It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Chloramines are chemical compounds formed by the reaction between ammonia and chlorine, often used as disinfectants in water treatment but can also form in swimming pools, posing potential respiratory and mucous membrane irritation risks.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.

A functional model for O-O bond formation by the O2-evolving complex in photosystem II. (1/341)

The formation of molecular oxygen from water in photosynthesis is catalyzed by photosystem II at an active site containing four manganese ions that are arranged in di-mu-oxo dimanganese units (where mu is a bridging mode). The complex [H2O(terpy)Mn(O)2Mn(terpy)OH2](NO3)3 (terpy is 2,2':6', 2"-terpyridine), which was synthesized and structurally characterized, contains a di-mu-oxo manganese dimer and catalyzes the conversion of sodium hypochlorite to molecular oxygen. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling showed that water is the source of the oxygen atoms in the molecular oxygen evolved, and so this system is a functional model for photosynthetic water oxidation.  (+info)

Factors affecting dimensional instability of alginate impressions during immersion in the fixing and disinfectant solutions. (2/341)

To clarify the factors determining the dimensional stability of alginate impressions during immersion in disinfectant and fixing solution, the weight change of impressions in solutions of glutaraldehyde (GA), NaClO, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, and ZnSO4 was measured. In the nonelectrolytic solution, GA, the weight decreased in proportion to concentration, possibly due to the gradient of osmotic pressure between the impression and solution. In monovalent metallic salt solutions the weight change decreased with increased concentration. Especially at lower concentrations the rate of weight loss was high. A chemical action of the solution might also be involved, in addition to the osmotic pressure difference. The weight loss in divalent metallic salt solutions was greater than in monovalent solutions, implicating crosslinking reactions between the impression and solution.  (+info)

Changes in the orientation of collagen fibers on the superficial layer of the mouse tibial bone after denervation: scanning electron microscopic observations. (3/341)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between the mechanical stress loaded onto the bone and the orientation of collagen fibers formed by osteoblasts. The femoral, obturator, and sciatic nerves in the left posterior legs of 7-week-old mice were exposed and electroscissored to reduce the mechanical stress loaded onto the leg. Four weeks after operation, the tibial bones in the control and denervated legs were removed and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after NaOCl treatment. In the control right tibia, collagen fibers on the superficial bone matrix tended to be arranged parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. However, the arrangement of collagen fibers in the left tibia, which were immobilized for 4 weeks by denervation, was disorganized and ran in random directions. The findings suggest that the direction of collagen fibers in the bone changes in response to the mechanical stress loaded onto the bone, probably due to changes in the activity of osteoblasts in the denervated leg.  (+info)

Escherichia coli resistance to chlorine and glutathione synthesis in response to oxygenation and starvation. (4/341)

Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and resistance to chlorine were measured for two isogenic Escherichia coli strains stressed by oxygenation and/or starvation. The E. coli mutant deficient in GSH was not more sensitive to the oxidant than its parent strain when the bacteria were cultured with a low oxygenation rate. Starvation or oxygenation increased the resistance of the parent strain to chlorine, while the resistance of the deficient strain remained unchanged.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (5/341)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

A method of decontaminating Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae for the study of strongyloidiasis in germ-free and conventional mice. (6/341)

To study the possible influence of intestinal micro-organisms on the course of strongyloidiasis in mice, a method was developed to obtain axenic infective larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Cultured larvae from conventional mice were treated with sodium hypochlorite 0.25% for 10 min, washed in distilled water and then exposed to various combinations of antibiotics for 30 or 60 min. Success was achieved with a combination of penicillin 180 mg/L and ceftazidime 1 mg/ml. Decontamination of the larvae was determined by aerobic and anaerobic culture and by inoculation into gnotobiotic mice. Viability was established by subcutaneous inoculation of larvae into germ-free and conventional mice. Preliminary results showed that gnotobiotic mice were more susceptible than conventional mice to infection with axenic S. venezuelensis larvae as judged by faecal egg excretion, recovery of worms in the small intestine and histopathological examination of the duodenal mucosa. These results suggest that the normal intestinal flora protects the host against experimental infection with S. venezuelensis.  (+info)

Hypochlorite-induced alterations to canine serum complement. (7/341)

Changes in the concentration of the components of complement produced by NaOC1 both in vitro and in vivo are recorded. C1, C4 and C7 are particularly sensitive to this oxidizing agent, although all components decrease at high concentrations of NaOC1. Following oxidation, complement componenets return rapidly to normal. Data are presented to indicate that part of this repair mechanism is due to the action of reducing agents such as ascorbic acid and part is due to the synthesis of the individual components. The unique sensitivity of complement components to oxidation make this treatment of potential value in suppressing the inflammatory response.  (+info)

Effect of NaClO treatment on bonding to root canal dentin using a new evaluation method. (8/341)

The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability and efficiency of a new evaluation method for resin bonding to root canal dentin, which measures both marginal adaptation and shear bond strength simultaneously, and to determine the effects of root canal irrigants on resin bonding. A wet bonding system (Single Bond) and a self-etching primer system (Clearfil Mega Bond) were employed; NaClO was used as a root canal irrigant. No gaps or changes in bond strength were observed despite the NaClO treatment when the wet bonding system was employed, while the gap formation ratio increased, and bond strength decreased with longer NaClO treatment time when the self-etching primer system was employed. These findings suggested that this new experimental method was effective for evaluating resin systems to the root canal wall dentin which is affected by irrigation with NaClO.  (+info)

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a pale greenish-yellow liquid that is highly reactive and unstable in its pure form. However, it is commonly available as a dilute aqueous solution known as bleach, which has the characteristic smell of chlorine.

In medical terms, sodium hypochlorite is widely used for its disinfectant and antiseptic properties. It is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Sodium hypochlorite solution is commonly used to disinfect surfaces, medical instruments, and wounds.

When applied to wounds or skin infections, sodium hypochlorite can help reduce bacterial load, promote healing, and prevent infection. It is also a component of some mouthwashes and toothpastes, where it helps to kill bacteria and freshen breath. However, it can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes, so it should be used with caution and at appropriate concentrations.

Root canal irrigants are substances used during root canal treatment to clean, disinfect and rinse the root canal system. The main goal is to remove tissue remnants, dentinal debris, and microorganisms from the root canal space, thus reducing the risk of reinfection and promoting healing. Commonly used irrigants include sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), which is a potent antimicrobial agent, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is used to remove the smear layer and improve the penetration of other irrigants and root canal sealers. The choice of irrigant, concentration, and application technique may vary depending on the specific case and clinician's preference.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a weak acid that is primarily used as a disinfectant and sanitizer. It is a colorless and nearly odorless substance that is formed when chlorine gas is dissolved in water. Hypochlorous acid is a powerful oxidizing agent, which makes it effective at killing bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

In the human body, hypochlorous acid is produced by white blood cells as part of the immune response to infection. It helps to kill invading pathogens and prevent the spread of infection. Hypochlorous acid is also used in medical settings as a disinfectant for surfaces and equipment, as well as in wound care to help prevent infection and promote healing.

