The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

Evaluation of mycobacillin and versicolin as agricultural fungicides. II. Stability in soil. (1/2707)

The effect of paddy soils on mycobacillin and versicolin was investigated. Soil inactivated mycobacillin as determined by spectral analysis and microbiological assay. Soil can inactive mycobacillin only at or above the threshold concentration (125 approximately 130 mug per 10 mg of soil), the excess being unreacted. No new peak appears in the ultraviolet spectrum (240 approximately 300 nm) while mycobacillin is inactivated. Soil is without any effect on versicolin.  (+info)

Metabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate by a soil bacterium. (2/2707)

Studies on threo-beta-methylmalate metabolism in a soil bacterium of the genus Bacillus which can utilize threo-beta-methylmalate as a sole carbon source were carried out. When DL-threo-beta-methylmalate was incubated with a cell-free extract of the bacterium, citramalate was found to be formed. Similarly, formation of threo-beta-methylmalate from DL-citramalate was confirmed. These dicarbosylic acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Examination of inducibility, substrate specificity, and cofactor requirement of the enzymes involved in the reactions showed the existence of two interconversion reactions between the threo-beta-methylmalate and citramalate. One was an interconversion reaction between L-threo-beta-methylmalate and L-citramalate via mesaconate and the other was an interconversion reaction between D-threo-beta-methylmalate and D-citramalate via citraconate. These reactions were both reversible and were catalyzed by distinct and inducible enzymes. It is suggested that the two reactions participate in the catabolism of threo-beta-methylmalate.  (+info)

Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia. (3/2707)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (4/2707)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

Use of a sentinel system for field measurements of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation in soil and animal waste. (5/2707)

A small-volume sentinel chamber was developed to assess the effects of environmental stresses on survival of sucrose-Percoll-purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil and animal wastes. Chambers were tested for their ability to equilibrate with external chemical and moisture conditions. Sentinel oocysts were then exposed to stresses of the external environment that affected their viability (potential infectivity), as indicated by results of a dye permeability assay. Preliminary laboratory experiments indicated that temperatures between 35 and 50 degrees C and decreases in soil water potential (-0.003 to -3.20 MPa) increased oocyst inactivation rates. The effects of two common animal waste management practices on oocyst survival were investigated on three dairy farms in Delaware County, N.Y., within the New York City watershed: (i) piling wastes from dairy youngstock (including neonatal calves) and (ii) spreading wastes as a soil amendment on an agricultural field. Sentinel containers filled with air-dried and sieved (2-mm mesh) youngstock waste or field soil were wetted and inoculated with 2 million oocysts in an aqueous suspension and then placed in waste piles on two different farms and in soil within a cropped field on one farm. Controls consisted of purified oocysts in either phosphate-buffered saline or distilled water contained in sealed microcentrifuge tubes. Two microdata loggers recorded the ambient temperature at each field site. Sentinel experiments were conducted during the fall and winter (1996 to 1997) and winter (1998). Sentinel containers and controls were removed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and oocysts were extracted and tested by the dye permeability assay. The proportions of potentially infective oocysts exposed to the soil and waste pile material decreased more rapidly than their counterpart controls exposed to buffer or water, indicating that factors other than temperature affected oocyst inactivation in the waste piles and soil. The effect of soil freeze-thaw cycles was evident in the large proportion of empty sentinel oocysts. The potentially infective sentinel oocysts were reduced to <1% while the proportions in controls did not decrease below 50% potentially infective during the first field experiment. Microscopic observations of empty oocyst fragments indicated that abrasive effects of soil particles were a factor in oocyst inactivation. A similar pattern was observed in a second field experiment at the same site.  (+info)

The growth of demand will limit output growth for food over the next quarter century. (6/2707)

The rate of growth of world food demand will be much slower for 1990-2010 than it was for the prior three decades. The major factor determining the increase in food demand is population growth. Income growth has a much smaller effect. From 1960 to 1990, population growth accounted for approximately three fourths of the growth in demand or use of grain. For 1990-2010, it is anticipated that population growth will account for nearly all of the increase in world demand for grain. The rate of population growth from 1990 to 2020 is projected to be at an annual rate of 1.3% compared with 1.9% for 1960 to 1990-a decline of more than 30%. World per capita use of grain will increase very little-perhaps by 4%. The increase in grain use is projected to be 40% less than in 1960-1990. It is anticipated that real grain prices will decline during the period, although not nearly as much as the 40% decline in the previous three decades. Concern has been expressed concerning the deterioration of the quality and productivity of the world's farmland. A study for China and Indonesia indicates that there has been no significant change in the productive capacity of the land over the past 50 years. Contrary to numerous claims, the depth of the topsoil has not changed, indicating that erosion has had little or no impact.  (+info)

Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture. (7/2707)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.  (+info)

Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. (8/2707)

Alternative agriculture, which expands the uses of plants well beyond food and fiber, is beginning to change plant biology. Two plant-based biotechnologies were recently developed that take advantage of the ability of plant roots to absorb or secrete various substances. They are (i) phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment and (ii) rhizosecretion, a subset of molecular farming, designed to produce and secrete valuable natural products and recombinant proteins from roots. Here we discuss recent advances in these technologies and assess their potential in soil remediation, drug discovery, and molecular farming.  (+info)

In the United States, twelve major soil texture classifications are defined by the United States Department of Agriculture.[1] The twelve classifications are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay.[5] Soil textures are classified by the fractions of each soil separate (sand, silt, and clay) present in a soil. Classifications are typically named for the primary constituent particle size or a combination of the most abundant particles sizes, e.g. sandy clay or silty clay. A fourth term, loam, is used to describe equal properties of sand, silt, and clay in a soil sample, and lends to the naming of even more classifications, e.g. clay loam or silt loam. Determining soil texture is often aided with the use of a soil texture triangle.[5] An example of a soil triangle is found on the right side of the page. One side of the triangle represents percent sand, the second side represents percent clay, and the ...
Neff and Associates is a full service litigation firm representing clients in Philadelphia, Delaware and New Jersey for 1967 The download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure of Symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1968 The Drums of Affliction. Weber, Max 1963 The download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase of Religion, tables. It remarks a download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase flow, with its interested cancer, which will be born Only. The acute surgical download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil to work enabled is that of artifact. download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction, put-togetherByR, carousel, Islam and Judaism. It starts, not, pretty not a download modelling with transparent soils: visualizing soil structure interaction and multi phase flow, non-intrusively of labeling the background. ...
defined patterns is called soil structure. inherent property of soil and cannot be modified within short period of time. No public clipboards found for this slide, Student at Stamford University Bangladesh. Soil Structure Sand, silt, clay, and organic-matter particles in a soil combine with one another to form larger particles of various shapes and sizes. True. Soil structure is not a stable parameter; it may vary depending on weather conditions, management, soil processes, etc. 1. together in the form of aggregates. Soil structure is the arrangement of the soil particles into clusters or aggregates of various sizes and shapes. Stones and gravels are excluded from the textural classes. Soil texture 1. Page 1 Soil-Structure Interaction Effects on Seismically Isolated Nuclear Power Plants Vasileios A. Drosos1, Aff.M.ASCE and Nicholas Sitar2, M.ASCE 1Assistant Project Scientist, PEER, University of California, Berkeley 2Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of ...
Samadi, A. and Gilkes, R.J. (1999). Availability to plants of forms of inorganic phosphorus for calcareous soils of South Western Australia. 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. Pp,134-136. Samadi, A. and Gilkes, R.J. (1999). Distribution of forms of phosphorus and their contribution to soil P tests for calcareous soils of South Western Australia. 6th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Barcelona, Spain. Pp.: 137-139.. Samadi, A. (2001). Changes in added available phosphorus with time in contrasting calcareous soils with Mediterranean type of climate. 7th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Bari, Italy. Pp.: 231-234.. Samadi, A. (2004). Use of sorption isotherms for evaluating the phosphate requirement of some calcareous soils of Western Azarbaijan province, Iran. 8th International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate. Marrakech, Morocco. Pp 153-156.. Samadi, A. ...
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and total exchangeable cations (TEC) are two significant concepts in soil fertility. Cations refer to the positively charged nutrients in the soil, e.g. Ca2+ and K+. They are important as they give you an idea of how many cations a soil can potentially hold and how many cations are currently being held. Understanding exactly how these soil properties influence soil fertility and applying soil management systems that enhance these properties can assist in improving pasture quality and yield.. CEC is defined as the degree to which a soil can adsorb (hold/capture) and exchange cations with the soil solution1. This term is often confused with a soils TEC which refers to the number of basic cations that are held on the soil exchange sites (CEC sites) in comparison to the total sites and is usually reported in cmol(+)/kg soil. The ability of the soil to hold nutrients is greatly influenced by the soils organic matter (OM) content, which is mostly made up of carbon, as ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate a measuring technique for determining soil CO2 efflux from large soil samples having undisturbed structure under controlled laboratory conditions. Further objectives were to use the developed measuring method for comparing soil CO2 efflux from samples, collected in three different soil management systems at various soil water content values. The experimental technique was tested and optimised for timing of sampling by taking air samples after 1, 3 and 6 hours of incubation. Based on the results, the incubation time was set to three hours. The CO2 efflux measured for different soil management systems was the highest in the no-till and the lowest in the ploughing treatment, which was in accordance with measurements on accessible organic carbon for microbes. An increase in CO2 efflux with increasing soil water content was found in the studied soil water content range. Our results indicate that soil respiration rates, measured directly after tillage operations, ...
Introduction. The decline of soil organic matter as a result of agricultural land use was identified for review, with the ultimate aim of developing a soil protection strategy and policy for South Africa. Organic matter is of great importance in soil, because it impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. Physically, it promotes aggregate stability and therefore water infiltration, percolation and retention. It impacts on soil chemistry by increasing cation exchange capacity, soil buffer capacity and nutrient supply. Biologically, it stimulates the activity and diversity of organisms in soil.1. The organic matter content of soils is determined mainly by climate (rainfall and temperature), vegetation cover and, to a lesser extent, by topography, parent material and time. Changes in land use, however, can significantly impact on the organic matter content of soils. This impact usually results in the reduction of the organic matter content in soils. The largest of these ...
Cation exchange capacity indicates the ability of a soil to hold onto positively charged ions (cations) including plant nutrients such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and ammonium. The CEC is largely determined by clay content and organic matter. Clay has the greatest ability to hold cations, as it has a very large surface area compared to sand or silt (see Soil Texture in the Lab factsheet). Organic matter also has a high cation exchange capacity (up to 30 times greater than clay ...
Soil samples (0-60 cm) were collected from poplar based agro-forestry system varying in age from 2-20 years to study changes in total soil organic C (SOC), available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil plough layer (0-15 cm) had significantly higher SOC concentration by 34, 61 and 83%, compared with 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths, respectively. Soil organic C decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, regardless of the age of poplar plantation period. The concentration of available-P and K was significantly higher in the surface soil, and decreased with increasing soil depth. Available-P increased significantly (p|0.05) by 16.3-17.7% and available-K by 36.5-52.4% in soil plough layer (0-15 cm) under agro-forestry for 20-yrs, compared with soils under agro-forestry for 2-yrs. Soils under 20-yrs old agro-forestry system had 39.8% and 50.6% higher SOC in 0-7.5 cm and 7.5-15 cm soil depth, compared with soils under 2-yrs old plantation. These results revealed C and nutrients (P and K)
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT , RT , NT, while in the drier ...
Crop production requires adequate soil nitrogen; therefore a false conclusion may be made from only measuring carbon dioxide as a soil health indicator. In this study, one might conclude that sod was the most productive soil according to the field respiration test. However, soil nitrogen levels were the lowest in the sod treatment. This would result in poor crop performance. Soil health reports are needed that include nutrient levels, especially soil nitrogen. Soil conservation practices such as reduced tillage and cover crops have the ability to improve soil productivity. If farmers can measure these soil health improvements and the measurements correlate to crop production increases, then soil conservation will be practiced. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on soil nitrate, ammonium, and carbon dioxide can determine the accuracy of prediction for nitrogen availability (Clark, 2007). A soil health test conducted by V6 growth stage would be useful in corn production to allow farmers ...
Years of measurements have produced a lot of information on soil respiration. We know more or less how the respiration rate is related to changing environmental conditions, as plant respiration and soil respiration follows temperature exponentially. Approximately, respiration rates doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature. Soil water availability (REW) further regulates the respiration.. REW stands for Relative Extractable Water, and it refers to the amount of water in the soil available to plants and soil microfauna. Soil microbes that decompose soil organic matter function in soil water. In drying soil, the microbes have more difficulty accessing soil organic matter and the decomposition process gets slower. Root respiration also declines in very dry soil.. The effects of soil temperature and moisture can be expressed as a simple mathematical equation:. R = Max { 0 , f(REW) * r0 * q10T/10 - cr }. R stands for respiration expressed as the resulting carbon, r0 =1.1 µmol m-2 s-1, ...
S01 Soil Physics This session aims to further understanding of processes in structured soils through research that quantifies soil structure, preferential flow of mass through soil structure, and the formation and degradation of soil structure. One process that can alter soil structure and function is soil compaction, which causes aggregate and/or particle rearrangement, alters pore continuity, and changes accessibility and tensorial functions of corresponding soil properties. Another process of interest includes expansive soils where wetting and drying cycles cause changes in macro and micro pore structure and function, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and stability. Cosponsor(s):. Soil & Water Management & Conservation ...
Soil moisture is of primary importance for predicting the evolution of soil carbon stocks and fluxes, both because it strongly controls organic matter decomposition and because it is predicted to change at global scales in the following decades. However, the soil functions used to model the heterotrophic respiration response to moisture have limited empirical support and introduce an uncertainty of at least 4% in global soil carbon stock predictions by 2100. The necessity of improving the representation of this relationship in models has been highlighted in recent studies. Here we present a data-driven analysis of soil moisture-respiration relations based on 90 soils. With the use of linear models we show how the relationship between soil heterotrophic respiration and different measures of soil moisture is consistently affected by soil properties. The empirical models derived include main effects and moisture interaction effects of soil texture, organic carbon content and bulk density. When compared to
Variability in soil properties is a critical element across wide areas of researches especially in several aspects of agriculture and environment including sewage disposal and global climate change. Particle size fraction (sand, silt, and clay), effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon nitrogen ratio, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium) and acidity are frequently used in agriculture for soil management. The objective of this study therefore was to identify soil management factors from these set of 15 soil properties and spatial distribution of representative soil management properties. The study was carried out in the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm measuring 8.19 hectares in University of Uyo Annex, Uyo in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Nine and ten traverses were made horizontally and vertically respectively at 40 meters intervals. A total of 58 soil samples were collected at 0 - 15 cm depth
The contents of organic matter and microorganisms in soils are sensitive parameters to evaluate soil quality. In general, high contents in organic and microbial carbon (Corg, Cmic) are related to high soil fertility. Especially in the tropics, climate and land use have strong direct effects on basic soil parameters and soil microbial biomass. Furthermore, alterations of the basic soil parameters (e.g. in contents, stocks or distribution) also entail changes of soil microorganisms. Although these major factors and their controlling effect on soil microbial biomass are known, detailed studies including soils of multiple major ecosystems of a region are scarce, especially in Africa. Various climates can be observed on the African continent and the projected climate change is assumed to have regionally diverging effects. Furthermore, at the expense of natural ecosystems, the high population growth in Africa leads to an increasing demand for agricultural land and high rates of land-use change. To ...
