Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein: A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Bone Diseases, Endocrine: Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Calciphylaxis: Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.PolyaminesOsteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Account BooksBone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.GlucuronidaseBone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Dental Pulp CalcificationTunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcimimetic Agents: Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.ElastinChelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Bone Diseases, MetabolicReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Liposarcoma: A malignant tumor derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells. It may be composed of well-differentiated fat cells or may be dedifferentiated: myxoid (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID), round-celled, or pleomorphic, usually in association with a rich network of capillaries. Recurrences are common and dedifferentiated liposarcomas metastasize to the lungs or serosal surfaces. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Progeria: An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous: A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous: The most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma. It is a neoplasm with a fibrohistiocytic appearance found chiefly in later adult life, with peak incidence in the 7th decade.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Therapy, Soft Tissue: The assessment, treatment, and management of soft tissue injury or dysfunction. Therapy is designed to reduce tension and irritation in affected tissues and may include MASSAGE; muscle stretching, or direct pressure on muscles, connective tissue, and TRIGGER POINTS.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
... vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. Renal osteodystrophy may exhibit no symptoms; if it does show symptoms, they ... London GM (February 2009). "Bone-vascular axis in chronic kidney disease: a reality?". Clinical Journal of the American Society ... the so-called bone-vascular axis). Actually, bone may now be considered a new endocrine organ at the heart of CKD-MBD. . Kidney ... is not only associated with fractures but also with cardiovascular calcification, poor quality of life and increased morbidity ...
... vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. CKD-MBD has been associated to poor hard outcomes. Metabolic acidosis (due to ... Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, being a direct stimulus to vascular calcification. Moreover ... and vascular calcification that further impairs cardiac function. An extreme consequence is the occurrence of the rare ... Vascular disease includes large vessel disease such as bilateral renal artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ...
Furthermore, OAC is often linked to undesired soft-tissue calcification in both children and adults. This process has been ... Vascular calcification was shown to appear in warfarin-treated experimental animals within two weeks. Also in humans on OAC ... Vermeer, C.; Braam, L. (2001). "Role of K vitamins in the regulation of tissue calcification". Journal of bone and mineral ... Matrix gla protein (MGP). This calcification inhibitory protein is found in numerous body tissues, but its role is most ...
Giachelli CM (March 1999). "Ectopic calcification: gathering hard facts about soft tissue mineralization". Am. J. Pathol. 154 ( ... in urolithiasis and vascular calcification ‒ presumably at least in part to inhibit debilitating mineralization in these soft ... The prefix osteo- indicates that the protein is expressed in bone, although it is also expressed in other tissues. The suffix - ... Tissue Res. 44 Suppl 1: 33-40. doi:10.1080/03008200390152061. PMID 12952171. Christensen B, Nielsen MS, Haselmann KF, Petersen ...
... or strength Vascular or other soft-tissue calcification CKD-MBD explains, at least in part, the high morbidity and mortality of ... In addition, there is evidence at the tissue level of a downregulation of vitamin D receptor and of resistance to the actions ... and extraskeletal calcification) are closely interrelated and together make a major contribution to the morbidity and mortality ... Cardiovascular calcifications are clinically relevant". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 30 (3): 345-51. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfv020. Kidney ...
... a reserve of available calcium in adjacent skeletal tissue or soft tissue edema, vascular stasis tissue hypoxia or mesenchymal ... Early edema of connective tissue proceeds to tissue with foci of calcification and then to maturation of calcification and ... The radiological features of myositis ossificans are 'faint soft tissue calcification within 2-6 weeks, (may have well-defined ... In the early stage, termed immature, it is depicts a non-specific soft tissue mass that ranges from a hypoechoic area with an ...