It's important to note that while hypochlorous acid is safe and effective as a disinfectant, it can be harmful if swallowed or inhaled in large quantities. Therefore, it should be used with caution and according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

The dental pulp cavity, also known as the pulp chamber, is the innermost part of a tooth that contains the dental pulp. It is located in the crown portion of the tooth and is shaped like an upside-down pyramid with the narrow end point towards the root of the tooth.

The dental pulp is a soft tissue that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. It plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the tooth, including providing nutrients to the dentin and producing reparative dentin.

The dental pulp cavity can become infected or inflamed due to tooth decay, trauma, or other factors, leading to symptoms such as pain, sensitivity, and swelling. In such cases, treatment options may include root canal therapy, which involves removing the infected or inflamed pulp tissue from the dental pulp cavity and sealing the space to prevent further infection.

Root canal preparation is a procedure in endodontics, which is the branch of dentistry dealing with the dental pulp and tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. The goal of root canal preparation is to thoroughly clean, shape, and disinfect the root canal system of an infected or damaged tooth, in order to prepare it for a filling material that will seal and protect the tooth from further infection or damage.

The procedure involves the use of specialized dental instruments, such as files and reamers, to remove the infected or necrotic pulp tissue and debris from within the root canal. The root canal is then shaped using progressively larger files to create a tapering preparation that facilitates the placement of the filling material. Irrigation solutions are used to help flush out any remaining debris and disinfect the canal.

The success of root canal preparation depends on several factors, including the thoroughness of cleaning and shaping, the effectiveness of disinfection, and the sealing ability of the filling material. Properly performed, root canal preparation can alleviate pain, save a tooth from extraction, and restore function and aesthetics to the mouth.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

A smear layer is a thin, amorphous layer of debris that forms on the dentin surface when it comes into contact with instruments or solutions during dental procedures such as cavity preparation, root canal treatment, or biopsies. This layer is composed of organic and inorganic components, including dentinal cuttings, pulp tissue, bacteria, and materials from the irrigating solution. The smear layer can occlude the dentinal tubules, affecting the adhesion of filling materials and sealing ability of obturation points. Therefore, it is often removed during root canal preparation using various methods such as chemical dissolution, ultrasonic agitation, or laser ablation to ensure proper disinfection and seal of the root canal system.

Chlorine compounds refer to chemical substances that contain chlorine (Cl), which is a member of the halogen group in the periodic table. Chlorine is a highly reactive element that readily forms compounds with many other elements and molecules.

Chlorine compounds can be found in various forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic chlorine compounds include salts of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride (table salt), and chlorides of metals, such as copper chloride and silver chloride. Other inorganic chlorine compounds include chlorine gas (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2).

Organic chlorine compounds are those that contain carbon atoms bonded to chlorine atoms. Examples of organic chlorine compounds include chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and pesticides, such as DDT and lindane.

Chlorine compounds have a wide range of uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and manufacturing. However, some chlorine compounds can be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment, particularly if they are released into the air, water, or soil in large quantities. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of chlorine compounds properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It is a member of the halogen group of elements and is the second-lightest halogen after fluorine. In its pure form, chlorine is a yellow-green gas under standard conditions.

Chlorine is an important chemical compound that has many uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, and bleaching. It is also used in the production of a wide range of products, such as plastics, solvents, and pesticides.

In medicine, chlorine compounds are sometimes used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is a common disinfectant used to clean surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings. Chlorhexidine is another chlorine compound that is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and dental procedures.

However, it's important to note that exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas can be harmful to human health, causing respiratory irritation, coughing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure to chlorine can also lead to more serious health effects, such as damage to the lungs and other organs.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Povidone-Iodine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, which is a complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This complex allows for sustained release of iodine, providing persistent antimicrobial activity. It has been widely used in various clinical settings, including as a surgical scrub, wound disinfection, and skin preparation before invasive procedures. Povidone-Iodine is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. The mechanism of action involves the release of iodine ions, which oxidize cellular components and disrupt microbial membranes, leading to cell death.

Dental pulp necrosis is the death of the soft tissue inside a tooth, known as the dental pulp. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that help the tooth grow and develop. It also provides sensations like hot or cold. Dental pulp necrosis can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, trauma, or infection. When the dental pulp dies, it can no longer provide nutrients to the tooth, making it more susceptible to fractures and infections. Symptoms of dental pulp necrosis may include pain, sensitivity, swelling, or abscess formation. Treatment options for dental pulp necrosis typically involve root canal therapy or extraction of the affected tooth.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Dental impression materials are substances used to create a replica or negative reproduction of the oral structures, including teeth, gums, and surrounding tissues. These materials are often used in dentistry to fabricate dental restorations, orthodontic appliances, mouthguards, and various other dental devices.

There are several types of dental impression materials available, each with its unique properties and applications:

1. Alginate: This is a common and affordable material derived from algae. It is easy to mix and handle, sets quickly, and provides a detailed impression of the oral structures. However, alginate impressions are not as durable as other materials and must be poured immediately after taking the impression.
2. Irreversible Hydrocolloid: This material is similar to alginate but offers better accuracy and durability. It requires more time to mix and set, but it can be stored for a longer period before pouring the cast.
3. Polyvinyl Siloxane (PVS): Also known as silicone impression material, PVS provides excellent detail, accuracy, and dimensional stability. It is available in two types: addition-cured and condensation-cured. Addition-cured PVS offers better accuracy but requires more time to mix and set. Condensation-cured PVS sets faster but may shrink slightly over time.
4. Polyether: This material provides high accuracy, excellent detail, and good tear resistance. It is also sensitive to moisture, making it suitable for impressions where a dry field is required. However, polyether has a strong odor and taste, which some patients find unpleasant.
5. Vinyl Polysiloxane (VPS): This material is similar to PVS but offers better tear strength and flexibility. It is also less sensitive to moisture than polyether, making it suitable for various applications.
6. Zinc Oxide Eugenol: This is a traditional impression material used primarily for temporary impressions or bite registrations. It has a low cost and is easy to mix and handle but does not provide the same level of detail as other materials.

The choice of dental impression material depends on various factors, including the type of restoration, the patient's oral condition, and the clinician's preference.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Periapical periodontitis is a medical condition that affects the tissues surrounding the root tip (apex) of a tooth. It is typically caused by bacterial infection that originates from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves and blood vessels. When the dental pulp becomes inflamed or infected due to decay or injury, it can lead to periapical periodontitis if left untreated.

The infection spreads from the pulp through the root canal and forms an abscess at the tip of the tooth root. This results in inflammation and destruction of the surrounding bone and periodontal tissues, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, tenderness, and sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures.

