Sodium Channel Blockers
Radioisotope Dilution Technique
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Epithelial Sodium Channels
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Indicator Dilution Techniques
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
Medical Waste Disposal
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Intracellular sodium accumulation during ischemia as the substrate for reperfusion injury. (1/218)To elucidate the role of intracellular Na+ kinetics during ischemia and reperfusion in postischemic contractile dysfunction, intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) was measured in isolated perfused rat hearts using 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The extension of the ischemic period from 9 minutes to 15, 21, and 27 minutes (at 37 degrees C) increased [Na+]i at the end of ischemia from 270.0+/-10.4% of preischemic level (mean+/-SE, n=5) to 348.4+/-12.0% (n=5), 491.0+/-34.0% (n=7), and 505.3+/-12.1% (n=5), respectively, whereas the recovery of developed pressure worsened with the prolongation of the ischemic period (95.1+/-4.2%, 84.3+/-1. 2%, 52.8+/-13.7%, and 16.9+/-6.4% of preischemic level). The kinetics of [Na+]i recovery during reperfusion was analyzed by the fitting of a monoexponential function. When the hearts were reperfused with low-[Ca]o (0.15 mmol/L) solution, the time constants of the recovery (tau) after 15-minute (8.07+/-0.85 minutes, n=5) and 21-minute ischemia (6.44+/-0.90, n=5) were significantly extended, with better functional recovery (98.5+/-1.4% for 15-minute [P<0.05]; 98.0+/-1.0% for 21-minute [P<0.05]) compared with standard reperfusion ([Ca]o=2.0 mmol/L, tau=3.58+/-0.28 minutes for 15-minute [P<0.0001]; tau=3.02+/-0.20 for 21-minute [P<0.0001]). A selective inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger also decelerated the [Na+]i recovery, which suggests that the recovery reflects the Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity. In contrast, high-[Ca]o reperfusion (5 mmol/L) accelerated the [Na+]i recovery after 9-minute ischemia (tau=2.48+/-0.11 minute, n=5 [P<0.0001]) and 15-minute ischemia (tau=2.10+/-0.07, n=6 [P<0. 05]), but functional recovery deteriorated only in the hearts with 15-minute ischemia (29.8+/-9.4% [P<0.05]). [Na+]i recovery after 27-minute ischemia was incomplete and decelerated by low-[Ca]o reperfusion, with limited improvement of functional recovery (42. 5+/-7.9%, n=5 [P<0.05]). These results indicate that intracellular Na+ accumulation during ischemia is the substrate for reperfusion injury and that the [Na+]i kinetics during reperfusion, which is coupled with Ca2+ influx, also determines the degree of injury. (+info)
Relationship of elevated 23Na magnetic resonance image intensity to infarct size after acute reperfused myocardial infarction. (2/218)BACKGROUND: Elevated 23Na MR image intensity after acute myocardial infarction has previously been shown to correspond to high tissue [Na+] and loss of myocardial viability. In this study, we explored the potential of in vivo 23Na MRI to assess infarct size and investigated possible mechanisms for elevated 23Na image intensity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen dogs and 8 rabbits underwent in situ coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion and were imaged by 23Na MRI. For anatomically matched left ventricular short-axis cross sections (n=46), infarct size measured by in vivo 23Na MRI correlated well with triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (r=0.87, y=0.92x+3.37, P<0.001). Elevated 23Na image intensity was observed in infarcted myocardium (206+/-37% of remote in dogs, P<0.001; 215+/-58% in rabbits, P<0.002) but was not observed after severe but reversible ischemic injury (101+/-11% of baseline, P=NS). High-resolution ex vivo imaging revealed that regions of elevated 23Na image intensity appeared to be identical to those of infarcted regions (r=0.97, y=0.92x+1.52, P<0.001). In infarcted regions, total tissue [Na+] was elevated (89+/-12 versus 37+/-9 mmol/L in control tissue, 156+/-60% increase, P<0.001) and was associated with increased intracellular sodium (254+/-68% of control, P<0.005) and an increased intracellular sodium/potassium ratio (868+/-512% of control, P<0.002). Morphometric analysis demonstrated only a minor increase in extracellular volume (17+/-8% versus 14+/-5%, P<0.05) in the infarcted territory. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated 23Na MR image intensity in vivo measures infarct size after reperfused infarction in both a large and a small animal model. The mechanism of elevated 23Na image intensity is probably intracellular sodium accumulation secondary to loss of myocyte ionic homeostasis. (+info)
Changes in the bidirectional sodium flux across the intestinal mucosa in Crohn's disease. (3/218)Bidirectional sodium flux across the intestinal mucosa was measured in a group of 10 patients with Crohn's disease treated in the past by panproctocolectomy with ileostomy and compared with a similarly treated group of 11 patients with ulcerative colitis. All of them were in good health at the time of the study and a recent radiological examination of the small intestine was normal. A significant reduction in bidirectional sodium flux was found in those patients with Crohn's disease and suggests that the intestinal mucosa is involved to a greater extent than can be judged by radiological appearances alone. This adds weight to the concept that Crohn's diseases is a diffuse rather than a focal lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. (+info)
Direct, longitudinal comparison of (1)H and (23)Na MRI after transient focal cerebral ischemia. (4/218)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: (23)Na MRI may offer new insight into the evaluation of tissue injury. We performed a direct, longitudinal, morphological comparison of (1)H T2 relaxation, (1)H apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), (23)Na content, and histopathology after cerebral ischemia to address the hypotheses that (a) (23)Na MRI is unique in comparison to (1)H MRI, and (b) accumulation of (23)Na is an unambiguous marker for dead tissue. METHODS: Rats underwent 30 minutes of focal ischemia. MRIs of (1)H T2, (1)H ADC, and (23)Na content were acquired from 12 hours up to 1, 2, or 14 days after reperfusion. On excision, brains were stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). RESULTS: In all cases, the region of abnormality increased in size for 2 days. On day 5, both (1)H T2 and ADC temporarily appeared normal despite the presence of TTC-defined infarction. By comparison, the volume of tissue exhibiting abnormally intense (23)Na signal mirrored the TTC-defined infarct at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: Regions of high (23)Na content correlate well with the TTC-defined infarct and may be a quantitative in vivo marker for dead tissue. In contrast, the dynamics of the (1)H T2 and ADC make it difficult to interpret these images without additional information because they may appear normal despite infarction. Neither type of (1)H image delineates dead tissue, and none of these methods predicts the potential infarct size at early time points. (+info)
Postischemic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase reactivation is delayed in the absence of glycolytic ATP in isolated rat hearts. (5/218)Normalization of intracellular sodium (Na) after postischemic reperfusion depends on reactivation of the sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. To evaluate the requirement of glycolytic ATP for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase function during postischemic reperfusion, 5-s time-resolution 23Na NMR was performed in isolated perfused rat hearts. During 20 min of ischemia, Na increased approximately twofold. In glucose-reperfused hearts with or without prior preischemic glycogen depletion, Na decreased immediately upon postischemic reperfusion. In glycogen-depleted pyruvate-reperfused hearts, however, the decrease of Na was delayed by approximately 25 s, and application of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activator dichloroacetate (DA) did not shorten this delay. After 30 min of reperfusion, Na had almost normalized in all groups and contractile recovery was highest in the DA-treated hearts. In conclusion, some degree of functional coupling of glycolytic ATP and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity exists, but glycolysis is not essential for recovery of Na homeostasis and contractility after prolonged reperfusion. Furthermore, the delayed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase reactivation observed in pyruvate-reperfused hearts is not due to inhibition of PDH. (+info)
Salt-induced changes in sodium transport across the skin of the euryhaline toad, Bufo viridis. (6/218)1. Euryhaline toads (Bufo viridis) were adapted to either distilled water, 115 or 200 mM-NaCl solutions. Na transport across the skin of these animals was studied in in vitro preparations. 2. Salinity adaptation caused a reduction in transepithelial potential and short-circuit current across the skin, and increased its electrical resistance. 3. Na influx across the skin was decreased. The reduction accounted fairly well for the measured reduction in short-circuit current. 4. Short-term Na uptake at the outer barrier of the skin was greatly reduced in preparations from salt adapted animals. Amiloride, which usually inhibits Na uptake, did not affect it in skins from salt adapted toads. 5. Sodium conductance decreased by a factor of three in skins from 115 mM-NaCl adapted toads, and to zero in skins from 200 mM-NaCl adapted animals. Shunt conductance was only little affected by the salinity of adaptation. 6. 'Amiloride-sensitive component' of transepithelial Na transport was 55, 21-5, and 4-5 muA/cm-2 in skins from toads which were adapted to distilled water, 115, and 200 mM-NaCl solutions, respectively. 7. It is concluded that the effect of salinity adaptation on the skin of the toad is to reduce the number of Na selective sites at the outer barrier. This change is reflected in a decrease in the 'amiloride-sensitive component' of Na transport across the skin, and could not be increased by aldosterone. Other changes may occur as secondary to that. (+info)
In vivo 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance study of maintenance of a sodium gradient in the ruminal bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. (7/218)Sodium gradients (DeltapNa) were measured in resting cells of Fibrobacter succinogenes by in vivo 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance using Tm(DOTP)5- [thulium(III) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N',N",N"'-tetramethylenephosphonate] as the shift reagent. This bacterium was able to maintain a DeltapNa of -55 to -40 mV for extracellular sodium concentrations ranging from 30 to 200 mM. Depletion of Na+ ions during the washing steps led to irreversible damage (modification of glucose metabolism and inability to maintain a sodium gradient). (+info)
GerN, an endospore germination protein of Bacillus cereus, is an Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiporter. (8/218)GerN, a Bacillus cereus spore germination protein, exhibits homology to a widely distributed group of putative cation transporters or channel proteins. GerN complemented the Na(+)-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli mutant that is deficient in Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity (strain KNabc). GerN also reduced the concentration of K(+) required to support growth of an E. coli mutant deficient in K(+) uptake (strain TK2420). In a fluorescence-based assay of everted E. coli KNabc membrane vesicles, GerN exhibited robust Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity, with a K(m) for Na(+) estimated at 1.5 mM at pH 8.0 and 25 mM at pH 7.0. Li(+), but not K(+), served as a substrate. GerN-mediated Na(+)/H(+) antiport was further demonstrated in everted vesicles as energy-dependent accumulation of (22)Na(+). GerN also used K(+) as a coupling ion without completely replacing H(+), as indicated by partial inhibition by K(+) of H(+) uptake into right-side-out vesicles loaded with Na(+). K(+) translocation as part of the antiport was supported by the stimulatory effect of intravesicular K(+) on (22)Na(+) uptake by everted vesicles and the dependence of GerN-mediated (86)Rb(+) efflux on the presence of Na(+) in trans. The inhibitory patterns of protonophore and thiocyanate were most consistent with an electrogenic Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiport. GerN-mediated Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiport was much more rapid than GerN-mediated Na(+)/H(+) antiport. (+info)
A coastal cline in sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana is driven by natural variation of the sodium transporter AtHKT1;1
A coastal cline in sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana is driven by natural variation of the sodium transporter AtHKT1;1 ...