Chronic hypercalcaemia may lead to soft tissue calcification, which can lead to serious consequences: for example, ... calcification of the vascular wall can lead to a loss of elasticity and the disruption of laminar blood flow, and thence to ... When the rate of bone formation exceeds the rate of bone resorption, the 44Ca/40Ca ratio in soft tissue rises and vice versa. ... In animals with skeletons mineralized with calcium, the calcium isotopic composition of soft tissues reflects the relative rate ...
Radiography reveals extensive diffuse cartilaginous calcification. Pulmonary angiography and soft tissue radiography often ... Extensive diffuse cartilaginous calcification is present in MGP-knockout mice, manifesting in vascular media replacement with a ... suggesting that MGP may function in inhibiting passive calcification in soft tissues. Recent evidence suggests MGP is a vitamin ... in loss of consensus donor splice site at exon 2-intron 2 junctions result in significant diffuse calcification of soft tissue ...
... calcification of the internal elastic lamina, calcification of cardiac valves and widespread soft tissue calcification. The ... and the prevalence of vascular calcification is increased by some diseases (see Epidemiology section). Vascular calcification ... The mechanism of vascular calcification is not fully understood, but probably involves a phenotypic change in the vascular ... It is unclear whether Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis is a distinct entity or forms part of a spectrum of vascular calcification ...
These tests also provide great details, especially in soft tissues with the aide of cross-sectional images. Magnetic Resonance ... MRI can also be used to look for cartilage on the surface of tumor and can depict any vascular complications caused by the ... Computed Tomography (CT) scan can identify the bony lesion in great details and show the presence of calcification. ... bumps can arise at the site of tumor and pain and other discomforts can also take place if pressure is put on the soft tissues ...
... causing soft tissue swelling due to fluid accumulation. Obstruction of lymphatic tissue causes increased intravascular tissue ... The further roteins increase the vascular fluid, fibroblasts and promote the ploriferation of mast cells which produce the ... calcifications. The reason for its occurrence is unknown. Investigations have suspected that obesity and preceding psoriatic ... Occasionally, tissue fibrosis and thickening may become so marked in the later stages of lymphedema that pitting is absent. ...
Once the cortex (the outer shell) of the bone has been disrupted, vascular channels may invade adjacent soft tissues and joints ... the presence of angiomatous tissue Absence of cellular atypia Minimal or no osteoblastic response or dystrophic calcifications ... Stout embarked on a systematic study of soft tissue tumors in children and was among the first to link cigarette smoking to ... 2010 Mar;46(3):873-6. Aviv RI, McHugh K, Hunt J. Angiomatosis of bone and soft tissue: a spectrum of disease from diffuse ...
Non-contrast CT scans Figure 1a (left) and 1b (right) are of limited use for the differentiation of soft tissue structures. ... The non-contrast images facilitate the differentiation of active extravasation or acute bleeding from vascular calcifications. ... However, materials like blood, calcium (renal stones, vascular atherosclerosis), bone, and pulmonary parenchyma are highly ...
Ectopic calcification, a pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues or bone growth in soft tissues Cerebellar tonsillar ... displacement of pancreatic tissue in the body with no connection, anatomical or vascular, to the pancreas Ectopic recombination ... where thymus tissue is found in an abnormal location Ectopic thyroid, where an entire or parts of the thyroid are located ...
... can result in calcification of arteries and other soft tissue. Such metastatic soft tissue calcification is mainly in tissues ... and Vascular Biology, 2000, Vol. 20, pp. 317-327. McGavin, Zachary. Pathologic basis of veterinary disease, fourth edition; ... Intake of too much vitamin D would be evident by anorexia, loss of appetite, or soft tissue calcification. Monckeberg's ... Metastatic calcification, a systemic elevation of calcium levels in the blood and all tissues. Calcification can manifest ...
Elevated blood calcium levels from the lost bone result in dangerous calcification of soft tissues and potential kidney stone ... The body is made up of 60% water, much of it intra-vascular and inter-cellular. Within a few moments of entering a microgravity ... Eardrums and sinuses may be ruptured by rapid decompression, soft tissues may bruise and seep blood, and the stress of shock ... After two months, calluses on the bottoms of feet molt and fall off from lack of use, leaving soft new skin. Tops of feet ...