Periapical periodontitis is usually treated with root canal therapy, which involves removing the infected pulp tissue, cleaning and disinfecting the root canal, and filling and sealing the space to prevent reinfection. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help clear up any residual infection. If left untreated, periapical periodontitis can lead to more serious complications such as tooth loss or spread of infection to other parts of the body.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

"Prosthesis coloring" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of prosthetics. However, I can provide you with some context that might help clarify what you are looking for.

In the context of artificial limbs (prostheses), patients may want their devices to match their skin tone as closely as possible to make them less noticeable and more aesthetically appealing. This process is called "prosthetic covering" or "cosmesis," which involves applying custom-made covers, sleeves, or skins over the prosthesis to mimic the appearance of natural skin color and texture.

Prosthetic covering materials can be painted, printed, or dyed to achieve the desired color match. This process is often referred to as "coloring" or "painting the prosthesis." The coloring technique may involve using various shades, tones, and textures to create a natural-looking appearance that blends well with the user's remaining limb or body.

In summary, while there is no formal medical definition for "prosthesis coloring," it likely refers to the process of applying custom colors, shading, or patterns to an artificial limb (prosthesis) to create a more natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance that matches the user's skin tone.

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is widely found in nature, particularly in citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges. Its chemical formula is C6H8O7, and it exists in a form known as a tribasic acid, which means it can donate three protons in chemical reactions.

In the context of medical definitions, citric acid may be mentioned in relation to various physiological processes, such as its role in the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle), which is a key metabolic pathway involved in energy production within cells. Additionally, citric acid may be used in certain medical treatments or therapies, such as in the form of citrate salts to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. It may also be used as a flavoring agent or preservative in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Denture cleansers are specialized cleaning products designed to clean and maintain dentures, which are removable artificial teeth. These products typically contain active ingredients that help break down and remove dental plaque, tartar, stains, and odors that can accumulate on dentures over time. Denture cleansers come in various forms, including:

1. Denture cleaning tablets or powders: Users dissolve these products in water and soak their dentures in the solution to clean them.
2. Denture cleaning pastes or gels: These are applied directly to the dentures and then brushed off with a soft toothbrush.
3. Denture cleaning foams: These are sprayed onto the dentures and then rinsed off after a short period of time.

It is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions when using denture cleansers, as some products may not be suitable for specific types of dentures or materials. Additionally, it is recommended to clean dentures daily with a soft toothbrush and warm water, even when using denture cleansers, to ensure optimal oral hygiene.

Enterococcus faecalis is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. It is a type of enterococci that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.

E. faecalis is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and resist various antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. It can also form biofilms, which further increase its resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. Accurate identification and appropriate treatment of E. faecalis infections are essential to prevent complications and ensure positive patient outcomes.

Root canal filling materials are substances used to fill and seal the root canal system inside a tooth following root canal treatment. The main goal of using these materials is to prevent reinfection, provide structural support to the weakened tooth, and restore its functionality.

Commonly used root canal filling materials include:

1. Gutta-percha: A rubber-like material derived from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree. It is widely used as the primary filling material due to its biocompatibility, malleability, and ability to be compacted into the root canal space. Gutta-percha points or cones are typically used in conjunction with a sealer for optimal adaptation and seal.

2. Sealers: These are adhesive materials that help bond gutta-percha to dentin walls and improve the seal between the filling material and root canal walls. Some commonly used sealers include zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide-based sealers, and resin-based sealers.

3. Silver points: These are silver cones with a sharp tip that can be inserted into the root canal space as an alternative to gutta-percha. However, their use has declined due to concerns about corrosion and potential tooth discoloration.

4. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA): A biocompatible cement composed primarily of Portland cement, bismuth oxide, and other additives. MTA is used for various applications in endodontics, including root-end filling, perforation repair, and apexification. It has excellent sealing ability, antibacterial properties, and promotes hard tissue formation.

5. Bioceramics: These are advanced materials with similar properties to MTA but with improved handling characteristics and setting times. They include materials like Bioaggregate, EndoSequence BC Sealer, and iRoot SP.

6. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha: This technique involves heating and softening gutta-percha using a specialized device called a thermomechanical compactor or an oven. The softened gutta-percha is then injected into the root canal space, providing better adaptation to the root canal walls and creating a more uniform seal.

The choice of materials depends on various factors, including the clinical situation, patient's needs, and practitioner's preference.

Periapical tissue, in the field of dentistry and oral medicine, refers to the tissue that surrounds the apical region of a tooth. The apical region is the tip or apex of the root of a tooth. Periapical tissues include the periodontal ligament, the alveolar bone, and the dental follicle. These tissues play a crucial role in supporting and protecting the tooth. Inflammation or infection of the periapical tissue can lead to a condition known as periapical periodontitis, which may require root canal treatment or tooth extraction.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

Cetrimonium compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain cetrimonium as the active ingredient. Cetrimonium is a quaternary ammonium compound that has antimicrobial and surfactant properties. It is commonly used in personal care products such as shampoos, conditioners, and cosmetics as a preservative and to improve the product's ability to spread and wet surfaces.

Cetrimonium compounds are often used as a alternative to formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, which have been linked to health concerns. They work by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to cell death. Cetrimonium compounds are also effective against fungi and viruses.

In addition to their use in personal care products, cetrimonium compounds are also used in medical settings as a antiseptic and disinfectant. They are often found in products used to clean and disinfect medical equipment and surfaces.

It is important to note that while cetrimonium compounds have been deemed safe for use in personal care products and medical settings, they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is always recommended to do a patch test before using a new product containing cetrimonium compounds.

Porphyromonas endodontalis is a gram-negative, black-pigmented anaerobic bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease and endodontic infections. It is a member of the Bacteroidetes phylum and Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD).

The bacterium has a polarly flagellated, curved or spiral-shaped morphology and can form biofilms on dental surfaces. P. endodontalis is asaccharolytic, meaning it cannot ferment sugars, and obtains energy by degrading amino acids and proteins.

P. endodontalis has been implicated in the development of periodontal disease due to its ability to produce virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), fimbriae, and various enzymes that contribute to tissue destruction and inflammation. It is also associated with apical periodontitis, an infection of the dental pulp and surrounding tissues, and has been isolated from root canals and periapical abscesses.

Effective control and prevention of P. endodontalis infections require good oral hygiene practices, regular dental check-ups, and appropriate treatment of periodontal disease and endodontic infections.

Cetylpyridinium is an antimicrobial compound that is commonly used in oral healthcare products such as mouthwashes, toothpastes, and lozenges. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. Cetylpyridinium has been shown to be effective against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, making it a popular ingredient in products designed to maintain oral hygiene and prevent infection.

The chemical name for cetylpyridinium is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and it has the molecular formula C16H37NClO. It is a cationic surfactant, which means that it contains positively charged ions that can interact with negatively charged bacterial cell membranes. This interaction disrupts the membrane's structure, leading to the leakage of cellular components and the death of the microorganism.