The Detection of Infarcted Stroke Tissue via Localised Sodium Concentration Measurements: A Non-Invasive Approach
Quantitative 23Na Magnetic Resonance Imaging (qNa-MRI) is a non-invasive technique which has considerable potential for measuring Tissue Sodium Concentration (TSC) changes in pathological brain tissue states such as stroke or tumour. However, the quantification of 23Na with MRI has been hindered by limitations in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) within the required spatial and temporal resolution constraints. The aim of the work presented here was to develop a 23Na MRI resonator system with an optimal compromise between SNR and B1-field homogeneity to allow for accurate qNa-MRI, to adapt an MRI sequence for short Time to Echo (TE) imaging, to apply the technique to an existing in vivo model of stroke in the rat brain, and to process the data to gain novel insights into the spatio-temporal TSC evolution after ischaemic stroke. The design, development, and characterisation of a transceiver (TXRX) and a transmit-only receive-only (TORO) coil system are described. The developed coils were compared to a ...
Sodium intake and exchangeable sodium in hypertensive rats - DRO
Harrap, SJ, Di Nicolantonio, Robert and Doyle, AE 1984, Sodium intake and exchangeable sodium in hypertensive rats, Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. Part A: Theory and Practice, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 427-440, doi: 10.3109/10641968409062575. ...
QPSK Receiver Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364
Timing Recovery: Performs timing recovery with closed-loop scalar processing to overcome the effects of delay introduced by the channel. The Timing Recovery object implements a PLL, described in Chapter 8 of [ 1 ], to correct the timing error in the received signal. The NCO Control object implements a decrementing modulo-1 counter described in Chapter 8.4.3 of [ 1 ] to generate the control signal for the Modified Buffer to select the interpolants of the Interpolation Filter. This control signal also enables the Timing Error Detector (TED), that then calculates the timing errors at the correct timing instants. The NCO Control object updates the timing difference for the Interpolation Filter , generating interpolants at optimum sampling instants. The Interpolation Filter is a Farrow parabolic filter with alpha set to 0.5 as described in Chapter 8.4.2 of [ 1 ]. Based on the interpolants, timing errors are generated by a zero-crossing Timing Error Detector as described in Chapter 8.4.1 of [ 1 ]. ...
A Coastal Cline in Sodium Accumulation in Is Driven by Natural Variation of the Sodium Transporter AtHKT1;1 | proLékaře.cz
1. WilczekAM. RoeJL. KnappMC. Lopez-GallegoC. MartinLJ. 2009 Effects of genetic perturbation on seasonal life history plasticity. Science 323 930 934. 2. PaabyAB. BlacketMJ. HoffmannAA. SchmidtPS. 2010 Identification of a candidate adaptive polymorphism for Drosophila life history by parallel independent clines on two continents. Mol Ecol 19 760 774. 3. McKechnieSW. BlacketMJ. SongSV. RakoL. CarrollX. 2010 A clinally varying promoter polymorphism associated with adaptive variation in wing size in Drosophila. Mol Ecol 19 775 784. 4. StorzJF. RunckAM. SabatinoSJ. KellyJK. FerrandN. 2009 Evolutionary and functional insights into the mechanism underlying high-altitude adaptation of deer mouse hemoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 14450 14455. 5. BradyK. KruckebergA. BradshawHJ. 2005 Evolutionary ecology of plant adaptation to serpentine soils. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36 243 266. 6. LowryDB. RockwoodRC. WillisJH. 2008 Ecological reproductive isolation of coast and ...
SODIUM ACCUMULATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH DISABILITY AND PROGRESSION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A 23NA MRI STUDY | Journal of...
Introduction Neuroaxonal loss is the major pathological substrate of irreversible disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Sodium is maintained at lower concentration within the intra-axonal space by the Na/K/ATPase pump. In MS, failure of the pump secondary to neuroaxonal metabolic dysfunction increases the intracellular sodium concentration, which in turn leads to neuroaxonal loss by causing intra-axonal calcium import.1 Since sodium is at higher concentration within the extracellular space, neuroaxonal loss and replacement with extracellular fluid also increases sodium concentration. Sodium (23Na) magnetic resonance imaging enables quantitation of total sodium concentration in the brain, and could help to quantify the extent neuroaxonal dysfunction and loss in different tissue types and different MS subgroups in vivo, and their association with clinical disability. Previous studies have shown increased sodium concentration in lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter in ...
Exchangeable Sodium in Experimental Hypertension in Rats | Clinical Science
1. Total exchangeable sodium was measured in rats by a radio-sodium equilibration method, before and after the production of hypertension by clipping the left renal artery, with or without contralateral nephrectomy.. 2. Clipping of one renal artery with removal of the other kidney produced severe hypertension with no significant changes in exchangeable sodium or plasma renin levels.. 3. Clipping of one renal artery without contralateral nephrectomy produced severe hypertension in some animals, but little change in blood pressure in others. The animals which developed severe hypertension had a marked increase in exchangeable sodium with a concomitant rise in plasma renin; the animals with smaller rises in blood pressure did not have these changes.. 4. The fact that both plasma renin levels and exchangeable sodium levels increase according to this method, suggests that hypertension in the two-kidney model is renin-dependent.. ...
Total Body Water, Total Exchangeable Sodium and Related Variables in the Ghanaian | Clinical Science | Portland Press
1. Standard radioisotope dilution techniques employing [3H]water and [22Na]sodium chloride have been used to determine the total body water and total exchangeable sodium of 20 male and 10 female normal Ghanaians (Africans) aged 19-25 years.. 2. Lean body mass and total body fat are calculated as a percentage of body weight; the total exchangeable sodium values have been expressed in relation to lean body mass.. 3. Comparison of the data for Ghanaian subjects with published figures for Caucasian subjects of similar age shows that the Ghanaian men have much less total body fat and the women a little less total body fat than their Caucasian counterparts.. 4. Total exchangeable sodium expressed in terms of lean body mass shows close agreement in both men and women. ...
Some Aspects of Sodium Movement across Porcine Aortic Walls in Vitro | Clinical Science
1. Sodium movement across the porcine aortic arch in vitro is greater from the intimal to the medial surface than in the reverse direction.. 2. A short-circuit current can be measured across the aortic arch and the calculated energy is greater than the energy required to support the net outward sodium movement, suggesting the possibility of active transport of other ions.. 3. Net sodium movement is not significantly altered by an adverse gradient on the outside (medial side) but is reduced by a gradient in the opposite direction.. 4. Sodium retention within the tissue is increased by a gradient on the medial side.. 5. The movement of [14C]inulin is greater from the medial to the intimal surface, suggesting greater porosity on the medial side. A slight rise in both total tissue fluid and extracellular fluid occurred when the sodium concentration on the medial side of the preparation was increased. This did not occur with the sodium concentration increased on the intimal side. The changes were ...
The sensitivity of intracellular sodium accumulation to tissue damage in spinal cord injury: a multi-parameter study
Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex mechanism, involving not only structural tissue damage but also a disruption in the metabolism of tissue. On …
Calibration of gain, timing errors in ADCs
Heres a look at a novel background calibration method for gain and timing mismatch errors through low complexity digital signal processing algorithms.
Equilibrium and Ion Exchange Characteristics of Potassium and Sodium Accumulation by Barley Roots | JGP
Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux rates into and from excised barley roots are compared with the maximum capacity of accumulation. Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux involve a cation exchange that is independent of simultaneous exchange of the accompanying anion. These exchange fluxes depend on the concentration and cation composition of the solutions from which they originate. Selective differences between K+ and Na+ fluxes are sufficient to account for a cationic distribution within the roots that differs markedly from that of the external solution and that persists for extended time periods. The accumulation maximum is a cation exchange equilibrium with the cation influx and efflux rates approaching equality. The equilibrium level is independent of the individual cation fluxes and the external solution concentration. It is a finite quantity which appears to be determined by the internal anion concentration including accumulated as well as endogenous anions.. ...
Pressor factors and responsiveness in hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus. | Hypertension
Hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus may involve abnormalities in at least two major blood pressure-regulating systems: the body sodium-fluid volume state and cardiovascular reactivity. In metabolically stable nonazotemic diabetes, exchangeable sodium is increased by 10% on average, regardless of age, insulin dependence or nondependence, or the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy or clinical nephropathy (proteinuria greater than or equal to 0.3 g/24 hr). Possible contributing mechanisms include renal sodium retention and an extravascular shift of fluid and sodium; intracellular accumulation is not excluded. Circulatory volume is normal or low and the total exchangeable sodium/blood volume ratio increased. In hypertensive diabetes, the latter abnormality is particularly pronounced; systolic pressure tended to correlate with exchangeable sodium (r = 0.47, p less than 0.001) and diastolic pressure with the plasma sodium/potassium ratio (r = 0.25, p less than 0.05). Plasma ...
Timing calibration for up-converting DAC
A new approach is introduced in this work that measures the timing error among branches of the DAC and corrects them through a calibration process. Being all the error measurement and its correction process done on chip, this approach can correct the errors created by both sources. This idea was implemented and tested in Eldo simulator. A timing error of 8pS was inserted to the MSB branch of a 10-bit binary coded DAC. After performing the calibration process on this DAC, the SFDR of the output signal was increased by about 3.2dB ...
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Analyze the properties of a sodium atom and a sodium ion. What are the differences in mass, stability & reactivity that are...
Get an answer for Analyze the properties of a sodium atom and a sodium ion. What are the differences in mass, stability & reactivity that are caused due to the differences? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Characteristics of Sodium Flux from Serosa to Mucosa in Rabbit Ileum | JGP
Sodium flux from serosa to mucosa, JsmNa in rabbit ileum in vitro has been studied as a function of applied electrical potential at equal sodium concentrations in the bathing solutions. The results indicate that JsmNa involves two pathways, a diffusional flux through a paracellular shunt pathway and a flux that is independent of applied potential and presumably involves a transcellular pathway. The latter pathway comprises approximately 25 % of JsmNa in Ringers solution containing 10 mM glucose and 25 mM bicarbonate. It is stimulated significantly by theophylline unaffected by removal of glucose or addition of ouabain but is reduced to negligible values by anoxia, dinitrophenol, and replacement of all chloride and bicarbonate by isethionate. Thus this component of JsmNa has a number of characteristics consistent with involvement in a specific secretory process mediating an electrically neutral secretory transport of sodium plus anion from serosa to mucosa. In addition to stimulating this ...