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity), the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive
The decline of soil fertility has been one of the major constraints to low level of agricultural productivity and it primarily referred to the exploitation of soil nitrogen. Nitrogen could be added to or lost from the soil via different natural and human-induced processes. The work area is located in lower bilate river basin within the ethiopian rift valley which was characterized by an arid climatic conditions. The core objectives of this work were modeling of the soil nitrogen balance and the plant available stock soil nitrogen by using GIS and Remote sensing and assessing the uncertainities and source of errors. The widely used methodology of Stoorvogel and Smaling was adapted for soil nutrient balance estimation while the plant available stock soil nitrogen was determined using empirical relations. This book described acomprehensive methodology which is spatially explicit for modelling soil nitrogen balance and is very useful to professionals working in agricultural land management and ...
PREFACE xi. INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ACRONYMS xiv. COMMON HYPHENATED INSTRUMENTAL METHOD ABBREVIATIONS xv. ABBREVIATED PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS xvi. CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY OF SOIL CHEMISTRY 1. 1.1 The 19th Century 3. 1.2 The End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century 8. 1.3 The 20th Century 11. 1.4 The End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century 14. 1.5 Conclusion 15. Problems 15. References 16. Bibliography 18. CHAPTER 2 SOIL BASICS PART I: LARGE FEATURES 19. 2.1. Horizonation 28. 2.2 Peds 33. 2.3 Soil Color 36. 2.4 Soil Naming 38. 2.5 The Landscape 39. 2.6 Relationship of Large Features to Soil Chemistry, Soil Analysis, and Instrumentation 40. 2.7 Conclusions 42. Problems 42. References 43. Bibliography 43. CHAPTER 3 SOIL BASICS PART II: MICROSCOPIC TO ATOMIC ORBITAL DESCRIPTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS 44. Soil Components Independent 45. 3.1 Soil Solids 45. Soil Components Interacting 53. 3.2. Bonding Considerations 53. Soil Components in Combination ...
Tripolyphosphates (TPP) have been commonly used as a phosphorus (P) source in slow release liquid fertilizers [1-3]. To be bioavailable to plant or microbial communities, TPP must first be hydrolyzed to phosphate monomers (ortho-P). Tripolyphosphate is believed to persist in the soil solution until undergoing hydrolysis, when it becomes bioavailable and reactive in the soil environment [4-6]. However, there is significant evidence that suggests TPP and other linear polyphosphates adsorb directly to metal oxide surfaces without having to first be hydrolyzed [7-11]. If TPP adsorbs directly to soil mineral surfaces, this could not only reduce TPP mobility in the soil solution but also reduce calcium phosphate (Ca-P) mineral precipitation. Calcium phosphate mineral formation immobilizes P from the soil solution, reducing the fraction of readily bioavailable P.. Tripolyphosphate or linear polyphosphate applications to calcareous soils may be a novel way to improve P nutrient availability. Since ...
The increasing temperature in Arctic tundra deepens the active layer, which is the upper layer of permafrost soil that experiences repeated thawing and freezing. The increasing of soil temperature and the deepening of active layer seem to affect soil microbial communities. Therefore, information on soil microbial communities at various soil depths is essential to understand their potential responses to climate change in the active layer soil. We investigated the community structure of soil bacteria in the active layer from moist acidic tundra in Council, Alaska. We also interpreted their relationship with some relevant soil physicochemical characteristics along soil depth with a fine scale (5 cm depth interval). The bacterial community structure was found to change along soil depth. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and candidate phylum WPS-2 rapidly decreased with soil depth, while those of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and candidate ...
Bacterial diversity in soil exceeds by orders of magnitude that found in oceans and others compartments of the biosphere. Strong evidence suggests that spatial isolation imparted by fragmented aquatic microhabitats in unsaturated soil plays a large part in creating this diversity. Furthermore, since soil bacteria depend on water for hydration and diffusion of nutrients, examination of the hydrologic conditions at relevant spatial scales in soil is important. I evaluate the role of soil texture, which determines the extent and connectivity of microhabitats, in constraining the development of soil bacterial communities. A range of soil samples of varying textures was collected from sixteen locations across Connecticut and Massachusetts. Soil particle size distributions were measured, and samples were tested for chemical characteristics (e.g., pH, %C, %N) that might influence diversity. T-RFLP analysis was performed to evaluate the richness, diversity and composition of bacterial communities in the samples
Globally, soil and surface litter store 2 to 3 times more organic carbon than vegetation and 3 times more carbon than the atmosphere. The soil organic stock at a soil depth of 1 m is globally about 1500 to 1600 Pg (Pg = 1015 g). The amount of carbon and nitrogen stored in the soil is influenced by many factors. An important factor affecting soil properties, carbon and nitrogen storage is land use and land cover change (LULCC). Conversion of grasslands into tree plantations is common with the aim of increasing aboveground carbon stocks to mitigate climate change. This study investigated the changes that happened in the soil in the Glendhu catchment (Otago, New Zealand) after conversion of tussock grassland to pine plantation 36 years ago. The objectives of this study were to  Quantify the soil carbon and nitrogen stocks to 1 m soil depth  Determine the physical parameters of soil  Investigate the relationships between soil parameters, soil depths and land use types  Investigate the ...
Plant performance is, at least partly, linked to the location of roots with respect to soil structure features and the micro-environment surrounding roots. Measurements of root distributions from intact samples, using optical microscopy and field tracings have been partially successful but are imprecise and labour-intensive. Theoretically, X-ray computed micro-tomography represents an ideal solution for non-invasive imaging of plant roots and soil structure. However, before it becomes fast enough and affordable or easily accessible, there is still a need for a diagnostic tool to investigate root/soil interplay. Here, a method for detection of undisturbed plant roots and their immediate physical environment is presented. X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging are combined to produce projection images of soil sections from which root distributions and soil structure can be analyzed. The clarity of roots on the X-ray film is sufficient to allow manual tracing on an acetate sheet fixed over the ...
Composts provide fertility and many other benefits to soil that no other chemical fertilizers can provide. Composts contain both macro- and micro-nutrients in proportions not typically present in most fertilizer inputs. Nutrients in composts are released slowly, thus providing more balanced nutrition throughout the growing season while reducing leaching potential. Composts can also buffer soil acidity or alkalinity so as to develop a more optimal pH for plant growth. In addition to adding nutrients, the main benefit of using composts is the improvement of soil structure. Organic matter provided by compost amendments can promote soil aggregate formation, thus improving soil structure. Improved soil structure can lead to better water infiltration, air penetration, and plant-root establishment. The added organic matter also increases retention of soil nutrients and, if properly incorporated, reduces soil-erosion risk. Composts also foster diverse soil organisms; these bacteria, fungi, insects, and ...
We grew cuttings of two early (mid Oct.) and two late (early Nov.) leaf-fall Populus tremuloides Michx. genotypes (referred to as genotype pairs) for c. 150 d in open-top chambers to understand how twice-ambient (elevated) CO2 and soil N availability would affect growth and C allocation. For this study, we selected genotypes differing in leaf area duration to find out if late-season photosynthesis influenced C allocation to roots. Both elevated CO2 and high soil N availability significantly increased estimated whole-tree photosynthesis, but they did so in different ways. Elevated CO2 stimulated leaf-level photosynthesis rates, whereas high soil N availability resulted in greater total plant leaf area. The early leaf-fall genotype pair had signficantly higher photosynthesis rates per unit leaf area than the late leaf-fall genotype pair and elevated CO2 enhanced this difference. The early leaf-fall genotype pair had less leaf area than the late leaf-fall genotype pair, and their rate of leaf area ...
Leave the soil and mulch in place until after the last spring frost. What is Soil Conservation? Still, soils persist to face serious threats in so many ways. Describe how nutrient demands change at different plant growth stages. 19 Ways to Boost Your Fertility If youve been trying several months to conceive and have not been successful, check out these tips to boost your fertility. Soil & Soil Fertility. Soil organism, any organism inhabiting the soil during part or all of its life. This project is one of many efforts to improve soil fertility. The health of our soil is a key component to the efficient utilisation of soil nutrients in the production of food in an environmental and sustainable manner. Luckily, there are a few natural ways to increase your fertility. 6. 3.2 Soil quality indexes. To protect them, cut their stems back to 10 inches from the soils surface after the first fall frost, and surround their bases with an 8-inch layer of soil.When the layers surface freezes , cover it ...
For this lab sandy soil can be obtained at a nursery. This soil will be labeled potting soil for Succulents, which typically grow in sandier soils. Loamy soil can be substituted with regular potting soil. Clay soil will have to be dug from a local source. If the soil is not a red or orange color, it may still have a lot of clay in it. High clay content soil, when wet, can be squeezed and it will retain the shape without falling apart. It also has a slimy quality when wet. This is the element of soil that makes it really stick to your boots. If you live in an area where you have good soil, digging down below the top soil usually results in a larger clay content as the clay particles tend to move down through the soil over time and compact deeper in the earth (its like the crumbs at the bottom of a bag of potato chips ...
Grazing by domestic ungulates can have substantial impacts on forests in arid and semi-arid regions, possibly including severe loss of carbon from the soil. Predicting net livestock impacts on soil organic carbon stocks remains challenging, however, due to the dependence on animal loads and on soil and environmental parameters. The objective of this study was to better understand grazing effects on soil organic carbon in seasonal tropical dry forests of north-eastern Brazil (Caatinga) by quantifying carbon stocks of the upper soil profile (0-5 cm depth) and greater soil depths (,5 cm depth down to bedrock) along a gradient of grazing intensity while accounting for other influencing factors such as soil texture, vegetation, landscape topography, and water availability. We analysed soil organic carbon, soil clay content, altitude above sea level, soil depth to bedrock, distance to the nearest permanent water body, species diversity of perennial plants and aboveground biomass on 45 study plots ...
Liu , X , Zheng , J , Zhang , D , Cheng , K , Zhou , H , Zhang , A , Li , L , Joseph , S , Smith , P , Crowley , D , Kuzyakov , Y & Pan , G 2016 , Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils Science of the Total Environment , vol 554-555 , pp. 259-265 . DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02. ...
Soil Chemistry: Test Your Understanding Teachers Guide + ward s science What are the main chemical processes that can alter the chemical elements in soil? The main chemical processes include hydrolysis, complexation, oxidation-reduction, ion exchange, hydration, and flocculation-dispersion. What is the difference between mineral soils and organic soils? Organic soils contain higher levels of organic carbon than mineral soils, which contain less than 12 to 20 percent organic carbon. Critical Thinking: Briefly describe the link between soil chemistry and plant nutrient accumulation. Also explain why it is important for animal health to maintain adequate levels of soil nutrients. The chemicals found in soil impact plant growth as well as the accumulation of nutrients in plants over time. Maintaining proper nutrient levels supports appropriate plant growth but is also important for the health of the animals that graze on the plants. Deficiencies in certain nutrients, such as magnesium, will not ...
The 10 month pot trial showed that biochar additions had a significant impact on NH\(_4\) and NO\(_3\), total C and N, pH, EC and soil moisture content in both soil types and biochar loading. There was a relatively limited effect on microbial biomass in amended soils; however biochar addition reduced the potential nitrification at the higher biochar rate in the two lighter soils (RL and BSL). The addition of biochar at different loading rates was reflected in significant differences in the bacterial diversity between biochar treatments in the BSL and RL soils, while the BCL soil was more resilient to soil amendment. Complete ammonia oxidizing (Nitrospira spp.) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were more abundant than standard ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in all soils. Increased biochar loading raised the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in BCL soil while Nitrospira became more abundant in BSL soil. Biochar addition affected the abundance of certain N2-fixer groups in a soil dependent ...
The plan released today lays out a series of goals for its action teams (or committees) to tackle. Beth Mason, NACDs North Central Region representative and Soil Health Champions Network lead, serves as co-chair on the groups Communications and Education Action Team alongside Ron Nichols, soil health communications coordinator for NRCS.. Each of SHIs goals fall under a general category. For instance, under Research, SHI proposes to enhance agricultural productivity and resilience through improved soil health by optimizing soils water holding capacity, water infiltration, and plant nutrient availability, and suppressing soil-borne diseases through soil health management systems. Its second research goal aims to quantify the environmental and human health benefits that result from improved soil health.. The group has also set out to determine how best to design and conduct large-scale soil health assessments, such as a National Soil Health Assessment. Other goals included quantifying the ...
What is a soil amendment?. A soil amendment is any material that is added to soil to improve its physical properties - such as water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage, aeration and structure. The goal is to provide a better environment for plant roots.. Why do I need soil amendments?. The success of any garden, farm, or lawn begins with the quality of its soil. Soil is not an organism by itself - soil amendments help micro organisms grow which promote good soil structure. This enlivened soil structure allows for better aeration, water absorption and the unlocking of nutrients that stimulate plant and root development. Always remember, healthy soil produces healthy plants.. Why choose natural soil amendments over synthetic fertilizer?. Synthetic supplements do not provide the essential nutrients that good soil needs for proper plant health and growth. Synthetics also actively destroy organic matter which, over time, will completely wipe out any beneficial micro organisms ...
Tillage system and crop rotation have long-term effects on soil productivity and soil quality components such as soil carbon and other soil physical, biological, and chemical properties. In addition, both tillage and crop rotation have effects on weed and soil disease control. There is a need for well-defined, long-term tillage and crop rotation studies across the different soils and climate conditions in the state. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of different tillage systems and crop rotations on soil productivity.
Soil testing and fertilizer applications are of the utmost importance in achieving a successful garden. We receive calls at the Shelby County Extension Office daily from gardeners who wish to improve the soil in their garden. My first recommendation to achieve a fertile and productive garden is always to start with a soil test. There are several reasons and benefits as to why it is essential to test your soil. It is all about soil pH!. Soil pH affects nutrient availability. It describes the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. If the soil pH is too low or too high, it can affect plants ability to access the appropriate nutrients from the soil. Depending on the soil pH, you might get a lime or elemental sulfur recommendation. Lime is used to increase the soil pH and elemental sulfur lowers the soil pH. It is imperative to follow the recommendations as closely as possible. Excess lime can increase the pH making it a challenge to lower the pH with sulfur applications. Testing the soil every two to ...
A soil has a soil texture (sand and silt and clay) and it has organic matter mixed in it. But weather changes the soil. It is cold on the Earth near the north and south poles. It is hot near the equator of the Earth. Some places on Earth get a lot of rain and some places get no rain. Hot and wet weather make one kind of soil. Cold and dry weather make another kind of soil. Rain water makes small things in the soil move down with the water. When the things in the water get stuck in the soil those things make a layer in the soil. If you dig down into the soil you may find many layers in the soil. The layers may have different colors. The layers may have different soil textures. The top part of the soil may have a lot of humus and sand. Below that layer there may be a layer of silt. Below that layer there may be a layer of clay. The sand stays on the top because it is large. The silt goes down a little with the water and makes a layer because it is small. The silt is smaller than some of the ...
A total APAL nutrient analysis enables you or your agronomist to formulate and exact foliar program.. Leaf/Soil analysis: There are significant differences between a soil and plant leaf analysis. LEAF (TISSUE) ANALYSIS. Represents plant nutrient levels and uptake of elements as a result of soil levels and soil imbalances.. A leaf analysis is not always an indication of soil levels.. SOIL ANALYSIS. Shows available soil elements and mineral imbalances.. Plant uptake can be different due to soil imbalances.. UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCE. BETWEEN A LEAF AND A SOIL ANALYSIS and the IMPORTANCE OF BOTH. A leaf analysis can often be seen as a reflection of the soil in that it reflects what nutrients the soils mineral balance is allowing the plant to extract eg. High soil potassium inhibit plant uptake of magnesium, high magnesium soils inhibit plant potassium, high sodium inhibits plant potassium and calcium and high soil calcium inhibits plant uptake of most trace elements, so we often see a mineral ...