Cetylpyridinium is generally considered safe for use in oral healthcare products, although it can cause irritation in some people. It is important to follow the instructions on any product containing cetylpyridinium carefully, as overuse or improper use may lead to adverse effects. Additionally, it is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional before using any new medication or healthcare product, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking other medications.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In medical terms, "caustics" refer to substances that can cause burns or destroy living tissue due to their corrosive nature. They can cause chemical burns upon contact with skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and potential scarring. Common caustic substances include strong acids and bases, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide (lye).

In dermatology, the term "caustics" may also refer to chemical peeling agents used for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as hyperpigmentation, acne scars, or fine lines. These substances, which include trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and phenol, cause a controlled injury to the skin, leading to exfoliation and the stimulation of new tissue growth. However, they must be used with caution, as improper application can result in unwanted side effects or complications.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

The tooth apex is the tip or the narrowed end of the root of a tooth. It is the portion that is located deepest within the jawbone and it contains dental pulp tissue, which includes nerves and blood vessels. The apex plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of a tooth, as well as in the process of root canal treatment, where instruments and materials are introduced through it to clean and fill the root canals. It is also a crucial landmark in endodontic surgery and dental imaging.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

Chemical processes refer to the various interactions and transformations that occur at the molecular or atomic level among chemicals, substances, or compounds. These processes involve changes in the structure, composition, energy state, or properties of the involved materials. They can be either spontaneous or induced and are governed by the laws of chemistry.

Some common examples of chemical processes include:

1. Chemical reactions: The transformation of one or more substances into different substances through a series of chemical interactions. These reactions might involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, resulting in new compounds with distinct properties.
2. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions: A specific type of chemical reaction where electrons are transferred between molecules or atoms, leading to changes in their oxidation states. These reactions often involve the transfer of oxygen or hydrogen atoms and play a crucial role in various biological and industrial processes.
3. Acid-base reactions: Chemical interactions between acids and bases, characterized by the transfer of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. These reactions result in the formation of new compounds called salts and water.
4. Precipitation reactions: The formation of an insoluble solid (a precipitate) when two solutions are mixed together, often due to the creation of a new compound that cannot remain dissolved in the solvent.
5. Complexation: The formation of a complex between a central atom or ion and one or more ligands through coordinate covalent bonds. This process can lead to changes in the physical and chemical properties of both the central atom/ion and the ligand(s).
6. Electrolysis: A chemical process driven by an external electrical current, which induces chemical reactions at the electrodes immersed in a conducting solution (electrolyte). This process is used to produce various chemicals, such as hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide.
7. Catalysis: The acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance called a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby increasing the rate of the process without being consumed in it.

Understanding chemical processes is essential for various fields, including chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science, and engineering, as they form the basis for numerous natural phenomena and technological applications.

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a common pathogen in cats and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including upper respiratory disease, oral ulcers, pneumonia, and limping syndrome. FCV is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected cats or contaminated objects.

FCV infection typically causes mild to moderate symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and ulcers in the mouth. However, some strains of the virus can cause more severe disease, including virulent systemic disease (VSD), which is characterized by severe pneumonia, jaundice, and multi-organ failure. VSD is a rare but often fatal complication of FCV infection.

There are several vaccines available to protect cats against FCV infection. However, because there are many different strains of the virus, vaccination may not prevent infection altogether, but it can reduce the severity of clinical signs and the risk of complications. It is important to note that some vaccinated cats can still become infected with FCV and shed the virus, so it is still possible for them to transmit the virus to other cats.

In addition to vaccination, good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and cages, can help prevent the spread of FCV in multi-cat environments. It is also important to isolate sick cats from healthy ones to reduce the risk of transmission.

Chloramines are a group of compounds that consist of chlorine combined with ammonia and nitrogen. In the context of water treatment, chloramines are often formed when ammonia is added to water that has been treated with chlorine. This process is known as chloramination and is used as a secondary disinfection method to help control microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems.

Chloramines have several advantages over chlorine alone as a disinfectant. They are more stable and persist for longer periods in the distribution system, which helps to maintain a residual disinfectant concentration throughout the system. This is important because it provides ongoing protection against microbial growth and contamination.

However, chloramines can also have some disadvantages. They may react with organic matter in the water to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which can be harmful to human health. Chloramines can also cause corrosion of pipes and other infrastructure in the distribution system, leading to leaching of metals such as lead and copper into the water.

Overall, chloramination is a widely used and effective method for disinfecting drinking water, but it must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure that it is done safely and effectively.

Root canal obturation is the process of filling and sealing the root canal system of a tooth after it has been cleaned and shaped during endodontic treatment. The goal of obturation is to prevent reinfection or contamination of the root canal system by completely filling and sealing the space with an inert, biocompatible material such as gutta-percha and a suitable sealant. This procedure helps to preserve the natural tooth structure, alleviate pain, and maintain proper dental function.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

A deciduous tooth, also known as a baby tooth or primary tooth, is a type of temporary tooth that humans and some other mammals develop during childhood. They are called "deciduous" because they are eventually shed and replaced by permanent teeth, much like how leaves on a deciduous tree fall off and are replaced by new growth.

Deciduous teeth begin to form in the womb and start to erupt through the gums when a child is around six months old. By the time a child reaches age three, they typically have a full set of 20 deciduous teeth, including incisors, canines, and molars. These teeth are smaller and less durable than permanent teeth, but they serve important functions such as helping children chew food properly, speak clearly, and maintain space in the jaw for the permanent teeth to grow into.

Deciduous teeth usually begin to fall out around age six or seven, starting with the lower central incisors. This process continues until all of the deciduous teeth have been shed, typically by age 12 or 13. At this point, the permanent teeth will have grown in and taken their place, with the exception of the wisdom teeth, which may not erupt until later in adolescence or early adulthood.

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound with various applications in medicine. EDTA is a synthetic amino acid that acts as a chelating agent, which means it can bind to metallic ions and form stable complexes.

In medicine, EDTA is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury toxicity. It works by binding to the toxic metal ions in the body, forming a stable compound that can be excreted through urine. This helps reduce the levels of harmful metals in the body and alleviate their toxic effects.

EDTA is also used in some diagnostic tests, such as the determination of calcium levels in blood. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential therapy for conditions like atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy in these areas remains controversial and unproven.

It is important to note that EDTA should only be administered under medical supervision due to its potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of its use.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Gutta-Percha is defined in the medical field as a naturally occurring rubber derived from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree, which is native to Malaysia. It has been historically used in various medical and dental applications due to its unique properties such as being malleable yet durable when heated, and remaining stable at room temperature.

In dentistry, gutta-percha is commonly utilized as a root canal filling material, as it can be easily shaped and compacted into the root canal space to seal off the tooth from bacteria and other infectious agents. It is often used in combination with a sealer cement to ensure a proper seal and prevent reinfection of the tooth.