Sodium distribution in mesenteric arterial wall of rats with hypertension induced by drinking saline. - Semantic Scholar
Abbreviations: ECF and ICF, extracellular and intracellular fluid respectively. drinking water. Sodium distribution in isolated mesenteric arterial wall was studied with the aid of 22Na, which was continuously washed out. Data were analysed by digital computer simulation without recourse to ancillary chemical measurements of Introduction extracellular space. 2. A three-compartment model consisting of (i) extracellular, (ii) intracellular and (iii) subcellular space was found to represent adequately the kinetics of 22Na. Transport rate constants were chosen as primary parameters describing intercompartmental sodium exchanges; the ratio of extrato intra-cellular sodium compartments was calculated. 3. Results show the following significant changes in mesenteric arterial wall of salt-loaded hypertensive rats: (i) slowed sodium turnover; (ii) a decrease of the transport rate constant, which is presumed to reflect sodium movements from the intrato the extra-cellular compartment; (iii) an increase of the
INT287727 - wiki-pain
Direct evidence for ATX interaction with VGSC was derived from the demonstration of stimulation of [3H]batrachotoxin binding and sodium influx by ATX in cultured neurons [11,12 ...
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Nonhuman primate vestibuloocular reflex responses to prosthetic vestibular stimulation are robust to pulse timing errors caused...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonhuman primate vestibuloocular reflex responses to prosthetic vestibular stimulation are robust to pulse timing errors caused by temporal discretization. AU - Boutros, Peter J.. AU - Valentin, Nicolas S.. AU - Hageman, Kristin N.. AU - Dai, Chenkai. AU - Roberts, Dale. AU - Della Santina, Charles Coleman. PY - 2019/6/1. Y1 - 2019/6/1. N2 - Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent neurons to partially restore semicircular canal sensation of head rotation and the stabilizing reflexes that sensation supports has potential to effectively treat individuals disabled by bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Ideally, a vestibular implant system using this approach would be integrated with a cochlear implant, which would provide clinicians with a means to simultaneously treat loss of both vestibular and auditory sensation. Despite obvious similarities, merging these technologies poses several challenges, including stimulus pulse timing errors that arise when a system must implement a ...
The Ionic Relations of Artemia Salina (L.) | Journal of Experimental Biology
I. The effects of different external media on the sodium and chloride efflux in Artemia salina, the brine shrimp, have been observed, using animals acclimatized to sea water. In sea water, both sodium and chloride fluxes across the epithelium are approximately 7,000 pmole cm.-2 sec.-1.. 2. Sodium efflux drops markedly in sodium-free media, and chloride efflux falls in chloride-free media; the two effects are independent, and are not due to changes in external osmolarity.. 3. The decreases in sodium efflux can be explained by changes in electrical potential difference and diffusional permeability; exchange diffusion of sodium does not occur.. 4. Approximately 70% of the chloride efflux is due to exchange diffusion, and most of the remainder is due to active transport.. 5. It is shown that graphs of ion efflux against external concentration which can be fitted by a Michaelis-Menten equation do not constitute evidence for the presence of exchange diffusion; graphs of similar shape can be obtained ...
Characteristics of sodium and potassium transport in the lung
Freshly prepared lung slices were incubated in an oxygenated Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 90 min at 0.5°C (chilling) followed by 60 min at 37°C (rewarming). Fresh tissue cation contents (mean ± SE) in mmol/kg dry wt were: sodium, 431 ± 7: potassium, 416 ± 10. After chilling, tissue sodium increased to 757 ± 11 and potassium decreased to 113 ± 6. Upon rewarming there was a net increase in tissue potassium of about 150 (mmol/kg dry wt) and a net decrease in tissue sodium of about 130. Tissue extrusion of sodium and reaccumulation of potassium observed at 37°C were abolished when 1 mM ouabain, dinitrophenol, or iodoacetamide was added to the incubation medium. Similar results were obtained when the medium contained no potassium or when medium Na was replaced by choline. The data indicate the presence of active Na+ K+ transport in lung cells somewhat similar to that found in other mammalian tissue ...
ISMRM 2019) GagCEST of human intervertebral lumbar discs compared to 23Na MRI at 7 Tesla
according acquisition advantage agar agents although amounts annulus assess assessment asymmetric authors available back bandwidth better biomedical body capable cartilage caused channel chemical clinical coil commercially comparable consent considered content contrast corrected correction correlation decrease degeneration delay depending deviations disc discs displayed division done drawn duration edges encountered endocrinology endogenous example exchange excluded feasibility field frequency giving gradient grant guided half hardware healthy homogeneous house human hydroxyl improvement known laboratory locations lumbar maps material measured medical medicine metabolism metabolites moderate molecular morphological mostly motion need noisy normalized noticeable nucleus offsets optimized oral overlaid pain patients pause phantom pixel plot pool position positioning potential potentially previously probably processing protons pulse pulses replace resolution resonant saturated saturation script ...
Solvent effects in the metal interchange of crown ether-alkali metal cation complexes. Transition from an associative exchange...
Solvent effects in the metal interchange of crown ether-alkali metal cation complexes. Transition from an associative exchange in nitromethane to a dissociative exchange in acetonitrile studied by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance
ModelDB: Action potential-evoked Na+ influx are similar in axon and soma (Fleidervish et al. 2010)
In cortical pyramidal neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) is pivotal in synaptic integration. It has been asserted that this is because there is a high density of Na+ channels in the AIS. However, we found that action potential-associated Na+ flux, as measured by high-speed fluorescence Na+ imaging, was about threefold larger in the rat AIS than in the soma. Spike-evoked Na+ flux in the AIS and the first node of Ranvier was similar and was eightfold lower in basal dendrites. ... In computer simulations, these data were consistent with the known features of action potential generation in these neurons ...
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SHS-BSCS - Sodium-free High Sucrose Brain Slice Cutting Solution
Sodium-free High Surcrose Brain Slice Cutting Solution (SHS-BSCS) is used for cutting acute brain slices from rats and mice. Product information Ready to Use SHS-BSCS solution autoclaved Instructions for use: Ready to use: For 1000 ml SHS-BSCS Solution: 1. Oxygenate 500 ml Base A for 10 min 2. Add slowly 500 ml Base B 3. OxygenateSHS-BSCS Solution during use pH 7.4 when oxygenated with 95% O2, 5%
How do sodium ions enter cells? | Reference.com
The cell membrane is not very permeable to sodium ions, so they must enter through a process known as facilitated diffusion. In facilitated diffusion, sodium passes through the cell membrane in a...
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The Facts On Sodium - eVitamins 香港
Salty foods are some of the most craved, but while having too much sodium is a bad thing, forgoing it altogether is not a good idea either. In this post, learn how sodium benefits the body and how to find the right balance. eVitamins 香港.
Effect of dietary salt load on transepithelial Na+ exchange in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) | Journal of...
Dietary Na+ loads (0.570 mmol kg-1 fish) were almost completely absorbed within 7 h, and branchial Na+ excretion commenced within 1 h. Na+ loads of less than 1 mmol kg-1 were lost through the gills through a significant decrease in Na+ influx with unaltered Na+ efflux rate (compared with Na+ fluxes in unfed fish). At higher salt loads (,18 mmol kg-1), Na+ loss increased as a result of significantly higher Na+ efflux rates, with no further decrease in Na+ influx rate. Tissue Na+ concentrations were unchanged, apart from a significant increase in blood plasma Na+ concentration in fish loaded above 18 mmol kg-1. The results show that branchial Na+ fluxes may be rapidly adjusted in response to prevailing conditions, and possible control mechanisms are discussed. ...
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Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte Market: 2019 Global Industry Growth with Key Manufacturers Analysis
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
Sodium in London Drinking Water August 2013. Consumers of food and water have become more conscious of the amount of sodium that they ingest, especially for those individuals on sodium restricted diets. The information below is intended to assist London customers determine the contribution from drinking water to their total sodium dietary intake. Recently the water supplied to London from the Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System exceeded the mandatory reporting limit of 20 mg/L for sodium. Drinking water with sodium concentration greater than 20 mg/L is common in many other municipalities in Ontario. The amount of sodium in Londons drinking water does not pose a health risk to our customers and in fact the province has not established a health related standard for sodium in drinking water.. What is sodium?. Sodium is a naturally occurring mineral in food and water, and is a necessary element of human nutrition. Typically the consumption of sodium from food is much higher than from drinking ...
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Thermal Stability of Lithium Ion Battery Electrolyte
One of the components found in a lithium ion battery that is typically responsible for mishaps is the electrolyte. In the following article…
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High-storage sodium ion batteries
Thuwal, Saudi Arabia (SPX) Nov 01, 2016 - The mechanism of sodium ion storage in an important two-dimensional material could be a simpler and less toxic route to cheaper batteries, a team of KAUST researchers discovered. Lithium ion b
A better electrolyte for lithium ion batteries - MaterialsViews
Solid nanoporous electolyte developed at ORNL could solve many of the safety concerns associated with current lithium-ion technology.
Lithium Ion Cell Protection
This article discusses important safety and protection considerations when using a lithium battery, introduces some common battery protection ICs, and briefly outlines selection of important components in battery protection circuits.
EMF-Portal | Effect of microwave radiation (2450 MHz) on the active and passive components of 24Na+ efflux from human...
Building a Better Lithium Ion Battery
The batteries in everything from computers to future electric cars might be improved by adding a compound containing boron and fluorine
What are sodium-free salt substitutes? | Sodium - Sharecare
The following salt substitutes contain 0 milligrams (mg) of sodium/salt: Mrs. Dash: Original Blend Extra Spicy Seasoning Blend Lemon Pepper Seasoning
A Sodium-based Battery May Offer More Cost-effective Storage than Lithium
Stanford researchers have developed a sodium-based battery that can store the same amount of energy as a lithium ion battery, at substantially lower cost.
Battery Safety | Dank Terpenes UK
Our battery devices are powered using Lithium Ion batteries, which are totally safe when handled correctly - however they can become dangerous if mishandled. It
Sodium is being described as essential, and it is said that too much is not healthy. There is talk about reducing sodium but not elimination. This latter point is important, for without sodium (sodium chloride) we die.
SODIUM NEW RULES!!!!
Almost everything you put into your mouth has sodium in it. The problem is all of our sodium is coming from the wrong sources and we are getting way, way, way too much of it.
Period (periodic table)
Sodium (Na) is an alkali metal. It is present in Earth's oceans in large quantities in the form of sodium chloride (table salt ... All period three elements occur in nature and have at least one stable isotope. All but the noble gas argon are essential to ...
The atomic mass number of the stable isotope of sodium. Normal human sex cells have 23 chromosomes. Other human cells have 46 ...
I-type granites are characterized by a high content of sodium and calcium, and by a strontium isotope ratio, 87Sr/86Sr, of less ... The elevated sodium and calcium favor crystallization of hornblende rather than biotite. I-type granites are known for their ... S-type granites are sodium-poor and aluminum-rich. As a result, they contain micas such as biotite and muscovite instead of ... Their strontium isotope ratio is typically greater than 0.708, suggesting a crustal origin. They also commonly contain ...
