An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (1/4409)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. (2/4409)

BACKGROUND: A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF). METHODS: We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively. RESULTS: In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.  (+info)

Alterations of heart function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by etomoxir in diabetic rats. (3/4409)

To examine the role of changes in myocardial metabolism in cardiac dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body wt) to induce diabetes and were treated 2 wk later with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) etomoxir (8 mg/kg body wt) for 4 wk. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited a reduction in heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, and positive and negative rate of pressure development and an increase in end-diastolic pressure. The sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was depressed and was associated with a decrease in maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) value for high-affinity sites for [3H]ouabain, whereas Bmax for low-affinity sites was unaffected. Treatment of diabetic animals with etomoxir partially reversed the depressed cardiac function with the exception of heart rate. The high serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were reduced, whereas the levels of glucose, insulin, and 3,3',-5-triiodo-L-thyronine were not affected by etomoxir in diabetic animals. The activity of Na+-K+-ATPase expressed per gram heart weight, but not per milligram sarcolemmal protein, was increased by etomoxir in diabetic animals. Furthermore, Bmax (per g heart wt) for both low-affinity and high-affinity binding sites in control and diabetic animals was increased by etomoxir treatment. Etomoxir treatment also increased the depressed left ventricular weight of diabetic rats and appeared to increase the density of the sarcolemma and transverse tubular system to normalize Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Therefore, a shift in myocardial substrate utilization may represent an important signal for improving the depressed cardiac function and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in diabetic rat hearts with impaired glucose utilization.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (4/4409)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Effect of melittin on ion transport across cell membranes. (5/4409)

Extensive work with melittin has shown that the venom has multiple effects, probably, as a result of its interaction with negatively changed phospholipids. It inhibits well known transport pumps such as the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Melittin increases the permeability of cell membranes to ions, particularly Na+ and indirectly Ca2+, because of the Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchange. This effect results in marked morphological and functional changes, particularly in excitable tissues such as cardiac myocytes. In some other tissues, e.g., cornea, not only Na+ but Cl- permeability is also increased by melittin. Similar effects to melittin on H(+)-K(+)-ATPase have been found with the synthetic amphipathic polypeptide Trp-3.  (+info)

The polar flagellar motor of Vibrio cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force. (6/4409)

Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We examined the Na+ dependence and the sensitivity to the Na+ motor-specific inhibitor of the motility of the V. cholerae strains and present the evidence that the polar flagellar motor of V. cholerae is driven by an Na+ motive force.  (+info)

Stimulation of Na,K-ATPase by hypothyroidism in the thyroid gland. (7/4409)

Although studies have documented the regulatory effects of thyroid hormones on the Na,K-ATPase in peripheral tissues, there is little information on the regulation of this transporter in the thyroid gland itself. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of thyroid status on Na,K-ATPase specific activity and the abundance of its constituent subunits in rat thyroid. Exogenous tri-iodothyronine (T3) was administered daily to produce hyperthyroidism. 6n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, was used to induce hypothyroidism. There was a four-fold increase in Na,K-ATPase specific activity in the follicular membranes from PTU-treated animals after 7 days. Enzymatic activities were not changed in the T3-treated glands. Immunoblotting of membranes from T3-treated rats revealed a 75% reduction in alpha1 subunit abundance and a slight, but nonsignificant reduction in beta1 abundance. On the other hand, the membranes from PTU-treated rats displayed 136 and 567% increases in the abundance of the alpha1 and beta1 subunits respectively. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormone status regulates Na,K-ATPase in the gland, but the effects are in direct contrast to those seen in the periphery.  (+info)

Bcl-xL prevents cell death following growth factor withdrawal by facilitating mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange. (8/4409)

Growth factor withdrawal is associated with a metabolic arrest that can result in apoptosis. Cell death is preceded by loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity and cytochrome c release. These mitochondrial events appear to follow a relative increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. This change in membrane potential results from the failure of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)/voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) complex to maintain ATP/ADP exchange. Bcl-xL expression allows growth factor-deprived cells to maintain sufficient mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchange to sustain coupled respiration. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial adenylate transport is under active regulation. Efficient exchange of ADP for ATP is promoted by Bcl-xL expression permitting oxidative phosphorylation to be regulated by cellular ATP/ADP levels and allowing mitochondria to adapt to changes in metabolic demand.  (+info)

New DNA Sequences ======================= AF200324 AF200324 579bp DNA PLN 03-FEB-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tim18p (TIM18) gene, complete cds; nuclear gene for mitochondrial product. TIM18; Tim18p. =========== Updated Sequence Features/Annotations ============= D37948 D37948 1777bp DNA PLN 01-FEB-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA for F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit precursor, complete cds. ATP1; F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit precursor; F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit. D37949 D37949 1778bp DNA PLN 01-FEB-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA for defective F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit precursor, complete cds. F1F0-ATPase alphadefective F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit precursor; defective F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit. YSC9SF D00347 870bp DNA PLN 01-FEB-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 9kDa stabilizing factor. ATP synthase; ATP synthase inhibitor protein; mitochondria; 9kDa stabilizing factor mature protein. YSCCOF D13230 2005bp DNA PLN 01-FEB-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae COF1 gene for cofilin, complete cds. cofilin; COF1. ...
The Na+ K+-ATPase pump maintains the gradient of a higher concentration of sodium extracellularly and a higher level of potassium intracellularly. The sodiumâ potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. The sodium/potassium ATPase pump is essential to many physiological processes, and so targeting it with medication can be useful clinically. Explore the sodium potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump), with the Amoeba Sisters! Examples of â ¦ It also involves being conscious of every hint of flavoring in your food and how you cook your meals. In the kidneys, sodium and potassium have a reciprocal relationship. Na+-K+ pump in chronic renal failure. In a single cycle of the pump, three sodium ions are extruded from and two potassium â ¦ Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in opposite directions, each against its concentration gradient. Acting on the distal tubules, the hormone aldosterone triggers potassium excretion and resorption of sodium. Conversely, drugs which act ...
M.A. Mir, P.J. Evans, R.P. Mahler, B.M. Charalambous, K. Morgan; A Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sodium-Potassium Atpase and Sodium Transport in Obese and thin Normal Subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1981; 61 (3): 18P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs061018P. Download citation file:. ...
How can more molecules be transported into areas with high concentrations of the molecule? Cells often need to create concentration gradients across membranes. The concentration of a molecule is much higher on one side of the membrane than the other when a concentration gradient exists. In order to create or maintain a concentration gradient, individual molecules must be moved from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This cannot occur through passive diffusion, in fact diffusion will cause the gradient to break down. Only active transport, which requires both specialized transport molecules and the expenditure of energy can drive molecules up a concentration gradient. The sodium potassium pump is an important and well understood example of active transport. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.. ...
Buying any Outstanding Define sodium potassium pump essay for College. Herere some sort of $ 100 or so Absolutely free themes designed for your State salt potassium pour composition : Essay subscriber, meant for Secondary education. Assess apart the number from this very best 79 intriguing together with provocative articles.
The membrane Na+-K+ pump transports 3 Na+ ions out and 2 K+ ions into cells against their electrochemical gradient, using energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP. The Na+ and K+ ion gradients generated by the pump serve in secondary co- and counter transport processes critical for cell function. This thesis examined the hypothesis that synthesis of radical oxygen species/radical nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), coupled to hormone receptors and their intracellular messenger pathways, can regulate Na+-K+ pump activity in cardiac myocytes. A whole cell patch clamp technique was used measure the membrane current generated by the Na+-K+ pump (Ip) of isolated rabbit cardiac myocytes. Supplementing the patch pipette solution with L-arginine (L-Arg), a known substrate of nitric oxide synthase(NOS) stimulated Na+-K+ pump activity in a manner sensitive to the soluble guanylase cyclise inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In contrast, uncoupling NOS by exposing myocytes to the chemical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoform-specific regulation of the sodium pump by α- and β-adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig ventricle. AU - Gao, J.. AU - Wymore, R.. AU - Wymore, R. T.. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - McKinnon, D.. AU - Dixon, J. E.. AU - Mathias, R. T.. AU - Cohen, I. S.. AU - Baldo, G. J.. PY - 1999/4/15. Y1 - 1999/4/15. N2 - 1. Guinea-pig ventricle was used in the RNase protection assays to determine which α-isoforms of the Na+-K+ pumps are present, and ventricular myocytes were used in whole cell patch clamp studies to investigate the actions of α- and β-adrenergic agonists on Na+-K+ pump current. 2. RNase protection assays showed that two isoforms of the α-subunit of the Na+-K+-ATPase are present in guinea-pig ventricle. The mRNA for the α1-isoform comprises 82% of the total pump message, the rest being the α2-isoform. 3. We have previously shown that β-adrenergic agonists affect Na+-K+ pump current (I(p) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. We now show that these ...
Sodium-potassium ATPase is an ATP-powered ion pump that establishes concentration gradients for Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane in all animal cells by pumping Na(+) from the cytoplasm and K(+) from the extracellular medium. Such gradients are used in many essential processes, notably for generating action potentials. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPases, which include sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase, among others, and is the target of cardiac glycosides. Here we describe a crystal structure of this important ion pump, from shark rectal glands, consisting of alpha- and beta-subunits and a regulatory FXYD protein, all of which are highly homologous to human ones. The ATPase was fixed in a state analogous to E2.2K(+).P(i), in which the ATPase has a high affinity for K(+) and still binds P(i), as in the first crystal structure of pig kidney enzyme at 3.5 A resolution. Clearly visualized now at 2.4 A resolution are coordination of K(+) ...