Overall, gutta-percha is a valuable material in medical and dental applications due to its unique properties and versatility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Sodium channels are specialized protein structures that are embedded in the membranes of excitable cells, such as nerve and muscle cells. They play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in these cells. Sodium channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell during the initial phase of an action potential, which is the electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. This sudden influx of sodium ions causes the membrane potential to rapidly reverse, leading to the depolarization of the cell. After the action potential, the sodium channels close and become inactivated, preventing further entry of sodium ions and helping to restore the resting membrane potential.

Sodium channels are composed of a large alpha subunit and one or two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunit forms the ion-conducting pore, while the beta subunits play a role in modulating the function and stability of the channel. Mutations in sodium channel genes have been associated with various inherited diseases, including certain forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and muscle disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Root canal therapy, also known as endodontic treatment, is a dental procedure that involves the removal of infected or damaged pulp tissue from within a tooth's root canal system. The root canal system is a series of narrow channels that run from the center of the tooth (pulp chamber) down to the tip of the tooth roots, containing nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

During the procedure, the dentist or endodontist will gain access to the pulp chamber, carefully clean and shape the root canals using specialized instruments, and then fill and seal them with a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. This helps prevent reinfection and preserves the structural integrity of the tooth. In many cases, a crown or other restoration is placed over the treated tooth to protect it and restore its function and appearance.

Root canal therapy is typically recommended when the pulp tissue becomes inflamed or infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures, cracks, or chips in the teeth. The goal of this treatment is to alleviate pain, preserve natural tooth structure, and prevent the need for extraction.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Dental leakage, also known as "microleakage" in dental terminology, refers to the seepage or penetration of fluids, bacteria, or other substances between the walls of a dental restoration (such as a filling, crown, or bridge) and the prepared tooth structure. This occurs due to the presence of microscopic gaps or spaces at the interface of the restoration and the tooth.

Dental leakage can lead to several problems, including:

1. Recurrent decay: The seepage of fluids, bacteria, and sugars from the oral environment can cause secondary tooth decay around the margins of the restoration.
2. Sensitivity: Microleakage may result in temperature sensitivity or pain when consuming hot or cold foods and beverages due to fluid movement within the gap.
3. Discoloration: Over time, dental leakage might lead to staining of the tooth structure around the restoration, resulting in an unaesthetic appearance.
4. Failed restorations: Persistent dental leakage can weaken the bond between the restoration and the tooth, increasing the risk of restoration failure and the need for replacement.

To prevent dental leakage, dentists employ various techniques during restoration placement, such as using appropriate adhesives, following meticulous preparation protocols, and ensuring a tight seal around the margins of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential to monitor the condition of existing restorations and address any issues before they become more severe.

Dental models are replicas of a patient's teeth and surrounding oral structures, used in dental practice and education. They are typically created using plaster or other materials that harden to accurately reproduce the shape and position of each tooth, as well as the contours of the gums and palate. Dental models may be used for a variety of purposes, including treatment planning, creating custom-fitted dental appliances, and teaching dental students about oral anatomy and various dental procedures. They provide a tactile and visual representation that can aid in understanding and communication between dentists, patients, and other dental professionals.

Therapeutic irrigation, also known as lavage, is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of fluids or other agents into a body cavity or natural passageway for therapeutic purposes. This technique is used to cleanse, flush out, or introduce medication into various parts of the body, such as the bladder, lungs, stomach, or colon.

The fluid used in therapeutic irrigation can be sterile saline solution, distilled water, or a medicated solution, depending on the specific purpose of the procedure. The flow and pressure of the fluid are carefully controlled to ensure that it reaches the desired area without causing damage to surrounding tissues.

Therapeutic irrigation is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, obstructions, and toxic exposures. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify abnormalities or lesions within body cavities.

Overall, therapeutic irrigation is a valuable technique in modern medicine that allows healthcare providers to deliver targeted treatment directly to specific areas of the body, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