Previously unobserved isotopes were discovered in addition to a third sodium tail. Bopp was awarded an honorary doctor of ...
This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes ... Stable isotopes of neon are produced in stars. Neon's most abundant isotope 20Ne (90.48%) is created by the nuclear fusion of ... Dickin, Alan P (2005). "Neon". Radiogenic isotope geology. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-521-82316-6. Resources on Isotopes. Periodic ... Though not understood at the time by Thomson, this was the first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. Thomson's device was a ...
Radionuclide identification device
These instruments include a specific ANSI library which contains a list of standard isotopes. In addition, most RIIDs have a ... The most common type of detector is Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)). Other detector types with improved resolution, low background and ... In the past two decades RIIDs have addressed the growing demand for fast, accurate isotope identification. These light-weight ...
Isotopes. Main article: Isotopes of caesium. Caesium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number (i.e. number of nucleons in ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... "Isotope Tracers Project - Resources on Isotopes - Cesium". National Research Program - U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010- ... However, a caesium-water explosion is often less powerful than a sodium-water explosion with a similar amount of sodium. This ...
Raymond W. Bliss
The first projects the atomic researchers carried out involved isotopes of iodine, phosphorus, sodium, and carbon. They were ... Below are views of the Army's first radioactive isotope laboratory showing the handling and processing of the isotopes. ... The isotopes were made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The techniques and innovations developed by this ... Counting instruments used were kept in room four for measuring the degree of radioactivity of the isotopes A lead well with a ...
... cages of carbon form that preferentially trap sodium atoms, including 22Na. Forming fullerenes trap sodium orders of magnitude ... The isotope 22Ne is strongly enriched in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, by more than 1,000 times its occurrence on Earth. ... The [email protected] then decays radioactively to [email protected], without any other neon isotopes. To make buckyballs with neon inside, ...
I-131 has been the most widely used tagging isotope in an aqueous solution of sodium iodide. It is used to characterize the ... see isotopes of iodine) are preferred in situations when only nuclear imaging is required. The isotope 131I is still ... since most lighter isotopes of tellurium become heavier stable isotopes, or else stable iodine or xenon. However, the heaviest ... The 131I isotope is also used as a radioactive label for certain radiopharmaceuticals that can be used for therapy, e.g. 131I- ...
Nuclear drip line
The same experiment found that the heaviest bound isotope of the next element, sodium, is at least 39Na. These were the first ... For example, the last bound odd-N fluorine isotope is 26F, though the last bound even-N isotope is 31F. Of the three types of ... 2018). New isotope of 39Na and the neutron dripline of neon isotopes using a 345 MeV/nucleon 48Ca beam (Report). RIKEN ... Indeed, neutron-rich isotopes such as 49S, 52Cl, and 53Ar that were calculated to lie beyond the drip line have been reported ...
Period 3 element
Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide (lye) for soapmaking, and sodium chloride for use as a deicing agent ... In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope, being the preferred argon isotope produced by stellar ... The free metal, elemental sodium, does not occur in nature but must be prepared from sodium compounds. Elemental sodium was ... Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants. In animals, sodium ions are used against potassium ions to ...
... but safety issues are cited as a concern with fast reactors that use a sodium coolant, where a leak could lead to a sodium fire ... All transuranic isotopes fall within the actinide series on the periodic table, and so they are frequently referred to as the ... Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) based on the existing liquid-metal FBR (LMFBR) and integral fast reactor designs. Lead-cooled ... Both are Russian sodium-cooled reactors. One design of fast neutron reactor, specifically conceived to address the waste ...
The isotope is usually supplied as the iodide and hypoiodate in dilute sodium hydroxide solution, at high isotopic purity. 123I ... Isotopes of a chemical element differ only in the mass number. For example, the isotopes of hydrogen can be written as 1H, 2H ... When the atomic nucleus of an isotope is unstable, compounds containing this isotope are radioactive. Tritium is an example of ... Both isotopes are useful for labeling nucleotides and other species that contain a phosphate group. 35S is made by neutron ...
Ford Nuclear Reactor
Principal isotopes produced: fluorine-18, chlorine-36, bromine-80, bromine-82, iodine-131, sodium-24, lanthanum-140, cesium- ... research Food preservation research Hot storage Manipulator practice The reactor was used to produce several isotopes. Iodine- ...
There are 13 known isotopes of boron, the shortest-lived isotope is 7B which decays through proton emission and alpha decay. It ... Boron as sodium perborate is used as a bleach. A small amount of boron is used as a dopant in semiconductors, and reagent ... Sodium borates are used as a flux for soldering silver and gold and with ammonium chloride for welding ferrous metals. They are ... Sodium borohydride presents a fire hazard owing to its reducing nature and the liberation of hydrogen on contact with acid. ...
Australian Atomic Energy Commission
Molecular laser isotope separation and support of laser development for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. "Cliffbrook". ... Sodium coolant systems. Use of beryllium as a neutron moderator. Movement of spheres in a closed-packed lattice. Gas centrifuge ... Tunable lasers for atomic vapor laser isotope separation: the Australian contribution, Australian Physics 47(2), 38-40 (2010) ...
After World War II, Aebersold returned to Oak Ridge where he rose to the position of Director of the Division of Isotopes ... sodium and phosphorus). While working as an assistant to Ernest Lawrence, he administered the growth of the Radiation ... on the Manhattan Project and became the first director of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Isotope ...
... which change to radioactive isotopes. Sodium-24 has a half-life of about 15 hours, while that of chlorine-36 (which has a lower ... The sodium is the most dangerous contaminant after the explosion because it has a short half-life. These are generally the main ... However, salt in seawater readily absorbs neutrons into both the sodium-23 and chlorine-35 atoms, ... both of which are stable isotopes. Even oxygen-18 is stable. Radioactive atoms can result if a hydrogen atom absorbs two ...
Chemical element - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Isotopes[change , change source]. Most elements in nature consist of atoms with different numbers of neutrons. An isotope is ... Sodium is a metal that burns when put into water and chlorine is a poisonous gas. When they react together they make sodium ... is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. At least two isotopes of each element are known (except for Oganesson, ... For example, carbon has the chemical symbol 'C', and sodium has chemical symbol 'Na', after the Latin natrium. Tungsten is ...
Dennis Robert Hoagland
Upward and Lateral Movement of Salt in Certain Plants as Indicated by Radioactive Isotopes of Potassium, Sodium, and Phosphorus ... a) Effects of Deficiencies of Boron and Certain Other Elements, (b) Susceptibility to Injury from Sodium Salts. With W.C. ...
Iodine-131 (131I) is the most common RNT worldwide and uses the simple compound sodium iodide with a radioactive isotope of ... The generation of one short-lived isotope from longer lived isotope is a useful method of providing a portable supply of a ... this is an experimental method where antibodies bearing alpha isotopes are used. Bismuth-213 is one of the isotopes which has ... This includes anything from a simple compound such as sodium iodide that locates to the thyroid via trapping the iodide ion, to ...
Braben was educated at the University of Liverpool where he was awarded a PhD in 1962 for work on Isotopes of sodium. Braben is ...
Sodium-cooled Most LMFBRs are of this type. The sodium is relatively easy to obtain and work with, and it also manages to ... Canada pursues new nuclear research reactor to produce medical isotopes. *Canadian nuclear reactor shutdown causes worldwide ... The Monju reactor in Japan suffered a sodium leak in 1995 and was restarted in May 2010. All of them use/used liquid sodium. ... Liquid metal coolants have included sodium, NaK, lead, lead-bismuth eutectic, and in early reactors, mercury. *Sodium-cooled ...
Island of inversion
... described in 1975 by French physicists carrying out spectroscopic mass measurements of exotic isotopes of lithium and sodium. ... An island of inversion is a region of the chart of nuclides that contains isotopes with a non-standard ordering of single ... These are centered at neutron-rich isotopes of five elements, namely, 11Li, 20C, 31Na, 42Si, and 64Cr. Because there are 5 ...
Integral fast reactor
Sodium activation product (isotope) 24Na releases dangerous energetic photons when it decays (however it has a very short half- ... Half-life is only 15 hours, so this isotope is not a long-term hazard. Nevertheless, the presence of sodium-24 further ... The flammability of sodium is a risk to operators. Sodium burns easily in air, and will ignite spontaneously on contact with ... while there are essentially none from sodium. Metal fuel with a sodium-filled void inside the cladding to allow fuel expansion ...
The production of sodium potassium alloys is accomplished by changing the reaction time and the amount of sodium used in the ... The stable isotopes of potassium can be laser cooled and used to probe fundamental and technological problems in quantum ... Sodium pumps in the renal tubules operate to reabsorb sodium. Potassium must be conserved, but because the amount of potassium ... This filtering involves about 600 g of sodium and 33 g of potassium. Since only 1-10 g of sodium and 1-4 g of potassium are ...
Thus, the element's natural isotopic abundance is dominated either by one stable isotope or by one very long-lived isotope. ... These are aluminium, bismuth, caesium, cobalt, gold, manganese, phosphorus, scandium, sodium, terbium, and thorium. In nuclear ... Such isotopes are used in a variety of analytical and forensic applications. Data from Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions ... Of the 26 monoisotopic elements that, by definition, have only one stable isotope, there exist 7 (26 minus 19 = 7) which are ...
... ruthenium and iridium in geological samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a sodium ... Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is used to oxidize the sample that becomes soluble in a diluted acid solution. This method allows ... Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 65, p9-16 Pitre,J. , Bédard, M. , Hineman, A. 2011. Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores ... Determination of platinum group elements and gold in geological samples with ICP-MS using a sodium peroxide fusion and ...
Magnetic resonance imaging
Gaseous isotopes such as 3He or 129Xe must be hyperpolarized and then inhaled as their nuclear density is too low to yield a ... Such nuclei include helium-3, lithium-7, carbon-13, fluorine-19, oxygen-17, sodium-23, phosphorus-31 and xenon-129. 23Na and ... The MR signal produces a spectrum of resonances that corresponds to different molecular arrangements of the isotope being " ... Physiology or medicine Rabi cycle Robinson oscillator Sodium MRI Virtopsy McRobbie DW, Moore EA, Graves MJ, Prince MR (2007). ...
Group 3 element
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Flerov, G. N. (1967). "On the nuclear properties of the isotopes 256103 and 257103". Nucl. Phys. A. 106 (2): 476. Bibcode: ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ... The first atoms of lawrencium were produced by bombarding a three-milligram target consisting of three isotopes of the element ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ...
Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap. Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Primordial isotopes of the alkali metals Z. Alkali metal. Stable. Decays. unstable: italics. odd-odd isotopes coloured pink ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ...
Boron acts as a "burnable" neutron absorber because its two isotopes, 10B and 11B, both transmute into stable nuclear reaction ... "Synthesis of group IV and V metal diboride nanocrystals via borothermal reduction with sodium borohydride". Journal of the ...
