Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)CarbanilidesSodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Sodium Salicylate: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Hand Hygiene: Practices involved in preventing the transmission of diseases by hand.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Wheat Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Medicine in ArtSodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Sodium Channel Agonists: A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.BangladeshAldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.PakistanGold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Impetigo: A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Observation: The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Sodium Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers: A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.NAV1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Schools: Educational institutions.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-1 Subunit: A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The extractives gives tall oil soap and crude turpentine. The soaps contain about 20% sodium. The residual lignin components ... sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide used to separate lignin from the cellulose fibres needed for papermaking). This has helped ... Lignin is degraded to shorter fragments with sulphur content at 1-2% and sodium content at about 6% of the dry solids. ... Normally the organics in black liquor are 40-45% soaps, 35-45% lignin and 10-15% other organics. The organic matter in the ...
Soaps are sodium salts of fatty acids. Addition of sodium chloride reduces the solubility of the soap salts. The soaps ... In the presence of excess sodium ions the solubility of soap salts is reduced, making the soap less effective. A buffer ... Sodium acetate is a strong electrolyte so it dissociates completely in solution. Acetic acid is a weak acid so it only ionizes ... For instance, the solubility of silver chloride in water is reduced if a solution of sodium chloride is added to a suspension ...
Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid (carbonising). Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium ... The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms a soap with free fatty acids (saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so ... Cotton being a vegetable fibre will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hypochlorite or dilute hydrogen ... the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fibre ...
In some soap-making, the glycerol is left in the soap. If necessary, soaps may be precipitated by salting it out with sodium ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) gives "hard soap"; hard soaps can also be used in water containing Mg, Cl, and Ca salts. By contrast, ... "Complex soaps" are also common, these being combinations of metallic soaps, such as lithium and calcium soaps. Fires involving ... potassium soaps, (derived using KOH) are soft soap. The fatty acid source also affects the soap's melting point. Most early ...
For these purposes, lauric acid is reacted with sodium hydroxide to give sodium laurate, which is a soap. Most commonly, sodium ... These precursors give mixtures of sodium laurate and other soaps. In the laboratory, lauric acid may be used to investigate the ... It is used mainly for the production of soaps and cosmetics. ... powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap. The salts ...
Some greases are prepared from sodium, barium, lithium, and calcium soaps. Lithium soap greases are preferred for their water ... In chemistry, "soap" refers to salts of fatty acids. Lithium 12-hydroxystearate is a white solid. Lithium soaps are key ... Since these lithium soaps are difficult to filter, they are collected by spray drying. For applications, lithium 12- ... Angelo Nora, Alfred Szczepanek, Gunther Koenen, "Metallic Soaps" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005 Wiley- ...
Soaps are formed from the reaction of glycerides with sodium hydroxide. The product of the reaction is glycerol and salts of ... Fatty acids in the soap emulsify the oils in dirt, enabling the removal of oily dirt with water. Partial glycerides are esters ...
Dish soap has also been used to deter aphids. In some instances, the dish soap may be toxic to plant leaves and cause them to " ... Washing soda (sodium carbonate) is used for dishwashing, and may be used in areas with hard water. It was used for dishwashing ... Dishwashing liquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), known as dishwashing soap, dish detergent and dish soap, is a detergent used to ... However, most people also rinse the dishes with pure water to make sure to get rid of any soap residue that could affect the ...
The soap's sodium compound came from the barilla plant. Prior to the 1860s, in the summertime, the barilla would be placed in ... Nabulsi soap or sabon nabulsi is a type of castile soap produced only in Nablus and made of three primary ingredients: virgin ... Today, there are only two soap factories still operating in the city. The Al-Arz ice-cream company is the largest of six ice- ... Cotton, soap, olive oil, and textiles were exported by Nablus merchants to Damascus, whence silks, high-quality textiles, ...