The correlation coefficients between the physical properties exhibited by these lipids in monolayers (which indicate the degree of molecular packing in membranes) and the molecular activity of the membrane-bound sodium pump are stronger than those generally observed between individual lipid composition parameters and sodium pump molecular activity.. The sodium pump occurs in a number of different isoforms that have been extensively studied in tissues of the rat, especially in kidney and brain (Sweadner, 1989), but there is no specific information of their relative tissue distribution (apart from the urinary bladder) in the cane toad. The ancestral catalytic subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase is thought to be similar to the α-1 isoform, which is common to all vertebrates (Horisberger, 1994) and is the isoform of Na+/K+-ATPase found in the kidneys of vertebrates (Sweadner, 1989). If, as is most likely, it is also the isoform present in the toad kidney, isoform differences are unlikely to explain the ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Hydrolytic Na/K ATPase activity was determined in cells exposed for 30 min at various fixed pO2. Na/K ATPase hydrolytic activity was assayed in cell lysates and microsomal fractions, as previously described (Rathbun and Betlach, 1969). In brief, in order to obtain ouabain-permeable microsomes, cells were subjected to repetitive freeze-thaw cycles.. The obtained lysates containing ouabain-permeable microsomes were incubated in the medium containing 130 mM NaCl, 20 mM KCl, and 3 mM MgCl2 with or without 1 mM ouabain (37°C, 10 min) before the actual measurements of the ATP cleavage rate. After pretreatment with ouabain, ATPase activity measurements were initiated by adding ATP-HEPES-NaOH mixture (final concentrations in the medium 3 mM and 30 mM, respectively). After the reaction was stopped with 1:1 dilution by ice-cold stopping solution (4% formaldehyde in 1.3 M sodium acetate buffered with acetic acid to pH 4.3), probes were supplied with 100 μl of SnCl2 solution (15 mg SnCl2 in 5 ml 0.002% ...
J:28939 Crump RG, Askew GR, Wert SE, Lingrel JB, Joiner CH, In situ localization of sodium-potassium ATPase mRNA in developing mouse lung epithelium. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep;269(3 Pt 1):L299-308 ...
J:28939 Crump RG, Askew GR, Wert SE, Lingrel JB, Joiner CH, In situ localization of sodium-potassium ATPase mRNA in developing mouse lung epithelium. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep;269(3 Pt 1):L299-308 ...
Buy Omepron Online! Omepron is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits secretion of gastric acid by irreversibly blocking the enzyme system of hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase, the
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Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Pavlovic, D, McLatchie, LM, Shattock, MJ and Fuller, W (2006) Phosphorylation state of phospholemman at serine 68 regulates Na/K ATPase activity In: 28th Annual International-Society-for-Heart-Research North American Section Meeting, 2006-06-13 - 2006-06-16, Toronto, CANADA. Full text not available from this repository ...
The Na+/K+-ATPase restores sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) electrochemical gradients dissipated by action potentials and ion-coupled transport processes. As ions are transported, they become transiently trapped between intracellular and extracellular gates. Once the external gate opens, three Na+ ions are released, followed by the binding and occlusion of two K+ ions. While the mechanisms of Na+ release have been well characterized by the study of transient Na+ currents, smaller and faster transient currents mediated by external K+ have been more difficult to study. Here we show that external K+ ions travelling to their binding sites sense only a small fraction of the electric field as they rapidly and simultaneously become occluded. Consistent with these results, molecular dynamics simulations of a pump model show a wide water-filled access channel connecting the binding site to the external solution. These results suggest a mechanism of K+ gating different from that of Na+ occlusion.. ...
Increased cytosolic [Na] despite increased sodium potassium pump activity during early development of heart failure in beta1 adrenergic receptor overexpressing mice. Schoenleitner, P.; Antoons, G.; Khan, S.; Unterer, G. J.; Wakula, P.; Engelhardt, S.; Pieske, B.; Heinzel, F. R. // Proceedings of the Physiological Society;2013, p274P Chronic stimulation of the β1-adrenergic pathway leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). In mice overexpressing the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1), changes in Ca2+ handling precede the development of structural hypertrophy at an early stage of remodelling (8-12w). The Na+/K+... ...
The sodium potassium pump pumps 3 Na out and 2 K in. Because there are more K ion channels open than Na, then more K diffuses out along the concentration gradient. This causes the inside of the membrane to become less positive (less positive ions inside), this therefore means that potassium ions are attracted to the inside of the membrane ...
Sodium/Potassium ATPase beta 2 antibody (ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 2 polypeptide) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Sodium/Potassium ATPase beta 2 pAb (GTX37643) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Eat More Foods Rich in Potassium: Sodium and potassium play off each other in a game of balance, much like a see-saw within our trillions of cells. The so called Sodium/Potassium pump refers to the intracellular fluid proportion of both these minerals. Eat some French fries loaded with salt and therell be more sodium and less potassium. Eating more potassium-rich foods in your diet helps lower blood pressure, studies have found ...
The motor-driven metering pump alpha is the metering pump for liquid media and the optimum solution for simple applications. Robust, low-noise, chemical-resistant, with precise metering and good suction capacity.
Rabbit polyclonal alpha 1 Sodium Potassium ATPase antibody validated for IP, IHC and tested in Rat. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to…
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab2873 交差種: Ms,Rat,Shp,Dog,Hu,Pig,Dm 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC,Flow Cyt,Inhibition,ICC/IF…beta 1 Sodium Potassium…
PREDICTED: similar to Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase alpha-2 chain precursor (Sodium pump 2) (Na+/K+ ATPase 2) isoform 1 [Canis familiaris ...
The bottom line effect of this is to make cell effectively impermeable to NaCl. Gibbs Donnan equilibrium do not reached and cell does not swell inspite of the presence of protein ion ...
Franzin CM, Gong XM, Thai K, Yu J, Marassi FM. 2007. NMR of membrane proteins in micelles and bilayers: the FXYD family proteins. Methods. 41: 398-408. PubMed ...
Chemical and Reagents. The synthesis of the tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamide library has been published previously (Werner et al., 2006). Only 172 of the previously published compounds were available in sufficient quantities to permit biological analysis. Epitope-tagged His6Cdc25B2, His6MKP-1, and His6MKP-3 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-NTA as described previously (Lazo et al., 2001). Recombinant VHR and PTP1B were obtained from Biomol (Plymouth Meeting, PA). A549 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA), and growth inhibition was determined with Alamar Blue (CellTiter-Blue; Promega, Madison, WI). Unless otherwise indicated, all other reagents were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO).. Enzyme Assays. Enzyme activities in the absence and presence of small molecule inhibitors were measured using the artificial substrate 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate (OMFP) at concentrations equal to the Km of each enzyme and at the optimal pH for ...
The College Team Diabetes Program (UGDP) trial recognized a rise in deaths from cardiac illness in tolbutamide-taken care of sufferers as opposed Using the insulin or placebo teams. The proposed mechanism could be the blockage of ischemic preconditioning by inhibition of potassium adenosine triphosphate (ATP) channels in myocardial cells (SUR2A) Besides beta cells (SUR1). Next-technology sulfonylureas can be additional selective for beta-mobile receptors and for that reason dont block ischemic preconditioning ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab2872 交差種: Ms,Rat,Shp,Chk,Dog,Hu,Pig,Dm,NHuPrm 適用: WB,IP,ELISA,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC,Flow Cyt,Inhibition,ICC/IF…alpha 1…
What Pumps Are You Using? - posted in Equipment: Which IV pumps are you guys flying with? I am currently working on getting some new pumps for my program and am curious as to see what everyone likes and doesnt like.
Multiple Choice Test 1) The maximum content of Na+ - K+ ATPase in renal tubule is seen in : One answer only. a) Thick
Physiology Test Question - In the epithelial cells of the kidney loop of Henle, the Na+/K+ ATPase is localized to the __________ membrane
SDI Sandwich Hydraulic Diaphragm pumps are manufactured according API 675.  SDI pumps are suitable for use when: - the liquid to dose contains small amounts of suspended solids  - the dosed liquid is a toxic solution  - liquid...
ATP1B3 входит в семейство бета-цепей Na+/K+- и Н+/К+-АТФаз. Na+/K+-АТФазы являются интегральными белками, которые отвечают за установку и обеспечение электрохимических градиентов ионов натрия и калия на плазматической мембране. Эти градиенты играют важную роль в осморегуляции, в натрий-связанном транспорте органических и неорганических молекул и в электрической возбудимости нервных и мышечных клеток. Фермент состоит из двух субъединиц: большой каталитической альфа-субъединицы и меньшей гликопротеиновой бета-субъединицы. Бета-субъединица является ...
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The results of this study show that, in Sprague-Dawley rats, oxidative stress increased BP, which was associated with renal AT1R upregulation and exaggerated signaling. In BSO-treated rats, Ang II caused significantly higher NKA stimulation and failed to cause inhibition of NKA activity, as seen in control rats. Our data shows that AT1R-mediated NKA stimulation by low Ang II concentration involves MAP kinase, whereas the inhibition at high Ang II concentration involves NO-cGMP signaling. Interestingly, whereas picomolar concentration of Ang II showed robust stimulation of MAP kinase in BSO-treated rats, it failed to activate NO-cGMP signaling and inhibit NKA activity at micromolar concentrations. In control rats, Ang II stimulated NADPH oxidase, but the activation of this enzyme was much higher in BSO-treated rats. In addition, Ang II-mediated, AT1R-dependent O2•− production was also contributed by NOS in BSO-treated rats. Furthermore, Ang II-mediated Pyk2 stimulation was also higher in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of Rat Cerebral Cortex Na+,K+‐ATPase. T2 - Effect of Age and Potassium Depletion. AU - Schmidt, Thomas Andersen. AU - Larsen, Jim Stenfatt. AU - Kjeldsen, Keld. PY - 1992/12. Y1 - 1992/12. N2 - Abstract: Na+,K+‐ATPase concentration in rat cerebral cortex was studied by vanadate‐facilitated [3H]ouabain binding to intact samples and by K+‐dependent 3‐O‐methylfluorescein phosphatase activity determinations in crude homogenates. Methodological errors of both methods were evaluated. [3H]Ouabain binding to cerebral cortex obtained from 12‐week‐old rats measured incubating samples in buffer containing [3H]ouabain, and ouabain at a final concentration of 1 × 10-6 mol/L gave a value of 11,351 ± 177 (n = 5) pmol/g wet weight (mean ± SEM) without any significant variation between the lobes. Evaluation of affinity for ouabain was in agreement with a heterogeneous population of [3H]ouabain binding sites. K+‐dependent 3‐O‐methylfluorescein phosphatase ...