Gadolinium, ìwé-ìmọ̀ ọ̀fẹ́
Main isotopes of gadolinium. [[Isotope,IsoÀdàkọ:Shytope]] [[Natural abundance,AbunÀdàkọ:Shydance]] Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ...
History of the periodic table
lithium, sodium, and potassium. Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois. Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a ... Soddy first used the word "isotope" in: Soddy, Frederick (4 December 1913). "Intra-atomic charge". Nature. 92 (2301): 399-400. ... They became known as isotopes, from the Greek eisos topos ("same place"). ...
Tosyl (Ts) group - Removed by concentrated acid (HBr, H2SO4) & strong reducing agents (sodium in liquid ammonia or sodium ... Blanc, Aurélien; Bochet, Christian G. (2007). "Isotope Effects in Photochemistry: Application to Chromatic Orthogonality". Org ... deprotection is demonstrated in a photochemical transesterification by trimethylsilyldiazomethane utilizing the kinetic isotope ...
An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride, or common table ... atoms of an element which have different mass numbers are known as isotopes. For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their ... For example, sodium (Na), a metal, loses one electron to become an Na+ cation while chlorine (Cl), a non-metal, gains this ... From left to right: the elements tin (Sn) and sulfur (S), diamond (an allotrope of carbon), sucrose (pure sugar), and sodium ...
پرتو کیهانی - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
The caustic sodium hydroxide dissolves the plastic at a faster rate along the path of the ionized plastic. The net result is a ... Cosmic rays are also responsible for the continuous production of a number of unstable isotopes in the Earth's atmosphere, such ... The resulting plastic sheets are "etched" or slowly dissolved in warm caustic sodium hydroxide solution, that removes the ... was caused only by radiation from radioactive elements in the ground or the radioactive gases or isotopes of radon they produce ...
铂 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Nuclides and Isotopes Fourteenth Edition: Chart of the Nuclides, General Electric Company, 1989. ... Acid and Chloroplatinic Acid in the Determination of Small Amounts of Potassium in the Presence of Large Amounts of Sodium. ...
প্রতীকের ভিত্তিতে মৌলিক পদার্থসমূহের তালিকা - উইকিপিডিয়া
... indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, thorium, protactinium, and ... Sodium. Latin natrium. 11. &022.98976928222.98976928(2). 1. 3 Nb. Niobium. Niobe. 41. &092.90638292.906 38(2). 5. 5 ...
Group 5 element
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... with half-life of the most stable isotope, dubnium-268, being only 29 hours, and other isotopes even more radioactive. To date ...
Isotopes commonly used in the treatment of bone metastasis are radium-223, strontium-89 and samarium (153Sm) lexidronam.[74 ... including preclinical and clinical investigations into the use of an oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound such as trans sodium ... Targeting can be due to the chemical properties of the isotope such as radioiodine which is specifically absorbed by the ...
The abundance ratio of rare isotopes of HNC and HCN along the OMC-1 varies by more than an order of magnitude in warm regions ... A secondary molecular isotope, H13C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 86.3 GHz in only two of these sources: Orion ... The main molecular isotope, H12C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 88.6 GHz in six different sources: W3 (OH), ... A survey of the W 3 Giant Molecular Cloud in 1997 showed over 24 different molecular isotopes, comprising over 14 distinct ...
Sodium and fluorine undergoing a redox reaction to form sodium fluoride. Sodium loses its outer electron to give it a stable ... 12C isotope) atom. For network solids, the term formula unit is used in stoichiometric calculations. ... or sodium chloride). The theme of repeated unit-cellular-structure also holds for most condensed phases with metallic bonding, ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of ytterbium. Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days ... The primary decay mode of ytterbium isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb, is electron capture, and the ...
Barium - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ...
Timeline of chemical element discoveries
Davy discovered sodium a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis on sodium hydroxide. ... The two obtained the first isotope of this element that had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as a member of the natural ... Sodium 1807 H. Davy 1807 H. Davy Andreas Sigismund Marggraf recognised the difference between soda ash and potash in 1758. ... In 1900, Friedrich Ernst Dorn discovered a longer-lived isotope of the same gas from the radioactive decay of radium. Since " ...
Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents
Isotopes settling in the top soil layer can remain there for many years as a result of the half-life of said particles involved ... Sodium Reactor Experiment, Santa Susana Field Laboratory (civilian), California, U.S.A., in 1959 ... Isotopes released during a meltdown or related event are typically dispersed into the atmosphere and then settle to the surface ... Cesium (Cs-137) is the primary isotope released from the Fukushima Daiichi facility. Cs-137 has a long half-life, meaning ...
Index of chemistry articles
Soda niter sodium Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium citrate Sodium cyanide Sodium hydroxide Sodium ... oxide Irving Langmuir isocyanate Isomer isoprene isotope Isotope table (complete) Isotope table (divided) Israel Shahak IUPAC J ... Solvent solvation solvent species Specific heat capacity Spectroscopy Speed of sound Sperrylite Spinel Spodumene stable isotope ...
మూస:Extended periodic table (by Fricke, 52 columns, large cells) - వికీపీడియా
isotopes Neon 10. Ne. 20.1797(6) isotopes 3 Sodium 11. Na. 22.98976928(2). isotopes Magnesium 12. Mg. 24.3050(6) isotopes ... isotopes 2 Lithium 3. Li. 6.941(2) isotopes Beryllium 4. Be. 9.012182(3) isotopes Boron 5. B 10.811(7) isotopes Carbon 6. C ... isotopes Radon 86. Rn.  isotopes 7 Francium 87. Fr.  isotopes Radium 88. Ra.  isotopes Actinium 89. Ac.  ... isotopes Argon 18. Ar. 39.948(1) isotopes 4 Potassium 19. K 39.0983(1) isotopes Calcium 20. Ca. 40.078(4) isotopes Scandium 21 ...
IsotopesEdit. Main article: Isotopes of germanium. Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70. Ge. , 72. Ge. , 73. Ge. , 74. Ge ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... isotopes also exhibit minor β−. delayed neutron emission decay paths.. OccurrenceEdit. See also: Category:Germanium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Alpharadin uses bone targeted Radium-223 isotopes to kill cancer cells by alpha radiation.[unreliable medical source?] It ... Meclofenamate sodium (MS) is known for its anti-inflammatory activity, and apart from this, Boctor et al.  reported that it ...
اکسیژن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... The number of neutrons varies according to the isotope: the stable isotopes have 8, 9, or 10 neutrons. Oxygen is a member of ... "Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes". EnvironmentalChemistry.com. Retrieved December 17, 2007.. *^ a b c Meyer, B. S. (September 19-21, ... see oxygen isotope ratio cycle). Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope, oxygen-16, evaporate at a slightly faster ...
Three Mile Island accident
This reaction melted the nuclear fuel rod cladding and damaged the fuel pellets, which released radioactive isotopes to the ... maintained integrity and contained the damaged fuel with nearly all of the radioactive isotopes in the core. ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... The longest-lived isotope of promethium has a half-life of 17.7 years, so the element exists in nature in only negligible ... The sodium double sulfates of the cerium group are difficultly soluble, those of the terbium group slightly, and those of the ... The reason for this division arose from the difference in solubility of rare-earth double sulfates with sodium and potassium. ...
Isotopes. Although isotopes are more relevant to nuclear chemistry or stable isotope chemistry than to conventional ... Also a study involving stable isotope ratios might include the molecule 18O16O. ... chemistry, different isotopes may be indicated with a prefixed superscript in a chemical formula. For example, the phosphate ... Sodium cyanide. *Sodium hydroxide. *Silicon carbonitride. *c-Silicon dicarbide. *Silicon naphthalocyanine. *Sulfur dioxide ...
Isotopes. Main article: Isotopes of bismuth. The only primordial isotope of bismuth, bismuth-209, was traditionally ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... While sodium bismuthide (Na. 3Bi) is too unstable to be used in ... This isotope has also been tried in cancer treatment, for example, in the targeted alpha therapy (TAT) program. ...
Sodium (SFR) *BN-350. *BN-600. *BN-800. *BN-1200. *CFR-600 ... Isotope separation. *Nuclear material *Uranium *enriched. * ...
Isotopes of sodium - Wikipedia
Cosmogenic nuclide Sodium-22 is a radioactive isotope of sodium, undergoing positron emission to 22 Ne with a half-life of ... Sodium-24 is one of the most important isotopes. It is radioactive and created from common sodium-23 by neutron bombardment. ... Sodium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Projects. ... There are 21 recognized isotopes of sodium (11Na), ranging from 18 Na to 39 Na and two isomers (22m Na and 24m Na). 23 Na is ...
Sodium-24 | chemical isotope | Britannica.com
Because of this reaction, a sodium-cooled reactor must have a second heat-transfer loop so that radioactive sodium does not ... Sodium-24 (15-hour half-life) is limited in use by its short life and is produced by irradiation in a nuclear reactor. ... In sodium: Nuclear properties. Sodium-24 (15-hour half-life) is limited in use by its short life and is produced by irradiation ... Because of this reaction, a sodium-cooled reactor must have a second heat-transfer loop so that radioactive sodium does not ...
Sodium-Radioactive Isotope and breastfeeding. Are they compatible?
Excitation functions for sodium isotopes - SpringerMaterials
Excitation functions for sodium isotopes Abstract This document is part of Subvolume A2 Low Energy Neutrons and their ... Excitation functions for sodium isotopes Book Title Low Energy Neutrons and their Interaction with Nuclei and Matter. Part 2 In ... Excitation functions for sodium isotopes Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms 16A2 (Low Energy ...
Sodium - Wikipedia
Isotopes. Main article: Isotopes of sodium. Twenty isotopes of sodium are known, but only 23Na is stable. 23Na is created in ... sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. ... Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium ... Metallic sodium is used mainly for the production of sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. A once- ...
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Sodium - New World Encyclopedia
Isotopes. There are 13 known isotopes of sodium, of which the only stable one is 23Na. Sodium has two radioactive cosmogenic ... Sodium metal is used to manufacture several compounds, including sodium cyanide, sodium hydride, and sodium peroxide. ... Sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as washing soda or soda ash, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3 ... The name sodium comes from the English word, soda. The symbol for sodium, Na, comes from the neo-Latin name for a common sodium ...
3 REACTOR-PRODUCED RADIONUCLIDES | Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences | The National Academies Press
Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and... ... Sodium-24 was one of the first radionuclides used to measure the permeability of canine red blood cells in vivo. Although ... However, isotope programs have always depended on the "parasitic" use of reactors, whose primary use was not related to isotope ... Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and science, where their ...