... sodium lauryl sulfate); and alkalis (drain cleaners, strong soap with lye residues). Physical irritant contact dermatitis may ... Immediately after exposure to a known allergen or irritant, wash with soap and cool water to remove or inactivate most of the ... Other common causes of irritant contact dermatitis are harsh, alkaline soaps, detergents, and cleaning products. There are ...
... is used in mud soaps. It has a better cleansing action indicated by the presence of the potassium ion ... Potassium lauryl sulfate (potassium dodecyl sulfate) a detergent similar to sodium lauryl sulfate. ...
Potassium hydroxide soaps are softer and more easily dissolved in water than sodium hydroxide soaps. Sodium hydroxide and ... Lye in the form of both sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide is used in making soap. ... "Hot process" soap making also uses lye as the main ingredient. Lye is added to water, cooled for a few minutes and then added ... Sodium or potassium hydroxide can be used to digest tissues of animal carcasses or deceased humans. Often referred to as ...
The name, Persil, is derived from two of its original ingredients, sodium perborate and sodium silicate. It is Unilever's ... A self activated detergent is one which contains bleach combined with the soap components.) The creation of Persil was a ... The manufacturer had found a method to add sodium perborate-a bleaching agent-to its base washing agents (silicate), creating ( ... The name, "Persil", is derived from two of its original ingredients, sodium perborate and silicate. However, the original name ...
... soaps), such as sodium stearate. More specialized species include sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and carboxylate-based ... sodium dodecyl sulfate, SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate ... Sodium stearate, the most common component of most soap, which comprises about 50% of commercial surfactants. 4-(5-Dodecyl) ... World production of surfactants is estimated at 15 Mton/y, of which about half are soaps. Other surfactants produced on a ...
It is also found in some types of soap. It is synthesized from pyrenetetrasulfonic acid and a solution of sodium hydroxide in ... The trisodium salt crystallizes as yellow needles when adding an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Fluorescein Fluorescence ...
... the value must be converted from potassium to sodium to make bar soap; potassium soaps make a paste, gel or liquid soap. To ... Handmade soap makers who aim for bar soap use NaOH (sodium hydroxide, lye). Because saponification values are listed in KOH ( ...
Chemicals: Sodium silicate, acids, plastics, mixed chemicals, isocyanates etc. Paint and ink. Resins and adhesives. Pulp and ... paper: acid, soap, lye, black liquor, kaolin, lime, latex, sludge etc. Food: Chocolate, cacao butter, fillers, sugar, vegetable ...
For example, sodium acetate dissociates in water into sodium and acetate ions. Sodium ions react very little with the hydroxide ... Perhaps the oldest commercially practiced example of ester hydrolysis is saponification (formation of soap). It is the ... These salts are called soaps, commonly used in households. In addition, in living systems, most biochemical reactions ( ... hydrolysis of a triglyceride (fat) with an aqueous base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). During the process, glycerol is formed ...
Synthetic pesticides allowed for use on organic farms include insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils for insect management; ... and Bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate for managing fungi. Copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture (copper ...
... a white solid that forms when soap is mixed with hard water. Unlike soaps containing sodium and potassium, calcium stearate is ... Calcium stearate is a waxy material with low solubility in water, unlike traditional sodium and potassium soaps. It is also ... Calcium stearate is a carboxylate of calcium, classified as a calcium soap. It is a component of some lubricants, surfactants, ... Nora A, Szczepanek A, Koenen G (2001). "Metallic Soaps". doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_361. Weingärtner H, Franck EU, Wiegand G, ...
His greatest commercial success was with 'silicated soap', pure soap with sodium silicate added. The corrosive water glass had ... Gossage made soaps for India and China. For domestic sale, it made special soaps, such as kosher soaps. He retired from the ... The silicated soap could be made and sold for two pennies per pound, compared to six for normal soaps. In 1857 he introduced ' ... During World War II, all soap brands were abolished by British government decree in 1942, in favour of a generic soap. When ...
