Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Bone Tissue: Neoplasms composed of bony tissue, whether normal or of a soft tissue which has become ossified. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in bones.Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue: Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue: Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.Neoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fibrous tissue, the ordinary connective tissue of the body, made up largely of yellow or white fibers. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in fibrous tissue.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Liposarcoma, Myxoid: A liposarcoma containing myxomatous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Manuscripts, MedicalVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Anus Diseasesraf Kinases: A family of closely-related serine-threonine kinases that were originally identified as the cellular homologs of the retrovirus-derived V-RAF KINASES. They are MAP kinase kinase kinases that play important roles in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Neurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Neurofibromatosis 2: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (1/1415)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

FDG and L-[1-11C]-tyrosine imaging of soft-tissue tumors before and after therapy. (2/1415)

This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship of PET using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) or L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) with histopathologic findings in soft-tissue tumors, before and after therapy. Histopathologic parameters that were studied were tumor grade, mitotic rate, proliferation activity and amount of necrosis. METHODS: PET with either FDG or TYR was performed in 55 patients with a lesion suspected to be a malignant soft-tissue tumor. In 28 patients, a second PET study was performed after therapy. Metabolic rate of glucose consumption (MRglc) and protein synthesis rate (PSR) were calculated. Histologic parameters were obtained from a biopsy specimen that was taken just after the first PET study and from the tumor remnant that was resected after therapy. RESULTS: MRglc correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.71) and mitotic rate (r = 0.68) but not with proliferation or necrosis. After therapy, there was no longer a correlation with mitotic rate. PSR correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.53), mitotic rate (r = 0.73) and proliferation (r = 0.66). After therapy, correlation with mitosis and proliferation had improved, and a negative correlation was found between PSR and necrosis (r = -0.74). CONCLUSION: These results validate the use of both FDG and TYR to give an in vivo indication of histologic tumor parameters. However, FDG gives a better indication of tumor grade, whereas TYR is more accurate in predicting mitotic rate and proliferation, especially after therapy. FDG may therefore not be the most suited tracer for monitoring therapy. TYR might be more appropriate for that purpose.  (+info)

Subcutaneous sacrococcygeal myxopapillary ependymoma. (3/1415)

We report a case of myxopapillary ependymoma presenting as a primary tumor of the subcutaneous tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The mass was large, well-encapsulated, lobulated, and multiseptated, with varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images caused by hemorrhagic necrosis, blood degradation products, and calcification. Only a small viable portion enhanced after administration of contrast material. Multiple lobules formed from fibrous septa and dystrophic calcification also characterize this tumor.  (+info)

Lymphangiosarcomas in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases. (4/1415)

Clinical, macroscopic, and histologic features of 12 lymphangiosarcomas in cats are described. Nine tumors were located in the subcutaneous tissue at the caudoventral abdominal wall (eight cats) or in the neck (one cat). The remaining three cats had lymphangiosarcomas around the cranial mesenteric artery (two cats) or precardial in the mediastinum (one cat). Macroscopically, the tumors were noncircumscribed, white, edematous, and intermixed with fat tissue. Histologic features varied from cleft-forming and cavernous growth to papilliform and solid patterns. Follow-up data were available for seven cats with subcutaneous lymphangiosarcomas. All these cats died or were euthanatized within 6 months after surgery because of poor wound healing, local recurrence, or distant metastases. The cats with abdominal or thoracic masses were either euthanatized at surgery or within 6 months after the first surgery because of recurrent chylothorax, chyloperitoneum, or distant metastases.  (+info)

Clinical and radiological aspects of idiopathic diabetic muscle infarction. Rational approach to diagnosis and treatment. (5/1415)

The systemic effects of diabetes mellitus are well recognised. The heart, kidney, central and peripheral nervous systems, and the distal parts of the limbs are often the site of end-organ damage resulting from ischaemia. Infarction of large muscle groups in the limb, not associated with gangrene, is uncommon. There have been few reported cases other than radiological descriptions of diabetic muscle infarcts. While previous reports have illustrated some of the clinical and radiological characteristics of this condition, the paucity of published cases makes it difficult to determine the most appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment. During a five-year period we treated 14 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged from 32 to 59 years, who were referred to a musculoskeletal oncology service for suspected soft-tissue sarcoma, but were subsequently found to have a diabetic muscle infarct. Closed needle biopsy was performed in 13 without complications. In 12 patients, the symptoms resolved without surgical treatment.  (+info)

Color Doppler sonography of focal lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. (6/1415)