Category:Isotopes - Wikimedia Commons
Isotopes, Analyse isotopique, Analyses isotopiques (fr); آئسوٹوپ (pnb); ізатопы (be-tarask); Isotope, Isotopes, ہم جاء, ہم جا ( ... chemical isotope, atomic isotope, isotopes (en); Isotop, Izotopy (cs); Izotopi (bs); Isotopi (it); সমস্থানিক (bn); Signature ... Isotope (so); Isotopo (war); आइसोटोप (new); izotop (sl); isotope (tl); Izotopi (sq); Изотоптор (ky); Isotop (ceb); izotopy (pl ... Datoteke u kategoriji "Isotopes". Prikazano je 48 datoteka u ovoj kategoriji, od ukupno 48. ...
What is a hydride shift? | Reference.com
2 ENRICHED STABLE ISOTOPES | Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences | The National Academies Press
Radioactive isotopes and enriched stable isotopes are used widely in medicine, agriculture, industry, and scien... ... Isotope dilution to measure lead levels in blood. Lithium-6. • Sodium and renal physiology ... ISOTOPE SEPARATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Since the late 1940s the dominant source of most of the enriched stable isotopes ... Enriched stable isotopes may still be purchased from IPDP, which has a substantial inventory of some isotopes still on hand. ...
isotopes of sodium
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Molecules | Free Full-Text | Theoretical Study of H/D Isotope Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings Using an ab initio Multi...
... called geometrical isotope effect: GIE) is the dominant factor of deuterium isotope effect on 13C chemical shift. ... Our study clearly demonstrated that the geometrical changes of hydrogen-bonds induced by H/D isotope effect ( ... Italica) Fertilized with Sodium Selenate. Next Article in Special Issue. Isotope Effects as Probes for Enzyme Catalyzed ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Effects) View Full-Text , Download PDF [373 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014] , ...
Comparative Proteomics of Two Life Cycle Stages of Stable Isotope-labeled Trypanosoma brucei Reveals Novel Components of the...
sodium dodecyl sulfate. SILAC. stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. T. brucei. Trypanosoma brucei.. ... S1) as well as complete incorporation of the isotope enriched amino acids (Fig. 1B). Incorporation rates for isotope-enriched ... Cell suspensions of "heavy" isotope labeled BSF were mixed with "light" isotope labeled PCF and vice versa. After ... We developed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture in trypanosomes to compare the proteomes of two different ...
... sodium → magnesium Li↑Na↓K Periodic table - Extended periodic table General Name, symbol, number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical ... Isotopes of sodium. There are thirteen isotopes of sodium that have been recognized. The only stable isotope is 23Na. Sodium ... There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25• 4H2O, sodium ... Sodium chloride or halite, better known as common salt, is the most common compound of sodium, but sodium occurs in many other ...
isotopes of sodium - Boston University School of Medicine :Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute (Kenneth Walsh)
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Determining the Half-Life of an Isotope | Experiment #33 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier
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Glycine Transport by Human Diploid Fibroblasts-Absence of a Defect in Cells from Patients with Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia |...
Glycine transport in human diploid fibroblasts was shown to be by a single sodium-dependent system. Glycine transport does not ... Glutamine and glutamate nitrogen exchangeable pools in cultured fibroblasts: A stable isotope study *Dominique Darmaun ... Summary: Glycine transport in human diploid fibroblasts was shown to be by a single sodium-dependent system. Glycine transport ...
Multiplex Therapeutic Drug Monitoring by Isotope-dilution HPLC-MS/MS of Antibiotics in Critical Illnesses | Protocol
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Gonadal cell kinetics in male mice treated with sulphur-35 during prenatal development (Journal Article) | ETDEWEB
SODIUM COMPOUNDS; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR ISOTOPES; VERTEBRATES; 560162* - Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & ... MAT.; PRENATAL IRRADIATION; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; SULFUR 35; CELL KILLING; CARRIER-FREE ISOTOPES; EMBRYOS; ... ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; MALE GENITALS; MAMMALS; NUCLEI; ORGANS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PRENATAL EXPOSURE; RADIATION EFFECTS; ... INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MICE; PREGNANCY; RADIONUCLIDE ADMINISTRATION; SODIUM SULFATES; SPERMATOCYTES; ...
Radiochemical and thermal studies of the cation-exchanged forms of synthetic zeolite Linde sieve A (Journal Article) | ETDEWEB
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Bone Scan: Background, Indications, Contraindications
Sodium Fluoride F 18 Injection [package insert]. Triad Isotopes. 2010. Available at [Full Text]. ... SNM practice guideline for sodium 18F-fluoride PET/CT bone scans 1.0. J Nucl Med. 2010 Nov. 51(11):1813-20. [Medline]. [Full ... and F-18 is usually incorporated into sodium fluoride (F-18 NaF). These molecules are injected intravenously, and a nuclear ...
Isotope | Encyclopedia.com
The existence of isotopes can be understood by reviewing the structure of atoms. All atoms contain three kinds of basic ... Isotope Isotopes are two forms of an element with the same atomic number  but different mass number . ... Twenty elements, including fluorine, sodium, aluminum, phosphorus, and gold, have only one stable isotope. By contrast, tin has ... Radioactive isotopes. A radioactive isotope is an isotope that spontaneously breaks apart, changing into some other isotope. As ...
Effects of ApoE genotype on ApoB-48 and ApoB-100 kinetics with stable isotopes in humans. - PubMed - NCBI
Radioactive isotopeCambridge Isotope LaboratoriesChlorideCompoundsHydroxideMedical IsotopesIonsAtomsNitrateSample of this isotope has massCommon isotopesNatriumSaltCarbonateNeutronsNitrogenHydrogenSaltsENRICHED STABLE ISOTOPESMagnesiumNucleiUraniumNaturallyAtomicReactiveBicarbonateHalf-life of 15 hours1807ACETATECarbonLatinOxygen23Na2018Periodic tableChlorineUnstable isotopesChromatography-mass spectrometryKineticsAlkali metalsNucleusSubstancesPure sodiumReactionAbundantFluorideMetalsNuclearNeonDecayCompoundMassLithium
- Cosmogenic nuclide Sodium-22 is a radioactive isotope of sodium, undergoing positron emission to 22 Ne with a half-life of 2.605 years. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium-Radioactive Isotope and breastfeeding. (e-lactancia.org)
- We do not have alternatives for Sodium-Radioactive Isotope . (e-lactancia.org)
- A radioactive isotope is an isotope that spontaneously breaks apart, changing into some other isotope. (encyclopedia.com)
- As an example, potassium has a radioactive isotope with mass number 40, 40 K or potassium-40. (encyclopedia.com)
- The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in medical applications, industrial gauges, and hydrology. (wikipedia.org)
- Complete the table for the radioactive isotope. (jiskha.com)
- 4. At t = 0 there are 50 grams of a radioactive isotope. (jiskha.com)
- Gallium65, a radioactive isotope of gallium, decays by first order-kinetics. (jiskha.com)
- A 10 kg quantity of a radioactive isotope decays to 3 kg after 17 years. (jiskha.com)
- the question is: A radioactive isotope has a half life of 30 years. (jiskha.com)
- An exceptionally useful radioactive isotope is iodine-131 , which has a half-life of eight days. (britannica.com)
- Carbon-14 (8 neutrons) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. (wikipedia.org)
Cambridge Isotope Laboratories2
- Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. has extensive experience in dry reference standards. (isotope.com)
- In response to the analytical community for isotopically labeled standards for drinking water analysis, Cambridge Isotope Laboratories has had a perchlorate standard available in the sodium salt form. (isotope.com)
- Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide ( lye ) is used in soap manufacture , and sodium chloride ( edible salt ) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Common salt , or table salt, is sodium chloride, widely used as a food flavoring. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The carbonate, chloride, and hydroxide of sodium are important industrial chemicals, used in the manufacture of glass , pulp and paper , textiles, soaps and detergents, and other sodium salts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The most common sodium-containing mineral is halite (or rock salt), chemically known as sodium chloride. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium is now produced commercially through the electrolysis of fused (liquefied) sodium chloride . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- In this process, known as the Downs process, calcium chloride is mixed with the sodium chloride to lower the melting point below 600 °C. Sodium, but not calcium , is deposited on the cathode. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium is present in great quantities in the earth's oceans as sodium chloride . (bionity.com)
- For example, sodium chloride (NaCl), otherwise known as table salt, is made up of sodium cations (Na + ) and chlorine anions (chloride, Cl - ) in equal proportions. (conservapedia.com)
- The negatively charged chloride ions are attracted to the positively charged sodium ions, forming an ionic bond . (conservapedia.com)
- This results in a lattice structure, which is responsible for sodium chloride being crystalline in its solid state. (conservapedia.com)
- A solution is prepared by dissolving table salt, sodium chloride, in water at room temperature. (bartleby.com)
- Many sodium compounds are useful, such as sodium hydroxide ( lye ) for soap-making and sodium chloride for use as a de-icing agent and a nutrient ( edible salt ). (netlibrary.net)
-  Hence, the extraction of sodium metal from its compounds (such as with sodium chloride) uses a significant amount of energy. (netlibrary.net)
- Sodium is obtained by electrolysis of melted sodium chloride (salt), borax and cryolite. (periodni.com)
- Sodium chloride (NaCl) is table salt. (periodni.com)
- When they react together they make sodium chloride ( salt ) which is generally harmless in small quantities and edible. (wikipedia.org)
- It is now obtained commercially by the electrolysis of absolutely dry fused sodium chloride. (lanl.gov)
- It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- In these bodies it is mostly counterbalanced by the chloride ion, causing evaporated ocean water solids to consist mostly of sodium chloride, or common table salt. (phys.org)
- Medical Isotopes, Inc. for more than 40 years, have specialized in the development, production, and marketing of stable (non-radioactive) isotopes and chemical compounds labeled with stable isotopes like Deuterium, Carbon-13, Nitrogen-15 and Oxygen-18. (worldofchemicals.com)
- With an inventory of over 80,000 products, Medical Isotopes has one of the most complete product offerings of stable isotope labeled compounds available. (worldofchemicals.com)
- Medical Isotopes chemists are experts in their fields, with extensive years of experience exclusively in the synthesis of stable isotope labeled compounds. (worldofchemicals.com)
- When unusual specially designed compounds are required, Medical Isotopes has expert resources to synthesize the custom compounds needed. (worldofchemicals.com)
- Given its reactivity, sodium is not found as a free metal in nature but is bound to other elements in the form of compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium metal can be used to isolate some other metals from their compounds, smoothen metal surfaces, and manufacture several compounds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Moreover, the compounds of sodium have numerous applications. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Compounds of sodium have long been known. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame it will contribute a bright yellow colour. (bionity.com)
- In chemistry, most sodium compounds are considered soluble but nature provides examples of many insoluble sodium compounds such as the feldspars. (bionity.com)
- As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na+ cation. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium compounds are of immense commercial importance, being particularly central to industries producing glass, paper, soap, and textiles. (wikipedia.org)
- Metallic sodium is vital in the manufacture of organic compounds. (periodni.com)
- Long recognized in compounds, sodium was first isolated by Davy in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic soda. (lanl.gov)
- C/D/N Isotopes has developed the world most extensive listing of deuterated compounds. (chemindustry.com)
- Sodium ion is soluble in water in nearly all of its compounds, and is thus present in great quantities in the Earth's oceans and other stagnant bodies of water. (phys.org)
- After chromatographic separation, the single phenyltin compounds were mixed to prepare a spike for multiple-isotope species-specific isotope dilution (MI-SSID). (diva-portal.org)
- Nitrogen's compounds are Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) and Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3). (smore.com)