Causes of soft tissue calcificationEdit. Calcification of soft tissue (arteries, cartilage, heart valves,[1][2] etc.) can be ... "Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification Is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D", Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ... can result in calcification of arteries and other soft tissue.[4] Such metastatic soft tissue calcification is mainly in ... Intake of too much vitamin D would be evident by anorexia, loss of appetite, or soft tissue calcification. ...
The articular disk is a thin, oval plate, which is made from fibrous connective tissue, non vascular, placed between the ... Hansson, Tore; Nordström, Birgitta (2009). "Thickness of the soft tissue layers and articular disk in temporomandibular joints ... "Synovial chondromatosis in the temporomandibular joint complicated by displacement and calcification of the articular disk: ... "Thickness of the soft tissue layers and the articular disk in the temporomandibular joint". Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 35 ...
CT and MR imaging are more specific, as they can easily recognize fatty component along with other soft tissue component more ... A plaque like calcification with acoustic shadow is seen in the testis. Fig. 6. Mature cystic teratoma. (a) Composite Image. ... Absence of vascular flow is another important feature that is helpful in differentiation of epidermoid cyst from other solid ... If there is a lack of development of these attachments, the testis is free to twist on its vascular pedicle. This will result ...
Chronic hypercalcaemia typically leads to calcification of soft tissue and its serious consequences: for example, calcification ... can cause loss of elasticity of vascular walls and disruption of laminar blood flow-and thence to plaque rupture and thrombosis ... When the rate of bone formation exceeds the rate of bone resorption, the 44Ca/40Ca ratio in soft tissue rises and vice versa. ... In animals with skeletons mineralized with calcium, the calcium isotopic composition of soft tissues reflects the relative rate ...
The enlarged styloid may be visible on an orthopantogram or a lateral soft tissue X ray of the neck. It is worth noting that ... In vascular Eagle syndrome, the elongated styloid process comes in contact with the internal carotid artery below the skull. In ... and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which interferes with the functioning of neighboring regions in the body, ... The diagnosis of the vascular type is more difficult and requires an expert opinion. One should have a high level of suspicion ...
Mice deficient in fetuin-A show systemic calcification of soft tissues. Fetuin-B GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022868 ... 2003). "Novel insights into uremic vascular calcification: role of matrix Gla protein and alpha-2-Heremans Schmid glycoprotein/ ... It is involved in several functions, such as endocytosis, brain development and the formation of bone tissue. The protein is ... Ketteler M (2005). "Fetuin-A and extraosseous calcification in uremia". Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 14 (4): 337-42. doi: ...
... in particular the spine or paraspinal soft tissues; normally it should measure 3 mm or less. The left paratracheal stripe is ... Vascular: infarct, varix, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, rheumatoid arthritis. There are a number of features that are ... Unless a fractured rib is suspected of being displaced, and therefore likely to cause damage to the lungs and other tissue ... Doubling time of less than one month: sarcoma/infection/infarction/vascular. *Doubling time of six to 18 months: benign tumour/ ...
Metastatic calcification of the soft tissues. Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity appear several months after excessive doses of ... of vitamin D intake on atherosclerotic calcification and cardiovascular risk as it may be causing vascular calcification.[20] ... soft tissues, heart and kidneys. In addition, hypertension can result.[2] Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity may include the ... "Vascular calcification: pathobiology of a multifaceted disease". Circulation. 117 (22): 2938-48. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ...
Smith-Fineman-Myers syndrome Smith-Martin-Dodd syndrome Smith-Magenis syndrome Sneddon's syndrome Sociophobia Soft-tissue ... to immotile flagella Stern-Lubinsky-Durrie syndrome Sternal cleft Sternal cyst vascular anomalies Sternal malformation vascular ... Sybert-Smith syndrome Sydenham's chorea Symmetrical thalamic calcifications Symphalangism brachydactyly craniosynostosis ...