We evaluated with color Doppler sonography 71 visible and palpable nodules of the skin and subcutaneous tissue from 51 patients. The nodules were classified as avascular (type I), hypovascular with a single vascular pole (type II), hypervascular with multiple peripheral poles (type III), and hypervascular with internal vessels (type IV). Of the 32 malignant nodules, 9% showed a type I pattern, 50% had a type III pattern, and 41% had a type IV pattern; of the 39 benign nodules, 86% showed a type I pattern and 14% had a type II pattern. The sensitivity and specificity of hypervascularity in malignant lesions were 90% and 100%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of hypovascularity in benign lesions were 100% and 90%, respectively. The authors conclude that color Doppler sonography is able to increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the evaluation of nodular lesions of the skin.  (+info)

Pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma: analysis of patterns of diseases and postmetastasis survival. (7/1415)

OBJECTIVE: To report the patterns of disease and postmetastasis survival for patients with pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma in a large group of patients treated at a single institution. Clinical factors that influence postmetastasis survival are analyzed. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For patients with soft tissue sarcoma, the lungs are the most common site of metastatic disease. Although pulmonary metastases most commonly arise from primary tumors in the extremities, they may arise from almost any primary site or histology. To date, resection of disease has been the only effective therapy for metastatic sarcoma. METHODS: From July 1982 to February 1997, 3149 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma were admitted and treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. During this interval, 719 patients either developed or presented with lung metastases. Patients were treated with resection of metastatic disease whenever possible. Disease-specific survival was the endpoint of the study. Time to death was modeled using the method of Kaplan and Meier. The association of factors to time-to-event endpoints was analyzed using the log-rank test for univariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The overall median survival from diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis for all patients was 15 months. The 3-year actuarial survival rate was 25%. The ability to resect all metastatic disease completely was the most important prognostic factor for survival. Patients treated with complete resection had a median survival of 33 months and a 3-year actuarial survival rate of 46%. For patients treated with nonoperative therapy, the median survival was 11 months. A disease-free interval of more than 12 months before the development of metastases was also a favorable prognostic factor. Unfavorable factors included the histologic variants of liposarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve tumors and patient age older than 50 years at the time of treatment of metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Resection of metastatic disease is the single most important factor that determines outcome in these patients. Long-term survival is possible in selected patients, particularly when recurrent pulmonary disease is resected. Surgical excision should remain the treatment of choice for metastases of soft tissue sarcoma to the lung.  (+info)

The enigma of desmoid tumors. (8/1415)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients with recurrent extremity desmoids, in whom the surgical therapeutic option was either major amputation or observation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The biology and natural history of desmoid tumors are an enigma. These tumors invade surrounding structures and recur locally but do not metastasize. The morbidity of treating these tumors in the context of their relatively benign biology is uncertain. METHODS: Between July 1982 and June 1998, the authors treated and prospectively followed 206 patients with extremity desmoid tumors. All patients underwent standardized surgical resection, the surgical goal always being complete resection with negative margins. When tumors recurred, they were evaluated for reresection. Amputation was considered when resection was not possible because of neurovascular or major bone involvement, or in the presence of a functionless, painful extremity. RESULTS: During this period, 22 patients had disease that was not resectable without amputation. This was out of a total of 115 patients with primary disease and 91 patients with recurrent disease. All recurrences were local; in no patient did metastasis develop. In this group of 22 patients with unresectable disease, 7 underwent amputation and 15 did not. These 15 patients were followed, alive with disease, having no surgical resection. Four patients received systemic treatment with tamoxifen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, three received systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, and two received both tamoxifen and chemotherapy. Six patients received no systemic treatment. The range of follow-up was 25 to 92 months. In all patients, there was no or insignificant tumor progression; in three patients who underwent observation alone, there was some regression of tumor. During follow-up, no patient has required subsequent amputation, and no patient has died from disease. CONCLUSIONS: In desmoid tumors, aggressive attempts at achieving negative resection margins may result in unnecessary morbidity. Function- and structure-preserving procedures should be the primary goal. In select patients, whose only option is amputation, it may be prudent to observe them with their limb and tumor intact.  (+info)

  • It is also useful to recall that when carcinomas or melanomas metastasize to soft tissue, they do so usually as small, superficial nodules rather than as large, deeply situated masses. (
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  • A primary malignant neoplasm that overlaps two or more contiguous (next to each other) sites should be classified to the subcategory/code .8 ('overlapping lesion'), unless the combination is specifically indexed elsewhere. (
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  • AYA neoplasms also differ from those in middle-aged and elderly people, in whom malignancies of epithelial cell origin or carcinomas of several primary sites account for more than 85% of cancers ( 3 ). (
  • We use primary organoid cultures of diverse tissues and tumor biopsies for immunotherapy modeling, oncogene functional screening and stem cell biology. (
  • Phase II study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the management of high-risk, high-grade, soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and body wall: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9514. (