- As Carbon and Hydrogen are fundamental components of all organic compounds, they can be replaced with their isotopes (Carbon-14 and Tritium) without altering their chemical properties. (britatom.gov.in)
- Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide . (wikipedia.org)
- It is highly reactive, oxidizing rapidly in air and reacting violently with water to produce the alkali sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium hydroxide is a powerful chemical base, but sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate are also used to raise the alkalinity of solutions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The metal itself was first isolated in 1807, when Sir Humphry Davy carried out the electrolysis of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- This method is less expensive than the earlier method of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. (bionity.com)
- The reaction with water produces very caustic sodium hydroxide and highly flammable hydrogen gas. (bionity.com)
- If exposed to air, the surface rapidly tarnishes, darkening at first and then forming a white coating of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate . (netlibrary.net)
- this reaction produces caustic soda ( sodium hydroxide ) and flammable hydrogen gas. (netlibrary.net)
- In moist air, sodium hydroxide results. (netlibrary.net)
- This method is much cheaper than that of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide, as was used several years ago. (lanl.gov)
- 100 ml contains 5.68 g active chlorine, 7.8 g sodium hydroxide, 32 g sodium bicarbonate. (guidechem.com)
- Elemental sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1806 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. (phys.org)
- Caustic soda was sodium hydroxide, NaOH. (lemoyne.edu)
- Medical Isotopes, Inc. (worldofchemicals.com)
- University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry) University of Alberta scientists have taken a critical step towards supplying Alberta's demand for medical isotopes. (bioportfolio.com)
- Some of the important companies operating in the H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Market on the international basis are BASF, HANGZHOU RIWA, EMCO Dyestuff and Medical Isotopes. (millioninsights.com)
- Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume. (wikipedia.org)
- It provides the body with sodium ions, which are essential nutrients, but excessive amounts are harmful for health. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Just as isotopes are the result of changes in the number of neutrons, ions - atoms that are either positive or negative in electric charge - are the result of changes in the number of electrons. (encyclopedia.com)
- This includes water-quality sampling for nutrients, ions, and isotopes in surface and groundwater, as well as deploying passive samplers for septic systems wastewater indicators in streams. (usgs.gov)
- Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the earth's minerals over eons, so that sodium (and chlorine) are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. (netlibrary.net)
- Sodium ions are pumped out of cells by Na+/K+-ATPase in exchange for potassium. (netlibrary.net)
- It pumps three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in, contributing to the fact that about forty times as much potassium is inside cells compared to outside, and about ten times as much sodium is outside cells compared to inside. (netlibrary.net)
-  Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the reduction of sodium ions requiring −2.71 volts. (netlibrary.net)
- In animals, sodium ions are used in opposition to potassium ions, to allow the organism to build up an electrostatic charge on cell membranes, and thus allow transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is allowed to dissipate by a moving wave of voltage change. (phys.org)
- Remember HAPS Objective: C01.01c Explain how ions and isotopes are produced by changing the relative number of specific subatomic particles with respect to the structure of an atom. (issuu.com)
- HAPS Objective: C01.02 Compare and contrast the terms ions, electrolytes, free radicals, isotopes and radioisotopes. (issuu.com)
- The existence of isotopes can be understood by reviewing the structure of atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses due to differences in the number of neutrons they contain. (encyclopedia.com)
- Sodium atoms have 11 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas neon. (wikipedia.org)
- Atoms of the same element (having the same number of protons) that have different numbers of neutrons are known as isotopes . (conservapedia.com)
- At least two isotopes of each element are known (except for Oganesson , of which only a few atoms have been made). (wikipedia.org)
- Other minerals that contain sodium include cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride), soda ash (sodium carbonate), and soda niter (or Chile saltpeter, sodium nitrate), as well as several members of the amphibole and zeolite groups of minerals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- We combined this method with stable isotope ratio analysis of bulk plant tissue and plant-derived nitrate to discriminate organic and conventional potato, carrot, and cabbage from rigidly controlled long-term field trials and from a case study using retail potatoes. (dtu.dk)
- The classification power of sulphate isotope analysis was superior compared to known bulk tissue isotope markers and nitrate isotope values. (dtu.dk)
- Sodium iodate (NaIO 3 ) is contained in crude Chile saltpetre (sodium nitrate, NaNO 3 ). (britannica.com)
- A reduced 15 N-isotope ratio indicated incorporation of NO 2 while nitrate reductase activity in leaves was stimulated. (wiley.com)
Sample of this isotope has mass2
- Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin "natrium") and atomic number 11. (wikipedia.org)
- The symbol for sodium, Na, comes from the neo-Latin name for a common sodium compound called natrium . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The origin of the name comes from the Latin word natrium meaning sodium carbonate . (periodni.com)
- For example, carbon has the chemical symbol 'C', and sodium has chemical symbol 'Na', after the Latin natrium . (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium (pronounced /ˈsoʊdiəm/) is a metallic element with a symbol Na (from Latin natrium or Arabic natrun ) and atomic number 11. (phys.org)
- For the nutrient commonly called sodium, see salt . (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite , and rock salt (NaCl). (wikipedia.org)
- There is no discernable side reactions for all of them, except for sodium salt adducts. (mcponline.org)
- Salt laxatives (sodium and magnesium sulfate) are used for poison removal from intestines. (wikiversity.org)
- The Global H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Market is estimated to develop at a substantial CAGR in the years to come. (millioninsights.com)
- The report proposes complete investigation reading on the present situation of the H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt market on the international basis. (millioninsights.com)
- It presents a general idea of H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt market, comprising the descriptions, categorizations, a variety of uses, and H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt manufacturing sequence arrangement. (millioninsights.com)
- The international H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Market statement consists of expansion strategies and procedures together with production procedure and the configurations of the price. (millioninsights.com)
- H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt market scope, stake, and the indirect customers are studied. (millioninsights.com)
- The H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt industry is distributed as per its uses, categories, and firms. (millioninsights.com)
- The international H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Market is divided by Type of Product, Type of End Use, and the Area. (millioninsights.com)
- The division of the international H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Market on the source of Type of Product spans Powder and Paste. (millioninsights.com)
- The division of the international H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Industry on the source of Type of End Use with reference to intake in terms of Trades, Market stake and Development percentage of H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt for the respective end use spans Chemical Manufacturing, Medication, and others. (millioninsights.com)
- The division of the international H-Acid Mono Sodium Salt Industry on the source of Area spans North America, Europe, China, Japan, India and Southeast Asia. (millioninsights.com)
- Soap is generally a sodium salt of certain fatty acids. (lanl.gov)
- salt, in China most often as the sodium salt, while in some other countries only as the potassium salt. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- At the end of the nineteenth century, sodium was chemically prepared by heating sodium carbonate with carbon to 1,100 °C. The reaction may be written as follows. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 ( washing soda ), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO 3 ( baking soda ) [ Dalton , Lavoisier , Prout , Rayleigh ]. (lemoyne.edu)
- The various isotopes of a given element differ from one another only in the number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus (the number of protons in the nucleus differentiates the elements from one another), and even highly purified samples of an element are generally a mixture of several isotopes. (nap.edu)
- Another way of defining isotopes, then, is to say that they are different forms of an atom with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. (encyclopedia.com)
- Some isotopes are more stable than others, and occur more often in nature, but there is no "standard" number of neutrons in a given element. (conservapedia.com)
- The atomic weight of an element is a weighted average of the number of neutrons and protons (number of protons remains constant in a given element) in all naturally occurring isotopes (isotopes that are not radioactive). (conservapedia.com)
- Almost all sodium on Earth is sodium-23, where the number refers to the 11 protons and 12 neutrons that make up its nucleus. (wired.com)
- Alpha particle ( ionizing radiation ) - two neutrons and two protons bound as a single particle (a helium nucleus) that is emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes in the process of disintegration. (cdc.gov)
-  An isotope is a form of an element with a certain number of neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
- Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of human and animal tissues have become an important means of studying both anthropogenic and natural food webs in aquatic ecosystems. (frontiersin.org)
- This report studies the Stable Isotopes market, stable isotopes included products containing stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, deuterium, oxygen, noble gases and metals. (reportsnreports.com)
- The stable isotope composition (δ 15 N) was consistent with our interpretation of the sponge supplying excretory DIN to its algal partner, while the results also suggested that this DIN limits nitrogen deficiency in the alga. (biologists.org)
- This isotope makes up about 99.6% of natural nitrogen. (smore.com)
- Our study clearly demonstrated that the geometrical changes of hydrogen-bonds induced by H/D isotope effect (called geometrical isotope effect: GIE) is the dominant factor of deuterium isotope effect on 13 C chemical shift. (mdpi.com)
- How many isotopes does hydrogen have? (reference.com)
- Over several decades, physicists have gone down the periodic table-hydrogen, helium, lithium, and so on-to find the heaviest isotope of each element permitted by the laws of physics. (wired.com)
- Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Some of the sodium salts e.g. (goodfellow.com)
ENRICHED STABLE ISOTOPES4
- The use of enriched stable isotopes and their applications as they are presently known emerged from early work with metabolites labeled with deuterium (Schoenheimer and Rittenberg, 1935). (nap.edu)
- In the last two decades the use of enriched stable isotopes has offered substantial advantages to scientists and clinicians involved in the rapid growth of research on human body composition, energy balance, protein turnover, and fuel utilization (Whitehead and Prentice, 1991). (nap.edu)
- These enriched stable isotopes are used as target materials in the preparation of radioisotopes with particle accelerators and nuclear reactors and as biological tracers in biomedical research and clinical applications. (nap.edu)
- In many areas of research, the need for enriched stable isotopes is as vital as the need for pure chemicals (Friedlander and Wagner, 1982). (nap.edu)
- The periodic table, after all, organizes the elements by the number of protons in their nuclei, and sodium is element number 11. (wired.com)
- Radioactive Isotopes- nuclei is unstable and will break down at a constant rate. (powershow.com)
- Beta particle ( ionizing radiation ) - a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of certain unstable atomic nuclei (radioactive isotopes), having the charge and mass of an electron. (cdc.gov)
