient availability leading to an increase in microbial activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A known antibiotic and antifungal compound produced by a soil microbe can inhibit another species of microbe from forming biofilms - -microbial mats that frequently are medically harmful -- without killing that microbe. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. (hindawi.com)
  • In a multivariate regression tree analysis of soil physicochemical properties and genes detected by functional microarrays, the main factor that explained the different microbial community functional structures was C : N ratio. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of the studies related to the impact of land use change on microbes have focused on the phylogenetic composition of the soil microbial community. (hindawi.com)
  • With respect to microbial functions in soils, most studies have traditionally been based on enzyme activity screening, with relatively little attention paid to functional marker gene screening [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Topics include microbial and plant-mediated carbon and nutrient cycling, the role of biological diversity in biogeochemical processes, the importance of mycorrhiza for plant nutrition, soil food webs, and exploration into how new techniques are advancing studies of the soil environment. (lu.se)
  • This result could be due to changes in soil properties such as soil pH and overlying water Fe and Mn as well as microbial abundance (including Clostridiaceae , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteriota). (bvsalud.org)
  • So they began using fertilizers and pesticides, inadvertently killing off the microorganisms in the soil. (shopify.com)
  • Nutrient cycling within terrestrial ecosystems is mostly performed via the activities of soil-borne microorganisms [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With the advent of molecular biological methods, considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated, concerning the diversity and distribution of microorganisms in soil environments [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Soils store more carbon (C) than the atmosphere and biosphere combined, and it is microorganisms that govern whether C compounds remain in the soil, or whether they are decomposed and released to the atmosphere as CO 2 . (lu.se)
  • As the planet warms, it has been predicted that soils will add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to increased biological activity at higher temperatures, a positive feedback (amplification). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil gases (soil atmosphere) are the gases found in the air space between soil components. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of gases present in the soil's pores, referred to commonly as the soil atmosphere or atmosphere of the soil, is similar to that of the Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the atmosphere, moreover, soil gas composition is less stagnant due to the various chemical and biological processes taking place in the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this spatial- and temporal-dependent fluctuation, soil gases typically boast greater concentrations of carbon dioxide and water vapor in comparison to the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffusion of soil air with the atmosphere causes the preferential replacement of soil gases with atmospheric air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil gases have been used for multiple scientific studies to explore topics such as microseepage, earthquakes, and gaseous exchange between the soil and the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lunar soil is the fine fraction of lunar regolith found on the surface of the Moon and contributes to the Moon's tenuous atmosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Moon's fine surface layer, lunar soil is picked up by even weak natural phenomena active at the Moon's surface, allowing it to be part of the Moon's scant atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the EU, soils are overall a source of greenhouse gas emissions , but through management, it is possible to reduce these emissions and instead enhance the removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere. (europa.eu)
  • In 2019, EU Member States reported net greenhouse gas emissions of 64 MtCO 2 e from soils to the atmosphere, which is equivalent to just under 2% of the total net emissions reported in that year. (europa.eu)
  • Aeration of the soil includes gas exchange by diffusion between the atmosphere and soil. (berlin.de)
  • the investigation of the gas exchange between the soil and the atmosphere depending on the degree of compaction. (wsl.ch)
  • Now, though, a growing number of experts, environmentalists and farmers themselves see their fields as a powerful weapon in the fight to slow climate change, their very soil a potentially vast repository for the carbon that is warming the atmosphere. (deccanherald.com)
  • To bring levels back up, a set of techniques known as carbon farming, or regenerative farming, encourage and complement the process by which plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, break it down and sequester carbon into soil. (deccanherald.com)
  • The world's ecosystems are impacted in far-reaching ways by the processes carried out in the soil, with effects ranging from ozone depletion and global warming to rainforest destruction and water pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since people began farming, the world's cultivated soils have lost 50% to 70% of their natural carbon, said Rattan Lal, a professor of soil science at the Ohio State University. (deccanherald.com)