... the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate. Sodium ... Sodium hypochlorite can also be used for point-of-use disinfection of drinking water, taking 0.2-2 mg of sodium hypochlorite ... Sodium hypochlorite has deodorizing properties, which go hand in hand with its cleaning properties. Sodium hypochlorite ... US 3498924, Walsh RH, Dietz A, "Process for preparing stable sodium hypochlorites", issued 1966 "Sodium hypochlorite". PubChem ...
... are skin cleansers formulated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants. These cleansing ... The use of sodium hypochlorite in the form of a bleach bath, has been reported to improve atopic dermatitis severity in ... A sodium hypochlorite cleanser is used to cleanse and soothe skin that is prone to infection and conditions such as eczema, ... Sodium hypochlorite baths became an acceptable treatment of atopic dermatitis due to a 2009 landmark study by JT Huan. ...
Sodium Hypochlorite". UK Anime Network. Retrieved September 19, 2011. Santos, Carlo (May 26, 2009). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Sodium ... Hypochlorite". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 15, 2009. (CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja), CS1 uses Japanese-language ...
Santos, Carlo (May 26, 2009). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Sodium Hypochlorite". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 15, 2009. (Articles ...
Labarraque's research resulted in the use of chlorides and hypochlorites of lime (calcium hypochlorite) and of sodium (sodium ... In most private swimming pools, chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite, formed from chlorine and sodium ... Smith patented a method of sodium hypochlorite production involving electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and ... These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s- ...
Generally oxidative bleachings are carried out using sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite or sulfuric acid. Vegetable fibres, ... "Bleach (Sodium Hypochlorite): History". whatisbleach.weebly.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2023. Retrieved 2023-04 ... Reductive bleaching is done with sodium hydrosulphite, a powerful reducing agent. Fibres like polyamides, polyacrylics and ...
They include the following chemicals: sodium hypochlorite (active agent in bleach), chloramine, halazone, and sodium ... Specific compounds in this family include sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, halazone, chlorine dioxide, and sodium ... "OxyChem Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook" (PDF). oxy.com. OxyChem. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-04-18. Retrieved 2018- ... He found that chloramine was optimal, but settled for a dilute sodium hypochlorite solution-still used today with the name of " ...
Studies showed no uptake of lithium if pools with lithium hypochlorite have been used. Sodium hypochlorite Hoberman A. M.; ... Lithium hypochlorite is the colorless, crystalline lithium salt of hypochlorous acid with the chemical formula of LiClO. It is ... Weiner ML, Batt KJ, Putman DL, Curren RD, Yang LL (1990). "Genotoxicity evaluation of lithium hypochlorite". Toxicology. 65 (1- ... "Developmental toxicity study of orally administered lithium hypochlorite in rats". Journal of the American College of ...
Sodium hypochlorite) Sodium hypochlorite washes Didecyldimethylammonium chloride Hand washing (see also Surfactants) Hand ... A mixture of 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite is found to be able to deactivate the novel ... Slaughter RJ, Watts M, Vale JA, Grieve JR, Schep LJ (May 2019). "The clinical toxicology of sodium hypochlorite". Clinical ... sodium fluoride, essential oils (specifically in case of management of inflammatory periodontal diseases) Unknown or limited ...
Oxidation reaction of ammonia with sodium hypochlorite. Production and degradation reactions of chloramines. p. 512. doi: ... The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium (NaOH) or ... Pliny also mentioned that when some samples of what was purported to be natron (Latin: nitrum, impure sodium carbonate) were ... When dry ammonia gas is heated with metallic sodium it converts to sodamide, NaNH2. With chlorine, monochloramine is formed. ...
It employs sodium hypochlorite as oxidant instead of hydrogen peroxide. Like all hypochlorite-based routes, this method ... Again sodium hypochlorite serves as the oxidant. The net reaction is shown: (NH2)2CO + NaOCl + 2 NaOH → N2H4 + H2O + NaCl + ... The Olin Raschig process, first announced in 1907, produces hydrazine from sodium hypochlorite (the active ingredient in many ... In a related application, sodium azide, the gas-forming agent in air bags, is produced from hydrazine by reaction with sodium ...
If it happens, one should finish cleaning & shaping of the canal, irrigate the canal with sodium hypochlorite to disinfect it ... Disinfection of the cavity with sodium hypochlorite. then application of MTA over the exposure area. restoration of the cavity ...
... a plastic bottle of sodium hypochlorite bleach; one or two KFMs (Kearny fallout meters) and the knowledge to operate them; at ...
The raw water is disinfected with sodium hypochlorite. The local government treats sewage in a treatment facility in the ...
Sold as a white powder or in tablets, is used in many of the same applications as sodium hypochlorite, but is more stable and ... Sodium Hypochlorite (CAS No: 7681-52-9; EINECS No: 231-668-3): Final report, November 2007 (Final Approved Version); see Risk ... Berthollet also discovered sodium hypochlorite, which became the first commercial bleach, named Eau de Javel ("Javel water") ... Diluted sodium hypochlorite at a rate of 2000-1 (0.05% concentration) may represent an efficacious, safe, and affordable ...
A sodium hypochlorite accident can result in long-term functional and aesthetic complications. Extrusion of sodium hypochlorite ... "Guidelines for management of sodium hypochlorite extrusion injuries". British Dental Journal. 217 (12): 679-684. doi:10.1038/sj ...
Sodium hypochlorite, the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. Hydrochloric Acid, a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of ... They mostly produce products for water sterilization to the local market: Sodium hydroxide, also known as Caustic Soda. ...
Anhydrous lithium hypochlorite is stable at room temperature; however, sodium hypochlorite is explosive as an anhydrous solid. ... Common examples include sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) and calcium hypochlorite (a component of bleaching powder, ... This process is widely used for the industrial production of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2). ... Lithium hypochlorite LiOCl, calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 and barium hypochlorite Ba(ClO)2 have been isolated as pure anhydrous ...
It is prepared by oxidation of toluenesulfonamide with sodium hypochlorite, with the latter being produced in situ from sodium ... Its reactivity is similar to that of sodium hypochlorite. Aqueous solutions of chloramine-T are slightly basic (pH typically ... Chemicalland21.com: Chloramine T (Tosylchloramide sodium) InChem.org: Chloramine T "Disifin USA". Archived from the original on ... N-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide sodium salt), a versatile reagent in organic synthesis and analytical chemistry: An up to date ...
It is oxidized by sodium hypochlorite to hexafluoroisobutylene oxide. As expected, it is a potent dienophile. ...
Solid anhydrous sodium hypochlorite is unstable and decomposes explosively. A non-explosive hydrated solid is available for ... The active agent in liquid bleach is sodium hypochlorite, which gives the product a light greenish yellow tinge and its ... Formulations for household use usually contain 8% or less of sodium hypochlorite by weight. More concentrated solutions are ... Sodium chloride (table salt, NaCl) is often present too, and plays no role in the product's action. Sodium chloride and ...
The pre-treatment of 1% sodium hypochlorite increased germinability. Encouraged by Russian success in using ultrasonic waves to ...
Estrela C, Silva JA, de Alencar AH, Leles CR, Decurcio DA (December 2008). "Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine ... Shabahang S, Pouresmail M, Torabinejad M (July 2003). "In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of MTAD and sodium hypochlorite". ...
... is a British brand of household cleaning range which contains bleach (primarily sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl). It is ... Domestos (and Chlorox, essentially a 10-25% solution of sodium hypochlorite) contains 100,000 ppm (10%) of the active component ... sodium hypochlorite safety sheet "Part 2 Biological safety" (PDF). University of St Andrews, Environmental, Health and Safety ...
"Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium Percarbonate or Sodium Hydroxide for Roof Cleaning?". eClean Magazine. Retrieved 2017-06-29. "ARMA ... recommends using a 50/50 solution of household strength sodium hypochlorite (pool chlorine) and water to remove moss and algae ... Cleaning may be accomplished with a bleach or sodium percarbonate solution, various cleaning products or commercial cleaning ...
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and occasionally sodium bromide (NaBr) are used. Treatment occurs no more than 2 hours per day per ...
The sodium hypochlorite produced is in the range of pH 6-7.5, relatively neutral in regards to acidity or baseness. At that pH ... A low voltage DC current is applied, electrolysis happens producing sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen gas (H2). The solution ... The product of the process, sodium hypochlorite, provides 0.7% to 1% chlorine. Anything below the concentration of 1% chlorine ... producing sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen gas. Because the reaction takes place in an unpartitioned cell and NaOH is present ...