... with sodium hydroxide will give sodium decanoate. This salt (CH3(CH2)8COO−Na+) is a component of some types of soap. Decanoic ...
In the manufacture of soap, stearin is mixed with a sodium hydroxide solution in water. The following reaction gives glycerin ... and sodium stearate, the main ingredient in most soap: C3H5(C18H35O2)3 + 3 NaOH → C3H5(OH)3 + 3 C18H35OONa Stearin is also used ... Michel Eugène Chevreul Soap making Stearic acid Candle Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9669. Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC ... Geller, L. W. (1935). "Waxes in the candle industry". Oil & Soap. 12 (11): 263-265. doi:10.1007/BF02636720. ...
Sodium carbonate has a number of practical uses, including especially as an ingredient in making glass, and making soap. In the ... the sodium in the salt ends up in the chemical sodium carbonate. ... Sodium carbonate is soluble in water. Non-soluble components of ... The water with the sodium carbonate dissolved in it was then transferred to another container, and then the water was ... The resulting product consisted mainly of a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. This product was called "soda ...
His soap test (for hardness) was quickly taken by the government for waters proposed to be supplied to towns. His other major ... In 1836 he discovered sodium pyrophosphate. Clark is best known by his hard water tests and by his process for softening chalk ...
... farms with sodium hypochlorite or detergents should be effective in inactivating the Reston ebolavirus. Pigs that have been ... These measures include avoiding direct contact with infected people and regular hand washing using soap and water.[116] ... sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder), and other suitable disinfectants may be used at ...
Natural Soap and Bubble Bath. Faith in Nature natural soap, liquid hand soap and bubble bath, Pacifica gorgeous natural ... Water (Aqua), Alcohol*org, Zinc Gluconate, Sodium Lactate, Glycerin, Triethyl Citrate, Lactic Acid, Citrus Madurensis Fruit ... Towels, soaps, razors, cotton wool Towels, Bath Robes + Slippers Organic Cotton Steenbergs range of organic unbleached cotton ... You are here: Towels, soaps, razors, cotton wool > Deodorants - Paraben Free Lavera Organic Ginger Lime Deodorant Roll On. ...
Skin Care , Cleansing , Bar Soap containing SODIUM CHLORIDE Showing 1 - 10 of 581 results See more: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 59 ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
... sodium hydroxide soap cleaners have specific roles, what sodium carbonate soap cleaners & sodium hydroxide soap cleaners do to ... Are sodium carbonate soap cleaners environmentally friendly?. In general, sodium carbonate soap cleaners and sodium hydroxide ... This is where sodium carbonate soap cleaners and sodium hydroxide soap cleaners come in…. For example, water can contain ... Sodium carbonate soap cleaners and sodium hydroxide soap cleaners can also help keep removed soil from being re-deposited ...
Soaps, Sodium and Potassium used in the formulation and manufacture of adhesives and sealants. ... Companies in Soaps, Sodium & Potassium Soltex. Offers high-quality base components, chemical intermediates, chemical additives ...
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common ingredient found in soaps and shampoos. SLS is a detergent, which means it does a good ... If youre having a problem with dry, itchy skin, check your soap for sodium lauryl sulfate. It also appears in toothpaste and ... Its also the substance that makes soap get frothy when you rub it on your body. ...
Happy Soaping! Anne-Marie blog: www.soap-queen.blogspot.com. supplies: www.brambleberry.com. ... alot of pople actually ask me if the soaps have any in it (that and sodium lauryl sulfate) before they buy!. i find the mp shea ... ive tried hot soap, and alcohol (it just gets really hard).. any suggestions would be awesome. thanks everyone ... You would need more soap to get the same amount of lather as opposed to a solid MP bar. If you want that many bubbles, you ...