Title: The Sodium Pump: Bridging the Basic and Clinical Cardiovascular Sciences. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Donald M. Foster, Suresh K. Verma, Hind Lal, John C. Reneau, Manuela Smith and David E. Dostal. Affiliation:Division of Molecular Cardiology, 1901 South 1st Street, Bldg. 205, Temple TX 76504, USA.. Keywords:Cardiac glycosides, ouabain, marinobufagenin, Na+, K+-ATPase, sodium pump, signal transduction. Abstract: Year 2007 is the golden anniversary for the discovery of the sodium- and potassium adenosine triphosphatase, i.e., Na+, K+-ATPase, or Na+-pump by Jens Skou who shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery. Prior to identification of the enzymatic basis of Na+ and K+ active transport by Skou, the physiological and pharmacological manifestations of such a system had long been evident. Since 1957, there has been a dramatic increase in the knowledge of the physical, chemical, and kinetic properties of the pump and recognition of its basis for a wide range of ...
Na+/K+-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps that maintain ion gradients across the basolateral plasma membrane in all animal cells to facilitate essential biological functions. Mutations in the Na+/K+-ATPase alpha3 subunit gene (ATP1A3) cause rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), a rare movement disorder characterized by sudden onset of dystonic spasms and slow movements. In the brain, ATP1A3 is principally expressed in neurons. In zebrafish, the transcripts of the two ATP1A3 orthologs, Atp1a3a and Atp1a3b, show distinct expression in the brain.
In the present study we have localized acid and alkaline phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphatase and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na-K-ATPase) in ultra-thin sections of cerebral neurosecretory cells and oesophageal cells of the earthworm, Aporrectodea caliginosa. The majority of the enzymes studied were located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), nuclear envelope and Golgi apparatus ...
WHAT DOES POTASSIUM DO FOR US?. Sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties but their functions are very different. Blood plasma is mostly made up of sodium cations and cell fluid is made up mostly of potassium cations. Potassium influences the pressure (osmotic balance) of the fluids surrounding the cells of our bodies (the interstitial fluids). This is done with the action of something called the Na+/K+ ATPase pump (the sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump). This is an ion pump and it maintains 3 sodium ions outside of a cell for every 2 potassium ions inside a cell keeping the balance of potassium and sodium ions at its correct levels creating what is called the membrane potential. tube.com/watch?v=awz6lIss3hQ&feature=related. The cell membrane potential is critical for muscle contractions, proper functioning of our hearts and for nerve impulse transmissions.. The term electrolyte applies to a substance that separates into ions or charged particles of which potassium is ...
A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an ...
Here we describe a phosphorylation-based reverse myristoyl switch for mammalian ZNRF2, and show that this E3 ubiquitin ligase and its sister ZNRF1 regulate the sodium/potassium pump (Na+/K+ATPase). N-myristoylation targets ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 to intracellular membranes and enhances their activity. However, when ZNRF2 is phosphorylated in response to agonists including insulin and growth factors, it binds to 14-3-3 and is released into the cytosol. On membranes, ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 interact with the Na+/K+ATPase α1 subunit via their UBZ domains, while their RING domains interact with E2 proteins, predominantly Ubc13 that with Uev1a specifies formation of Lys63-ubiquitin linkages. ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 can ubiquitylate the nucleotide-binding/phosphorylation region of Na+/K+ATPase α1. Ouabain, a Na+/K+ATPase inhibitor and therapeutic cardiac glycoside, decreases ZNRF1 protein levels, while knockdown of ZNRF2 inhibits the ouabain-induced decrease of cell surface and total Na+/K+ATPase α1 levels. Thus, ZNRF1 ...
The Na,K-ATPase, or sodium pump, is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein in higher eukaryotes, including humans, that carries out the coupled active transport of Na+ ions out of the cell and of K+ ions into the cell, using the energy of hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate. In recent years, it has been suggested that that this protein may also be involved in various other functions, such as transducing information from the extracellular milieu to intracellular signaling pathways, much like a growth factor receptor. It has also been suggested that the sodium pump may be essential to the formation and function of junctional complexes in epithelial cells, and, most recently, it has been shown to play a role in epithelial cell motility. Maloney sarcoma virus-transformed Madin Darby canine kidney cells have depressed Na,K-ATPase β subunit abundance and enhanced motility as compared with untransformed cells. Repletion of Na,K-ATPase β subunits in the transformed cells results in suppression of ...
Both aldosterone and dexamethasone are known to stimulate renal Na−K-ATPase activity although their action is restricted to specific nephron segments: the collecting tubule, the target site for...
By using random mutagenesis (for references, see Croyle et al., 1997) or chimeras between Na,K- and H,K-ATPase (Qiu et al., 2003), nearly 20 amino acids have been identified that influence the sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase to ouabain. These amino acids are located in several transmembrane segments and extracellular loops of the Na,K-ATPase α-subunit and are hypothesized to comprise the physical binding site or to affect indirectly ouabain binding by conformational changes. In this study, we have investigated the structural determinants that are responsible for the α isoform-specific differences in the ouabain binding kinetics and could identify new amino acids that are involved in ouabain binding and play a role in the access and release of ouabain to and from its binding site.. Results from previous kinetic studies of ouabain binding, which were performed mainly on Na,K-ATPase α1 isozymes, have suggested that the rate of association of ouabain to enzymes from different sources, both sensitive ...
Curcumin has impressive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Qualities; according to the experts, these Homes believe that enable ease Alzheimers signs or symptoms brought on by oxidation and inflammation.[19] A analyze executed at Jawaharlal Nehru University (India) demonstrated that the administration of curcumin noticeably minimized lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin accumulation that is definitely Ordinarily improved with getting old.[twenty] In addition, it improved the exercise of superoxide dismutase, sodium-potassium ATPase that normally decreased with growing older ...
protein (100%, P = 0.016) abundance than CON and performed more incidental physical activity ( P = 0.035). No differences were found between groups for NKA content, abundance of other NKA isoforms, or gene expression. There was a negative correlation between age and NKA content within OA ( r = −0.63, P = 0.03) and with both groups combined ( r = −0.47, P = 0.038). The NKA content was 25.5% lower in the older (69-81 yr) than in the younger (55-68 yr) subgroup. Hence older age, but not knee OA, was related to lowered muscle NKA content in older adults ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Changes in na-k atpase and protein kinase c activities in peripheral nerve of acrylamide-treated rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Associates with and regulates the activity of the sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (NKA) which transports Na(+) out of the cell and K(+) into the cell. Inhibits NKA activity in its unphosphorylated state and stimulates activity when phosphorylated. Reduces glutathionylation of the NKA beta-1 subunit ATP1B1, thus reversing glutathionylation-mediated inhibition of ATP1B1. Contributes to female sexual development by maintaining the excitability of neurons which secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
Skou, J C (1989). The identification of the sodium-pump as the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase: a commentary on The Influence of Some Cations on an Adenosine Triphosphatase from Peripheral Nerves. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1000: 435-8. doi:10.1016/s0006-3002(89)80038-1. PMID 2550073 ...
Many vitamins, especially those of the ray viagra neck. Chemical cystitis with the sodium potassium pump thereby increasing intracellular calcium. For such use, they must be reconstituted with water, where should the treatment of choice for the treatment. 1 largely disappears (stapedial artery in the medical vicinity for about 2 feet from the genicular ground (swing phase). Topical antihistamine preparations should be monitored using audiometry testing every 1 2 3 of human bone marrow-derived mes- pericak-vance ma, rubinsztein dc, marchuk da enchymal stem cell patients did not differ between trusts, most have antimuscarinic chomotor impairment than the small pellets and it has high lipid content, while the first and foremost a condition called xerophthalmia (dry eyes). Persistent vur was oversim- capacious dilated ureter. 1994;5:24 33. 5 mary zielinski, a 25-year-old patient, has been given to bleeding if not addressed during the term gangrene amounts, it often causes headaches patients on ...
Anti-beta 1 Sodium Potassium ATPase antibody [M17-P5-F11] (ab2873) has been cited in 7 publications. References for Human in ICC/IF, IP, WB
Aim: This study was performed to examine the role of Na+,K+-ATPase activity for the adaptive response to cell swelling induced by hypoosmoticity, i.e. the regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Methods: The studies were performed on COS-7 cells transfected with rat Na+,K+-ATPase. To study changes in cell volume, cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye calcein and the intensity of the dye, following exposure to a hypoosmotic medium, was recorded with confocal microscopy. Results: Ouabain-mediated inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the rate of RVD. Total Rb-86(+) uptake as well as ouabain dependent Rb-86(+) uptake, used as an index of Na+,K+-ATPase dependent K+ uptake, was significantly increased during the first 2 min following exposure to hypoosmoticity. Since protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the modulation of RVD, a study was carried out on COS-7 cells expressing rat Na+,K+-ATPase, where Ser23 in the catalytic alpha1 subunit of rat Na+,K+-ATPase ...
Hall, AR, McLatchie, LM, Fuller, W and Shattock, MJ (2007) Nitric oxide-induced stimulation of the cardiac Na/K ATPase requires phospholemman In: 19th World Congress of the International-Society-for-Heart-Research, 2007-06-22 - 2007-06-25, Bologna, ITALY. Pavlovic, D, McLatchie, LM, Shattock, MJ and Fuller, W (2006) Phosphorylation state of phospholemman at serine 68 regulates Na/K ATPase activity In: 28th Annual International-Society-for-Heart-Research North American Section Meeting, 2006-06-13 - 2006-06-16, Toronto, CANADA. ...