First and foremost, we need to disturb soil less. The advent of no-till and reduced tillage methods have allowed us to increase the carbon content of soils.. No-till and direct-seeding methods place the seed directly into the soil, minimizing the disturbance associated with seedbed preparation. The lack of disturbance allows the roots and crop residues from the previous crops to form soil organic matter. It reduces the degradation of the soil organic matter already present in the soil.. In Canada, we are already benefiting from reduced tillage. In the Prairies, no-tillage agriculture has increased from less than five per cent of the land area in the early 1990s to almost 50 per cent in 2006.. The situation is a bit more complex in Eastern Canada. The regions soil type and climate make it less easy to build soil organic matter. At Dalhousies Atlantic Soil Health Lab, we are exploring the potential of various cropping practices to increase soil organic matter content in the soils of Atlantic ...
Soils can vary on the same property. An easy way to identify your soil type is to fill a small jar with soil from your yard, shake it, and let the soil settle overnight. The following day you should notice distinct soil layers. Sandy soil tends to settle at the bottom, clay at the top, and silt in the middle.. Why Does Soil Matter?. Soil performs five essential functions; using the wrong type of soil or unhealthy soil can impede tree health by constricting roots from accessing the water and nutrients necessary. Soil helps regulate water, supports biodiversity, filters pollutants, provides physical support, and cycles nutrients. You can understand why attempting to plant a tree that requires less soil saturation may not thrive if its planted in silt or clay soil. Trees show signs of stress, possible signs that the soil isnt healthy include leaf discoloration, brittle limbs, and even stunted tree growth.. Its also important to dig a hole deep enough for tree roots to grow. Planting in shallow ...
How soil microbes assimilate carbon-C, nitrogen-N, phosphorus-P, and sulfur-S is fundamental for understanding nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We compiled a global database of C, N, P, and S concentrations in soils and microbes and developed relationships between them by using a power function model. The C:N:P:S was estimated to be 287:17:1:0.8 for soils, and 42:6:1:0.4 for microbes. We found a convergence of the relationships between elements in soils and in soil microbial biomass across C, N, P, and S. The element concentrations in soil microbial biomass follow a homeostatic regulation curve with soil element concentrations across C, N, P and S, implying a unifying mechanism of microbial assimilating soil elements. This correlation explains the well-constrained C:N:P:S stoichiometry with a slightly larger variation in soils than in microbial biomass. Meanwhile, it is estimated that the minimum requirements of soil elements for soil microbes are 0.8 mmol C Kg -1 dry soil, 0.1 mmol N ...
The experiment was implemented at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh to assess the effect of variety and vermicompost on the starch and sugar content activity of potato and their performance under ambient storage condition. The experiment consisted of two factors, i.e., factor A:- Potato varieties (V-4): V1: BARI TPS-1, V2: BARI Alu-28 (Lady Rosetta),V3: BARI Alu-25 (Asterix) and V4: BARI Alu-29 (Courage); factor B:-Vermicompost level (M-4): M1: 0 t ha-1 (Control), M2: 2 t ha-1, M3: 4 t ha-1 and M4: 6 t ha-1. Inferior quality is a major problem for potato production in Bangladesh. The application of vermicompost may enhance the processing quality of potato. The research revealed that vermicompost had a remarkable effect on most of the processing quality contributing parameters. Results also exhibited those processing parameters improved with increasing vermicompost level. Among the sixteen treatment combinations, Asterix with vermicompost at 6 t ha-1 showed the highest glucose, sucrose
AbstractSoil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal) treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m), consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T), a pair of cows (C) and a pair of donkeys (D). Undisturbed soil samples (120) were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The
Site preparation treatments are often used prior to the planting of clearcut forest lands to improve planter access and to increase the number and quality of planting spots. Most mechanical site preparation treatments alter the configuration and material composition of surface soil materials, and can have marked effects on soil properties important to seedling survival and growth. Effects of some of these treatments on soil moisture, soil temperature, rates of nitrogen mineralization, and the establishment of Picea glauca x engelmannii seedlings were examined on fresh, moist, and wet sites in the moist cold subzone of the Sub-boreal Spruce Zone in west-central British Columbia. Four types of microsite alteration were investigated: forest floor removal (spot scalping), soil mounds over inverted sections of forest floor (inverted mounds), mineral soil mounds over a mineral soil surface, and inversion of the forest floor and mineral soil in place. Soil temperature was monitored continuously and ...
Adams, W. A.: The effect of organic matter on the bulk and true densities of some uncultivated podzolic soils, J. Soil Sci., 24, 10-17, 1973. Ahrens, B., Braakhekke, M., Guggenberger, G., Schrumpf, M., and Reichstein, M.: Contribution of sorption, DOC transport and microbial interactions to the 14C age of a soil organic carbon profile: Insights from a calibrated process model, Soil Biol. Biochem., 88, 390-402, 2015. Andrén, O. and Kätterer, T.: ICBM: the introductory carbon balance model for exploration of soil carbon balances, Ecol. Appl., 7, 1226-1236, 1997. Angst, Š., Mueller, C., Cajthaml, T., Angst, G., Lhotáková, Z., Bartuška, M., Špaldoňová, A., and Frouz, J.: Stabilization of soil organic matter by earthworms is connected with physical protection rather than with chemical changes of organic matter, Geoderma, 289, 29-35, 2017. Arya, L. and Heitman, J.: A non-empirical method for computing pore radii and soil water characteristics from particle-size distribution, Soil Sci. Soc. ...
Soil Tests. Soil samples are sent to Hills Laboratories in Hamilton. They take around 10 days to be analysed and show the CEC and mineral reserves in the soil. We require about 3 cups of soil or 15-20 soil cores, sampled to 150mm depth, taken from random places in the garden or paddock. Avoid sampling recently grazed paddocks. If sampling grazed pasture, avoid dung and urine patches, camping areas, water troughs and gateways. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) basic soil test (K, Ca, Mg, Na, pH, Olsen P, CEC, Base Saturation) plus S (includes SO4, extractable Organic S and Anion Storage Capacity) and an Organic Soil Profile (for checking soil carbon levels) costs $121 +GST per sample.. The above soil tests, plus Resin P (good for measuring available P in soils with low pH or if you have been using RPR) and total S costs $157 +GST per sample.. Herbage Tests. Herbage tests complement Reams soil tests and allow levels of trace minerals to be analysed. Herbage samplse are sent to Hills Laboratories in ...
Most soil surveys are based on soil geomorphic, physical and chemical properties, while many classifications are based on morphological properties in soil profile. Typically, microbial properties of the soil(e.g. biomass and functional diversity) or soil biological quality indicators (SBQIs) are not directly considered in soil taxonomic keys, yet soil classification schemes are often used to infer soil biological function relating to policy (e.g. soil pollution attenuation, climate change mitigation). To critically address this, our aimwas to assess whether rates of carbon turnover in a diverse range of UK soils (n , 500) could effectively be described and sub-divided according to broadly defined soil groups by conventional soil classification schemes. Carbon turnover in each soil over a 90 d period was assessed by monitoring the mineralisation of either a labile (14C-labelled artificial root exudates) or more recalcitrant C source (14C-labelled plant leaves) in soil held at field capacity at 10 ...
Organo-mineral nutrient sources are promising soil amendments for sustainable crop production in Nigeria. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Cross River University of Technology Obubra during the 2016 cropping season. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and amended rice mill waste (RMW) on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). The treatments consisted of 10 kg ha-1 RMW as control and 10 kg ha-1 of RMW amended with 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 kg N ha-1. The 6 treatments were replicated 3 times under RCBD with each experimental plot size measuring 4 × 3 m. All the treatments including control increased the chemical properties of the soil over the initial soil properties including total N, available P, SOM, pH and the exch. Cations; Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+. RMW + 40 kg N ha-1 and RMW 50 kg N ha-1 produced tallest plants, highest number of leaves per plant and largest leaf area of maize plants.  RMW + 30
In this study, influence of land-use type on soil respiration was investigated in poplar plantation, apple orchard (apple trees with understory grasses) and adjacent grassland sites in SeyitlerArea,Artvin, Turkey. Soil respiration was measured approximately monthly in three sampling plots in each land use type from January 2005 to November 2005 using the soda-lime technique. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.63-3.59 g C m-2 d-1. Mean soil respiration in apple orchard, poplar plantation and grassland sites were 1.98, 1.45 and 1.12 g C m-2 d-1, respectively. Mean soil respiration wassignificantly greater in apple orchard than in poplar plantations and grasslands. Seasonal changes in soil respiration were related to soil moisture and temperature changes. Mean soil respiration rate correlated strongly with subsurface soil (15-35cm) pH (R = -0,73; p,0.05), sand content (R= 0.96, p,0.001), soil silt content (R= -0.75; p,0.05), soil clay content (R= -0,83; p,0.001) and organic matter content ...
Assessment of soil quality is an invaluable tool in determining the sustainability and environmental impact of agricultural ecosystems. The study was conducted to assess the quality of the soils under arable cultivation, locally irri-gated and non-irrigated, forestry plantations of teak (Tectona grandis Lin.) and gmelina (Gme- lina arborea Roxb.), and cashew (Anacardium occidentale Lin.) plantation agro ecosystems using soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total ni-trogen (STN) and soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and N (SMBN) at Minna in the southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from soil depths of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm in all the agro ecosystems and analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. All the agro ecosystems had similar loamy soil texture at both depths. The soils have high fer-tility status in terms of available phosphorus and exchangeable calcium, magnesium and po- tassium. The irrigated arable land had significantly (P | 0.05) higher SOC and STN in both soil
A study to evaluate the effect of Ficus thonningii (Blume) on soil physicochemical properties was conducted in Ahferom district of Tigray, Ethiopia. For the soil physico-chemical property study, two factors (distance from the tree trunk and soil depth from the ground level) arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six replications was involved. The distance factor had three levels viz. at half of the canopy radius under the tree, canopy edge (radius of the canopy) and at three times canopy radius away from the trunk outside the canopy. The depth factor had two levels viz. surface (0 - 15 cm) and subsurface (15 - 30 cm) soil layers. Data were collected on soil physicochemical properties viz. soil texture, bulk density, moisture content, soil N, soil P and soil K, %OC, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The collected data were subjected to ANOVA using the general linear model of SAS. Results of soil physicochemical properties revealed that except for soil texture, the
Rainfall pattern effect on soil erosion in soils with different texture and mineralogy. No significant main or interaction effects on soil erosion were observed (Table 3). Nevertheless, IR treatment caused higher soil erosion than SR. Soil erosion was higher in SCL compared to SL. Equally, kaolinitic soils eroded more than quartz-dominated soils.. Rainfall pattern effect on steady-state infiltration rate in soils with different texture and mineralogy. The SSIR was 10.57 mm.h-1 in SCL kaolinitic soils under IR compared to 4.68 mm.h-1 in SL kaolinitic soils. However, under the same rainfall pattern, SSIR was 2.99 mm.h-1 in SCL and 2.87 mm.h-1 in SL in quartz-dominated soils. Moreover, the dominance of quartz resulted in lower SSIR than for kaolinitic soil within the same rainfall pattern and texture class. In the SR treatment, SSIR was 5.79 mm-h-1 in kaolinitic SCL soils compared to 3.67 mm.h-1 in quartz-dominated SCL soils. Therefore, both IR and SR rainfall patterns reduced SSIR in SCL and SL ...
Cadmium (Cd) concentration in soil solution and its bioavailability is controlled by sorption-desorption reactions. The objective of this research was to compare Cd adsorption behavior in six calcareous and four acid soils. Soil samples were equilibrated with 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 containing 25 to 3200 mg Cd L−1. Results showed that the tendency for adsorption was high at low Cd concentrations (0-400 mg L-1), but decreased as the Cd increased (400-3200 mg L-1). Among five equations evaluated, Freundlich, Langmuir, and Gunary equations best described Cd adsorption in both calcareous and acid soils as indicated by high values for coefficient of determination (R2) and low values for standard error of estimate (SE). Stepwise regression equations between constants of the best-fitted models and soil properties revealed that cation exchange capacity (CEC) and clay content were the most important soil properties affecting Cd adsorption behavior in calcareous soils, whereas in acid soils Cd adsorption was mainly
Soil food webs of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are simple. These include primary trophic levels of mosses, algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and their protozoan and metazoan consumers (including relatively few species of nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, and microarthropods). These biota are patchily distributed across the landscape, with greatest faunal biodiversity associated with wet soil. Understanding trophic structure is critical to studies of biotic interactions and distribution; yet, McMurdo Dry Valley soil food web structure has been inferred from limited laboratory culturing and micro- scopic observations. To address this, we measured stable isotope natural abundance ratios of C (13C/12C) and N (15N/14N) for di erent metazoan taxa (using whole body biomass) to determine soil food web structure in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Nitrogen isotopes were most useful in di erentiating trophic levels because they fractionated predictably at higher trophic levels. Using ...
polyphenols; aluminum accumulator; near natural forest management; chloroform fumigation extraction; soil structure; soil enzymes; manure pelleting; microbial biomass; Oxisol; biolability; soil nutrients; second production cycle; PLFA; pyrolysis; Eucalyptus sp.; Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation; carbon; the Three Gorges Reservoir; revegetation; carbon distribution index; climate change; seasons; annual increment average; topography; humic substances; litter N; soil fertility; climate zone; nutrient cycling; Daxingan Mountains; carbon mineralization; nitrification; 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR); organic matter; throughfall; forest soil; dissolved organic carbon (DOC); P species; stoichiometric homeostasis; dissolved organic matter (DOM); soil organic matter fraction; variable-charge soils; ammonium; nitrate; soil degradation; soil P fractions; seasonal trends; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; nitrogen dynamics; net primary productivity; soil microbial communities; beech ...
A kinetic study for the phosphorus release of a formulated CaHAP-Z fertilizer was done to observe its behavior when applied to clay loam soil. The study of release kinetics of CaHAP-Z was done along with CaHAP and the control fertilizer Solophos™ to determine whether the formulated fertilizer can be an alternative for the conventional fertilizer. Results showed that the formulated fertilizer CAHAP-Z contains 3.73% phosphorus with 513.10 nm particle (Dynamic Light Scattering) indicating that the formulated fertilizer can be classified as a nanofertilizer. The formulated CaHAP-Z fertilizer showed the slowest release kinetics compared to the controls. In addition, this study showed that the simple Elovich kinetic model is the general equation that best fits to describe the phosphorus release of fertilizers. ...