Do you use sodium hydroxide? If so, do you make your own from ash, or do you purc ... When we make bar soaps we use sodium hydroxide. When we make liquid and gel soaps we use potassium hydroxide. Paste soaps ( ... Do you use sodium hydroxide in your soap?. July 14, 2014. By Vermont Soap ... 2017 Vermont Soap - All Rights Reserved. Most products made by Vermont Soap are certified to USDA organic standards by Vermont ...
Similar Discussions: Testing amount of sodium hydroxide in soap * Sodium Hydroxide and Plastic (Replies: 2) ... im doing a task to find the amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in a liquid soap. i have to use titration in it. how exactly ... You can determine amount of bases in soap, but whether it is NaOH or some other bases, you will be not able to tell.. For more ...
Sodium Borate is available at Natures Garden Soap Making Supplies. Use our wholesale priced borax in homemade cleaners and ... Soap Oils Butter Waxes Soap Molds Soap Additives Soap Making Kits Soap Making Equipment Soap Making Software Soap Making Safety ... Soap. Supplies. Shop Soap Supplies Lye - Sodium Hydroxide Melt & Pour Soap Bases Soap Coloring Soap Dyes Clays Natural ... Helpful Resources Soap Classes CP Soap Recipes MP Soap Recipes CP Soap Results Chart ...
... not liquid soap. We recommend the use of a Lye Calculator to ensure you have a balanced and moisturising recipe. Youll find ... p,,span,For Cold and Hot Process Soapmaking - this alkali makes a solid BAR soap, ... For Cold and Hot Process Soapmaking - this alkali makes a solid BAR soap, not liquid soap. We recommend the use of a Lye ... For Cold and Hot Process Soapmaking - this alkali makes a solid bar soap, not liquid soap. We recommend the use of a Lye ...
Sodium lactate can be used as a natural moisturizer, humectant,and pH regulator ... Sodium Lactate is from Natures Garden Soap and Cosmetic Supplies. ... Soap Oils Butter Waxes Soap Molds Soap Additives Soap Making Kits Soap Making Equipment Soap Making Software Soap Making Safety ... Soap. Supplies. Shop Soap Supplies Lye - Sodium Hydroxide Melt & Pour Soap Bases Soap Coloring Soap Dyes Clays Natural ...
Lets learn what it is, how its made, its caustic properties, & how its used to make soap. ... sodium hydroxide, is a necessary component of soap making. ... Can You Make Soap Without Lye (Sodium Hydroxide)?. By Debra ... All soap is made with lye. Either sodium hydroxide is used for hard bar soap or potassium hydroxide is used for liquid soaps. ... Glycerin soap is made in the same exact way that hard bar soap is, its just taken a step further. When the soap gets to the ...
... sodium hydroxide/Sodium Hydroxide NaOH pearls for soap from China- quality caustic soda pearls for sale of chemicalcausticsoda ... sodium hydroxide/Sodium Hydroxide NaOH pearls for soap Caustic Soda pearls/99%-sodium hydroxide/Sodium Hydroxide NaOH pearls ... Caustic Soda pearls/99%-sodium hydroxide/Sodium Hydroxide NaOH pearls for soap 1. Caustic Soda Flakes 99% ... Caustic Soda pearls/99%-sodium hydroxide/Sodium Hydroxide NaOH pearls for soap ...
Dont let fear of sodium hydroxide hold you back! Learn how to use sodium hydroxide properly and safely. ... Soap Queen TV Favorites. How to Make Whipped Body Butter on Soap Queen TV. Sparkling Champagne Soap Cupcakes on Soap Queen TV. ... Afraid of Using Sodium Hydroxide Lye to Make Soap? - When I started making soap at 16 years old, I rendered my own fat and ... Afraid of Using Sodium Hydroxide Lye to Make Soap? - When I started making soap at 16 years old, I rendered my own fat and ...