Dilute sodium hypochlorite (i.e. a mild bleach) is the main constituent of several brands of denture cleanser. Other ... removes stains sodium perborate sodium polyphosphate potassium monopersulfate - cleaning and bleaching agent EDTA Sodium ... "Evaluation of sodium hypochlorite as a denture cleanser: a clinical study". Gerodontology. 32 (4): 260-266. doi:10.1111/ger. ... "Alkaline Peroxides Versus Sodium Hypochlorite for Removing Denture Biofilm: A Crossover Randomized Trial". Brazilian Dental ...
Included in this category is sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl), or household bleach. These chemicals inflict extensive cellular damage ...
They remain after treatment with diluted sodium hypochlorite or sulfuric acid. An unsporulated oocyst can survive up to seven ...
  • Sodium hypochlorite can also be obtained as a crystalline pentahydrate NaOCl·5H 2O, which is not explosive and is much more stable than the anhydrous compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower temperatures, however, it is quite stable: reportedly only 1% decomposition after 360 days at 7 °C. A 1966 US patent claims that stable solid sodium hypochlorite dihydrate NaOCl·2H 2O can be obtained by carefully excluding chloride ions (Cl− ), which are present in the output of common manufacturing processes and are said to catalyze the decomposition of hypochlorite into chlorate (ClO− 3) and chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even so, one report claims that a conventional 13.6% NaOCl reagent solution lost 17% of its strength after being stored for 360 days at 7 °C. For this reason, in some applications one may use more stable chlorine-releasing compounds, such as calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO) 2 or trichloroisocyanuric acid (CNClO) 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental solutions were distilled water (control), 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 18% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX). (nih.gov)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite is a disinfectant compound with the formula (NaOCl) and highly effective with use for purification of water. (getfast.ca)
  • The other way of representing with simplicity the sodium hypochlorite chemical formula is NaOCl. (extramarks.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a highly active cytotoxic oxidant recognized to be among the most potent antiseptic and disinfectant agents against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a liquid chlorine compound that can be effectively used for water purification. (automatedaquatics.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in solution exhibits broad-spectrum anti-microbial ( bacteria, virus, fungi, and parasites) activity and is widely used in healthcare facilities in a variety of settings. (universe84a.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite (NAOCl or NaClO) is a chemical solution made up of chlorine and sodium hydroxide. (processinstruments.net)
  • Only the Echo Clean can also produce sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) because it requires the addition of Kosher Salt prior to the electrolysis process. (echoh2o.com)
  • Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) are both chlorine-based disinfectants with different chemical properties and applications. (echoh2o.com)
  • 1. NaOCl is an alkaline compound that forms when chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). (echoh2o.com)
  • Injection of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution instead of local anaesthetic (LA) solution is an iatrogenic error with serious consequences including medico-legal implications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution referred to as liquid bleach, which is a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid-type sodium hypochlorite solution is a clear, highly alkaline, and chlorine-based liquid that is used as a sanitizer, disinfectant, and bleach. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The solution contains dissolved Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), which provide disinfectant and alkaline properties, respectively. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Formula is a substance that is a commonly used chemical compound because one of its most common use of the compound is as a bleaching agent and disinfectant. (extramarks.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. (dspassociates.in)
  • Surface disinfectant and sterilization: Sodium hypochlorite is used to sanitize and disinfect surfaces and equipment in hospitals, laboratories, food processing plants, dairy farms, and other settings where sterile conditions are required. (arena-petrogas.com)
  • Pasteur figured out how to use sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant more than hundred years ago, but why it is so effective at germ killing is only now coming to light. (lpeds.com)
  • Also you can use hypochlorite disinfectant water to wash your fruits and vegetables from nasty agricultural pesticides and herbicides. (healthywaterhydration.com)
  • Our range of products include sodium hypochlorite solution, 10% sodium hypochlorite solution, 15% sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite disinfection solution, sodium hypochlorite chemical and sodium hypochlorite disinfectant corona covid 19 spray. (sahilchemicals.com)
  • Field preparation of sodium hypochlorite disinfectant, safe and reliable operation. (zkbetter-epe.com)
  • Our Epochem Sodium Hypochlorite is a chlorine compound often used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent. (gz-supplies.com)
  • A: Sodium hypochlorite is used as a disinfectant in water treatment, sanitation, and cleaning processes. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is the oldest and still most important chlorine-based bleach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical commonly found in bleach, water purifiers, and cleaning products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Industrial-strength bleach contains much higher concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). (medlineplus.gov)
  • hypochlorite if you use disinfectants like household bleach. (cdc.gov)
  • If you ingest a more concentrated commercial bleach (10% or hypochlorite can result in birth defects or other higher hypochlorite) or hypochlorite powder you may suffer developmental effects. (cdc.gov)
  • You should not use sodium hypochlorite topical if you are allergic to it, or if you are sensitive to chlorine products (such as bleach). (everydayhealth.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite topical may bleach colored fabric. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite (the chemical name for bleach) is an additive used in varying cleaning products including house wash mix. (ecolink.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) is well known for its ability to cut through inorganic and organic build up but depending on its toxicity, it is important to choose the right consistency for your cleaning applications. (ecolink.com)
  • Differing surfaces can be soiled by different materials and not all concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) may be appropriate for all applications. (ecolink.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) is used for disinfecting swimming pools and whirlpools. (automatedaquatics.com)
  • Paint industry: Sodium hypochlorite is used to bleach pigments and dyes for paint production. (arena-petrogas.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is also called bleach. (universe84a.com)
  • Nowadays, it is the most used hypochlorite bleach, accounting for more than 90% of global use, while calcium hypochlorite corresponds to the remainder. (intratec.us)
  • Household bleach is a 3-6% solution of the chemical sodium hypochlorite . (lpeds.com)
  • The HypoSense allows the user to measure the chlorine content of industrial sodium hypochlorite (industrial bleach) online, continuously. (processinstruments.net)
  • The Best Control Possible - for processes that require knowledge of the chlorine level in bleach such as in the manufacture of monochloramine (MCA), being able to use the actual chlorine content of the hypochlorite solution allows for tighter and better process control. (processinstruments.net)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite is commonly known as bleach and is often used for disinfection purposes. (processinstruments.net)
  • Industrial bleach is slightly different in that it is made up of sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide, usually with up to 16% active chlorine. (processinstruments.net)
  • Epochem Sodium hypochlorite appears as colorless or slightly yellow watery liquid with an odor of household bleach. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is also known as bleach and is a member of the chlorine family. (forceofnatureclean.com)
  • This chemical will be listed as chlorine bleach or as sodium hypochlorite [2]. (forceofnatureclean.com)
  • Read product labels and avoid products containing bleach or sodium hypochlorite [2]. (forceofnatureclean.com)
  • A fork lift dumps a load of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) bottles in the aisle just outside the paint booth. (nih.gov)
  • It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound is defined as the sodium salt that is formed when the hypochlorous acid is neutralised. (extramarks.com)
  • Comprising sodium cation and hypochlorite anion, this compound transforms into hypochlorous acid when dissolved in water, which is a key player in tackling stubborn stains and organic material on your patio. (elitejetting.co.uk)
  • Both hypochlorous acid and sodium hypochlorite are effective disinfectants, but their specific properties and applications can vary. (echoh2o.com)
  • To find a toxic chemical free cleaner, look for alternatives such as those using hypochlorous acid , a non toxic member of the chlorine family that is just as effective as sodium hypochlorite. (forceofnatureclean.com)