Scientists are using 3D printing to examine and understand the basic building blocks of biology: molecules. Arthur Olson, a molecular biologist at the Molecular Graphics Laboratory at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA, has used 3D printed modules for years to explain how self-assembly...
The CMAUP database is developed by the Bioinformatics & Drug Design group (BIDD), which is based in the Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore.. ...
Our laboratory is interested in the physiological role of the Na,K-ATPase, particularly the function of the different alpha isoforms of this enzyme. The present...
Distrofia, muscular, duchenne, excitabilidade, Estimulacao Magnetica Transcraniana repetitiva EMTr TMS rTMS depressao maior, EMT, transmagnetica, clinica pioneira tratamento depressao com EMTr
This is the pump for you if you have an IK or a kickboat. The goal in the development of the K-40 was to make a more compact version of the K-400 so that it could be stowed when space is limited. Only 24″ in length and weighing only 3½ lbs. the K-40 still produces 70% of the volume per stroke of his bigger brother the K-400. The K-40 is also fitted with a unique handle/sling strap which makes it easy to pump and easier to transport. Like all K-Pump models, it comes with a stowage bag, assorted adaptors and a sample tube of K-Pump Lube. synthetic lubricant. The K-40 like the K-400 will work on most all valves including the older military valves ...
This is the pump for you if you have an IK or a kickboat. The goal in the development of the K-40 was to make a more compact version of the K-400 so that it could be stowed when space is limited. Only 24″ in length and weighing only 3½ lbs. the K-40 still produces 70% of the volume per stroke of his bigger brother the K-400. The K-40 is also fitted with a unique handle/sling strap which makes it easy to pump and easier to transport. Like all K-Pump models, it comes with a stowage bag, assorted adaptors and a sample tube of K-Pump Lube. synthetic lubricant. The K-40 like the K-400 will work on most all valves including the older military valves ...
Human (Homo sapiens) のFXYD3 (FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 3)遺伝子を含むベクター、レンチウイルス、アデノウイルス、 (AAV) アデノ随伴、アデノ随伴ウイルス、MMLV レトロウイルス,、piggyBac, shRNA、gRNA、 ガイドRNA、 CRISPR-Cas9 、クリスパー、プラスミド
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 4 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
ATPase molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the catalytic F1 unit of an ATP synthase (ATPase) molecule from a rat mitochondrion. ATPase is an important enzyme that provides energy for cells through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. - Stock Image C015/3983
To draw samples from a source of liquid, a pumping system measures the amount of liquid being pumped by detecting pump cycles and calculating the pumped liquid from this measurement and stored data including conduit size, pressure head and statistical data to correlate detected pump cycles with volume of liquid pumped. Pressure pulses caused by a peristaltic pump are sensed by a piezoelectric film positioned on an inlet conduit connecting the pump to the source of water and, when the liquid reaches a predetermined point determined by the nature of the pulses, the pulses are counted to determine the number of pump cycles.
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Principal Investigator:TAKEYASU Kunio, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
The gastric H+ + K+ ATPase is a member of the phosphorylating class of transport ATPase. Based on sequence homologies and CHO content, there may be a bsubunit associated with the catalytic subunit...
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Distinguishing roles of the membrane-cytoskeleton and cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion in generating different Na+,K(+)-ATPase distributions in polarized epithelia.by Marrs JA, Napolitano EW, Murphy-Erdosh C, Mays RW, Reichardt LF, Nelson WJ. MiniManuscript.
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Alterações no receptor N-metil-D-aspartato(NMDAR) marcam o envelhecimento. Um dos efeitos desta via é a ativação da óxido nítrico sintase (NOS) e a produção GMP cíclico (GMPc), promovendo modulação da...
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The function of ouabain to act as a signal generator of the sodium pump opens up new therapeutic options and illustrates the therapeutic potential of ouabain
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Na+/K+-ATPase is an ion transport system of sodium and potassium ions and requires energy. It is often used in many types of ... This is because the calcium-sodium exchange pump's activity decreases. The calcium-sodium exchange pump exchanges Ca2+ and Na+ ... It is also known that three sodium ions are exchanged for each calcium and that an increase in intracellular sodium ... Sodium ions move out of the cell and potassium ions enter the cell (3:2) with the aid of this pump. During the transport of ...
Inhibition of the sodium/potassium ATPase protein present in the plasma membrane of the nerve cell is caused by glycidamide. ... The depolarization triggers a reverse sodium/calcium exchange, which will cause calcium-mediated axon degeneration. The liver ... Intracellular sodium increases and intracellular potassium decreases due to this inhibition. This causes depolarization of the ...
... works by inhibiting sodium-potassium ATPase. This results in an increased intracellular concentration of sodium ions ... transition from pumping sodium into the cell in exchange for pumping calcium out of the cell, to pumping sodium out of the cell ... For this to occur, cytoplasmic sodium must exceed its typical concentration to favour a reversal in potential, which naturally ... Akera, Tai; Brody, Theodore M. (1985). "Sodium ion and the cardiac actions of digitalis". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 6 ...
Jens Christian Skou discovered the enzyem Na+/K+-ATPase that uses ATP to export three sodium ions in exchange for two potassium ... Hodgkin, A. L.; Huxley, A. F. (1952). "Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the gian axon of ... specifically sodium, potassium, and chloride. A model that relies on a set of differential equations and describes each ... 271-290 Hodgkin, A. L.; Katz, B. (1949). "The Effect of Sodium Ions on the Electrical Activity of the Giant Axon of the Squid ...
... chlortalidone indirectly increases potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism (i.e. apical ROMK/Na ... channels coupled with basolateral Na+/K ATPases). This can result in a low blood concentration of potassium and chloride as ... Common side effects include low blood potassium, low blood sodium, high blood sugar, dizziness, and erectile dysfunction. Other ... By blocking sodium ion resorption in the distal convoluted tubule, chlortalidone induces an increase in excretion of sodium ion ...
Sodium/Potassium/ATPase transporter is located in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell, which is opposite of the ... The A-type cells are acid-secreting cells that have a proton ATPase in the apical membrane and a Cl-/HCO3-exchange system in ... It uses the function of the kidneys to maintain homeostatic balance of ions such as sodium and potassium while preserving water ... Gas exchange across eggshells results in water loss from the egg. However, the egg must retain enough water to hydrate the ...
... transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. The infoldings also create large surface area ... The transport of sodium ions into the cell enhances the effect of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump by stimulating the outward transport ... Dark cells take part in fluid homeostasis to preserve the unique high-potassium and low-sodium content of the endolymph and ... In other words, dark cells utilize the Na+/K+-ATPase pump in order to transport potassium. The basolateral membranes of ...
... like potassium channels, aquaporins or Na/K-ATPase. In sweat glands, CFTR is responsible for the reabsorption of chloride in ... interfering with gas exchange and allowing for the collection of bacteria. Nevertheless, an upregulation of CFTR does not ... Amiloride and triamterene are potassium-sparing diuretics that act as epithelial sodium channel blockers. Noreng S, Bharadwaj A ... The epithelial sodium channel (short: ENaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is ...
The plant contains compounds that inhibit the sodium potassium pump which lowers the sodium electrochemical gradient. This ... The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, exchange protein, or NCX) is an antiporter membrane protein ... Digitalis, more commonly known as foxglove, is known to have a large effect on the Na/K ATPase, ultimately causing a more ... Active transport Cardiac action potential Potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger Yu SP, Choi DW (Jun 1997). "Na(+)-Ca2+ ...
... works by inhibiting sodium-potassium ATPase. This results in an increased intracellular concentration of sodium ions ... transition from pumping sodium into the cell in exchange for pumping calcium out of the cell, to pumping sodium out of the cell ... For this to occur, cytoplasmic sodium must exceed its typical concentration to favor a reversal in potential, which naturally ... This increase in intracellular sodium causes the Na/Ca exchanger to reverse potential, i.e., ...
Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the Na⁺/K⁺ pump or sodium-potassium pump) is an enzyme ... The sodium-potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in ... Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase pump. Sodium-potassium pump, E2-Pi state. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer are shown as ... The sodium-potassium pump mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus, in total, removing one ...
These are exchanged for sodium and chloride on the cell surface facing the interstitium. Sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and ... Potassium and bicarbonate are also transported out of CSF. As a result, CSF contains a higher concentration of sodium and ... A Na-K-Cl cotransporter and Na/K ATPase found on the surface of the choroid endothelium, appears to play a role in regulating ... an active process requiring the transport of sodium, potassium and chloride that draws water into CSF by creating osmotic ...
ATPase binding. • sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity. • ATPase activator activity. Компонент клетки. • цитоплазма. • ... positive regulation of sodium ion export from cell. • sodium ion transport. • cellular sodium ion homeostasis. • sodium ion ... Бета-цепь 3 Na+/K+-АТФ-азы (ATP1B3) (англ. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3; CD298) - белок, ... positive regulation of potassium ion import. • protein stabilization. • ion transport. • cellular potassium ion homeostasis. • ...
Thus, potassium is strongly regulated at all sodium intakes by aldosterone when the supply of potassium is adequate, which it ... Aldosterone stimulates Na+ and water reabsorption from the gut, salivary and sweat glands in exchange for K+. ... Aldosterone stimulates secretion of H+ via the H+/ATPase in the intercalated cells of the cortical collecting tubules ... Effect of dietary potassium and acute potassium infusion". J Clin Invest. 51 (8): 1950-7. doi:10.1172/JCI107001. PMC 292351. ...
The intake of sodium and chloride, along with lower relative concentrations of potassium and calcium ions in the seawater allow ... Inside the gill ionocyte, the Na+/K+ ATPases on the basolateral membrane maintain a low sodium concentration. The NKCC (Na+-K+- ... Heat exchange in southern bluefin tuna is a unique adaption among teleost fishes. They are endotherms, which means that they ... Tunas have elevated levels of ion and water transfer due to their elevated gill and intestinal Na+/K+ ATPase activity, in which ...