  • Blood PCB data should be analyzed in conjunction with residential history information to aid in the identification of areas of potential soil PCB contamination. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons with elevated blood PCB levels (greater than 20 µ g/L) for whom there is evidence of current exposure to soil contamination should be a focus of particular attention in future environmental characterization and public health actions. (cdc.gov)
  • Develop a site investigation plan (including records search and air and soil sampling) that addresses the potential for sources and local areas of PCB, dioxin/furan, and pesticide contamination. (cdc.gov)
  • Once you have worked the soil in anticipation of new plants, incorporating compost and other organics, it is time to plant. (independent.com)
  • Mulching combined with additions of compost when preparing soil for planting can ensure continued soil health. (independent.com)
  • To feed the soil, and improve its structure, use bulky materials like garden compost, rotted manures or leafmould . (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Adding homemade compost to your soil also helps to manage its texture. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • and compost soil from the Winelands area, Western Cape. (cdc.gov)
  • In regions with a lot of environmental regulations or sensitive ecosystems, you may need to have the soil tested at a lab before you can drop it off. (wikihow.com)
  • The soil atmosphere's variable composition and constant motion can be attributed to chemical processes such as diffusion, decomposition, and, in some regions of the world, thawing, among other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, for processes such as soil thawing and rewetting, for example, large sudden changes in soil respiration can cause increased flux of soil gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which are greenhouse gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the course Soil and Plant Ecology we explore the intersection of biological, chemical, and geological processes that shape the soil environment. (lu.se)
  • The course is designed to facilitate critical discussion and analysis of various soil processes, and improve research, dissemination, and presentation skills. (lu.se)
  • The main purpose of our research is to contribute with fundamental knowledge about the complex processes that take place at naturally occurring interfaces in soil and water, thereby contributing to the basic understanding of our environment. (lu.se)
  • Since plant roots need oxygen, aeration is an important characteristic of soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic of the wooded-meadow plains of the Amur River basin (the "Amur prairies") are meadow soils that are dark, moist, and often composed of blue gley. (britannica.com)
  • The scientist looks for relationships among soil surface colors, native vegetation and topography, because soils develop characteristic features in response to climate, parent materials, topography, vegetation and time. (missouri.edu)
  • The EU soil strategy for 2030 provides the framework and concrete steps towards protecting and restoring soils, and ensuring that they are used sustainably. (europa.eu)
  • The EU soil strategy for 2030 reiterates the zero pollution target that, by 2050, soil pollution should be so low that it no longer harms human health ( EC, 2021 ). (europa.eu)
  • More significantly, moreover, variation in soil gas composition due to seasonal, or even daily, temperature and/or moisture change can influence the rate of soil respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different chips designs can simulate different levels of complexity of soil pore space and it has been shown by using fluorescent protein or bipeptide as OM and optical microscopy that the more complex the chip structures - the less OM decomposition is observed. (lu.se)
  • In this Master level project (45 - 60 ECTS) project , decomposition of more complex molecules or molecule mixtures such as lignin, maize leaves or OM from real soils and its dependence on the complexity of chip structures will be studied. (lu.se)
  • Soil is one of the essential components of land, playing a crucial role in nature's cycles, particularly water and nutrient cycles . (europa.eu)
  • Healthy soils also play a key role in carbon and nutrient cycles. (europa.eu)
  • Anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., pollution, fertilizer deposition, and habitat destruction) are known to influence soil nutrient cycles, but little is known about the mechanistic aspects of such disturbances. (hindawi.com)
  • Unsustainable farming practices, fertilisers and pesticides also contaminate the soil. (europa.eu)
  • Once inside the body, the worms live in the intestines, mature, and reproduce, releasing their eggs or larvae in feces, which can then contaminate the soil. (who.int)
  • Typically, soils maintain a net absorption of oxygen and methane and undergo a net release of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, concentration of other gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide, are relatively minor yet significant in determining greenhouse gas flux and anthropogenic impact on soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this is true, the researchers argued, soil from younger parts of the moon could be more effective in growing healthy plants. (space.com)
  • And healthy soil means healthy plants that are able to resist disease and pest outbreaks. (independent.com)
  • 2 Footnote 2 If the soil becomes healthy enough, you can use less chemicals and still increase crop yields. (shopify.com)
  • Healthy soil is full of space, so when it rains or when we irrigate our yards, it gets filled with water. (treepeople.org)
  • So when it does rain we want to get as much water into our soil as possible so plants can grow healthy root systems to endure the dry season. (treepeople.org)