The potential of a plant species to acquire nutrients depends on its ability to explore the soil by its root system. Co-cultivation of different species is anticipated to lead to vertical root niche differentiation and thus to higher soil nutrient depletion. Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure vs. mixed stands. Pure stands of mustard and phacelia robustly reached 70 cm soil depth, while oat preferably colonized upper soil layers, and clover developed the shallowest and smallest root system. Analysis of residual nitrate pools in different soil depths and correlation with root biomass showed that, besides rooting depth also root biomass determines soil nitrogen depletion. While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass
Soil respiration is a key component of the global carbon cycle, and even small changes in soil respiration rates could result in significant changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. The conversion of tropical forests to rubber plantations in SE Asia is increasingly common, and there is a need to understand the impacts of this land-use change on soil respiration in order to revise CO2 budget calculations. This study focused on the spatial variability of soil respiration along a slope in a natural tropical rainforest and a terraced rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, SW China. In each land-use type, we inserted 105 collars for soil respiration measurements. Research was conducted over one year in Xishuangbanna during May, June, July and October 2015 (wet season) and January and March 2016 (dry season). The mean annual soil respiration rate was 30% higher in natural forest than in rubber plantation and mean fluxes in the wet and dry season were 15.1 and 9.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in natural forest and 11.7 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic nitrogen fertilization and carbon sequestration in grassland soils: evidence of a microbial enzyme link. AU - Cenini, Valeria L.. AU - Fornara, Dario A.. AU - McMullan, Geoffrey. AU - Ternan, Nigel. AU - Lajtha, Kate. AU - Crawley, Michael J.. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Chronic nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly affect soil carbon (C) sequestration by altering biochemical interactions between plant detritus and soil microbes. In lignin-rich forest soils, chronic N additions tend to increase soil C content partly by decreasing the activity of lignin-degrading enzymes. In cellulose-rich grassland soils it is not clear whether cellulose-degrading enzymes are also inhibited by N additions and what consequences this might have on changes in soil C content. Here we address whether chronic N fertilization has affected (1) the C content of light versus heavier soil fractions, and (2) the activity of four extracellular enzymes including the C-acquiring enzyme ...
We investigated the influence of soil drainage class and tree species on nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in two forest catenas in southern Quebec. Monthly net N mineralization and nitrification rates were determined along transects running from well-drained to poorly drained soils for 2 years through in situ incubation of homogenized soils. Potential N transformation rates in soils under American beech, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock trees were determined through incubation of homogenized soils in the laboratory under two different moisture regimes (50 and 100% water by volume) mimicking well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions in the two watersheds. Field-based N mineralization rates averaged 38 ± 6 mg m−2 d−1 in well-drained soils, while those in the poorly drained soils averaged 17 ± 5 mg N m−2 d−1. Similarly, net nitrification rates in well-drained soils (18 ± 4 mg N m−2 d−1) were 3 times greater than those in poorly drained soils (6 ± 3 mg N ...
INTRODUCTION. The constant and significant weight increase of agricultural and forest vehicles over the last decades in Brazil has caused concern in view of the possible long-term consequences on eucalyptus yield in soils under traffic. The imminent loss in forest productivity is great since traffic is a repeated action in stands (Balbuena et al., 2000). Machine traffic is admittedly one of the main origins of soil compaction, which has a negative knock-on effect on tree growth (Wert & Thomas, 1981; Froehlich et al., 1985; Startsev & McNabb, 2000).. Repeated traffic in a same area intensifies the damage done to the soil structure with consequent reductions in crop yields in the first as well as in the following years of production (Håkansson & Reeder, 1994; Lal, 1996; Jorajuria et al., 1997). During the removal of the wood from forest stands the machines drive along one and the same row several times. This can cause soil compaction and, consequently, hinder root growth. It was observed that in ...
Feb 20, 2017. Abstract:. Urban agriculture has been recently highlighted with the increased importance for recreation in modern society; however, soil quality and public health may not be guaranteed because of continuous exposure to various pollutants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil quality of urban agriculture by soil microbial assessments. Two independent variables, organic and inorganic fertilizers, were considered. The activities of soil enzymes including dehydrogenase, ?-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, urease, alkaline and acid phosphatases were used as indicators of important microbial mediated functions and the soil chemical properties were measured in the soils applied with organic or inorganic fertilizer for 10 years. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis was applied to determine the soil microbial community composition. Relatively higher microbial community richness and enzyme activities were found in the organic fertilizers applied soils as compared to the inorganic ...
Organic amendment is a good alternative to improve soil fertility to maintain or increase crop forage and grain production. After several times of organics application (crop cycles) is important to follow soil physical and chemical parameters to avoid soil pollution such as salinity and nitrate. The main objective of this study was to maintain good triticale forage production and soil quality after seven years in plots where two factor were studied:caw manure amendments; 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 t ha -, and one chemical level with 150-100-00 kg ha-1 of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium, respectively just to compare manure amendments. After This time to decrease soil salinity and high levels of nitrate triticaleforage was planted in the same plots using two varieties without manure and chemical fertilizer application. Triticale variables measured were green forage and soil parameters such as; Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Hydrogenpotential (Ph) and Nitrates (NO-3). Results ...
Clonal white clover growing in pots was inoculated with Heterodera trifolii, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne trifoliophila, Pratylenchus sp., or Xiphinema diversicaudatum, pulse-labelled with 14C and after 15 days the distribution of 14C in compartments of the soil: plant: nematode system determined. Nematode inoculation had no effect on shoot, root and soil microbial biomasses, but the nematode treatments significantly affected the distribution of 14C in these compartments. The greatest translocation of 14C to the soil was in pots with X. diversicaudatum, M. hapla or M. trifoliophila. The percentage of 14C in the microbial biomass varied significantly, being highest with X. diversicaudatum and Pratylenchus sp., and lowest in control pots. Nematodes of all species from the soil consistently had lower specific activity than those from roots. It has now been demonstrated for a range of nematodes and soils that nematode infection increases translocation of photosynthate to soil microbial biomass. As the
Objective:Investigating the microbes and interactions of the beneficial symbiotic relationships between the components of the system ecology in the food chains and life cycles is one of the modern sustainable agriculture topics. In this regard, to evaluate the effects of bacteria and vermicompost on morphological characteristics and yield of soybean an experiment was conducted as split plot in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Methods: Main plots of experiment were at two levels including the non-use and the use of bacteria and the subplots were at three levels including the non-use of vermicompost (control), the use of 5 tons of vermicompost per acre and the use of 10 tons of vermicompost per acre. Results: The results of mean comparison showed that the treatment including 10 tons of vermicompost had the highest amount of oil content (11%) and the lowest amount was obtained from the treatment including use of 5 tons with the amount of 9.77%. Increasing the seed growing and
ABSTRACT Human food chain toxicity, soil fertility and agricultural output have been shown to be influenced by application of various types of fertilizers. This research studied the influence of multiple fertilizer application on soil quality and plant heavy metal accumulation, proximate and phytochemical compositions. The different fertilizer samples used were NlSPlSKlS (CFI), N20PIOKIO (CF2), N27P13PI3 (CF3), pig manure (AMI) and chicken manure (AM2). Plant species used were Telfairia occidental is and Talinum triangulare. The experiment had four treatments and each treatment had 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0glkg soil. The seeds of the vegetables were planted and allowed to grow for a period of 12 weeks. The first sets of the experimental pots were left for a latent period of 12 weeks after the first harvest for second fertilizer application. The heavy metal composition of the different fertilizers and control soil as well as the plant species were studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). ...
List of Environmental Soil Sampling Kit (Soil Sampling) companies, manufacturers and suppliers serving Bahrain on Soil and Groundwater - Environmental XPRT
General soil characteristics; Soil series descriptions; General soil characteristics; Soil series descriptions; Middle Cuba; Eastern Cuba; Western Cuba; Isle of pines; Salt in Cuban soils; Soil moisture studies; Climate; The relation of soils to agriculture in Cuba; Soil Classification; Soil classes; Classification of soils based on mechanical composition; Conversion table for sugar cane yields ...
Decomposing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoots and roots generate large amounts of NO3-N available to the next crop but also susceptible to deep leaching. This study was aimed at determining the specific contributions of above- and belowground alfalfa biomass to soil N pools. Dynamics of soil and plant N pools were studied in a Kalamanzoo loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) over a 2-yr period under bare fallow (BF), bare fallow to which alfalfa shoot mulch was applied (BFSM), living alfalfa plants with shoots removed after harvest (A), and living alfalfa with shoot mulch remaining on the soil surface after harvest (ASM). Organic N pools were monitored in alfalfa plant parts, soil-incorporated debris, and soil organic matter to depths of 150 cm. Inorganic N pools were monitored by suction lysimeters, soil extraction, and evaluation of soil denitrification rates. Living alfalfa stands kept soil inorganic N at very low levels, whether shoot mulch was applied or not. Soluble ...
A number of potential benefits of humic substances are well known recognized and its generation has been concerned with miscellaneous factors. In Thailand, one of Southeast Asia countries, agricultural areas can be normally found in the country parts. Variety soil practices have been done to improve soil fertilities. Those outcomes, both the properties of soil and organic substances in terms of active and inactive forms, were also raised the question. This study aims to develop the appropriate equation model with particular to some basis of soil properties and the quantity of humic acid extracted from them. To achieve this goal, thirty-four soils from existing agricultural areas in the western part of Thailand were sampled. Soil properties which closely concern with humic substances, including organic matter (OM), total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), percentage of clay and cation exchange capacity (CEC), were analyzed. Humic acid were extracted by the standard of International Humic ...
Four low-cost organic soil amendments (chicken manure, CM; horse manure, HM; yard water, YW; and sewage sludge, SS) that are generated daily in large amounts, and native bare soil were planted with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. Mountain spring) seedlings of 52 days old in raised black plastic-mulch. Each of the 5 treatments was also mixed with biochar to make a total of 10 treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results revealed that total fresh weight of tomato fruits collected after three harvests from CM and CM mixed with biochar significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas yield obtained from HM was the lowest indicating a positive effect of CM on the growth and yield of tomato. HM increased soil urease activity, while CM and SS increased soil invertase activity. Total marketable tomato yield of biochar amended soils was increased by 63 and 20% in HM and YW treatments, respectively compared to other soil treatments. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was greatest in fruits of plants
A. K. Helmy, E. A. Ferreiro, S. G. de Bussetti; Cation exchange capacity and condition of zero change of hydroxy-Al montmorillonite. Clays and Clay Minerals ; 42 (4): 444-450. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Tropical forests are vital global reservoirs of biodiversity and carbon (C). Deforestation and degradation of these ecosystems greatly threatens their capacity to provide crucial ecosystem functions and services, by altering complex plant-soil interactions and biogeochemical cycles underpinned by soil microbes. Forest disturbance is accelerating in Southeast Asia, through widespread selective logging (SL) and forest conversion to oil palm plantation (OP). This has major implications for soil microbial communities and functions, although effects of tropical forest disturbance on belowground biodiversity and the resistance and resilience of soil microbial nutrient and C-cycling are unresolved. The potential to restore soil microbial communities and essential functions is also largely unknown. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate impacts of tropical forest modification (degradation, conversion and restoration) on soil microbial community attributes, and implications for ecosystem biogeochemical ...
Abstract. Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle is affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, seasonal differences of feedback effects of elevated CO2 have rarely been studied. At the Gießen Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (GiFACE) site, the effects of +20% above ambient CO2 concentration have been investigated since 1998 in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We defined five distinct annual seasons, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of 3 years (2008-2010), weekly measurements of soil respiration were carried out with a survey chamber on vegetation-free subplots. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration under elevated CO2 during late autumn and winter dormancy. Increased CO2 losses during the autumn season (September-October) were 15.7% higher and during the winter season (November-March) were 17.4% higher compared to respiration from ambient CO2 plots ...
A key focus of the BGI department is the development of large scale terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) for a better understanding of biosphere-climate feedbacks, with particular emphasis on interactions between carbon, nutrient and water cycles. A highly important question in this context is the stability of soil organic matter under changing environmental conditions. However, soil processes, their parameterization and soil interactions with vegetation growth are still a major uncertainty in TBMs. Two active areas of research in our department are the effect of altered rhizosphere inputs on the microbial activity and thereby the organic carbon storage, as well as the control that of soil temperature and moisture have on the decomposition process. Our aim is to achieve a better representation of these nutrient and moisture effects on soil carbon storage and turnover in our soil model COMISSION (Ahrens et al. 2015), which is linked to the Earth system Model of the Max-Planck-Society. In this ...
The adsorption and desorption of diuron and fluometuron by the Gezira clay, Kinana clay, and Gerif loamy clay soils were studied. The two herbicides exhibited greater adsorption by the Gerif soil than by the Kinana and Gezira soils. The Kinana soil adsorbed more fluometuron than the Gezira soil. However, only at low and high concentrations of diuron did the Kinana soil show greater adsorption than the Gezira soil. At intermediate range of diuron concentrations the opposite occurred. Since the Gezira soil contained the lowest percentage of organic matter it was argued that organic matter did not play any significant role in the adsorption of these two herbicides by these soils. The Gerif soil has the highest specific surface area than the twos ils. It was thus concluded that in arid-zone soils, very low in organic matter, specific surface area may be a good criterion for determining adsorption. Diuron exhibited greater adsorption on the three soils than fluometuron. Desorption was studied by an ...
1. Bongers, T. 1990. The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species compostion. Oecologia 83:14-19.. 2. Bongers, T., and Bongers, M. 1998. Functional diversity of nematodes. Appl. Soil Ecol. 10:239-251.. 3. Cooke, R. C. 1963. Ecological characteristics of nematode-trapping fungi Hyphomycetes. Ann. Rev. Appl. Biol. 52:431-437.. 4. Doran, J. W., Sarrantonio, M., and Liebig, M. A., eds. 1996. Soil health and sustainability, Adv. Agron. 56:1-54.. 5. Ettema, C. H. 1998. Soil nematode diversity, species coexistence and ecosystem function. J. Nematol. 30:159-169.. 6. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., and deGoede, R. G. M. 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18:13-29.. 7. Ferris, H., and Matute, M. M. 2003. Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web. Appl. Soil Ecol. 23:93-110.. 8. Ferris, H., Venette, R. C., and Lau, S. S. 1996. Dynamics of ...
Knowledge of how competition and facilitation affect photosynthetic traits and nitrogen metabolism contributes to understanding of plant-plant interaction mechanisms. We transplanted two larch species, Larix kaempferi and L. olgensis, to establish intra- and interspecific interaction experiments under different types of soil. Experiment 1: Two different soil types were selected, one from a c. twenty years old L. kaempferi plantation (named larch soil) and another from a secondary natural forest (named mixed forest soil). The experiment included three types of plant interactions (L kaempferi + L. kaempferi, L. olgensis + L. olgensis, and L. kaempferi + L. olgensis) and two soil types. Experiment 2: N fertilization was applied to larch soil. The experiment included the same three types of plant interactions as in Experiment 1 and two N treatments. The growth of L kaempferi was negatively affected by larch soil and accelerated by N fertilization, particularly under interspecific interaction. The ...
Soil acidification is a major problem in modern agricultural systems and is an important factor affecting the soil microbial community and soil health. However, little is known about the effect of soil acidification on soil-borne plant diseases. We performed a four-year investigation in South China to evaluate the correlation between soil acidification and the occurrence of bacterial wilt. The results showed that the average soil pH in fields infected by bacterial wilt disease was much lower than that in non-disease fields. Moreover, the proportion of infected soils with pH lower than 5.5 was much higher than that of non-infected soils, and this phenomenon became more obvious as the area of bacterial wilt disease increased at soil pH lower than 5.5 from 2011 to 2014. Then, in a field pot experiment, bacterial wilt disease developed more quickly and severely in acidic conditions of pH 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5. These results indicate that soil acidification can cause the outbreak of bacterial wilt disease.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil fungi forming symbiotic associations with majority of land plants. AMF alter soil organic matter (SOM) directly through stabilization of soil aggregates and indirectly providing a path in which plant fixed C02 is transferred below-ground. Understanding contributions of AMF to SOM via protein production and stabilization of soil aggregates will greatly aid our understanding of soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling and mitigation of soil erosion. The work presented in chapter 2 challenges the glomalin extraction process and assesses the accuracy of the Bradford and monoclonal-antibody ELISA detection methods. My results clarify the contribution of glomalin to SOM: suggesting the extraction process is not eliminating all non-glomalin proteins. My results indicate that the Bradford is prone to overestimating the presence of glomalin when soils contain large concentrations of SOM, the ELISA is prone to retention and interference biases depending on the amount
A group of leading soil scientists, including the University of Delawares Donald L. Sparks, has summarized the precarious state of the worlds soil resources and the possible ramifications for human security in a paper published Thursday, May 7, in the journal Science.. In a review of recent scientific literature, the article, titled Soil and Human Security in the 21st Century, outlines threats to soil productivity -- and, in turn, food production -- due to soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, urbanization and climate change.. Soil is our planets epidermis, said Sparks, echoing the opening line of the article. Its only about a meter thick, on average, but it plays an absolutely crucial life-support role that we often take for granted.. Sparks, who is the S. Hallock du Pont Chair in Soil and Environmental Chemistry in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at UD, has been chair of the National Academy of Sciences U.S. National Committee for Soil Sciences since 2013.. He and his five ...