... because it can cause injury to soft tissue and/or the nerves and vascular structures around the dislocation.[3] ... There is calcification of annular ligament, which can be seen as early as 2 weeks after injury.[34] ... CT is useful in further analyzing any bony aberrations, and CT angiogram may be utilized if vascular injury is suspected.[14] ... for a more detailed inspection of the joint-supporting structures in order to assess for ligamentous and other soft tissue ...
Histologically, it is characterized by vascular and soft tissue calcification, intimal hypertrophy, and microthrombosis of ... This may induce adynamic bone disease that is a risk factor for vascular calcification. ... calciphylaxis is compelling because of the action of warfarin on the vitamin K-dependent inhibitors of vascular calcification. ... The differential diagnosis should include the following clinical mimics: atherosclerotic vascular disease, cholesterol emboli, ...
Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue. St 1. Carlborg U, Ejrup B, Gronblad E, et al: Vascular studies in pseudoxanthoma ... tensive abdominal aortic calcification, and diffuse arterial Calcification of upper and lower extremities. Serial com- puted ... There were multiple soft, chamoislike, yellowish plaques with prominent creases over the skin of the neck, axillae, and groin ( ... T h e radiological examination revealed a normal skull with calcification of the pineal gland, tracheal calcification, ex- From ...
Well-circumscribed calcifications in the soft tissues, frequently peri-articular. *Hands may also demonstrate resorption of the ... Punctate calcifications resulting from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the skin and subcutaneous tissues ... Calcinosis Circumscripta in Scleroderma. Radiographs of both hands show multiple, punctate calcifications (circles) in the soft ... tissues of both hands characteristic of calcinosis circumscripta. The patient had a 12 year history of scleroderma.. For this ...
... which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while the serum level is normal. It may progess to ossification, in which case a ... Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, ... Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while ... Dystrophic soft tissue calcification. Dr Magdalena Chmiel-Nowak ◉ and Dr Jeremy Jones ◉ et al. ...
Vascular Surgery. Calcium in aorta. : Atherosclerosis-the fancy name, hardening or the arteries-the common name...Same disease ... ct scan: paravertebral soft tissues remarkable for calcifications in the abdominal aorta. is this fatal?. 1 doctor answer ... Coronary artery calcifications, aorta, minimal atherosclerotic calcifications on ct/with contrast scan. What does this mean? ... So...Calcifications are very commonly seen in the aortic wall and do not, all by themselves indicate anything remotely fatal. ...
Vascular and Soft Tissue Calcification in Systemic Oxalosis: CT Diagnosis. Glickstein, Marc F.; Haggar, Allan M.; Coleman, ... Computer-Interactive Method for Quantifying Cerebrospinal Fluid and Tissue in Brain CT Scans: Effects of Aging. Pfefferbaum, ...
... vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. Renal osteodystrophy may exhibit no symptoms; if it does show symptoms, they ... London GM (February 2009). "Bone-vascular axis in chronic kidney disease: a reality?". Clinical Journal of the American Society ... the so-called bone-vascular axis). Actually, bone may now be considered a new endocrine organ at the heart of CKD-MBD. . Kidney ... is not only associated with fractures but also with cardiovascular calcification, poor quality of life and increased morbidity ...
Soft tissue calcification. *Vascular calcification. References[edit]. *Hyperparathyroidism by Adam Myhre, M.D., University of ...
Soft tissue line on the right was not interpreted as pleural plaque. Some readers suggested possible right diaphragmatic ... The vascular pattern is mildly indistinct. There is bilateral pleural involvement with calcification noted. There is face on ... The vascular pattern is intact in the left lower zone. The image presents a profusion of 0/1. ... This image represents a profusion of 1/0. The vascular pattern is less distinct. Some readers suggested that there is a ...