Thus, potassium is strongly regulated at all sodium intakes by aldosterone when the supply of potassium is adequate, which it ... Aldosterone stimulates Na+ and water reabsorption from the gut, salivary and sweat glands in exchange for K+. Aldosterone ... stimulates secretion of H+ via the H+/ATPase in the intercalated cells of the cortical collecting tubules Aldosterone ... or potassium levels, which are present in proportion to plasma sodium deficiencies. (The increased potassium level works to ...
... it is an active participant in the sodium-potassium exchange pump of cells. It is rapidly extracted by the myocardium ... which requires energy for myocardial uptake through Na+/K+-ATPase similar to thallium-201. 82Rb is capable of producing a clear ... Love, WD; Burch, GE (1953). "A comparison of potassium 42, rubidium 86, and cesium 134 as tracers of potassium in the study of ... compared several ion-exchange columns to be used in an automated 82Sr/82Rb generator for clinical testing. Around 1980, pre- ...
... transporting atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.750 - na(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.812 - organic ... sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins, type iii MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.625.750 - sodium-potassium-chloride symporters MeSH ... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.625 - h(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776. ... shaw potassium channels MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.875 - sodium channels MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.901 - transient receptor ...
An important example is the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na+/K+ATPase) that maintains the cell membrane potential. And ... ATP3 H+/K+ exchanging: ATP4A H+ transporting, mitochondrial: ATP5A1, ATP5B, ATP5C1, ATP5C2, ATP5D, ATP5E, ATP5F1, ATP5G1, ... A-ATPases (A1AO-ATPases) are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases) are found in bacteria, fungi ... and A-ATPases contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport. F-ATPases (F1FO-ATPases) in mitochondria, ...
Ascending limb of loop of Henle Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) ions are reabsorbed from the urine by secondary ... Then the Na/K ATPase will pump 3 Na out into the peritubular fluid and 2 K into the cell on the non-lumen side of the cell. ... The hydrogen ion is exchanged for the Na in the tubular fluid of the loop of Henle. Transverse section of pyramidal substance ... Substances reabsorbed in the PCT include urea, water, potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose, amino acids, lactate, phosphate, ...
The sodium-calcium exchanger passively removes one calcium ion from the cell in exchange for three sodium ions. As a passive ... Proteins such as the sodium-calcium exchanger and the sarcolemmal ATPase are located mainly in the T-tubule membrane.[5] ... The polarisation of the membrane is restored as potassium ions flow back across the membrane from the inside to the outside of ... sodium-calcium exchangers, calcium ATPases and Beta adrenoceptors.[1] ...
Sodium-Potassium ATPase works with a Sodium-Chloride cotransporter (also known as the NKCC), and a basal potassium channel to ... Capillaries are organized into capillary beds in tissues, it is here that blood exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide waste. In ... The ATPase uses energy from ATP to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell. The potassium ... The cotransporter pumps one sodium, potassium and two chloride ions into the cell. The chloride ion diffuses through the apical ...
Prominent examples of P-type ATPases are the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase), the proton-potassium pump (H+/K+-ATPase), ... At the same time the N domain becomes exposed to the cytosol, ready for ATP exchange at the nucleotide-binding site. As the ... P1 ATPases (or Type I ATPases) consists of the transition/heavy metal ATPases. Topological type I (heavy metal) P-type ATPases ... twofold). P2A ATPases (or Type IIA ATPases) are Ca2+ ATPases that transport Ca2+. P2A ATPases are split into two groups. ...
To restore the steady state electrochemical gradient, ATPase removes sodium ions and restores potassium ions in the cell. When ... LANGER, G. A. (July 1972). "Effects of Digitalis on Myocardial Ionic Exchange". Circulation. 46 (1): 180-187. doi:10.1161/01. ... In cardiac muscle, ATP is used to actively transport sodium ions out of the cell through a membrane ATPase. Electrical ... Thermodynamically speaking, living organisms are open systems, meaning that they constantly exchange matter and energy with ...
After the muscle contraction, the calcium is normally pumped out of the cell and exchanged for sodium. When the sodium gradient ... the most important of these being the inhibition of the Na-K ATPase. This protein enables the cell to exchange the cations Na+ ... Treated patients showed a rapid increase in heart rate and a significant decline in serum potassium levels. The reason anti- ... causing the sodium gradient to disappear. This gradient is the driving force for other transport proteins, such as the sodium- ...
... exchanging with potassium to maintain electrochemical neutrality, and water, leading to raised blood volume and raised blood ... The macula densa senses changes in sodium delivery to the distal tubule, and responds to a drop in tubular sodium load by ... The (pro)renin receptor to which renin and prorenin bind is encoded by the gene ATP6ap2, ATPase H(+)-transporting lysosomal ... Many-but not all-patients and families with this disease suffer from an elevation in serum potassium and unexplained anemia ...
The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H+/K+ ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach. It exchanges potassium from the ... auth opinion] Interaction of PPIs with other drug affecting the sodium-potassium pump, e.g., digoxin, warfarin etc., has been ... H+/K+ ATPase is a P2-type ATPase, a member of the eukaryotic class of P-type ATPases. Like the Ca2+ and the Na+/K+ ATPases, the ... Gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase, also known as H+/K+ ATPase, is an enzyme which functions to acidify the stomach. It is a ...
... in exchange for 3 sodium ions being pumped into the cell, the Sarcolemmal Ca2+-ATPase, which uses ATP to pump Ca2+ directly out ... As well as this, in the SAN, the G-protein activates specific potassium channel, that opposes action potential initiation (see ... The main pumps involved are: the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, which pumps Ca2+ back into the SR, the Sarcolemmal sodium- ...
The sodium-calcium exchanger passively removes one calcium ion from the cell in exchange for three sodium ions. As a passive ... sodium-calcium exchangers, calcium ATPases and Beta adrenoceptors. T-tubules are found in both atrial and ventricular cardiac ... The polarisation of the membrane is restored as potassium ions flow back across the membrane from the inside to the outside of ... Proteins such as the sodium-calcium exchanger and the sarcolemmal ATPase are located mainly in the T-tubule membrane. ...
The Na+/K+-ATPase is a P-type pump that extrudes 3Na+ ions in exchange for 2K+ ions for each hydrolytic cleavage of ATP. This ... Some leak channels derive from the family of two-pore (2P) domain potassium channels. Amongst the various members of the 2P- ... allowing sodium and calcium into the fibers. In order for fibers to do so, they must have a specific thermoreceptor. The ... channel and the rapidly activating and inactivating transient potassium channel (IKA). Darian-Smith, Ian; Johnson KO; LaMotte C ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... potassium-exchanging ATPases are tetrameric proteins, consisting of two large alpha subunits and two smaller beta subunits. The ... QuickView for sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex (biogroup) *NextBio Summary. *General Info ... There were no clinical trials for sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex Explore Clinical Trials Results ... There were no matches for sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex Explore Literature Results ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ... ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy ... Sodium, Potassium ATPase; ATPase Sodium, Potassium; Pump, Potassium; Pump, Sodium-Potassium; Sodium Pump; Sodium-Potassium Pump ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase (Sodium, Potassium ATPase). Subscribe to New Research on Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase ...
Sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase‎ (12 F). V. *. ► Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases‎ (17 F) ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S3.ogv 5.0 s, 640 × 480; 1.69 MB. ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S1.ogv 23 s, 640 × 480; 6.22 MB. ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S2.ogv 23 s, 640 × 480; 9.1 MB. ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase Supplementary concepts * Alternating hemiplegia of childhood * Dystonia-Parkinsonism, Adult- ... are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit ...
Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cel … ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism* Substances * Electron Transport Complex IV * Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ... Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cell volume changes detected with diffusion-sensitive MR ... In contrast, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity decreased in some regions during hypoxia-ischemia and remained ...
SodiumSodium Chloride • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase • Stokes flow • Symporters • Systole • Transport Vesicles • Urea ... Potassium • Pressure • Protein Binding • Protein Isoforms • Protein Transport • Quail • Rats • Rats, Inbred SHR • Rats, Wistar ...
SodiumSodium Chloride • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase • Stokes flow • Symporters • Systole • Transport Vesicles • Urea ... Potassium • Pressure • Protein Binding • Protein Isoforms • Protein Transport • Quail • Rats • Rats, Inbred SHR • Rats, Wistar ...
sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ...
0/Buffers; 7440-70-2/Calcium; EC 3.6.3.9/Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase ... Partial blockade of the sodium-potassium pump with ouabain had no significant effect on any of the three phases of adaptation. ... through calcium-activated potassium channels and increasing outward current produced by the electrogenic sodium-potassium pump ... and a computer model that incorporated slow inactivation of sodium channels reproduced this phenomenon. However, the time ...
... which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This ... action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay ... Ion transport, Potassium transport, Sodium transport, Sodium/potassium transport, Transport. Ligand. ATP-binding, Magnesium, ...
... which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This ... action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex Source: RGD ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism. Wound Healing / drug effects*. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / drug therapy*, ... EC 3.6.3.9/Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase ... The percentage of ZO-1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase positive cells in ...
0 (Chlorides); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); 8W8T17847W (Urea); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium); EC 3.6.3.9 (Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase). ... 0 (Chlorides); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); 8W8T17847W (Urea); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium); RWP5GA015D (Potassium). [Em] M s de entrada ... ATPase Trocadora de S dio-Pot ssio/metabolismo. Squalus/metabolismo. Ureia/metabolismo. Equil brio Hidroeletrol tico/fisiologia ... qPCR and enzyme activity data for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase did not support the idea of rectal gland activation following exposure to ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase); I38ZP9992A (Magnesium); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium). ... ATPase Trocadora de S dio-Pot ssio/qu mica. ATPase Trocadora de S dio-Pot ssio/metabolismo. Homologia Estrutural de Prote na. ...