Manure additions to cropland can reduce total P losses in runoff on well-drained soils due to increased infiltration and reduced soil erosion. Surface residue management in subsequent years may influence the long-term risk of P losses as the manure-supplied organic matter decomposes. The effects of manure history and long-term (8-yr) tillage [chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT)] on P levels in runoff in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated on well-drained silt loam soils of southern and southwestern Wisconsin. Soil P levels (0-15 cm) increased with the frequency of manure applications and P stratification was greater near the surface (0-5 cm) in NT than CP. In CP, soil test P level was linearly related to dissolved P (24-105 g ha?1) and bioavailable P (64-272 g ha?1) loads in runoff, but not total P (653-1893 g ha?1). In NT, P loads were reduced by an average of 57% for dissolved P, 70% for bioavailable P, and 91% for total P compared with CP. This reduction was due to lower sediment ...
1. Introduction. 2. Measurement of Moisture Content.. 3. Measurement of Specific Gravity of Soil Solids.. 4. Measurement of Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit.. 5. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution.. 6. Laboratory Classification of Soil.. 7. Field Classification of Soil.. 8. Laboratory Soil Compaction.. 9. Field Measurement of Dry Unit Weight and Moisture Content.. 10. Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Granular Soil Using a Fixed-Wall Permeameter.. 11. One-Dimensional Consolidation Test of Cohesive Soil.. 12. Direct Shear Strength Test of Granular Soil.. 13. Unconfined Compressive Strength Test of Cohesive Soil.. 14. Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Shear Strength Test of Cohesive Soil.. Appendix A. Laboratory Data Sheets. ...
Dune slacks are biodiverse seasonal wetlands which experience considerable fluctuation in water table depth. They are under threat from lowered water tables due to climate change and water abstraction and from eutrophication. The biological effects caused by the interactions of these pressures are poorly understood, particularly on soil processes. We used a mesocosm experiment and laboratory assays to study the impact of lowered water tables, groundwater nitrogen contamination, and their synergistic effects on soil microbial processes and greenhouse gas emissions. This study showed that just a 10 cm decrease in water table depth led to a reduction in denitrification and to a corresponding increase in soil nitrogen content. Meanwhile N2O emissions occurred for longer durations within dune slack soils subject to higher concentrations of groundwater nitrogen contamination. The results from extracellular enzyme assays suggest that decomposition rates increase within drier soils shown by the increase ...
Soil texture strongly influences the soils ability to retain moisture (available water holding capacity), its general level of fertility and ease or difficulty of cultivation. Water moves easily through sandy soils therefore small amounts of moisture are retained and these soils dry out more quickly than clayey soils. Clayey soils transmit water very slowly; therefore these soils are susceptible to excess soil moisture conditions and to water erosion in undulating landscapes. Sandy soils do not retain plant nutrients as well as clayey soils and are lower in natural fertility; sandy soils often characterized by loose or single grained structure and are very susceptible to wind erosion. Medium-textured (loamy) soils are characterized by properties that fall between the extremes of coarse and fine-textured soils. They are generally fertile, able to retain sufficient moisture for plant use and are relatively easy to cultivate. Mineral particles in soil are grouped according to size into sand (2-0.05 ...
Rainfall is the main resource of soil moisture in the semiarid areas, and the altered rainfall pattern would greatly affect plant growth and development. Root morphological traits are critical for plant adaptation to changeable soil moisture. This study aimed to clarify how root morphological traits of Bothriochloa ischaemum (a C4 herbaceous species) and Lespedeza davurica (a C3 leguminous species) in response to variable soil moisture in their mixtures. The two species were co-cultivated in pots at seven mixture ratios under three soil water regimes [80% (HW), 60% (MW), and 40% (LW) of soil moisture field capacity (FC)]. At the jointing, flowering, and filling stages of B. ischaemum, the LW and MW treatments were rewatered to MW or HW, respectively. At the end of growth season, root morphological traits of two species were evaluated. Results showed that the root morphological response of B. ischaemum was more sensitive than that of L. davurica under rewatering. The total root length (TRL) and root
The increase in soil test phosphorus differs for different soils; the same soil test phosphorus on different soils may support different concentrations of phosphorus in runoff. Soils with higher soil test phosphorus support higher concentrations of phosphorus in runoff. Soil-specific data are lacking for most Missouri soils.. The environmental soil test phosphorus, like agronomic soil test phosphorus, is an index procedure that extracts only a portion of the phosphorus in soil. The extraction procedure and the depth of soil sampling will dramatically effect the soil test value reported on a given soil. Caution should be used when quoting critical soil test levels; always note the extraction method and depth of soil sampling. Environmental soil test values from a Bray-I test on a 6-inch sample and a water extract on a 1-inch sample are not comparable.. Extracts being considered for environmental soil test phosphorus include water, Bray-I P, Mehlich-III P and iron-oxide strip P. Depth of soil ...
Mongol News interviewed senior worker at the Public Health Institute Sh.Batdelger about this issue.. Does the Public Health Institute conduct research on soil contamination each year? If so, which part of the city has research been conducted in lately?. Research in 2012 showed that 80 percent of Ulaanbaatar was affected by third degree soil contamination. Some parts had been found to have top soil contamination.. In 2013, our scientists took soil samples near schools and kindergartens in Bayanzurkh District and the result was at fourth degree contamination.. Recent research done in public areas near Narantuul in the 14th khoroo, Bayanzurkh District found heavy metals in the soil.. In the past we did research in the Ulaanbaatar area, but we are now conducting research in each district.. Does trash cause the soil contamination around Narantuul, and why has the market area been specifically focused on for conducting research?. We cleaned the area surrounding Narantuul on our Trash Bucket ...
Increases in the magnitude and variability of precipitation events have been predicted for the Chihuahuan Desert region of West Texas. As patterns of moisture inputs and amounts change, soil microbial communities will respond to these alterations in soil moisture windows. In this study, we examined the soil microbial community structure within three vegetation zones along the Pine Canyon Watershed, an elevation and vegetation gradient in Big Bend National Park, Chihuahuan Desert. Soil samples at each site were obtained in mid-winter (January) and in mid-summer (August) for 2 years to capture a component of the variability in soil temperature and moisture that can occur seasonally and between years along this watershed. Precipitation patterns and amounts differed substantially between years with a drought characterizing most of the second year. Soils were collected during the drought period and following a large rainfall event and compared to soil samples collected during a relatively average ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrogen limitation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil. AU - Toccalino, P. L.. AU - Johnson, R. L.. AU - Boone, D. R.. PY - 1993/9/17. Y1 - 1993/9/17. N2 - We investigated nutrient limitations during hydrocarbon degradation in a sandy soil and found that fixed nitrogen was initially a limiting nutrient but that N limitation could sometimes be overcome by N2 fixation. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was examined in an unsaturated sandy soil incubated aerobically at 20°C with propane or butane and various added nutrients. Propane and butane degradation proceeded similarly during the first 3 months of incubation. That is, bacteria in soil amended with N oxidized these hydrocarbons more rapidly than in controls without nutrient additions or in soil with added phosphate or trace minerals. Both propane- and butane-amended soil apparently became N limited after the initial available inorganic N was utilized, as indicated by a decrease in the rates of ...
It is based on the following dimensions: art and creativity; water; air; soil; waste as a resource; public health; food and ... Boom intervenes in the following dimensions: Art & Creativity; Water; Soil; Air; Waste as a Resource; Procurement & Materials; ...
The process can lead to the breakdown of peds (the particles that give the soil its characteristic structure). Eluvium Erosion ...
Two other exceptions are panlong 蟠龍 "coiled/curled dragon; a dragon that has not ascended to heaven" and tulong 土龍 "soil/earth ... soil; ground" semantically contrasts with tian 天 "heaven; sky" (e.g., tiandi 天地 "heaven and earth; universe", see Tiandihui), ...
Substrate availability (presence of NH4+) Aeration (availability of O2) Well-drained soils with 60% soil moisture pH (near ... which are applied to soil as fertilizers. These inhibitors can help reduce losses of nitrogen in soil that would otherwise be ... and 15N-labeled urea added to soil". Biol. Fert. Soil. 42 (2): 137-145. doi:10.1007/s00374-005-0004-2. S2CID 6245255. Zhang Y, ... In soils the most studied AOB belong to the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrococcus. When comparing AOB and AOA, AOA dominate in ...
Soil has been adapted into a television drama series. Bambi and Her Pink Gun (1998) Soil (2004) Wet Moon (2011) Deathco (2014) ... "Soil Manga by Bambi and her Pink Gun's Kaneko Gets TV Drama". Anime News Network. 2010-01-09. Retrieved 2013-03-17. "Bambi". ... Two of his works, Bambi and Her Pink Gun and Soil, have been published in French. Bambi and Her Pink Gun has also been ... "Soil". (in French). Retrieved 2013-03-17. "Wet Moon". (in Japanese). Retrieved 2013-11-04. ...
... and 15N-labeled urea added to soil. Biol. Fert. Soil. 42:137-145. "Nitrosomonas - microbewiki". ... Soil biology, Nitrosomonadaceae, Bacteria genera, Pages that use a deprecated format of the chem tags). ... but can also find in fertilized soils. Some Nitrosomonas species, such as N.europaea, possess the enzyme urease (which ... nitrification made by Nitrosomonas represents a problem because the oxidized nitrite by ammonia can persist in the soil, ...
... and 15N-labeled Urea Added to Soil". Biol. Fert. Soil. 42 (2): 137-145. doi:10.1007/s00374-005-0004-2. S2CID 6245255.{{cite ... Release of the carboxyl carbon (via ninhydrin) from amino acids recovered from soil that has been treated with a labeled ... "A Technique to Recover Tracer as Carboxyl-Carbon and α-Nitrogen from Amino Acids in Soil Hydrolysates". J. AOAC Int. 86 (6): ... also called nitrifying bacteria use urea as a carbon source in soil. A ninhydrin solution is commonly used by forensic ...
Growth media include coconut fibre; mats made of polyester or recycled PET bottles; synthetic geotechnical mat; jute; soil; and ...
... soil; land" or tǔ 吐 "spit out; vomit" the second character is written either fān 番 "times, occurrences; foreign" or fān 蕃 " ...
... and 15N-labeled urea added to soil. Biol. Fert. Soil. 42:137-145. James, Shelley A.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Goldstein, ... In soil science 15N tracers are used extensively to study nitrogen cycling, whereas 13C and 14C, stable and radioisotopes of ... "Characterizing the Fluxes and Age Distribution of Soil Water, Plant Water, and Deep Percolation in a Model Tropical Ecosystem ...
During the years of agriculture, there has been a decrease in the amount of carbon that the soil is able to hold. The soil in ... Soil is a key component to Green Infrastructure (GI), but most urban soils are physically, chemically, or biologically ... Soil management projects attempt to preserve or increase the amount of carbon sequestered in soil. Deforestation, particularly ... Deeb, M.; Groffman, PM (2020). "Using constructed soils for green infrastructure - challenges and limitations". Soil. 6 (2): ...
Through the drilosphere, earthworms influence soil microbial communities, with effects on microbial processes related to soil ... A study of one soil type found that contained within the drilosphere was 40 per cent of the aerobic (and 13 per cent of ... 2013) Soil Biology and Biochemistry 64, 136-138, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.04.016 Earthworm Ecology By Clive Arthur Edwards. ... Therefore, it is the fraction of soil which has gone through the digestive tract of earthworms, or the lining of an earthworm ...
"Soil". VGMdb. Retrieved January 15, 2012. "Rewrite Original SoundTrack" (in Japanese). Key Sounds Label. Retrieved January 15, ... is titled Soil and contains arranged versions of ten tracks of the game's music. Rewrite's original soundtrack was first ... a remix album titled Soil, a CD containing recordings of the Internet radio show Radio Rewrite, three original cards from the ...
Soil Organisms. 82 (3): 325-349. ISSN 1864-6417. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
Golovatch, Sergei I.; Kime, R. Desmond (2009). "Millipede (Diplopoda) distributions: A review" (PDF). Soil Organisms. 81 (3): ...
... is a genus of soil centipedes in the clade Linotaeniidae and family Geophilidae found in southern Chile. It currently ... Vega-Román, Emmanuel; Hugo Ruiz, Víctor (2018). "Catalogue of Chilean centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda)" (PDF). Soil Organisms ...
Soil zinc is an essential micronutrient for crops. Almost half of the world's cereal crops are deficient in zinc, leading to ... Soil and foliar application of zinc fertilizer can effectively increase grain zinc and reduce the phytate:zinc ratio in grain. ... Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops and animals is an effective preventive measure. Zinc deficiency may ... Zinc deficiency can be caused by a diet high in phytate-containing whole grains, foods grown in zinc deficient soil, or ...
This happens when the gain of the water is higher than the loss of it into the pores of the substrate/soil, also known as ... The combination of dry crusted soils and the highly erosive energy of the rain cause sediment resuspension and transport to the ... "Soil Infiltration , Agronomic Crops Network". Retrieved 2021-05-21. Shumilova, Oleksandra; Zak, Dominik; Datry ... and Soil Pollution. 138 (1): 61-78. Bibcode:2002WASP..138...61B. doi:10.1023/A:1015573621474. S2CID 94632994. Döll, Petra; ...
Golovatch, Sergei I.; Kime, R. Desmond (2009). "Millipede (Diplopoda) distributions: A review" (PDF). Soil Organisms. 81: 565- ...
Kessel SL (1927). "Soil organisms. The dependence of certain pine species on a biological soil factor". Empire Forestry Journal ... Rhizopogon luteolus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture. It was deliberately ...
United States Soil Service (1938). Soil Survey. p. 4. The Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory: The Cherokee, Chickasaw, ...
... soil degradation; and depletion and contamination of underground water resources. In the West Bank, many of the same issues ...
Kessel SL (1927). "Soil organisms. The dependence of certain pine species on a biological soil factor". Empire Forestry Journal ... by helping to break down nutrients within the soil. The presence of Rhizopogon in soil facilitates Pinus as an invasive species ... Rhizopogon spores are long lived in soil and the spores of some species can persist for at least four years with an increase in ... Rhizopogon are also abundant colonizers of pot cultivated and field cultivated conifer seedlings growing in soil from conifer ...
"THE SOIL". Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930). 13 December 1906. p. 9. Retrieved 10 April 2020. "Clover And The Cream ... One of its most valuable characteristics is that it will grow and reproduce itself in any soil and situation without human aid ... the Mount Barker district we have a weed which I believe will go far to solve the problem of introducing nitrogen into the soil ...
With a high Koc of 3900, DCPA is presumably immobile in soil, and thus may strongly attach to inorganic material in soil and ... In soil, the half-life in the presence of sunlight ranges from 14 to 100 days. TPA and MTP are both more water-soluble than ... TPA does not degrade, and infiltrates soil and nearby water sources. The accumulation of TPA and its salts in areas where DCPA ... Hurto KA, Turgeon AJ, Cole MA (1979). "Degradation of Benefin and DCPA in Thatch and Soil from a Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa ...