Researchers at ETH Zurich and ETH spin-off Inositec have discovered a substance that prevents vascular calcification. ... The calcification of blood vessels and other soft tissues is problematic. ... The calcification of blood vessels and other soft tissues is problematic. Researchers at ETH Zurich and ETH spin-off Inositec ... As their metabolism is impaired, calcium salts may deposit in soft tissues, such as blood vessels or even the heart valves, ...
... vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. CKD-MBD has been associated to poor hard outcomes. Metabolic acidosis (due to ... Hyperphosphatemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, being a direct stimulus to vascular calcification. Moreover ... and vascular calcification that further impairs cardiac function. An extreme consequence is the occurrence of the rare ... Vascular disease includes large vessel disease such as bilateral renal artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ...
Cutaneous or other non-vascular soft tissue calcifications were not included. The extent of the calcifications was classified ... Peripheral Vascular Calcifications. The presence or absence of peripheral vascular calcifications was subjectively evaluated. ... Vascular calcifications were defined as linear, (semi-) circular or crescent hyperdensities of vascular wall. ... Twenty-seven patients had significant peripheral vascular calcifications, 18 presented with mild to moderate and 5 patients ...
Schafer et al106 demonstrated widespread soft tissue calcification in fetuin-deficient mice. Reynolds and colleagues107,108 ... atherosclerotic calcification, diabetic medial artery calcification, vascular calcification of end-stage renal disease, and ... However, the net impact on vascular physiology (vascular compliance, Windkessel-dependent conduit function, distal tissue ... an epidemic of vascular calcification is emerging within our aging and dysmetabolic populace.2,3 Although vascular ...
Vascular & soft tissue calcification. 7 How is SHPT managed? -Restrict dietary phosphorus. -Phosphate binders. -Vitamin supp. ( ...
... abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm similar to vascular smooth muscle.1,2 The existence of leiomyomas of deep soft tissue has been ... Do leiomyomas of deep soft tissue exist? An analysis of highly differentiated smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue ... of deep soft tissue in children, and to include the tumour in the differential diagnosis of diffuse calcification in soft ... in soft tissue can cause diagnostic challenges in orthopaedics. Among the conditions which produce localised soft tissue ...
Plain radiographic findings (eg, soft-tissue mass, punctate calcification within a mass, signs of intestinal obstruction) are ... Calcification may be noted in the tumor. Linear strands within the mesenteric fat probably are thickened and retracted vascular ... CT scanning of small-bowel carcinoid reveals a mass with soft-tissue attenuation and variable size, with spiculated borders and ... but calcification is a clue to the diagnosis. CT scans may show a low-attenuation mass associated with calcification in the ...
soft tissue tumors of ectopic calcification are usually painless and grow at variable rates;. - masses may be hard and may ... vascular and visceral calcification does not occur;. - hyperphosphatemia may play a role in this disorder;. - Clincal ... See: Ossification of Soft Tissue and Periosteum:. - Discussion:. - heritable dz characterized by periarticular metastatic ... densely calcified lobules that are confined to soft tissues;. - radiographically these masses are similar to those seen in ...
Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... Previously vascular calcification was thought to be a passive process which involved the deposition of calcium and phosphate in ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ... However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone ...
Chronic hypercalcemia can result in generalized vascular and soft tissue calcification. Immobilized patients may be at a higher ... Parenteral aluminum exposure of ,4 to 5 mcg/kg/day is associated with CNS and bone toxicity; tissue loading may occur at lower ... Increased serum phosphate levels in patients with renal failure may lead to ectopic calcification; the use of an aluminum- ...
D hypervitaminosis induces vascular and soft-tissue calcifications. Calcium deposition in the vascular smooth muscle cells may ... on uremic vascular calcifications and pulse wave velocity revealed a dose-response relationship on vascular calcifications and ... Vascular calcifications were found also in experimental uremic models with low levels of vitamin D [123]. They are associated ... Vascular calcifications, the result of calcium-phosphate deposition, major determinants of mortality and morbidity in affected ...