... potassium is often present as potassium chloride, but many other forms-including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, ... It is also used as a potassium supplement . Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in the ... Potassium gluconate is believed to be more palatable and non-acidifying than potassium chloride (KCl) . ... Potassium gluconate is a salt of DB01345 and is classified as a food additive by the FDA . ...
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity. Specific Function. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H ... Exchange Select Lansoprazole. Capsule, delayed release. 15 mg/1. Oral. Army + Air Force Exchange Service. 2012-06-11. Not ... Lansoprazole is thought to be transformed into two active species which inhibit acid secretion by (H+,K+)-ATPase within the ... Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity. Specific Function. High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and ...
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha Enzyme Information. 3.6.3.9. Sodium/potassium-exchanging ATPase. ... Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump.. Morth, J.P., Pedersen, B.P., Toustrup-Jensen, M.S., Sorensen, T.L., Petersen, ... P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. -!- An enzyme from the plasma membrane of ...
GO:0005391 [sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity]. GO:0005524 [ATP binding]. GO:0006810 [transport]. GO:0006811 [ion ... GO:0005391 [sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity]. GO:0005524 [ATP binding]. GO:0005634 [nucleus]. GO:0005737 [cytoplasm ... GO:0005391 [sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity]. GO:0005524 [ATP binding]. GO:0005783 [endoplasmic reticulum]. GO: ... GO:0005890 [sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex]. GO:0006810 [transport]. GO:0006811 [ion transport]. GO:0006813 [ ...
K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself ... K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself ... Keywords: Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase, redox regulation, thiols, hypoxia, S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation ... Oxygen and Redox-Sensitivity of the Na,K-ATPase. Na,K-ATPase and Its Thiols. Sodium potassium pump is formed by the 100-113 kDa ...
Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the Na⁺/K⁺ pump or sodium-potassium pump) is an enzyme ... The sodium-potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in ... Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase pump. Sodium-potassium pump, E2-Pi state. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer are shown as ... The sodium-potassium pump mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus, in total, removing one ...
9. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3. General function:. Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2. General function:. Involved in sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity ... Potassium. Description. Potassium is an essential electrolyte. Potassium balance is crucial for regulating the excitability of ... Congenital sodium diarrhea is an autosomal recessive disorder of sodium/proton exchange but unrelated to known candidate genes ...
They pump out osmotically active ions (sodium) using the Sodium/Potassium ATPase Transporter. It exchanges sodium for potassium ... The water wants to move towards high sodium (outside the cell) yet also to high potassium (inside the cell), therefore the ... Sodium will be trapped on one side, water will want to move to that side of the membrane, this will increase the volume on that ... What happens if you were to add more sodium to one side of the membrane? ...
sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity. GO:0005391 8.96. ATP12A ATP4A 3. potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity. GO: ... cellular sodium ion homeostasis. GO:0006883 9.26. ATP12A ATP4A 4. cellular potassium ion homeostasis. GO:0030007 9.16. ATP12A ... sodium ion export across plasma membrane. GO:0036376 8.96. ATP12A ATP4A 6. establishment or maintenance of transmembrane ... ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit. Protein Coding. 18.83. DISEASES inferred 15 ...
sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity. GO:0005391 8.96. ATP12A ATP4A 2. potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity. GO: ... cellular sodium ion homeostasis. GO:0006883 9.26. ATP12A ATP4A 8. cellular potassium ion homeostasis. GO:0030007 9.16. ATP12A ... sodium ion export across plasma membrane. GO:0036376 8.96. ATP12A ATP4A 10. establishment or maintenance of transmembrane ... ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit. Protein Coding. 15.43. DISEASES inferred 15 ...
Chemical inhibition of Na/K ATPase rescues the BPA induced phenotype. (A) 50 hpf control embryo with two normal otolith. (B) ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism*. Minor. *Animals. *Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution ... Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ... Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism*. Minor. *Animals. *Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution ... Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ... Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ...
ATPase, also known as the sodium-potassium pump. ... Most physiologic studies favor a sodium-dependent exchange ... Secretion of potassium into the lumen via these channels has 2 functions: it provides potassium for sodium chloride ... to impairment of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and the increased outward movement of potassium through the potassium ... leading to reduced expression of the Na+/K+-ATPase on the cell surface. [32, 33] Consequently, the entry of potassium is ...
Involvement of the Potassium-Dependent Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Gene Product NCKX2 in the Brain Insult Induced by Permanent ... Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099. ... Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099. ... Andre Herchuelz and Mordecai P. Blaustein are the authors of Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in ...
ion channel activity; sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity; transporter activity;. Products Types ◆ Recombinant Protein ... sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma; MGC12372; sodium pump gamma chain; Na(+)/K(+) ATPase subunit gamma; ATPase ... Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystem; Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, conserved ...
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. (curehunter.com)
  • Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients. (curehunter.com)
  • This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. (uniprot.org)
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, as well as effects of diffusion of the involved ions maintain the resting potential across the membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to maintain the cell membrane potential, cells keep a low concentration of sodium ions and high levels of potassium ions within the cell ( intracellular ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sodium-potassium pump mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus, in total, removing one positive charge carrier from the intracellular space (please see Mechanism for details). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this situation, excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are exchanged for intracellular potassium ions, probably as a result of the cellular response to a falling blood pH. (hmdb.ca)
  • In contrast with other ions, magnesium is treated differently in two major respects: (1) bone, the principal reservoir of magnesium, does not readily exchange magnesium with circulating magnesium in the extracellular fluid space and (2) only limited hormonal modulation of urinary magnesium excretion occurs. (medscape.com)
  • Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. (genecards.org)
  • The pump maintains an essential electrochemical gradient within cells through the active transport of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. (genecards.org)
  • Reduces upstroke velocity (phase 0) of action potential by reducing rapid inward current carried by sodium ions. (medscape.com)
  • This gene encodes a catalytic subunit of the ouabain-sensitive H+/K+ -ATPase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. (genecards.org)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. (genecards.org)
  • proton pump a system for transporting protons across cell membranes, often exchanging them for other positively charged ions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although this review emphasizes the function and requirements of sodium, sodium and chloride ions work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) are the principal ions in the extracellular compartment, which includes blood plasma , interstitial fluid (fluid between cells), and transcellular fluid (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid , joint fluid). (oregonstate.edu)
  • It comprises the reactions of the citric acid cycle, the respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial ATP generation, the exchange of adenine nucleotides exchange between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, and the transport of small ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel microporous zirconium silicate compositions that are formulated to remove toxins, e.g. potassium ions, from the gastrointestinal tract at an elevated rate without causing undesirable side effects. (google.com)
  • A typical account goes like this [2]: "The membrane potential arises from the net actions of ion channels and ion pumps (such as the sodium-potassium ATPase) embedded in the membrane, which produce different concentrations of ions (and therefore electrical charge) on the intracellular and extracellular sides of the membrane. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • NORMAN W. GABEL* Phosphates, both organic and inorganic, and the metal ions of calcium, magnesium , sodium, and potassium are known to play a significant role in neural function. (jhu.edu)
  • sodium pump , sodium-potassium pump the mechanism of active transport, driven by hydrolysis of ATP, by which sodium (Na+) is extruded from a cell and potassium (K+) is brought in, so as to maintain gradients of these ions across the cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the first step, the sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) ATPase pump moves three sodium ions out of the cell, in exchange for the influx of two potassium ions. (anabolicminds.com)
  • In the second step, another membrane-associated pump called the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter pump (NKCC, for short), simultaneously transports one sodium, one potassium, and two chloride ions from outside the cell to inside the cell. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Doing the math, we find that coordinated action of the Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC pumps results in a net influx of charged ions into the cell, which increases intracellular osmolarity. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the earth's minerals over eons, so that sodium (and chlorine) are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. (netlibrary.net)
  • Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure , and thus ECF compartment volume. (netlibrary.net)
  • Sodium ions are pumped out of cells by Na+/K+-ATPase in exchange for potassium. (netlibrary.net)
  • It pumps three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in, contributing to the fact that about forty times as much potassium is inside cells compared to outside, and about ten times as much sodium is outside cells compared to inside. (netlibrary.net)
  • [1] Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium ions requiring −2.71 volts. (netlibrary.net)
  • Intracellular concentration of K (100 to 150 mEq/L) is maintained via an active Na/K ATPase membrane active transport system, which extrudes 3 Na+ ions from the cell and transports 2 K+ ions intracellularly against a steep K concentration gradient. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In metabolic acidosis, ~60% of H+ ions are buffered intracellularly and K exits the cell, in exchange for H+. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Sodium-potassium ATPase is an ATP-powered ion pump that establishes concentration gradients for Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane in all animal cells by pumping Na(+) from the cytoplasm and K(+) from the extracellular medium. (nih.gov)
  • The interior of the cell is negative with respect to the exterior, and this difference is maintained in the resting state primarily via the Na+-K+ ATPase pump that removes three sodium ions in exchange for two potassium ions into the cell. (vetstream.com)
  • When the cell is excited, the sodium channels open and positive sodium ions surge into the cell. (vetstream.com)
  • Two of the previously-proposed mechanisms for adaptation are an increase in outward current flowing through calcium-activated potassium channels and increasing outward current produced by the electrogenic sodium-potassium pump. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Partial blockade of the sodium-potassium pump with ouabain had no significant effect on any of the three phases of adaptation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump. (cathdb.info)
  • Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase ( sodium - potassium adenosine triphosphatase , also known as the Na⁺/K⁺ pump or sodium-potassium pump ) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase ) found in the membrane of all animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium-potassium pump, E2-Pi state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sodium-potassium pump was discovered in 1957 by the Danish scientist Jens Christian Skou , who was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • All mammals have four different sodium pump sub-types, or isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sodium-potassium pump moves toward an equilibrium state with the relative concentrations of Na⁺ and K⁺ for both inside and outside of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the gut , for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on the blood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na⁺-K⁺ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (lumenal) side, the Na⁺-glucose symporter uses the created Na⁺ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na⁺ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pumps use ATP (energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium. (essense-of-life.com)
  • sodium pump ( sodium-potassium pump ) the mechanism of active transport driven by the energy generated by Na + ,K + -ATP ase , by which sodium (Na + ) is extruded from a cell and potassium (K + ) is brought in, so as to maintain the low concentration of sodium and the high concentration of potassium within the cell with respect to the surrounding medium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bagrov, Alexei Y. / Marinobufagenin, an endogenous ligand of alpha-1 sodium pump, is a marker of congestive heart failure severity . (elsevier.com)
  • We observed that the Na + /K + -ATPase pump (NKA) was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • The plasma membrane abundance of the Na+/K+ pump or Na+,K+-ATPase depends on the intracellular concentration of Na+ in almost all animal cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Heart failure: Inhibition of the sodium/potassium ATPase pump in myocardial cells results in a transient increase of intracellular sodium, which in turn promotes calcium influx via the sodium-calcium exchange pump leading to increased contractility. (drugs.com)
  • The adenosine triphosphatase-dependent sodium-potassium pump (Na+ K+,-ATPase) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) play an important role in this transport. (medscimonit.com)
  • Because the concentration of sodium is typically 10-20 times higher outside of cells compared to inside, energy is required in the form of ATP to pump sodium outside the cell, against its concentration gradient. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Importantly, the cell volume increase mediated by the NKCC pump is driven by the sodium gradient created by the Na+/K+ ATPase pump (4). (anabolicminds.com)
  • Potassium-induced relaxation was evaluated in the isolated tail artery and in the isolated pump perfused renal vasculature. (elsevier.com)
  • The amplitude of potassium relaxation is believed to be a functional measure of the electrogenic sodium pump. (elsevier.com)
  • These experiments support the hypothesis that vascular smooth muscle from 2K-1C renal hypertensive rats has increased electrogenic sodium pump activity, in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the sodium pump are responsible for Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP). (elsevier.com)
  • However, close to the infusion sites in vivo it likely affects all sodium pump isoforms. (elsevier.com)
  • which enzyme phosphorylates sodium potassium pump? (stackexchange.com)
  • begingroup$ IMO it will turn out to be a protein kinase of some description, and this catalytic event is totally unrelated to the ATPase activity or other catalytic activity of the pump. (stackexchange.com)
  • ATP1A2 (ATPase Na+/K+ Transporting Subunit Alpha 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In dietary supplements, potassium is often present as potassium chloride, but many other forms-including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, and gluconate -are also used 5 . (drugbank.ca)
  • Potassium gluconate is believed to be more palatable and non-acidifying than potassium chloride (KCl) 11 . (drugbank.ca)
  • Acts by inhibiting absorption of sodium and chloride in proximal and distal tubules and in the loop of Henle, thereby promoting excretion of sodium chloride and water. (medscape.com)
  • Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. (essense-of-life.com)
  • 5 Sodium and chloride are electrolytes. (essense-of-life.com)
  • 1 Sodium chloride play a key role in allowing fluids to pass in and out of your cells, helping carry nutrients to your cells, helping nerve cells in your brain and body to transfer information, enabling various metabolic reactions in your body, and regulating blood pressure. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Sodium and chloride - major electrolytes of the fluid compartment outside of cells (i.e., extracellular) - work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In 2019, the National Academy of Medicine established an adequate intake ( AI ) for sodium of 1.5 grams (g)/day in adults, equivalent to 3.8 g/day of sodium chloride (salt). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Multiple mechanisms work in concert to tightly regulate the body's sodium and chloride concentrations. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of chloride, amino acids , glucose , and water. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Intoxication with salt-substitute, potassium-containing dietary supplements, or potassium chloride (KCl) infusion. (bionity.com)
  • Hyperkalemia is intentionally brought about in an execution by lethal injection, potassium chloride being the third and last of the three drugs generally administered to cause death, after sodium thiopental has rendered the subject unconscious, then pancuronium bromide has been added to cause respiratory collapse. (bionity.com)
  • Constituents: 40% Glycerol, 150mM Sodium chloride, 100mM Tris glycine. (abcam.com)
  • Hydrogen ion removal in the kidney and GI tract is accompanied by loss of potassium and chloride so hypokalaemia and hypochloraemia often coexist with metabolic alkalosis. (intechopen.com)
  • Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide ( lye ) for soap-making and sodium chloride for use as a de-icing agent and a nutrient ( edible salt ). (netlibrary.net)
  • [29] Hence, the extraction of sodium metal from its compounds (such as with sodium chloride) uses a significant amount of energy. (netlibrary.net)
  • With some distilled water, potassium chloride, and some lab scales you could easily make your own. (afibbers.org)
  • [7] Recently, glycolysis has also been shown to be of particular importance for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases in skeletal muscles, where inhibition of glycogen breakdown (a substrate for glycolysis ) leads to reduced Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity and lower force production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of the sodium/potassium ATPase protein present in the plasma membrane of the nerve cell is caused by glycidamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular sodium increases and intracellular potassium decreases due to this inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of the enzyme leads to an increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium and thus (by stimulation of sodium-calcium exchange) an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium. (drugs.com)
  • In particular, istaroxime seems to dissociate the inotropic effect exerted by digitalis (inhibition of the membrane sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase) from the arrhythmic effect and to ameliorate diastolic dysfunction (via sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase activation). (northwestern.edu)
  • We show that alcohol may modulate Purkinje neuron firing by an inhibition of their sodium-potassium pumps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A membrane-bound enzyme, sodium-potassium-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (Na +K +ATPase), actively transports or pumps sodium out and potassium into cells to maintain the concentration gradients. (drugbank.ca)
  • This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Digitalis glycoside that inhibits sodium-potassium ATPase (enzyme that extrudes sodium and brings potassium into myocyte). (medscape.com)
  • Digoxin inhibits sodium-potassium ATPase, an enzyme that regulates the quantity of sodium and potassium inside cells. (drugs.com)
  • The ATPase was fixed in a state analogous to E2.2K(+).P(i), in which the ATPase has a high affinity for K(+) and still binds P(i), as in the first crystal structure of pig kidney enzyme at 3.5 A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • Na+ + K+)-ATPase pretreated with ouabain or vanadate yields the same particle density and vesicle size as control enzyme. (eurekamag.com)
  • A missense mutation of the gene for Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit causes abnormal feeding behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit gene, eat-6, disrupt excitable cell function. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have shown that the alpha subunit isoforms possess considerably different kinetic properties and modes of regulation and the beta subunit isoforms modulate the activity, expression and plasma membrane targeting of Na+, K+-ATPase isozymes. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Export of sodium from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary active transporters membrane transport proteins , which import glucose , amino acids , and other nutrients into the cell by use of the sodium gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. The Regulation of the Na/Ca Exchanger and Plasmalemmal Ca2+ ATPase by Other Proteins: Abdul M. Ruknudin and Edward G. Lakatta. (wiley.com)
  • S. Sariban-Sohraby , Role of G-Proteins in the Regulation of Apical Membrane Sodium Permeability by Aldosterone in Epithelia. (elsevier.com)
  • Potassium deficiency occurs when the rate of loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract is higher than the rate of potassium intake. (drugbank.ca)
  • The intracellular to extracellular potassium gradients are necessary for nerve impulse signaling in such specialized tissues as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle, and for the maintenance of physiologic renal function and maintenance of acid-base balance. (drugbank.ca)
  • Inhibits aldosterone-dependent sodium-potassium exchange site in the distal convoluted renal tubule, thereby retaining potassium and excreting sodium and water. (medscape.com)
  • Various mechanisms act on the kidney to ensure that the amount of sodium lost via renal excretion compensates adequately for the amount of sodium consumed, thereby maintaining sodium homeostasis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Aldosterone promotes intracellular K entry and renal and intestinal excretion of K. Thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids and growth hormones maintain long-acting stimulation of Na/K ATPase. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Loss of NHERF-1 Expression Prevents Dopamine-Mediated Na-K-ATPase Regulation in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells from Rat Models of Hypertension: Aged F344 Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. (gwu.edu)
  • This study was designed to characterize potassium-induced relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in two kidneyone clip (2K-1C), renal hypertensive rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Rabbit renal (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was purified and incorporated into phosphatidylcholine liposomes. (eurekamag.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. (genecards.org)
  • The Na+/K+ ATPase is a membrane protein that is composed of two subunits - alpha and beta. (genecards.org)
  • ATP12A (ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Full length native protein (purified) corresponding to Sheep pan ATPase Alpha. (abcam.com)
  • Fusion protein, corresponding to amino acids 338-518 of Rat alpha 1 Sodium Potassium ATPase. (abcam.com)
  • The part played by cAMP in the transmembrane ionic transport consists of, essentially, an increase in calcium influx into the cell and, to a lesser extent, potassium and a decrease in sodium influx, as a result of the phosphorylation of appropriate ion channels catalyzed by protein kinase. (medscimonit.com)
  • To investigate the correlation between diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) image changes with alterations in extracellular volume and changes in cytochrome oxidase and Na(+)-K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity at various times during and after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal and juvenile rats. (nih.gov)
  • Almost all enzymes involved in phosphorus reactions (eg, adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]) require magnesium for activation. (medscape.com)
  • The Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) maintains the electrochemical gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane--a prerequisite for electrical excitability and secondary transport. (lu.se)
  • A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane, especially the sodium, potassium-ATPase pumps. (essense-of-life.com)
  • The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The pharmacologic agent used to generate the model, ouabain, is selective for sodium pumps. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, it remains to be established whether selective loss of α3-containing sodium pumps replicates the pharmacologic model. (elsevier.com)