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Acid (H2SO4), Hydrochloric Acid (HCL), Methanol, Isopropyl Alcohol, Phenolphthalien, Bromophenol Blue ... GLYCERIN BAR SOAP. -GLYCERIN LIQUID SOAP. -POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. -SODIUM HYDROXIDE. -SOAP MAKING KIT -SOAP MAKING BOOK TITRATION ... 50 LB SODIUM HYDROXIDE BAGS (1) 50 lb Bag Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). PRICE: $68.50 SHIPPING: $82.50 per bag. This item requires a ... 50 LB SODIUM HYDROXIDE BAGS IN 6 GALLON RESEALABLE BUCKETS (1) 50 lbs NaOH in a 6 Gal Bucket w/ Resealable Lid. PRICE: $78.50 ...
... materials used by the Soap & Cleaning Products Mfg. Industry-Materials & Manufacturing Report The 2013 U.S. - Market research ... 2013 U.S. Sodium carbonate (soda ash) (58 percent Na2O) materials used by the Soap & Cleaning Products Mfg. Industry-Materials ... 2013 U.S. Sodium carbonate (soda ash) (58 percent Na2O) materials used by the Soap & Cleaning Products Mfg. Industry-Materials ... 2013 U.S. Sodium carbonate (soda ash) (58 percent Na2O) materials used by the Soap & Cleaning Products Mfg. Industry-Materials ...
Sodium Lauryl Sulphate Powder BP This is available in powder format. Add this to your bath bombs or bar bars for added bubble. ... This is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate available in powder format. It is one of the most common surfactants on the market. ... This is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate available in powder format. It is one of the most common surfactants on the market. ... Just a Soap is a trading name of Paul McCaffrey Systems Ltd ... Soap Making *Soap Making from Scratch. *Melt & Pour Soap Making ...
Sodium Palmate (Rainforest Alliance Certified ™) Purpose: Cleansing. Source: Derived from Palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil ...
While you can buy mint soap at the store, commercially produced mint soap may contain an artificial mint fragrance instead of ... Mint soap leaves you feeling refreshed and invigorated throughout the day after bathing with it. ... As it cools, the soap hardens. Pop out the soap -- if using individual soap molds -- or remove and cut the soap into bars, if ... How to Make Shea Butter Soap Without Sodium Hydroxide 5 How to Make Skin-Whitening Soap ...
Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Soap Cosmetics products in best price from certified Chinese Plastic Jars For Cosmetics ... High Quality Sodium Laurate Cosmetics Accessories Min. Order: 1 Ton *Type: Concealer ... Soap Equipment Cosmetics Lids Soap Machinery Soap Bag Soap Boxes Cosmetics Cream Empty Jar Soap Carton Soap Packaging Machine ... Wholesale Soap Packaging Bag Wholesale Soap Machine Wholesale Soap Packing Machine Wholesale Soap Bottle Wholesale Brush Soap ...
Clearly, this is currently caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), since the ingredients list shows sodium salts of fatty acids, but a ... Home makers of soap have made soaps using the original eight components of Pears soap.[18] ... Pears transparent soap is a brand of soap first produced and sold in 1807[3] by Andrew Pears, at a factory just off Oxford ... Bars of soap produced in the factory come in two sizes: 75 g and 125 g. Nowadays the soap comes in three colours: the classic ...
Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer ... The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil is sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, ... Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral ... Castile soap is a popular example of the vegetable-only soaps derived from the oldest "white soap" of Italy. ...
of the soap bits, 9 ozs. of powdered borax, 6 ozs. of cornmeal and 1 1/8 ozs. of sodium perborate in a blender. Blend lightly ... Making dry hand soap powder was something that grandma did with her leftover bits of soap. If you would like to know how to ... The amount of time that it takes to dry them will vary by not only the additives in the soap but the moisture that the soap has ... Grate pieces of leftover soap bits. These are the last of the soap bars that always seem to end up melting near the drain of ...
It says theres no evidence that they do a better job at preventing illness than plain soap and water. ... But advocates for the soap industry dispute that.. "Washing the hands with an antiseptic soap can help reduce the risk of ... It says theres no evidence that they do a better job at preventing illness than plain soap and water. ... FDA Bans Triclosan And 18 Other Chemicals From Soaps : Shots - Health News Manufacturers didnt provide data showing the ...