Paraspinal Soft Tissues: Mural vascular calcifications. I also consulted with another ortho.spine surgeon remotely and he ... It is better for envisioning bone but MR is better for soft tissue/nerve stuff.. The very best advice I can give you is to ... Again, the CT scan isnt able to provide much info about soft tissue, nerves, etc. But you should be able to tell that the ... annular calcification noted without high-grade bony spinal canal. or foraminal narrowing). L1-L2 (disc bulge and facet joint ...
These results indicate that ECM calcification must be actively inhibited in soft tissues. To our knowledge, Mgp is the first ... A candidate molecule is matrix GLA protein (Mgp), a mineral-binding ECM protein synthesized by vascular smooth-muscle cells and ... pathological calcification can occur in arteries and cartilage and other soft tissues. No molecular determinant regulating ECM ... Physiological calcification occurs in bone when the soft ECM is converted into a rigid material capable of sustaining ...
... chronic hypercalcemia may lead to generalized vascular and other soft-tissue calcification. Phosphate and vitamin D (and its ...
Value of S-100 protein in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors with particular reference to benign and malignant Schwann cell ... The cut surface has a cartilaginous consistency, and there may be central calcification. Of the malignant tumors in the lung, ... For completeness sake, Kaposi sarcoma is included in this discussion of vascular spindle cell lesions in the lung. Unless ... Is the lesion clearly parenchymal, or is there pleural or bone and soft tissue involvement? Is there adenopathy or other ...
Case 38551/03:. 50y old male patient, soft tissue mass left popliteal fossa. Case 38551/03. Case 38551/03. Case 38551/03. ... Soft Tissue Pathology The Sort of Thing You Get in Exams!. Dr. Petra Dildey Royal Victoria Infirmary Newcastle upon Tyne. ... cystic degeneration, hyalinization, nuclear atypia, calcification, foam cells, haemorrhage *cellular, ancient and plexiform ... haemangiopericytomatous vascular pattern *small bland cells, few mitoses *CD34 90%, CD99 70%, BCL2 30%, occ. EMA & SMA ...
  • The differentiation between liver disease secondary to connective tissue disorders and primary liver disease such as hepatitis can be extremely challenging since there is a similar immunological mechanism of causation. (novapublishers.com)
  • Most patients with connective tissue diseases exhibit liver function abnormalities that likely result from coexisting, fatty liver, viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension, autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic toxicity due to drugs. (novapublishers.com)
  • The challenges we face in the diagnosis of liver damage secondary to connective tissue and differentiation from the primary liver disease are challenging. (novapublishers.com)
  • The radiological studies of both hands (Figure 1) revealed clumps of calcification of the soft tissues suggesting a connective tissue disoerder. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Calcifications occur most frequently in cavernous haemangiomas (30% of lesions). (eurorad.org)
  • Whole body MRI was also performed to search for other vascular lesions and there were no other imaging findings (Fig. 5a-c). (eurorad.org)
  • Although whole-body MR is not necessary for diagnosis, it may be considered during diagnostic work-up of patients with clinically suspected vascular malformations, to identify multiple lesions and their distribution in diffuse vascular malformations, such as haemangiomatosis and lymphangiomatosis . (eurorad.org)
  • The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies have found active 1 alpha hydroxylase in several extra renal tissues, such as the heart and vascular smooth muscle cells [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A candidate molecule is matrix GLA protein (Mgp), a mineral-binding ECM protein synthesized by vascular smooth-muscle cells and chondrocytes, two cell types that produce an uncalcified ECM. (nih.gov)
  • This work should revolutionize therapies for vascular diseases because we now know that stem cells rather than smooth muscle cells are the correct therapeutic target. (redorbit.com)
  • Not only was there a lack of green markers in the cell cultures, but we noticed that another type of cell isolated from the blood vessels exhibited progenitor traits for different types of tissue, not just smooth muscle cells," said Zhenyu Tang, co-lead author of the study and a Ph.D. student in the UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering. (redorbit.com)
  • This would explain why previous studies misidentified the cells involved in vessel clogs as de-differentiated smooth muscle cells after vascular injury. (redorbit.com)