- An important example of this process is the way isotopes were used to purify uranium during World War II (1939 - 45). (encyclopedia.com)
- Background radioactivity - radioactive elements in the natural environment including those in the crust of the earth (like radioactive potassium, uranium, and thorium isotopes) and those produced by cosmic rays. (cdc.gov)
- Conventional fission reactors require one specific isotope of uranium, U-235 (or plutonium-239), which constitutes only 1% of raw uranium deposits, to drive the fission chain reaction. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- 1940 - Scientists at Columbia University became interested in the large-scale separation of uranium isotopes. (fluoridealert.org)
- Naturally occurring sodium is bound to other elements in many minerals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Although stable isotopes occur naturally, their utility can be greatly enhanced when they are isolated and enriched through processes such as electromagnetic separation, cryogenic distillation, thermal diffusion, or other physical and chemical processes. (nap.edu)
- Potassium has three naturally occurring isotopes (39K, 40K, and 41K), but 40K has a very low natural abundance. (bartleby.com)
- The only naturally occurring isotope of iodine is stable iodine-127. (britannica.com)
- Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40K is radioactive. (dbpedia.org)
- Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on Earth, but quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as a liquid hydrocarbon. (phys.org)
- Due to having low atomic mass and large atomic radius, sodium is third-least dense of all elemental metals and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being lithium and potassium. (wikipedia.org)
- Historically, isotopes were provided to researchers by the Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Agency and are now provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). (nap.edu)
- Sodium (chemical symbol Na , atomic number 11) is a member of a group of chemical elements known as alkali metals . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- What is the atomic mass of sodium? (reference.com)
- The density of elements generally increase with increasing atomic number, but potassium is less dense than sodium. (bionity.com)
- Isotopes are two forms of an element with the same atomic number but different mass number . (encyclopedia.com)
- A fictitious element X is composed of 10.0 percent of the isotope 55^X , 20.0 percent of the isotope 56^X , and 70.0 percent of the isotope 57^X . Calculate the weighted atomic mass of element X to the nearest tenth. (jiskha.com)
- Sodium quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as kerosene. (bionity.com)
- Compared with other alkali metals, sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium,  in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc. (bionity.com)
- Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium is a soft, silvery coloured metal which, like other members of the alkali group of metals, is extremely reactive. (goodfellow.com)
- Sodium, like every reactive element, is never found free in nature. (lanl.gov)
- Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid, a leavening agent in baking, and an ingredient in some forms of toothpaste. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
Half-life of 15 hours1
- An isotope of sodium, 24Na, has a half-life of 15 hours. (bartleby.com)
- How many moles Sodium Acetate in 1 grams? (convertunits.com)
- We assume you are converting between moles Sodium Acetate and gram . (convertunits.com)
- The molecular formula for Sodium Acetate is CH3COONa . (convertunits.com)
- 1 mole is equal to 1 moles Sodium Acetate, or 82.03379 grams. (convertunits.com)
- Use this page to learn how to convert between moles Sodium Acetate and gram. (convertunits.com)
- The organic phases were vaporized and the PhTs were redissolved in MeOH/water/acetic acid/sodium acetate (59/30/6/8, v/v/v/w), which was also used as storing solution. (diva-portal.org)
- 3. Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are isotopes. (issuu.com)
- In medieval Europe, a compound of sodium with the Latin name sodanum was used as a headache remedy. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium at standard temperature and pressure is a soft silvery metal that combines with oxygen in the air and forms grayish white sodium oxide unless immersed in oil or inert gas, which are the conditions it is usually stored in. (wikipedia.org)
- When burned in air, sodium forms sodium peroxide Na 2 O 2 , or with limited oxygen, the oxide Na 2 O (unlike lithium, the nitride is not formed). (bionity.com)
- If burned in oxygen under pressure, sodium superoxide NaO 2 will be produced. (bionity.com)
- Mineral samples taken from the Whiterock Pluton, and surrounding country rock, were analyzed for oxygen isotopes to determine the source of altering fluid. (beloit.edu)
- Here we present a novel method for organic authentication based on stable isotope ratio analysis of oxygen in plant-derived sulphate. (dtu.dk)
- It was shown that oxygen isotope ratios of sulphate from organic vegetables were significantly lower compared to their conventional counterparts and the values were directly linked to the fertilisation strategy. (dtu.dk)
- In conclusion, oxygen isotope analysis of plant-derived sulphate represents a promising new method for authentication of organic vegetables. (dtu.dk)
- 2018). New isotope of 39Na and the neutron dripline of neon isotopes using a 345 MeV/nucleon 48Ca beam (PDF) (Report). (wikipedia.org)
- Oman Imports from Pakistan of Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotope was US$1.66 Million during 2018, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. (tradingeconomics.com)
- Nine other unstable isotopes are recognized. (lanl.gov)
- isotope enrichment was assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
- Effects of ApoE genotype on ApoB-48 and ApoB-100 kinetics with stable isotopes in humans. (nih.gov)
-  The melting (98 °C) and boiling (883 °C) points of sodium are lower than those of lithium but higher than those of the heavier alkali metals potassium, rubidium, and caesium, following periodic trends down the group. (wikipedia.org)
- Figure 7: Decay scheme of a radioactive sodium-24 ( 24 Na) nucleus. (britannica.com)
- Thus a change in the mass of a nucleus, as occurs when an isotope is formed, is reflected by a noticeable change in the mass of the atom itself. (encyclopedia.com)
- Technically, any nucleus with 11 protons is sodium. (wired.com)
- It cannot be maintained in an inert atmosphere and contact with water and other substances with which sodium reacts should be avoided. (lanl.gov)
- At room temperature, pure sodium is so soft that it can be easily cut with a butter knife. (bionity.com)
- The price of 99.9 % pure sodium ingot is 67.10 for 450 g. (periodni.com)
- Union Carbide's Linde Research Laboratory developed a process for preparation of pure sodium diuranate from the concentrate. (fluoridealert.org)
- Because of this reaction, a sodium-cooled reactor must have a second heat-transfer loop so that radioactive sodium does not come in contact with the environment. (britannica.com)
- While sodium reacts with water at room temperature, the sodium piece melts with the heat of the reaction to form a sphere, if the reacting sodium piece is large enough. (bionity.com)
- One type of nuclear reaction is called radioactive decay, in which an unstable isotope of an element changes spontaneously and emits radiation. (vernier.com)
- After a rapid sample cleanup, the analytes are separated on a C8 reverse-phase HPLC column within 4 minutes and quantified with the corresponding stable isotope-labeled internal standards in electrospray ionization (ESI+) mass spectrometry in multiple reaction time monitoring (MRM). (jove.com)
- Sodium is the most abundant alkali metal and makes up about 2.6 percent by weight of the Earth 's crust. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Sodium is relatively abundant in stars . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Iron is mostly iron-56 (92 percent), but it contains small amounts of three other isotopes as well, and tin is a mixture of 10 stable isotopes, the most abundant of which makes up only 33 percent of the total. (nap.edu)
- Tc-99m is usually attached to medronic acid (Tc-99m MDP), and F-18 is usually incorporated into sodium fluoride (F-18 NaF). (medscape.com)
- Additional details are available on the SODIUM FLUORIDE F-18 profile page. (drugpatentwatch.com)
- The generic ingredient in SODIUM FLUORIDE F-18 is sodium fluoride f-18 . (drugpatentwatch.com)
- Isotope-enriched phenyltin species were synthesized from corresponding isotope-enriched tin metals. (diva-portal.org)
- When the sodium-potassium alloy is used as a coolant in nuclear reactors, 24 Na is created, which makes the coolant radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium-24 (15-hour half-life) is limited in use by its short life and is produced by irradiation in a nuclear reactor. (britannica.com)
- 1958). 99m Tc, the isotope used in more than 80 percent of the diagnostic nuclear imaging studies performed today, is the short-lived "daughter" resulting from the decay of 99 Mo. (nap.edu)
- Nuclear spin is a quantum property which may differ among isotopes. (bioportfolio.com)
- At least 1,000 radioactive isotopes occur in nature or have been produced synthetically in particle accelerators (atom-smashers) or nuclear reactors (devices used to control the release of energy from nuclear reactions). (encyclopedia.com)
- At the same time, isotopes designated on a third list as most vital for physical sciences and engineering include californium-252, used for various purposes such as oil exploration, medical applications and as a neutron startup source for some nuclear reactors. (chemistryworld.com)
- Concerns over nuclear power and nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere have heightened awareness of the dangers posed by certain kinds of radioactive isotopes, which can indeed be hazardous to human life. (encyclopedia.com)
- In this report, we describe the synthesis, development, and in vivo application of sodium [1- 13 C]-glycerate ([ 13 C]-Glyc) as a novel probe for evaluating glycolysis using hyperpolarized 13 C MRS. This agent was prepared by a concise synthetic route and formulated for dynamic nuclear polarization. (nih.gov)
- Molten sodium is used as a heat exchanger in certain types of nuclear reactors and as a reagent in the chemicals industry. (goodfellow.com)
- Liquid sodium is used to cool nuclear reactors. (periodni.com)
- they exist as nearly 270 stable isotopes-that is, forms of the elements that do not decay or emit radiation-and hundreds of radioactive isotopes. (nap.edu)
- Many isotopes are stable, meaning that they are not subject to radioactive decay , but many more are radioactive. (encyclopedia.com)
- Many isotopes are radioactive and decay over time. (conservapedia.com)
- How long would it take for 7/8 of a sample of this isotope to decay? (jiskha.com)
- The amount of the isotope (in grams) remaining after t hours is given by: (Note: We're assuming exponential decay here. (jiskha.com)
- Find the decay constant of the isotope. (jiskha.com)
- How many years to the nearest year would be required for a given amount of this isotope to decay to 55% of that amount. (jiskha.com)
- Similar labeling of nearly any compound is theoretically possible by synthesizing it with large quantities of an isotope that is relatively rare in nature. (nap.edu)
- Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element. (bionity.com)
- Oman Imports from Pakistan of Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotope - data, historical chart and statistics - was last updated on August of 2020. (tradingeconomics.com)
- Kuwait exports of inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotope to South Africa was US$101.42 Thousand during 2019, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. (tradingeconomics.com)
- Kuwait exports of inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotope to South Africa - data, historical chart and statistics - was last updated on June of 2021. (tradingeconomics.com)
- First, they may be designated by writing the name of the element followed by the mass number of the isotope. (encyclopedia.com)
- Second, isotopes may be designated by the chemical symbol of the element with a superscript that shows their mass number. (encyclopedia.com)
- The advantage of using two or more isotopes of the same element is that the isotopes will all have the same chemical properties but may differ from each other because of their mass differences. (encyclopedia.com)
- But because the difference in mass between the two isotopes is not very great, the diffusion had to be repeated many times before the two isotopes could be separated very well. (encyclopedia.com)
- in an initial mass of 40g, how much mass Remaining of the Isotope Approximately how much mass remains after 8.0 hours? (jiskha.com)
- This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. (convertunits.com)
- Species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) calibration in combination with gas chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to investigate the transformation of phenyltin species during sample preparation. (diva-portal.org)
- Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the standard reduction potential for the Na+/Na couple being −2.71 volts, though potassium and lithium have even more negative potentials. (wikipedia.org)