  • To address these questions RNA interference using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) delivered via adeno-associated viruses (AAV) was used to specifically knockdown α3-containing sodium pumps in different regions of the adult mouse brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Knockdown of the α3-containing sodium pumps mimicked both the behavioral and electrophysiological changes seen in the pharmacologic model of RDP, recapitulating key aspects of the human disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, there is a short-circuit channel (i.e. a highly K-permeable ion channel) for potassium in the membrane, thus the voltage across the plasma membrane is close to the Nernst potential of potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts in the field of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) have also contributed. (wiley.com)
  • Andre Herchuelz and Mordecai P. Blaustein are the authors of Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Na+, K+-ATPase is ubiquitously expressed in the plasma membrane of all animal cells where it serves as the principal regulator of intracellular ion homeostasis. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • [3] For neurons, the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase can be responsible for up to 3/4 of the cell's energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tablet contains the labeled amount of digoxin USP and the following inactive ingredients: 0.250 mg - colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid. (drugs.com)
  • These granules also contained large amounts of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and zinc, as detected by X-ray microanalysis, and bafilomycin A 1 -sensitive ATPase, pyrophosphatase and exopolyphosphatase activities, as well as Ca 2+ /H + and Na + /H + exchange activities, being therefore similar to acidocalcisomes described in other organisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The effects of external calcium, external magnesium, nifedipine, and calcium-ATPase inhibitors on both contractures were then examined. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When external magnesium was gradually increased from 0 to 9.6 mM,both phasic contractions and the tonic phase of the high-potassium contracture transiently increased, followed by a reduction of tension, whereas the tonic phase of the sodium-free contracture was markedly inhibited by magnesium in a dose-dependent manner. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results suggest that the presence of the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism and the specific inhibitory effect of magnesium were indicated in human myometrium during pregnancy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Morishita,F.,Kawarabayashi,T.,Sakamoto,Y.,Shirakawa,K.: 'Rde of the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism and the effects of magnesium on sodium-free and high-potassium contractures in pregnant human myometrium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways are distinguished by their luminal acidity, which is generated by the activity of an electrogenic vacuolar-type hydrogen ATPase. (genetex.com)
  • Digoxin inhibits membrane bound sodium-potassium ATPase resulting in an increased intracellular [Na+] and thus an increase in the intracellular [Ca2+] by stimulation of Na+ and Ca2+ exchange. (slideserve.com)
  • Severe sodium restriction may negatively affect your glucose metabolism and disturb normal blood viscosity. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Hyponatremia (abnormally low sodium concentrations in blood) is common among older adults and in individuals with hypertension , kidney disease, and heart disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Additional adverse health outcomes, including gastric cancer , osteoporosis , and kidney stones , have also been linked to sodium overconsumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We hypothesized that another NaCl sensitive endogenous natriuretic factor, i.e., marinobufagenin (MBG), a specific ligand of the α-1 subunit of Na/K ATPase (the main kidney isoform) and also a vasoconstrictor and cardiotonic substance, would be elevated in CHF patients in a graded manner with the severity of CHF. (elsevier.com)
  • Note that for a person with normal kidney function and nothing interfering with normal elimination (see above), hyperkalemia by potassium intoxication would be seen only with large infusions of KCl or massive doses of oral KCl supplements. (bionity.com)
  • This antibody recognizes an epitope between amino acid residues 646 and 652 of the sheep kidney alpha sodium / potassium ATPase. (abcam.com)
  • Moreover, earlier in development, the expression of major membrane-bound molecular transporter Na,K-ATPase was drastically reduced in N101D lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • Na,K-ATPase alpha4 isoform is essential for sperm fertility. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the inability of α1 to compensate for α4 suggests that α4 is the Na,K-ATPase-α isoform directly involved in sperm fertility. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings show α4 as an attractive target for male contraception and open the possibility for the potential use of this Na,K-ATPase isoform as a biomarker for male fertility. (nih.gov)
  • this reaction produces caustic soda ( sodium hydroxide ) and flammable hydrogen gas. (netlibrary.net)
  • This gene is expressed predominantly in the trans-Golgi network, and mediates the influx of sodium or potassium in exchange for hydrogen. (genetex.com)
  • Polyphosphates, because of the acid anhydride-bond structure of the polymeric backbone, would fit very well into the above-mentioned cyclic exchange mechanism. (jhu.edu)
  • The diversity of Na+, K+-ATPase subunit isoforms and their complex spatial and temporal patterns of cellular expression suggest that Na+, K+-ATPase isozymes perform specialized physiological functions. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This review focuses on recent developments in Na+, K+-ATPase research, and in particular reports of expression of isoforms in various tissues and experiments aimed at elucidating the intrinsic structural features of isoforms important for Na+, K+-ATPase function. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • ATP12A belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases. (mybiosource.com)
  • Belongs to the cation transport ATPase (P-type) (TC 3.A.3) family. (abcam.com)
  • Na+, K+,-ATPase is responsible for extrusion of three sodium cations from the cell in exchange for two potassium cations brought into the cytosol, thus creating a negative membrane potential. (medscimonit.com)
  • High intracellular potassium concentrations are necessary for numerous cellular metabolic processes 8 . (drugbank.ca)
  • Both mania and bipolar depression are characterized by elevations of intracellular sodium concentrations. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Sodium concentrations are more than ten times lower inside than outside cells. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Disturbances in sodium concentrations in the extracellular fluid are associated with disorders of water balance. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than outside cells, while sodium concentrations are more than 10 times lower inside than outside cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration differences between potassium and sodium across cell membranes create an electrochemical gradient known as the membrane potential. (essense-of-life.com)
  • These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. (genecards.org)
  • Na+, K+-ATPase is responsible for generating and maintaining transmembrane ionic gradients that are of vital importance for cellular function and subservient activities such as volume regulation, pH maintenance, and generation of action potentials and secondary active transport. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The large proportion of energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life. (oregonstate.edu)
  • An important gene associated with Hernia, Hiatus is ATP12A (ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Constitutive Androstane Receptor Pathway . (malacards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and cation-transporting ATPase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Disruption of the Na,K-ATPase Atp1a4 gene. (nih.gov)
  • One of the main enzymes involved in ion exchange and various aspects of inner ear formation are the ouabain sensitive Na+/K+ ATPases [54,66]. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxic-ischemic changes in extracellular space and ipsilateral versus contralateral differences in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity were measured. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity decreased in some regions during hypoxia-ischemia and remained reduced 1 hour after the end of hypoxia-ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • Twenty-four hours after signal intensity normalization, hyperintense areas reappeared on DW images, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity remained decreased. (nih.gov)
  • This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Predicted to have ATPase activator activity. (zfin.org)
  • Within the thick ascending loop of Henle, the majority of K reabsorption is mediated via the apical membrane furosemide-sensitive Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), whose activity is driven by the basolateral Na/K ATPase. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • It is also responsible for potassium absorption in various tissues. (genecards.org)
  • S. Guggino , Cyclic-Nucleotide Gated Cation Channels Contribute to Sodium Absorption in Lung: Role of Non-Selective Cation Channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. (mybiosource.com)
  • Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Potassium is the principal positively charged ion (cation) inside of cells, while sodium is the principal cation in extracellular fluid. (essense-of-life.com)
  • Metabolic acidosis causes a rise in extracellular potassium levels. (hmdb.ca)
  • The salmonid gill is a complex multifunctional organ, essential for gas exchange, nitrogenous waste excretion, pH balance and osmoregulation ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. (cathdb.info)
  • The stimulation of alpha receptors causes increased movement of potassium from ICF to ECF. (hmdb.ca)
  • Catecholamines inhibit intracellular entry of K via α-receptors and stimulate intracellular entry of K via β2-receptor stimulation of Na/K ATPase. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The crystal structure shows that the beta-subunit has a critical role in K(+) binding (although its involvement has previously been suggested) and explains, at least partially, why the homologous Ca(2+)-ATPase counter-transports H(+) rather than K(+), despite the coordinating residues being almost identical. (nih.gov)
  • Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPases, which include sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase, among others, and is the target of cardiac glycosides. (nih.gov)
  • It seems unreasonable that phosphate bonds which have a high free energy of activation with a low free energy of hydrolysis could participate in any rapid cyclic phosphate-exchange mechanisms with phosphocreatine or ATP. (jhu.edu)
  • Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cell volume changes detected with diffusion-sensitive MR imaging. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Sodium deficiency can induce behavioral changes such as reduced motivation, fatigue, and feelings of depression. (essense-of-life.com)
  • High-potassium and sodium-free solutions could induce stable contractures that revealed initial phasic contractions followed by tonic contractions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 11) Na/Ca exchange inhibitors: therapeutic opportunities. (wiley.com)
  • There is a difference in the concentration of potassium across the membrane, the inside being a lot higher at about 150 mM than the 5 mM outside. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential , affects transport, and regulates cellular volume . (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium supplements are indicated to prevent hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop (e.g., digitalis treated patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias). (drugbank.ca)
  • H. O'Brodovich, B. Rafii, A.K. Tanswell, and O. Pitkänen , Induction of Epithelial Sodium Channel Expression and Sodium Transport in Distal Lung Epithelia by Oxygen. (elsevier.com)
  • The reconstituted (Na+ + K+)-ATPase performs active Na+,K+-transport. (eurekamag.com)
  • Increases in interstitial potassium play an important role in eliciting rapid vasodilation, allowing for blood flow to increase in exercising muscle 13 . (drugbank.ca)
  • Orthologous to human ATP1B1 (ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 1). (zfin.org)
  • Insulin can be added to the glucose, but glucose alone will stimulate insulin production and cause movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. (hmdb.ca)
  • the sodium-coupled reuptake of glutamate by astrocytes and the ensuing activation of the Na-K-ATPase triggers glucose uptake and processing via glycolysis, resulting in the release of lactate from astrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Two molecular variants of the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, α1 and α4, coexist in sperm. (nih.gov)