  • Healthy soils are critical for supporting human health. (europa.eu)
  • There is much more to healthy, productive soil than just P and K. Understanding the soil is the key to the proper management. (ubcbotanicalgarden.org)
  • Of course having a healthy and 'alive' soil is the most important thing. (ubcbotanicalgarden.org)
  • Since plants require a nearly continuous supply of water, but most regions receive sporadic rainfall, the water-holding capacity of soils is vital for plant survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it doesn't, post an advertisement online or give your soil to a local plant nursery or landscaping company. (wikihow.com)
  • Plant crops that cover and protect the soil after harvest. (shopify.com)
  • Think about watering your plants this way instead: add water to the soil around a plant so it can take up a deep sip through its roots. (treepeople.org)
  • If you want to plant up flowerpots and containers, see our Peat-Free growing page for advice on getting just the right soil mix. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Think of it as plant food and it's all thanks to the soil. (greengeeks.com)
  • The latest schedule for the course Soil and Plant Ecology in the schedule software TimeEdit. (lu.se)
  • With respect to Earth's carbon cycle, soil acts as an important carbon reservoir, and it is potentially one of the most reactive to human disturbance and climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way we use soil is also linked to climate change . (europa.eu)
  • Lal, R. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. (nature.com)
  • Heathy soils provide nutritious food, clean drinking water, raw materials and carbon sequestration functions - ecosystem services that are essential for guaranteeing food security, tackling climate change and safeguarding human health ( Montanarella and Panagos, 2021 ). (europa.eu)
  • I don't know which cover crop seeds are available in your country, I don't know your climate, I don't know your soil. (ubcbotanicalgarden.org)
  • Soils can effectively remove impurities, kill disease agents, and degrade contaminants, this latter property being called natural attenuation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These levels can be specific to the intended use, whether commercial or residential, and are intended to reduce the potential for human exposure to soil contaminants, either through direct ingestion, inhalation or absorption through the skin. (sgs.com)
  • Soil functions are endangered by land cultivation practices and the emissions of harmful substances from various sources. (wsl.ch)
  • They already exist in the air, on surfaces of soil and roots of plants we gather, hiding in the corners that we didn't reach with our rakes and brooms, so there is no need to capture and tame them. (independent.com)
  • After growing you dig them back into the soil - leaves, stems, roots, and all. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • The act combated overproduction of crops by paying farmers to shift from production of "soil-depleting crops" to "soil-conserving crops. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The act then defined soil-depleting crops to include surplus crops, even those such as wheat that had soil-conserving properties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Farmers can evaluate which crops are best suited for their soils. (missouri.edu)
  • Critically for an industry that must produce an ever-larger bounty to feed a growing global population, restoring lost carbon to the soil also increases its ability to support crops and withstand drought. (deccanherald.com)
  • And the rich soil not only yields higher volumes, but the crops are more nutritionally dense than those grown on depleted land, he says. (deccanherald.com)
  • How about growing crops for the protection and enrichment of the soil? (ubcbotanicalgarden.org)
  • Buruli ulcer (BU), leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). (who.int)
  • The published survey also contains information about each soil, including interpretations helpful for selecting best use and management practices. (missouri.edu)
  • Soil moisture data layers-including Surface Soil Moisture, which provides information on the relative water content of the top few centimeters soil, and the Soil Water Index, which quantifies the moisture condition at various depths in the soil-can be used for applications in agriculture, water management, weather forecasting, ecological modeling, and conservation efforts. (europa.eu)
  • Soils vary greatly in their ecological properties , depending on parent substrate, grain size, composition, humus contents, relief profiles and depth to groundwater. (berlin.de)
  • Important parameters that characterize the ecological properties of soils are: usable field-moisture capacity, aertion, cation exchange capacity, pH values, effective rooting depth, and summer moisture level. (berlin.de)
  • The near-natural soils in Berlin with a long developmental history and relatively uninfluenced by use are: luvisols (para-brown soils), podzoluvisols (leached soils), cambisols (brown soils), dystric cambisols (rusty-brown soils), spodo-dystric cambisols (podzol brown soils), podzols, gleysols, and histosols (bog soils). (berlin.de)
  • pH is the measurement of the acidity/alkalinity level of the soil. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Aims: To evaluate interaction of soil pH and acidity with weather on Rice Brown spot (BS) occurrence in rice lowlands. (who.int)
  • Soil silicon and acidity were determined in those samples and rice grain yield at harvest time were recorded in different sites. (who.int)