Soil Organisms. 82 (3): 325-349. ISSN 1864-6417. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Golovatch, Sergei I.; Kime, R. Desmond (2009). "Millipede (Diplopoda) distributions: A review" (PDF). Soil Organisms. 81: 565- ...
... is a species of soil centipede in the family Geophilidae found on the Balkan Peninsula. It's a poorly ... Soil Organisms. 81 (3): 489-503 - via ResearchGate. "Geophilus labrofissus Verhoeff, 1938". ChiloBase 2.0.{{cite web}}: CS1 ...
Willhelm von Graffenberg (2017-10-18). "Alltheniko - Italian History VI" (in French). Soil Chronicles. Retrieved 2018-09-22. ... Soil Chronicles: "power metal/speed metal full of energy and technique", 7/10), Greece (Metal Zone: "recommended to those who ...
Pedalfer USDA soil taxonomy Baldwin, M.; C.E. Kellogg; J. Thorp (1938). "Soil Classification". Soils and Men: Yearbook of ... Pedocal is a subdivision of the zonal soil order. It is a class of soil which forms in semiarid and arid regions. It is rich in ... It is not used in the current United States system of soil classification but the term commonly shows up in college geology ... Brevik, Eric C. (November 2002). "Soil Classification in Geology Textbooks" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience Education. 50 (5): 539 ...
... [2016] Kulik, K.N ... Protective afforestation, soil reclamation, problems of agroecology and agriculture in the Russian [email protected] ... Protective afforestation, soil reclamation, problems of agroecology and agriculture in the Russian [email protected] ... Protective afforestation, soil reclamation, problems of agroecology and agriculture in the Russian Federation ...
Large pores in sand or granular soil allow water to move rapidly, while small pores in silt or clay cause water to seep through ... Soil permeability measurements determine how well water flows through soil. ... Soil Permeability Test Applications Soil permeability measurements help determine the rate of soil settling, which you need to ... Sandy or gravelly soils take shorter than silty or clay soils to become saturated. After water has saturated the soil ...
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When you own a greenhouse you d most likely indulge in all the needs of your plants; you d like to know the kind of soil that ... It helps maintain the shape of a garden bed, prevents the soil from escaping, and helps keep the grass from spreading into the ... Basement window wells protect the basement windows from getting broken and dumped with soil and debris. It can also be ... Hydroponic gardening has several benefits over traditional soil gardeni... Read ,. Author: jamie bell ...
Soil and carbon. Soil holds twice as much organic carbon as vegetation. Soils in the EU contain more than 70 billion tonnes of ... Soil organic matter (SOM). The key substance in the relationship between soil and carbon storage is soil organic matter (SOM ... Then, as now, soil played a crucial role in supplying food. What was not understood in the past is the crucial role soil plays ... Soil is formed from rocks and decaying plants and animals.. *Soil helps clean the water we drink and the air that we breathe - ...
Soil Heating Cables can be used indoors or outdoors in cold frames or greenhouses. Bury the cables in soil or soil-based ... Soil Heating Cables can be used indoors or outdoors in cold frames or greenhouses. Bury the cables in soil or soil-based ... SOIL HEATING CABLES. Product Description:. Now you can start vegetable, flower, and herb seedlings just like the professional ... The built-in thermostat automatically activates the cable when the soil temperature drops below 74°F. Complete instructions ...
Education and information about Soil-Transmitted Helminths including Human Hookworm, Roundworm and Whipworm. ... Soil-transmitted helminths refer to the intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil (" ... eggs are deposited on soil. Ascaris and hookworm eggs become infective as they mature in soil. People are infected with Ascaris ... Soil-transmitted helminths live in the intestine and their eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If an infected ...
The goal of Open Soil Science is to provide instructors with the resources they need to effectively teach the world about soils ... The soil science resources made available on this website are open access, and in some cases, open-source. All materials are ...
SOIL&WAT 4070AWT - Honours Soil Science Project (Two-Year) Continuing. Waite Campus - Semester 1 - 2021. ...
The life and soul of Daughter of the Soil is the original blog where youll find the most up-to-date stuff about what Im ...
The award helps raise awareness of the great things all Iowa farmers do to conserve state soil and water resources. To nominate ... letter summarizing the individuals conservation efforts and send it to your county Soil & Water Conservation District office ...
Dieses Buch ist ein Kompletter Leitfaden in 100% natürliche Ernährung & naturnahes Leben, basierend auf einem natürlichen farming-system. Food and Life 1 and 2. ...
ECMWF is the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We are both a research institute and a 24/7 operational service, producing global numerical weather predictions and other data for our Member and Co-operating States and the broader community. The Centre has one of the largest supercomputer facilities and meteorological data archives in the world
South Korea had its first LPGA tournament in 2002, and a Korean golfer has won 12 of 18 events on home soil so far.. For KLPGA ... S. Koreans chasing 200th LPGA win on home soil this week By Yonhap ...
Metadata for this table can be found on page 35 of the NRCS SSURGO documentation ...
... in which the compression of a fluid-saturated soil can take place only as the fluid slowly flows through the pore space under ... this effect accounts for the time-dependent settlement of constructions over clay soils. ... also introduced the concept of consolidation, in which the compression of a fluid-saturated soil can take place only as the ... this effect accounts for the time-dependent settlement of constructions over clay soils. ...
Use the soilSHOP soil screening tools to help you plan for soil screening activities at your event. ... Soil Screening Guidance pdf icon[PDF - 2 MB]. This Soil Screening Guidance is intended for use by technicians and other ... Residents can bring in several samples of soil from their yards and provide information about their soil sample on a Log-In ... It provides an overall approach and some tips for successful soil screening. The Soil Screening Guidance should be reviewed, ...
AbstractThis specification covers the performance evaluation of heavy duty shielded couplings to join hubless cast iron soil ... Standard Specification for Heavy Duty Shielded Couplings Joining Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. ... 1.1 This specification covers the evaluating of the performance of heavy duty shielded couplings to join hubless cast iron soil ... This specification covers the performance evaluation of heavy duty shielded couplings to join hubless cast iron soil pipe and ...
Get free shipping on qualified Soil Power products or Buy Online Pick Up in Store today. ... Soil Power5 lb. Bag Concentrated (5 lbs. makes 20 lbs.) Pure Organic Earth Worm Castings. ...
Native soil. Desire Under the Elms; The Buz Gem Blues; All My Sons. BY CAROLYN CLAY ...
See here for information on agriculture, soil protection and land-saving urban development. ... Topics›Soil , Agriculture. Soil , Agriculture. The soil is one of the most important bases of subsistence and a resource that ... Soil performs many vital functions. Soil fertility is a make or break factor for agriculture. But the impact of soil and ... the Soil of the Year is presented. A panel of experts selects the soil in question. In announcing the Soil of the Year, the ...
Professionals that SO-IL has worked with. Uzun + Case. Laufs Engineering Design. PMT Laboratories. Buro Happold. Peutz. Harvey ... Representatives from SO-IL will respond to you via e-mail. By sending this message you agree to the T&C. ... SO-IL has 14 projects published in our site, focused on: Cultural architecture, Residential architecture, Offices. ...
... dont harm microbes in the soil as some had feared ... Nanoparticles safe for soil bugs. Earth 2 May 2007 AT LAST, ... do not harm microbes when released into the soil. Their study is the first of its kind to focus on soil microbes, which play a ... "The early evidence suggests nanomaterials, at least fullerenes, are being absorbed by the soil and are not a problem," says ...
Soil Health Demonstration Trials provide physical, economic and social data on how soil health practices affect soil building ... Q: What about the long-term effect of glyphosate in soil?. A: Research is showing that the soil microbial community is diverse ... Most heavy metals, at soil pHs that are conducive to plant growth (around 6.5 to 7.0), will complex with soil particles and ... and soil type appear to have the greatest long-term impacts on soil microbial communities. ...
Soil materials intended for reuse in or on soils, including dredged sub-aquatic soil materials (= excavated sediments). ... Excluded: Threshold or limit values for the assessment of soil quality; Civil engineering aspects (are dealt with by ISO/ … ... Standardization in the field of soil quality Soils in situ; ... Soils in situ; *Soil materials intended for reuse in or on ... Threshold or limit values for the assessment of soil quality; *Civil engineering aspects (are dealt with by ISO/ TC 182 " ...
There is nothing more exciting than an engagement; well, right after the wedding day. Therefore, engagement rings are most likely the best example of ...
... Organic, natural and fair trade allergen free foods. ... You are viewing Organic - Soil Association Certified products from Blue Diamond in our Free From category ...
EVALUATION OF SOIL, BLOOD & AIR DATA FROM ANNISTON, ALABAMA. CALHOUN COUNTY, ALABAMA. CONCLUSIONS. *PCBs in soil in some areas ... Furthermore, residential soils in some areas of Anniston with higher levels of PCBsmay present a public health hazard for ... Sample soil to assess whether average exposure point concentrations exceed levels of health concern for persons living at ... Persons with elevated blood PCB levels (greater than 20 µg/L) for whom there is evidence of current exposure to soil ...
The review, which will involve appraising global initiatives such as the World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) soil profile ... spectral soil analysis in support of national soil information service initiatives in AGRA countries via the FAOs Global Soil ... Main image: Better soil management is important for smallholder farmers if they are to grow healthy and profitable crops ( ... You are here: Home / News Articles / New project aims to review and help strengthen national Soil Information Systems ...
  • The papers reveal the urgency problems of field protective afforestation and melioration for erosion control, aspects of sands fixation farming, implementation of data of remote sensing and methods of digital mapping for monitoring of agro- and urbolandscapes, desertification processes and phytoamelioration of arid territories, soil protection, greening of settlements, selection, production of seeds and planting material. (
  • Apart from this direct use of land and soil, non-substance loads also include wind and water erosion and soil compaction - all of which are primarily attributable to intensive farming. (
  • Erosion limits the functions of soils, pollutes water bodies and damages infrastructures. (
  • This effort will help students to understand issues relating to soil erosion, the state factors of soil formation, methods of soil description and classification in the field, soil orders, soil surveys and threats to soil. (
  • China's black soil is becoming poorer, thinner and more compacted," he said, referring to the loss of organic nutrients, soil loss and erosion, and compression from the use of heavy farm machinery. (
  • Within this context, the book addresses the topic Application of Physically Based Soil Erosion Models in order to present some essential tools for improving land-use strategies and conservation measures. (
  • Over the last 20 years, the need for more accurate assessments of soil losses and sediment yields has led to the development of some highly complex, process-based soil erosion models. (
  • This book will help to implement state-of-the-art soil erosion prediction technologies within soil and water conservation planning and assessment. (
  • This information will also help to reduce soil compaction and erosion, and optimise the use of fertilisers in farming. (
  • A level soil will ensure that water flows down and through soil, and will help prevent surface erosion. (
  • The mineral portion of soil results from the actions of weathering and erosion on rock. (
  • SOM is a major contributor to soil fertility. (
  • Soil fertility is a make or break factor for agriculture. (
  • This constellation of pressures translates into a loss of soil fertility, and has a deleterious effect on soil functions as a whole. (
  • 1 Describe the important chemical, biological and physical processes that influence the distribution of nutrients and soil fertility in various ecosystems. (
  • 4 Discuss selected techniques suitable for assessing fertiliser requirements and for monitoring soil fertility status. (
  • They also contain 2 to 26 times greater amounts of pyrogenic carbon, which persists longer in soil than other carbons and is important for soil fertility. (
  • The aim is to guarantee permanent soil fertility and an even humus balance for the location, and create an optimum phytosanitary effect. (
  • Zhang Jiabao, a researcher from the Institute of Soil Science at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said the purpose of black soil conservation is to ensure its fertility and productivity. (
  • As you likely know, I read a lot of books and magazines on the subject of soil fertility in gardening and farming. (
  • Post a photo, raise awareness on the importance of soils, win a prize! (
  • As in previous editions, the aim was to discuss the importance of soils and the developments in soil science in the light of the global issues of food security, water resources, biodiversity loss, land degradation, and climate change. (
  • Additionally, we spend half a day discussing the cross-cutting nature of the Governance & Policy aspects vis-à-vis the importance of soils in these issues. (
  • The result is the degradation of fertile soil, which we need as a basis for life. (
  • In recent years, the academy has launched a massive research campaign to evaluate and tackle black soil degradation, creating new crop varieties and farming equipment that can ensure the sustainability and productivity of this fertile land. (
  • One notable achievement was elaboration of the mechanisms of black soil degradation, which lead to more environmentally friendly farming practices in the demonstration zones in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. (
  • Accelerated degradation of soils and surface waters produce increasing problems in many parts of the world. (
  • Such results indicate soil degradation. (
  • A: Yes, ARS has an active program studying biochar/black carbon amendments for use in agricultural soils as well as working with other federal agencies to utilize those amendments to restore degraded soils. (
  • In this webinar for Healthy Soils Program awardees featuring Dr. Craig Kolodge, we'll explore the multifaceted value of amending agricultural soils with compost. (
  • It also maintains soil structure, thereby improving water infiltration, decreasing evaporation, increasing water-holding capacity and avoiding soil compaction. (
  • Despite its large wheels and nearly 6-meter frame that looks like a cross between an armored beetle and a monster truck, it weighs less than a standard machine, resulting in less soil compaction, he said. (
  • Peel it and you have some idea of how little fertile soil we depend on to feed our entire population. (
  • Climatic factors, soil organism mechanisms, and human use are the driving forces behind the gradual and extremely slow process whereby rock is transformed into soil: it takes between 100 and 300 years for one centimeter of fertile soil to develop. (
  • and fertile soil forms the basis for our entire food chain. (
  • On the left, the black, fertile soil dubbed African Dark Earths. (
  • The Chinese Academy of Sciences will continue to use advanced technologies, from remote-sensing to big data, to effectively use and protect black soil resources - highly fertile soil located in northeastern China that serves as the bedrock of national food security. (
  • In March of last year, a group of Dutch scientists announced that they had grown 10 different plant species-including tomatoes, peas, rye, garden rocket, radish and garden cress-in dirt engineered to mimic the harsh, arid soil of Mars. (
  • Aridisols (from Latin aridus , "dry") are CaCO3-containing soils of arid regions that exhibit subsurface horizon development. (
  • The living soil needs to maintain moisture content, and in our dry, arid environment, it loses moisture quickly. (
  • Living soil needs help trapping moisture in our hot arid environment, and mulch is your best friend. (
  • The planet's soils are salty, thin, and lacking in chemicals like nitrogen, which helps plants grow. (
  • It is the home for soil organisms, from bacteria to worms and insects, and allows them to transform plant residues, and hold on to nutrients that can be taken up by plants and crops. (
  • These soil microorganisms -- particularly bacteria and fungi -- cycle nutrients and water to plants, to our crops, the source of our food, and ultimately our health. (
  • Soil bacteria and fungi serve as the "stomachs" of plants. (
  • Reintroducing the right bacteria and fungi to facilitate the dark fermentation process in depleted and sterile soils is analogous to eating yogurt (or taking those targeted probiotic "drugs of the future") to restore the right microbiota deep in your digestive tract. (
  • As it decomposes, organic matter releases nutrients that are absorbed by soil-dwelling microorganisms and bacteria. (
  • Greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide but also methane, ozone and nitrous oxide, have for millions of years been emitted from soil and water into the atmosphere by natural processes like animal respiration, swamp out-gassing and releases from nitrogen fixing bacteria. (
  • Bacteria enter roots from the soil and establish themselves in cells of the root tissues. (
  • Strategies that bacteria acquire to survive this in-soil competition may, in turn, provide the ability to infect animals. (
  • Main image: Better soil management is important for smallholder farmers if they are to grow healthy and profitable crops (Credit: Pixabay). (
  • The good news is that the same technological advances that allow us to map the human microbiome now enable us to understand, isolate, and reintroduce microbial species into the soil to repair the damage and restore healthy microbial communities that sustain our crops and provide nutritious food. (