  • This soap was great with being citric acid free and I love how it did not over power me with it being unscented as well as being soothing. (earthturns.com)
  • Place 2 pounds of cubed melt-and-pour soap base into the top of a double boiler and fill the bottom of the double boiler half-full of water. (ehow.com)
  • If you have a solid block of melt-and-pour soap base, cut it into cubes with a sharp knife before placing the base into the double boiler. (ehow.com)
  • Heat the double boiler on an stove over medium to high heat until the melt-and-pour soap base melts, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon. (ehow.com)
  • Use caution when heating melt-and-pour soap base. (ehow.com)
  • New Crystal CCA is a vegetable derived melt and pour soap base, made using Carrot Oil, Cucumber Seed Oil, and Aloe Vera. (chemistrystore.com)
  • Our vegetable based, melt and pour soap base is certified organic by the Soil Association. (baldwins.co.uk)
  • Adventures in Natural Soaps & Skincare at Lodge Creek Soap Co. (wordpress.com)
  • While many natural soaps are unscented - a good thing for people with sensitive skin - they're often scented with combinations of aromatic oils and colored by natural dyes and clays. (mnn.com)
  • And a quick Google search for natural soaps will yield plenty of online options. (mnn.com)
  • She has extensive experience with cooking natural soaps and uses only natural products. (mediamatic.net)
  • Use 1/2 oz. to 1 oz. sodium lactate per pound of soap oils. (naturesgardencandles.com)
  • Organic mint soaps usually contain natural essential oils, but can still cost a lot more than you want to spend. (ehow.com)
  • Stir the oils into the soap base thoroughly with a wooden spoon. (ehow.com)
  • This happens because the oils of the hand are converted to soap. (crystalbarsoap.com)
  • The recommended usage rate of sodium lactate for cold process soaps is 1 teaspoon per pound of oils. (nurturesoap.com)
  • Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "Castile" is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of soap this characteristic is used to break up the natural oils on your skin and make it easier to wash and clean the skin. (ecoamigable.com)
  • More sensitive souls need special pampering, so using rich oils and a bit of cocoa butter we've created an olive based soap that's very traditional. (purenuffstuff.co.uk)
  • This makes the bar espeically soothing for people with irritating skin conditions, the olive oils soothes and the mud heals, it's a winning combination and this is what makes it our best selling soap. (purenuffstuff.co.uk)
  • The way we approached the need to wash both hair and skin was to add extra castor oil and glycerine than our normal soaps - and the result is a bar that lathers richly and rinses to a squeak without stripping your scalp's natural oils. (purenuffstuff.co.uk)
  • With a formula safe for the whole family to use, Thieves Foaming Hand Soap gently and effectively cleanses hands with the power of pure essential oils and cleansing botanicals. (youngliving.com)
  • Sweet Almond Oil is one of the most widely used carrier oils available as it can be utilised for massage, skincare, aromatherapy and soap manufacture. (heirloombodycare.com.au)
  • Cleanse and hydrate skin while creating a relaxing aromatherapeutic experience with this all natural, Certified Vegan soap featuring a blend of olive oil and organic essential oils. (freepeople.com)
  • Modern soaps are primarily fashioned from vegetable oils, and owe their basic formulations to Arab recipes dating from the 7th century. (mnn.com)
  • But handmade soaps are rich in moisturizers and replenish the body's oils as they wash away dirt. (mnn.com)
  • There are as many varieties of handmade soaps as the oils which are used to make them. (mnn.com)
  • SLS is an anionic surfactant and the most commonly used chemical in car soaps, garage floor cleaners, engine degreasers and personal care products. (sixwise.com)
  • RNN) - Consumers soon won't be able to buy antibacterial hand soaps, products federal officials are describing as unneeded and possibly dangerous. (wlox.com)