  • The spaces between the solid soil particles, if they do not contain water, are filled with air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aeration network becomes blocked when water enters soil pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are both soil air and soil water very dynamic parts of soil, but both are often inversely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conservation districts gave locally appointed directors, not federal officials, the authority to establish and manage local soil and water conservation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Established within the Indiana State Department of Agriculture, the State Soil Conservation Board (SSCB) provides guidance and coordination to the state's 92 Soil and Water Conservation Districts as they provide local leadership in the protection of Indiana's soil and water resources. (in.gov)
  • The SSCB also provides guidance and support to Indiana's soil and water conservation district leaders as they assist local leadership in the protection of the state's soil and water resources. (in.gov)
  • Usable field-moisture capacity is a measure for the amount of water in soil available to plants. (berlin.de)
  • This is slowly moving seepage water and retained water in the coarse and medium pores of soil. (berlin.de)
  • Soil water in the fine pores (dead water) is subject to high water tension and cannot be taken up by plants. (berlin.de)
  • The amount of water stored in the soil is determined by pore volume, pore size distribution, grain size composition, and humus levels. (berlin.de)
  • Other factors are grain size composition, structure, and the water content of the soil. (berlin.de)
  • Effective cation exchange capacity, air and water conditions, biological activity, and redox properties, etc. are important factors for an evaluation of nutrient levels actually available in the soil. (berlin.de)
  • Effective rooting depth is the depth in the soil where plants can draw water. (berlin.de)
  • Soils govern the percolation of water and dissolved substances by acting as a reservoir, a buffer and/or a filter and therefore, they are an important regulator in element cycling. (wsl.ch)
  • Excess phosphorus in the soil can get into the ground water and cause serious pollution problems. (oprah.com)
  • We also love to think about the tree-water-soil connection. (treepeople.org)
  • Where does water end and soil or tree begin? (treepeople.org)
  • These three elements- soil, water and trees- are so interconnected. (treepeople.org)
  • Understanding this tree-water-soil connection is critical to develop a deeper relationship with the land around us. (treepeople.org)
  • Did you know that soil is like a sponge for water? (treepeople.org)
  • As we better understand the relationship between soil, water and life we can see all we can create resilient and vibrant landscapes. (treepeople.org)
  • It also poses risks to human health - both indirectly through the consumption of contaminated food and drinking water, and directly through exposure to contaminated soil. (europa.eu)
  • Read more information about soil and water testing. (fultoncountyga.gov)
  • As farmers in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and other states start to dry out and assess the damage, one big factor will be the dirt left behind- the soil that was washed away by the water. (sciencefriday.com)
  • This could be attributed to changes in soil oxidation-reduction potential and overlying water SO42- content. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acidic soil (with a pH reading under 7) and basic soil (with a pH reading above 7) are bad for most plants, though some thrive only in those environments. (oprah.com)
  • Very acidic (low pH) soils can be adjusted by applying lime. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • However, the relationship between fungal activity, OM properties and environment, including complexity of soil structure (i.e., arrangement of pore space in and between soil aggregates), and how each of these factors contribute to the prolonged residence of C in soils, is not well understood. (lu.se)
  • Lunar soil typically refers to only the finer fraction of lunar regolith , which is composed of grains 1 cm in diameter or less, but is often used interchangeably. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unregulated areas, recycling plants typically just inspect the soil by eye. (wikihow.com)
  • Russia and introduced the term chernozem to describe the black soil, rich in carbonates and humus, that occurs in the temperate latitudes of Russia. (britannica.com)
  • Chernozem (black earth) is the distinctive soil of the steppe, taking its name from the very dark upper horizon-often more than three feet (one metre) thick-which is rich in humus derived from the thick grass cover. (britannica.com)
  • Soil is one of nature's most powerful carbon storage solutions. (shopify.com)
  • Beyond lectures, the course consists of project work (individually and in groups), an excursion, and an extensive laboratory exercise aimed at characterizing soils chemically and biologically. (lu.se)
  • Soil gas migration, specifically that of hydrocarbon species with one to five carbons, can also be caused by microseepage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The worms just before they dissapear in the soil on Mars soil simulant, two different species, and the rucola plants. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Woodland owners can find species best suited for specific soils, estimated productivity ratings and soil management considerations. (missouri.edu)
  • Anthrosols can restrict rooting by impenetrable layers, e.g. concrete, lack of air, or the formation of methane in waste disposal site soils. (berlin.de)
  • This ventilation can be accomplished via networks of interconnected soil pores, which also absorb and hold rainwater making it readily available for uptake by plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The network of pores within the soil aerates, or ventilates, the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pedology focuses on the formation, description (morphology), and classification of soils in their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil moisture: why is it important for you and and your garden? (treepeople.org)