  • In Guinea and the forests of West Africa, there is a hidden history of enriching the soil with natural techniques handed down through generations to sustain food crops without artificial fertilizers. (
  • Crops grown in this soil account for a large proportion of household income yet are spread only on small amounts of land, the study notes. (
  • Despite making up only a small percentage of the soil - no more than 10%, according to the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension - organic matter plays a critical role in the soil's health and the crops raised on it. (
  • There are approximately 60 different soil types in Fulton County, and brothers Les and Jerry Seiler say they no-till crops in about 37 of them. (
  • In the fall man takes crops away, and unless he makes replacements of some sort, the soil becomes poor and useless. (
  • Image reproduced from Soils of the Great Plains: Land Use, Crops and Grasses by Andrew R. Aandahl by permission of the University of Nebraska Press. (
  • Carbon is primarily lost from the burning of vegetation after land clearing and the decomposition of organic matter, as well as from lower organic material inputs into the soil from the newly established tree crops, note the scientists. (
  • Compost application is the most commonly-funded practice within CDFA's Healthy Soils Incentives Program: during the 2020 solicitation, over 80% of the 300+ awardees included compost application in their project! (
  • Soil holds twice as much organic carbon as vegetation. (
  • Soils in the EU contain more than 70 billion tonnes of organic carbon or around 7 % of the total global carbon budget (8) . (
  • Fairhead and his colleagues analyzed 150 sites in northwest Liberia and 27 sites in Ghana and discovered that the enriched soils, dubbed "African Dark Earths," contain 200 to 300 percent more organic carbon than nearby soils and can support more intensive farming. (
  • But," he adds, "the spatial extent of the soil transformation is very limited … and it must be so, because the transformation occurs (increasing pH and soil organic carbon) by concentrating organic matter or stuff that was organic matter (i.e., ash) in space-from an extensive landscape to intensive gardens. (
  • Another one was the highly entertaining crash course on soil organic carbon dynamics given by Karen Vancampenhout entitled The ways of the dead: ecosystems handle their organic matter differently. (
  • According to a press release by University of Göttingen of the 23rd July, about 30 per cent of global soil organic carbon is stored in the top three meters of soils in the humid tropics. (
  • It binds nutrients to the soil, storing them and making them available to plants. (
  • Soil is formed from rocks and decaying plants and animals. (
  • It forms the basis for the livelihood and habitats of humans, animals, plants and soil organisms. (
  • Soil filters and converts nutrients and other chemical substances, and in so doing in so doing protects groundwater resources, provides plants with nutrients, and affects the climate. (
  • 2 Explain how the chemical properties of soils and nutrient elements and soil water properties determine the residence time of nutrients in soil, their availability to plants and rates of loss from ecosystems. (
  • 3 List and describe common fertiliser materials and their interactions with soils, plants and animals. (
  • When soil is healthy it allows water to percolate and fill aquifers, sustains tree and plants, sequesters carbon, and nourishes a community through food production. (
  • For the first time ever, scientists have successfully grown plants using soil from the moon. (
  • While NASA says the plants are "not as robust as plants grown in Earth soil," they did grow and are the first step in answering the question of whether future astronauts could one day grow nutrient-rich plants on the moon that would thrive in deep space. (
  • It also revealed that the plants reacted the way researchers have seen arabidopsis respond in other harsh environments, like when soil has too much salt or heavy metals. (
  • These soil microorganisms do much more than nourish plants. (
  • Most gardens have soil that provides something less than the ideal environment for many garden plants. (
  • The best amendment for soil of any texture is organic matter, the decaying remains of plants and animals. (
  • though it breaks down in just a few months, it bolsters the initial nutrient supply available to soil microorganisms-and these will contribute humus to the soil, improve soil aeration, and help protect your new plants from some diseases. (
  • Unamended soil may dry into hard clods that small roots cannot penetrate, and plants may grow slowly, be stunted, or die as a result. (
  • Grow a beautiful garden full of plants that love your soil! (
  • While salt naturally occurs in soil, high levels of salinity make it difficult for plants to grow and it can damage plants, cables, bricks, and pipes that are located in the soil. (
  • Is it possible to use a type of 'Gel' to grow plants in rather than soil? (
  • The only reason plants need 'Soil' is to keep them facing upright, and if you 'Hydroponic' garden, then you simply just add upright sticks or wire cages to support reaching or climbing plants. (
  • This rapid microbial feeding frenzy will cause the soil to heat up, so you want to let the soil rest for a few days before you seed or transplant into it, otherwise your seeds or tender baby plants will suffer and possibly die. (
  • Ideal soil temperatures depend on the plants, but as a general guide you want your soil to be between 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit for optimal growing conditions. (
  • Given the wide diversity of succulent plants, there is no one ideal recipe for potting soil, but most of these plants are fairly tolerant. (
  • This 3-part series for Healthy Soils Program awardees offers in-depth information on compost creation and use, and how to incorporate it into your funded project with plants for soil, watershed, and ecosystem health. (
  • Organic farmers rely on soil that hasn't been damaged by toxic pesticides or herbicides-they know the magic of the earth produces bounty for us with a beautiful interactive dance between the soil, the plants, the sun and water. (
  • The award helps raise awareness of the great things all Iowa farmers do to conserve state soil and water resources. (
  • An international agricultural coalition - "Farming First" - is calling for the improved teaching of soil health to small farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where up to 65% of land is degraded. (
  • The effort was set up by one of Fintrac's local partners called Crop Nutrition Laboratory Services, a private company that manages and provides soil analysis to farmers. (
  • But by April of 2015, the soils of nearly 8,000 small farmers had been analyzed. (
  • We hope it explains the problem of carbon dioxide buildup and climate change, how carbon can be taken out of the atmosphere and restored to the soil, and the advantages that can come to farmers and consumers from growing in carbon-rich soils. (
  • The authors recommend that access to soil information and associated meta-information be given to a broader audience, for example planning offices and farmers. (
  • In their study, forestry scientists of Göttingen University established a total of 86 research plots across the humid tropics in Indonesia, Cameroon and Peru and compared the carbon contents of natural forest soils with neighbouring tree plantations managed by smallholder farmers. (
  • What was not understood in the past is the crucial role soil plays in climate change, serving as a huge, natural store of carbon. (
  • So, soils play a decisive role in climate change. (
  • But the impact of soil and agriculture on each other is not merely reciprocal: water, air, climate and biodiversity protection are also particularly important for these two elements. (
  • The rising temperatures and changes in precipitation associated with climate change also affect the soil and can potentially increase the risk for soils at innumerable sites. (
  • Climate change creates poor soil conditions, the CIP explains in a second statement , which can exacerbate poverty and malnutrition in already vulnerable areas. (
  • And in a world where two million go hungry and climate change looms on the horizon, finding new and old wasys to enrich the soil is increasingly important. (
  • Where the climate is generally mild and winters are rainy, amend the soil in established plantings annually after fall cleanup. (
  • Although the Healthy Soils Program (HSP) emphasizes the role of compost in sequestering soil carbon for climate change mitigation, compost application also offers a host of advantages for crop health and ecosystem resilience. (
  • Irregular precipitation caused by climate changes has resulted in frequent events of soil drying-rewetting cycles (DWC), which can strongly affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, including the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs). (
  • Most heavy metals, at soil pH's that are conducive to plant growth (around 6.5 to 7.0), will complex with soil particles and are unlikely to be taken up into the edible part of the crop (rice is a notable exception). (
  • As Katherine Ellen Foley reports for Quartz , researchers at the International Potato Center (known as CIP, its Spanish acronym) were able to sprout a crop of spuds in Mars-like soils. (
  • In beds earmarked for vegetables and annual flowers , amend the soil before each new crop is planted. (
  • Working in the Lake Erie watershed with heavy clay soils, no-tillers Les and Jerry Seiler are increasing productivity with their dedication to no-till, crop diversity and precision technology. (
  • It also matches fertilizers with specific soil types, and helps with other improvements like applying lime to the soil because, as Chesterman said, "in many parts of Kenya, the soil is too acidic for optimum crop growth. (
  • The authors propose mapping first of all those areas that are most important for the sustainable use and protection of the soil, such as high-quality crop rotation areas near settlements. (
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infection is found mainly in areas with warm and moist climates where sanitation and hygiene are poor, including in temperate zones during warmer months. (
  • People with light soil-transmitted helminth infections usually have no symptoms. (
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections are treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider. (
  • To determine the prevalence of helminth eggs in public places and children's playgrounds, 112 soil samples were collected in 26 sites in Shiraz, southern Islamic Republic of Iran, during September 2002- September 2003. (
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections affect the poorest and most deprived communities. (
  • Students will obtain in situ measurements of soil moisture that are consistent with soil moisture measurements from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. (
  • To nominate a farmer, write a brief (no more than 100 words) letter summarizing the individual's conservation efforts and send it to your county Soil & Water Conservation District office before June 1. (
  • Questions are posed that require written responses and the in-class activity involves a web-based soil survey using the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey. (
  • Last month, a law on black soil conservation was put into effect to safeguard food security and protect the ecosystem. (
  • Its efforts have led to discoveries and breakthroughs in black soil conservation and use, cementing China's position as the leader in global black soil research since 2021, with the contribution of around 52 percent of academic papers published in the field. (
  • Board Supervisors guide the district, its staff, and cooperating agencies in efforts to implement conservation programs in the county that address management and conservation of soil, water and related resources. (
  • During this webinar with Dr. Craig Kolodge of San Pasqual Valley Soils, we'll explore the interconnectedness between soil health, compost, and conservation, and how to achieve maximal results from compost application in your HSP project. (
  • Since then, he has been teaching and applying this technique, by coupling it with biogeochemical methods, to soils from the tropics and the temperate zone, particularly in carbonate-rich environments. (
  • Methods of evaluating nutrient levels in soils. (
  • The soil has been enriched by their elders through traditional methods. (
  • They published a paper recently in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment on their findings, noting that these methods of soil enrichment may offer a model for the future of agricultural carbon sequestration. (
  • His main research topics are in the field of geopedology, paleopedology, soil and archaeological deposits, where he extensively uses thin section micromorphology, coupled to sedimentology, geoarchaeology and Quaternary geology methods. (
  • The South Coffeyville, Okla., farmer made a cold-turkey decision to leave traditional planting-and-growing methods behind and adopt soil health as a way of life. (
  • The National Research Programme "Sustainable Use of Soil as a Resource" (NRP 68) is proposing a "Swiss soil information platform" and showing how soil mapping can be expedited by using digital methods. (
  • Develop a site investigation plan (including records search and air and soil sampling) that addresses the potential for sources and local areas of PCB, dioxin/furan, and pesticide contamination. (
  • This is the sum of living and dead matter in soil and includes plant residues and microorganisms. (
  • It is now much easier for us to map genetic sequences of soil microorganisms, understand what they actually do and how to grow them, and reintroduce them back to the soil. (
  • Typically, the growth of these microorganisms is favored by particular soil characteristics and may involve complex life cycles including amoebae or animal hosts. (
  • The quantity and type of microorganisms in a particular portion of soil are determined by a complex interaction of varying amounts of sunlight, temperature, moisture, soil pH, nutrients, and redox potential. (
  • Pictorial representation of factors determining distribution of bacterial and fungal microorganisms in soil. (
  • and compost soil from the Winelands area, Western Cape. (
  • Your compost/soil is thirsty! (
  • Soil is also the main component of terrestrial ecosystems and complex water and nutrient cycles. (
  • The Soil Screening Guidance should be reviewed, modified, and applied by qualified scientists to meet the needs and operational guidelines/procedures of their representative agencies and organizations. (
  • The study is intriguing, soil scientists say. (
  • Hence, the book should be of special interest to agricultural and environmental engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists and geoscientists. (
  • Finding more familiar than alien elements, NASA scientists today announced that their initial analysis found that Martian soil could support life. (
  • Scientists on Wednesday received the first test results from the wet chemistry laboratory on the Mars Lander, which is using a robotic arm to dig a shallow trench and then scoop up and analyze soil samples on the northern pole of the planet. (
  • This report provides background information on the complex and interactive factors that environmental health scientists need to consider when evaluating the impact of lead-contaminated soil on public health. (
  • Scientists at the University of Göttingen in Germany have shown that up to 50 per cent of the carbon stored in the soil is set free when tropical forests are replaced by oil palm, rubber and cacao plantations. (
  • The higher the initial soil carbon stocks, the greater the carbon losses later," the scientists say. (
  • A Powerful Technique to Study Microbes, Now Easier In JGI's Genome Insider podcast: LLNL biologist Jennifer Pett-Ridge collaborated with JGI scientists through the Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program to semi-automate experiments that measure microbial activity in soil. (
  • Buruli ulcer (BU), leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). (
  • Moreover, land-use management policies should protect natural forests in tropical countries on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimise soil carbon losses. (
  • The first-ever in-depth analysis of Martian dirt reveals a mineralogical makeup similar to that of Hawaiian volcanic soils, researchers announced today (Oct. 30). (
  • This Martian soil that we've analyzed on Mars just this past week appears mineralogically similar to some weathered basaltic materials that we see on Earth," David Bish, a CheMin co-investigator with Indiana University, told reporters. (
  • This image shows results of the first analysis of Martian soil by the Curiosity rover's CheMin instrument, revealing the presence of crystalline feldspar, pyroxenes and olivine mixed with some non-crystalline material. (
  • Kounaves said in a conference call with the media that, though the findings are preliminary, they've found the minerals that are essential to life in the Martian soil. (
  • The minerals in the Martian soil, according to Kounaves, are typical of soils here on Earth. (
  • Substance loads can contribute to the presence of excessive soil nutrients and to soil and ecosystem acidification. (
  • The response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes to DWC events may differ among different ecosystem types and vary with experimental settings and soil properties , but these processes were not quantitatively assessed. (
  • Soil-transmitted helminths live in the intestine and their eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. (
  • Hookworm, Ascaris , and whipworm are known as soil-transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). (
  • Objective: Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. (
  • Ronald Turco at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, and his colleagues have found that fullerenes, nanoscale carbon spheres, do not harm microbes when released into the soil. (
  • Just as we have unwittingly destroyed vital microbes in the human gut through overuse of antibiotics and highly processed foods, we have recklessly devastated soil microbiota essential to plant health through overuse of certain chemical fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, pesticides, failure to add sufficient organic matter (upon which they feed), and heavy tillage. (
  • Since the 1970s, there have been soil microbes for sale in garden shops, but most products were hit-or-miss in terms of actual effectiveness, were expensive, and were largely limited to horticulture and hydroponics. (
  • Some insects over winter in the soil and emerge looking for the same plant they lived on last year. (
  • A: No, when seedlings are sown in a "starter" medium you want your seedlings to develop a strong health root system and then plant the entire plug of roots and medium into your garden soil. (