  • 9000 genes during the calcification of murine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), of which the most significantly, differentially expressed gene was Igf2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Note: Our protocol can be used with various cell types such as osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Mgp-deficient mice additionally exhibit inappropriate calcification of various cartilages, including the growth plate, which eventually leads to short stature, osteopenia and fractures. (nih.gov)
  • Histologically enchondromas show low cellularity with an abundant hyaline cartilage matrix sometimes with extensive calcifications [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MGP mRNA and protein were localized as expected not only in cartilage from branchial arches and vertebra but also in the endothelia of the vascular system as well as in the tubular renal endothelium. (springer.com)
  • Defects in MGP are the cause of Keutel syndrome (KS), which is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal cartilage calcification, peripheral pulmonary stenosis neural hearing loss and midfacial hypoplasia. (ptglab.com)
  • This brief review recounts emerging themes in the pathobiology of vascular calcification and highlights some fundamental deficiencies in our understanding of vascular endocrinology and metabolism that are immediately relevant to human health and health care. (physiology.org)
  • There was widespread calcification of the tumour. (scielo.org.za)
  • 33y old male patient, 4cm deep soft tissue tumour right forearm. (slideserve.com)
  • 66y old male patient, haemorrhagic soft tissue tumour right calf. (slideserve.com)
  • Surgery was performed for excision of the vascular tumour by simple controlled excision with three assistants and operation theatre nurse. (ispub.com)
  • Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) is a rare life-threatening disease, in which a rapidly growing vascular tumour leads to thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia with degradation products and consumption coagulopathy due to endothelial defects within the lesion causing platelet activation, platelet-fibrin thrombosis formation, clotting and coagulation factors consumption, and increased fibrinolysis. (eurorad.org)
  • With cysticercosis, the classic findings are multiple elongated foci of calcification just about the shape and size of grains of rice. (washington.edu)
  • Ultrasound features are nonspecific with an ill-defined, variably echogenic lesion that may contain foci of calcification , but Doppler ultrasound plays a key role for diagnosis because it demonstrates its high vascularised nature. (eurorad.org)
  • With respect to high attenuation alone, the presence of eccentric or stippled calcifications within an airway-associated lesion should trigger further investigation, as these patterns of calcification are indeterminate for malignancy. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In this review, we will focus on human CAC from a pathologic standpoint and explore its implications with regards to plaque progression and the relationship of the extent and patterns of calcification to plaque morphology as seen pathologically and radiographically. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In an in vitro model, elevated Ca or P induced human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification independently and synergistically, a process that was potently inhibited by serum. (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcification was initiated by release from living VSMC of membrane-bound matrix vesicles (MV) and also by apoptotic bodies from dying cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcification is initiated in nodules by release of apoptotic bodies (AB) and matrix vesicle (MV)-like structures from VSMC that act as a nidus for BCP nucleation ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • VSMC-derived MV have been associated with calcification in vivo , but their composition and function are poorly understood ( 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • These results potentially indicate that IGF2 may mediate VSMC calcification via the stimulation of Erk1/2 and Akt signalling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arterial stiffness is a vascular biomarker 4 that is increased in patients with CKD, 5 - 8 even in those with a mildly impaired renal function, 5 and is associated with an independent increase in CV risk. (asnjournals.org)
  • 7 The increase of arterial stiffness in CKD is mostly caused by reduced renal excretion of vascular toxins, maladaptive metabolic and hormonal processes, and as a result, premature vascular aging. (asnjournals.org)
  • While many wounds can be classified based on their etiologies, such as neuropathy, vascular insufficiency, and prolonged pressure, not all wounds fall neatly into these categories. (lww.com)