  • Now there are even rebates for soil moisture sensors in LA County. (treepeople.org)
  • 3 Footnote 3 Building up healthier soil around the world would create a virtuous cycle that's good for the environment, farmers, and humans who eat food (that's all of us! (shopify.com)
  • If your soil isn't mixed, contact your local waste department to find out if your region has a recycling program for soil. (wikihow.com)
  • If this is the case where you live, take or ship a small sample of the soil to the testing facility as directed by your waste department. (wikihow.com)
  • The testing facility will either clear your soil for recycling or explain why your government's waste department can't take it. (wikihow.com)
  • And to do this, they'll need more accurate soil samples. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • More than 50 years after astronauts brought the last moon-rock samples to Earth, scientists have successfully grown plants in lunar soil from three Apollo missions for the first time. (space.com)
  • All the moon -soil plants grew slowly and relatively poorly, but those grown in samples that had been more exposed on the lunar surface tended to do the worst, and genetic analysis showed changes indicative of stress. (space.com)
  • For this study, the researchers used samples of lunar soil, called regolith, taken during Apollo 11, 12 and 17 , between 1969 and 1972. (space.com)
  • Using state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate and reliable data, our soil analysis experts can test your soil samples for a wide range of analytes. (sgs.com)
  • Following the receipt of forest permits in July, energy minerals explorer and developer Tertiary Minerals has started soil sampling at its Konkola West project, in Zambia, with about 260 soil samples due to be collected. (miningweekly.com)
  • Proceeding their collection, the soil samples will be analysed in the field using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyser, while follow-up infill sampling will be carried out where appropriate. (miningweekly.com)
  • Soil samples were collected at the U of I Experimental Forest logging site. (uidaho.edu)
  • Soil samples were dried and weighed in a lab to compare compaction. (uidaho.edu)
  • Residents can bring in several samples of soil from their yards and provide information about their soil sample on a Log-In Form. (cdc.gov)
  • Repeat this until you have about 2 cups of soil, then mix all the small samples together. (fultoncountyga.gov)
  • africanus gDNA in the acid-washed soil, DNA extractions were conducted on triplicate soil sub- samples (0.25 g). (cdc.gov)
  • Samples of acid-washed soil (10 g) were then added to conical flasks (50 mL) and artificially inoculated with 102, 103, 104 and 106 conidia, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • After incubation, DNA extractions were conducted in duplicate on each of the artificially inoculated soil samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Methodology: BS characterization were done in different farmer fields where soil samples were also collected during dry and rainy seasons. (who.int)
  • Studies were conducted in three directions: the measurement of radioactive aerosol, the measurement of transition metals in soil and the simulation of gamma spectra of samples contaminated by ESS releases. (lu.se)
  • As a result, farmers often have no choice but to search for new land to work or to use soil as a substrate with massive synthetic inputs. (iucn.org)
  • The melting of permafrost - soil meant to be permanently frozen - due to rising global temperatures can also release greenhouse gases and accelerate temperature rise. (europa.eu)
  • Knowing your own soil pH helps you decide which plants will grow successfully, or what you need to do to increase productivity. (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • Lunar soil differs in its origin and properties significantly from terrestrial soil . (wikipedia.org)
  • The survey also can be useful in locating areas with soil properties most suitable for industrial development. (missouri.edu)
  • Excess soil from the edging should be removed to prevent this from occurring. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Collectively the Earth's body of soil is called the pedosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil is a major component of the Earth's ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since soil has a tremendous range of available niches and habitats, it contains a prominent part of the Earth's genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if the feces of an infected person are used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Each additional percent of carbon stored within soil is considered equivalent to $300-$600 worth of fertilizer. (shopify.com)
  • Some of them include using the correct type of fertilizer, proper watering, protecting it against stormwater from building up and flooding, planting different types of plants, creating no-dig gardens (additional soil is placed on top of the ground), and much more. (greengeeks.com)
  • Continual meteoric impacts and bombardment by solar and interstellar charged atomic particles of the lunar surface over billions of years ground the basaltic and anorthositic rock, the regolith of the Moon, into the progressively finer lunar soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section of the zero pollution monitoring assessment presents available knowledge and trends on soil pollution and associated impacts on health, and assesses progress towards achieving relevant zero pollution targets and policy objectives. (europa.eu)