  • Soil water relationship, interactions with plant nutrient uptake and loss from soil. (
  • These activities turn poor, heavy soil into a dark, nutritious plant medium, which is used judiciously by the communities. (
  • The first lecture "Plant - soil interactions" was held for Bachelor students. (
  • The second lecture, "Soil anoxia and plant response" revealed plant reactions and adaptations under hypoxic and anoxic conditions. (
  • drainage is improved, and the soil is easier for plant roots to penetrate. (
  • Permanent or semipermanent plantings of trees, shrubs, or perennials benefit from soil amendment too, but you need to do the job without damaging plant roots. (
  • If the plant isn't a shallow-rooted type (that is, if it doesn't have many roots concentrated near soil level), you can speed up the improvement process by working the amendment into the top inch or so of soil, using a three-pronged cultivator. (
  • While increasing organic matter is a multi-year process, no-tillers can boost it even faster by ensuring there's enough plant material to replenish what's already in the soil and adding more residue. (
  • Plant and Soil Sciences: Ph.D., M.S. (
  • The Department of Plant and Soil Sciences offers graduate programs that lead to degrees of master of science and doctor of philosophy in plant and soil sciences. (
  • The objectives of the programs are to equip the student with the background and techniques necessary for degree completion, opportunities for advanced study in the plant and soil sciences, and job placement. (
  • Poor soil is often the problem in growing a great lawn and calcium is vital to many grass plant functions. (
  • STEP 2: Rest the Soil - Don't plant for at least 3 days! (
  • As soon as your soil reaches the right temperature and all danger of frost is over, it's time to plant or transplant. (
  • Finally, you can top-dress the soil with 1 to 2 cm of fine gravel or coarse sand to improve drainage around the collar of the plant. (
  • František Doležal , «Evaluation of crack anisotropy in agricultural clay soils», Acta Stereologica [En ligne], Volume 9 (1990), Number 1 - Proceedings of the fifth European congress for stereology - Part three - June 1990, 125-133 URL : (
  • or (2) a salic horizon, a high water for at least one month, and a soil moisture control section that is dry in some or all parts for most of the year. (
  • Students explore soil moisture by weighing and drying sponges and then they explore their soil samples in the same way. (
  • Natural minerals in soil can become hydrophobic (resistant to moisture absorption) without moisture, so be sure to keep your soil well-watered as soon as you work it into your planting area, and throughout the growing season. (
  • Direct the hose at the soil to add consistent light moisture as you mix in your new compost (it's also a good way to get a quick drink of water during all the hard work). (
  • Moisture needs to be worked into compost and soil at a steady, even rate to prevent clumping. (
  • Here, we evaluated the responses of soil GHG fluxes to DWC, compared with consistent moisture, as well as the associated driving factors with 424 paired observations collected from 47 publications of lab incubation experiments. (
  • In addition, soil organic matter accelerates the breakdown of pollutants and can bind them to its particles, so reducing the risk of run-off. (
  • All flasks were incubated at 26°C for 24 h with regular shaking to allow time for conidial binding to soil particles ( 2 ). (
  • conidia from other particles in the soil, we used the flotation method adapted from Larsh et al ( 3 ). (
  • The combination of these creatures' waste products and their remains, called humus, binds with soil particles. (
  • Back in 2019, CABI was awarded a $1.49 million grant to help the foundation increase food security in India and Ethiopia through better access to data on soil health, agronomy and fertilizers. (
  • He adds commercial fertilizers such as phosphate, nitrates, and potash, or he may grow clover and alfalfa which he plows back into the soil. (
  • Q: I have had a lot of success with biochar/ horticultural charcoal in my clay soil. (
  • Sand and peat moss: good amendments for clay soil? (
  • Sand is often recommended to lighten clay soil. (
  • Use to measure the temperature of soil mixes during sterilization or pasteurization as well. (
  • Working with bulk natural, living soil is different than bagged potting mixes and soils. (
  • The third edition of the Wageningen Soil Conference - Soil Science in a Changing World was held from 28th until 31st of August 2017. (
  • 10 October 2017 - The WHO country office Egypt, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Population, launched the evaluation of the second national soil transmitted helminthes deworming mass drug administration campaign for school aged children in Egypt. (
  • Ascaris and hookworm eggs become infective as they mature in soil. (
  • In a third category, the parasites may spend a part of their life cycle in the soil before becoming infective to humans. (
  • The built-in thermostat automatically activates the cable when the soil temperature drops below 74°F. Complete instructions included. (
  • Research shows that biochars vary in their soil improvement properties based on their feedstock (e.g., manures, wood) and the manner in which they are produced (e.g., temperature). (
  • Awarded with a Marie-Curie-Fellowship in 1994-95, he joined Prof. G. Stoops laboratory of soil micromorphology in Gent (Belgium), where he was introduced to the microscopic approach of soils. (
  • Earlier this week, the microscopic imager on the Mars Lander sent back pictures of the trench, dubbed Wonderland, that contained the tested soil. (
  • F. tularensis is found in widely diverse animal hosts and habitats and can be recovered from contaminated water, soil, and vegetation. (
  • It is a neat example of traditional practices transforming soil properties to improve agriculture," says Timothy Crews, ecologist and research director at the nonprofit research center, The Land Institute , who was not involved in the study. (
  • Although the content of this webinar is tailored for Healthy Soils Program awardees, registration is open to all. (
  • The mean radioactivity content obtained for 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.14 ± 4.17Bq kg-1, 23.23 ± 7.67 Bq kg-1 and 270.14 ± 61.79Bq kg-1 respectively in soil samples and 8.56 ± 2.80Bq kg-1, 13.17 ± 4.48Bq kg-1 and 89.41 ± 24.15Bq L-1 respectively for 238U, 232Th and 40K in water samples . (
  • Soil develops extremely slowly as the result of a millennial interplay between physical, chemical and biological processes. (
  • Part five gives interpretations of features associated with the main processes at work in soils and paleosols. (
  • A major activity of this unit is to use online resources to consider the distribution of soils at a site chosen by the student and cleared with you (instructor), and the implications of the distribution to understanding CZ processes and land use at the site. (
  • These processes, along with deposition, shape our landforms and contribute to the development of parent material in the soil formation process. (
  • Yet this lack of standardised nationwide soil information is one fundamental reason why soil is scarcely considered in many policy areas and decision-making processes. (
  • The campaign aims to evaluate the current prevalence of the soil transmitted helminthes before starting the distribution of 12.5 million mebendazole tablets in a mass drug administration for school children at 10 governorates: Beheira, Sharqia, Port Said, Kafr El-Sheikh, Dakahlia, BeniSweif, Assiut, Sohag and Giza. (
  • Recognize soil as a socially relevant mineral and biotic entity. (
  • Soil consists of mineral and organic matter derived from a variety of sources and it is vitally important to sustaining life on Earth including human society. (
  • Furthermore, residential soils in some areas of Anniston with higher levels of PCBsmay present a public health hazard for thyroid and neurodevelopmental effects forintermediate exposure durations (less than 1 year of exposure). (
  • Persons with elevated blood PCB levels (greater than 20 µ g/L) for whom there is evidence of current exposure to soil contamination should be a focus of particular attention in future environmental characterization and public health actions. (
  • Sample soil to assess whether average exposure point concentrations exceed levels of health concern for persons living at residences likely to be contaminated. (
  • A definitive analysis of the impact on public health of lead-contaminated soil is limited often by a lack of information on human exposure factors and soil conditions. (
  • Questions regarding soil exposure should be included in the history of any patient with syndromes consistent with tetanus, botulism or anthrax, traumatic wounds, recalcitrant skin lesions, gastroenteritis, and nonresponsive, overwhelming, or chronic pneumonia. (
  • Hand-to-mouth activity, especially in children, is a potentially significant pathway of exposure to soil contaminants. (
  • CABI has been awarded a $1.07 million contract from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to lead a comprehensive study of national Soil Information Systems (SIS) in several countries including India, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania also capturing learning from the USA, UK, countries within the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and Bangladesh. (
  • It is also in line with the foundation's goal of assessing opportunities for mainstreaming spectral soil analysis in support of national soil information service initiatives in AGRA countries via the FAO's Global Soil Laboratory Network (GLOSOLAN) initiative. (
  • Although a comparable platform currently exists in the form of the NABODAT soil information system, the national soil monitoring, it is customised for the needs of the federal and cantonal enforcement authorities, and can only be accessed by those bodies. (
  • More researcher is necessary before future space travelers can freely chow down on potatoes grown in Mars-like soils. (
  • Some foods are grown in soil, and others are grown hydroponically in large buildings and under lights. (
  • If the government wants to label food to aid the customer, then they should have a label that says "hydroponic" to inform the customer of the hydroponic story, in the same way we have an "organic" label for food grown in soil. (
  • They used tubers that had been bred to thrive in salty soils, and irrigated them with nutrient-rich water. (
  • To mimic the harsh surface of Mars, researchers relied on soils from the Pampas de La Joya desert in Peru, which, like the soils on the Red Planet, contains few life-sustaining compounds. (
  • And one year after the project began, researchers saw spuds sprouting in the soil. (
  • If potatoes can thrive in Mars-like conditions, researchers theorize, they can likely survive in soils that have been damaged by global warming. (
  • The book addresses the growing interest in soil micromorphology in the fields of soil science, earth science, archaeology and forensic science, and serves as a reference tool for researchers and students for fast learning and intuitive feature and structure recognition. (
  • This atlas will be of interest to researchers, academics, and students, who will find it a convenient tool for the self-teaching of soil micromorphology by using comparative photographs. (
  • CheMin's first results - obtained using soil Curiosity scooped at a site called "Rocknest" - aren't terribly surprising, researchers said. (
  • The goal of Open Soil Science is to provide instructors with the resources they need to effectively teach the world about soils and soil science. (
  • The soil science resources made available on this website are open access, and in some cases, open-source. (
  • Lawns thrive in soil with slightly acidic to neutral pH levels ranging from 6.2 to 7.0. (
  • Stick the probe into moist soil for the pH to register in a separate 4" x 2" x 1" gauge box on the end of a 26 inch cord. (
  • It has a thin lipopolysaccharide-containing envelope and is a hard, non-spore-forming organism that survives for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, and decaying animal carcasses. (
  • The black soil was not here when people settled there. (
  • They always associate the age of their town with the depth of the black soil," Solomon says. (
  • China has around 1.09 million square kilometers of black soil, accounting for 12 percent of the global total. (
  • Most of the world's black soil is located in the United States, Ukraine and Argentina. (
  • China's black soil produces about a quarter of its grain output. (
  • Jiang Ming, director of the institute, called black soil the "panda of arable land" due to it being extremely important to food security. (
  • Zhang Tao, vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said the academy attaches great importance to the effective use and protection of black soil resources. (
  • This represents the development from mechanization to automation in safeguarding black soil resources," he said. (
  • The constant head test is a laboratory test done on sandy or granular soil samples. (
  • Residents can bring in several samples of soil from their yards and provide information about their soil sample on a Log-In Form. (
  • africanus gDNA in the acid-washed soil, DNA extractions were conducted on triplicate soil sub- samples (0.25 g). (
  • Samples of acid-washed soil (10 g) were then added to conical flasks (50 mL) and artificially inoculated with 102, 103, 104 and 106 conidia, respectively. (
  • After incubation, DNA extractions were conducted in duplicate on each of the artificially inoculated soil samples. (
  • With just one gram of moon soil (technically called "regolith"), they added water and then seeds to the samples, putting them into terrarium boxes and then adding a nutrient solution every day. (
  • In practical exercises students acquired knowledge of the system and applied it to soil samples previously collected by teachers from Tartu. (
  • CheMin studies soil and powdered rock samples using a technique called X-ray diffraction, which reads the structure of minerals by interpreting how X-rays bounce off of them. (
  • Initially, sampling done by the three-year-old Soil Doctor service was limited, with fewer than 100 samples, according to Chesterman. (
  • He said the initiative is working to reach up to analyze up to 5,000 soil samples per year. (
  • The aim here is to make increasing use of automated procedures, both for data collection and for the analysis of soil samples. (
  • Soil samples were taken from non-fertilized control plots (Luzulo-pilosse Abietum, Luzulo-Quercetum luzuletosum pilosae, Myrtillo-Abietum) in the altitude 400-450 m a.s.l., in 100-120 years old spruce monocultures. (
  • The values obtained for the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) in (x 10-3) were also 0.13, 0.63 and 3.80 for the soil , food and water samples , respectively. (
  • To harness this potential of the agricultural sector to positively contribute to the sustainability agenda, a package of policies is needed to enhance global soil carbon stocks. (
  • Then, as now, soil played a crucial role in supplying food. (
  • The single greatest leverage point for a sustainable and healthy future for the seven billion people on the planet is arguably immediately underfoot: the living soil, where we grow our food. (
  • To further improve the soil, they keep goats and chickens in specific areas, and bring food waste like byproducts from processing palm oil, bones, and palm thatch there to burn. (
  • The soils were most commonly used to grow food used in home gardens, including cassava, taro, and plantain. (
  • He said soil education and improved management skills are the first steps in improving food production and productivity. (
  • Soils are essential for growing our food, yet they have no voice and few people speak out for them. (
  • Thorough nationwide information is vital in order to better accommodate the various demands put on soil, particularly with regard to sustainable food production, drinking water treatment and spatial planning. (
  • The mean values of 30.91, 15.64 and 12.47 nGy h-1 were obtained for the absorbed dose rate in soil , food and water , respectively, while 37.90, 178.79 and 1085.23 µSv y-1 were obtained for the Annual Effective Doses (AED). (
  • Similarly, the Radium equivalent (Raeq) were 66.16 Bq kg-1, 34.28Bq kg-1 and 27.31BqL-1, in soil , food and water , respectively. (
  • The external and internal radiation hazard indices were 0.18 and 0.21, 0.09 and 0.12, 0.07 and 0.09, respectively for soil , food and water . (
  • Monitor soil for optimum germination temperatures. (
  • Soil Temperatures: What's Best for Transplanting Starts & Seedlings? (
  • As shown by our results, a considerable soil acidification occurred between the years 1967-2002/2003. (
  • Healthy soil reduces the risk of floods and protects underground water supplies by neutralising or filtering out potential pollutants. (
  • The following resources support the creation of healthy, living soil through mulching, composting, and more. (
  • Reducing salinity isn't necessarily hard to do, but it can take some time for the soil to bounce back and become healthy again. (
  • Although this program is tailored for Healthy Soils Program awardees, anyone can register and attend for free. (
  • Continuous no-till is an uncommon practice in southeast Kansas, where tight clay soils can hinder nutrient distribution and the growing environment causes rapid breakdown of residue. (
  • Soilutions' composts and soils are tested for stability before we consider them ready, so a 'hot' soil is unlikely, but it is always best practice to wait for a few days to a week before planting. (
  • This specification covers the performance evaluation of heavy duty shielded couplings to join hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings. (
  • When heavy rains or strong winds hit uncovered soil, soil material can be transported downslope or through the open landscape. (
  • Q: Can one usually get soil test, e.g. for heavy metals, from USDA County Extension? (
  • The [Mars-like] soils contain heavy metals like lead, arsenic and mercury and also a lot of iron. (
  • Abused, heavy clay soils are now almost fluffy and far more productive thanks to careful management focused on improvement. (
  • This allows to estimate the parameters of g(β)or h(φ,ϑ)from the observed roses m(α) or m(φ,ϑ) , respectively, as well as to assess the density of cracks in planar sections (L A ) or in volume (S V ). The procedures are illustrated by some examples of heavy clay soils in East Slovakia Lowland. (
  • Soil and compost are heavy-we like to say compost gets heavier as the day grows later, so you'll want to make sure you have a wheelbarrow or garden cart handy to help with transport. (
  • Hand-mouthing behavior is of particular concern in areas impacted by mining, smelting, and quarrying activities as these activities may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in soil. (