  • The concentrations of chloramine compounds (trichloramine and soluble chlorine [monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorite, and hypochlorous acid]) were significantly higher in the evisceration area than the dark meat area. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is highly effective at killing bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, making it a popular choice for disinfection and sanitization in various settings. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Numerous industries and applications utilize sodium hypochlorite solution for cleaning and disinfection. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The titanium anodes currently produced by our company are used in sanitation and disinfection: swimming pool disinfection, tableware disinfection, sanitation food disinfection and other sodium hypochlorite generators directly related to human health. (bjhighstar.com)
  • With excess ammonia and sodium hydroxide, hydrazine may be generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide or caustic soda, NaOH is used as a caustic base and alkali in a wide range of industries. (vaisala.com)
  • Typically, sodium hydroxide is delivered in 30-40% NaOH concentrations to customers, who will further dilute it with water for use at concentrations of 14-15 % NaOH. (vaisala.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Formula can be readily prepared from calcium hypochlorite, the reaction involves sodium carbonate with a mixture of calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2, calcium chloride CaCl2, and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. (extramarks.com)
  • This is dependent on the amount of sodium hydroxide that is present in the solution, although a pH of 12 to 14 is to be expected. (processinstruments.net)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite 12.5% is a very strong oxidizing agent with higher alkalinity. (surrychemicals.com)
  • Sodium and calcium hypochlorite are used primarily as these chemicals were added to kill bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hypochlorite topical is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Since it is so effective at eliminating bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that can cause infections and diseases, sodium hypochlorite solution is in high demand for cleaning and disinfecting applications. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is commonly used in swimming pools as a sanitizer and oxidizer to help control bacteria, algae, and other microorganisms in the water. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Human immune systems, it turns out, produce hypochlorite when battling bacteria infections. (lpeds.com)
  • The use of intelligent high-frequency electrolysis power makes YJ series sodium hypochlorite mixed high-efficiency sterilizer work more stable, and realize the full automatic operation of the equipment, and can be operated by remote computer or realize automatic closed cycle control with online flowmeter and residual chlorine meter. (zkbetter-epe.com)
  • The principle of the electrode method for producing sodium hypochlorite is to produce sodium hypochlorite by a homogeneous secondary chemical reaction using a diaphragmless electrolysis. (bjhighstar.com)
  • Vancouver, B.C., February 03, 2023 - The global sodium hypochlorite solution market size reached USD 289.6 Million in 2022 and is expected to register a revenue CAGR of 4.5% during the forecast period, according to latest analysis by Emergen Research. (emergenresearch.com)
  • It is manufactured by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. (vaisala.com)
  • The reaction principle of the anode is to electrolyze sodium chloride (pill) in the swimming pool. (bjhighstar.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is generally used dissolved in water at ` Sodium and calcium hypochlorite do not accumulate in the various concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is generally used dissolved in water at various concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solutions decompose slowly at normal temperatures releasing low concentrations of corrosive chlorinegos. (imee.in)
  • The chemical compound of the Sodium Hypochlorite Formula can be described to be simply a sodium salt that has hypochlorite as a counterion attached to it. (extramarks.com)
  • The chemical compound of Sodium Hypochlorite Formula is commonly known as the bleaching agent and disinfecting agent. (extramarks.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is an oxidizer , which is a chemical, usually containing oxygen, that readily shares oxygen with another compound. (lpeds.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Government regulations play an important part in driving revenue growth in the sodium hypochlorite solution market by establishing guidelines for the chemical's manufacturing and usage. (emergenresearch.com)
  • In addition, regulations may also mandate the use of sodium hypochlorite solution for certain applications, such as water treatment and sanitation, further driving the market revenue growth. (emergenresearch.com)
  • This can make sodium hypochlorite solution more accessible and affordable for a wider range of customers, which can raise the demand for the product. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Environmental concerns can be a significant restraint on the revenue growth of the Sodium Hypochlorite Solution market. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Solution can be harmful to the environment if not handled and disposed of properly, this can lead to regulations being put in place to limit its use or production. (emergenresearch.com)
  • In addition, Sodium Hypochlorite Solution can generate chlorine gas if mixed with certain other chemicals, which can be harmful to the environment and human health. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is used for the sanitation of food processing facilities, hospitals, and other public places to ensure a high level of hygiene. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is used in the treatment of produced water, which is water that is brought to the surface during the production of oil and gas. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is used in the power generation industry for the treatment of cooling water, boiler feed water, and other process water. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The invention provides a weak alkaline sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution, a preparation method and application thereof, and belongs to the technical field of electrolytic water treatment. (google.com)
  • The invention prepares weak alkaline sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution by adopting a corresponding diaphragm-free electrolysis device to electrolyze and mix dilute brine, and the solution contains low-concentration effective chlorine, has a pH value close to neutral and has relatively low irritation and corrosiveness. (google.com)
  • Experiments prove that the weak alkaline sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution prepared by the method has strong sterilization capability, and has the advantages of rapidness, high efficiency, safety and the like. (google.com)
  • Strong chlorine solution" is a 0.5% solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately 5000 ppm free chlorine) used for disinfecting areas contaminated with body fluids, including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected). (universe84a.com)
  • Additionally, strength can be simply measured as the weight percent of sodium hypochlorite in solution. (intratec.us)
  • Also check Sodium Hypochlorite Solution price history since 2007. (intratec.us)
  • Subscribe now to Intratec Primary Commodity Prices and gain access to current prices of 244 commodities, including Sodium Hypochlorite Solution. (intratec.us)
  • The municipal water system chlorinates city water with a 15% solution of sodium hypochlorite and the city parks department chlorinates the public pools with a 30% solution of sodium hypochlorite. (lpeds.com)
  • 1) The sodium hypochlorite solution 1: 800 destroyed P. aeraginosa, E. coli, K. pneomoniue and S. aweas in 5 minutes. (ekja.org)
  • 3) The sodium hypochlorite solution 1: 800 prevented contamination of the irrigation fluids during a 24 hour exposure to the ICU environment. (ekja.org)
  • This helps increase residence time and heats transfer in each cell-pass, as well as helps minimize the size of the hydrogen bubbles which leads to better process efficiency and higher-quality hypochlorite solution. (sodium-hypochloritegenerator.com)
  • The hypochlorite storage tank must be connected to the common outlet pipe for the hypochlorite and hydrogen solution. (sodium-hypochloritegenerator.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite in 0.5% w/v solution is called Dakin's solution, and is used as an antiseptic to clean infected topical wounds. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a clear, slightly yellowish solution with a characteristic odor. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite has a relative density of is 1,1 (5,5% watery solution). (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is a weak base that is inflammable. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Compared with liquid chlorine and sodium hypochlorite products on the market, the directly generating fresh and highly active sodium hypochlorite technology by electrolyzing seawater(or brine)without diaphragm not only has the advantages of low running cost and more efficient chlorine sterilization capacity, but also avoid the second pollution to the environment and the shortcomings of tending to hurt operators in the procedure of shipping, storage and application. (lctech-engineering.com)
  • Although available, solid sodium food chain. (cdc.gov)
  • Although available, solid sodium hypochlorite is not commercially used. (cdc.gov)
  • The sodium chlorite formula is written as NaClO. (extramarks.com)
  • id":4773195186220,"title":"Sodium Hypochlorite - Cerkamed","handle":"sodium-hypochlorite-cerkamed","description":"\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCHLORAXID 2% NaClO Used During Mechanical Expansion of The Root Canal it Removes Remains of a Dead Pulp. (dentamaze.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is mainly produced through chlorine contact with diluted caustic soda (NaOH). (intratec.us)
  • In water and soil, sodium and calcium hypochlorite primarily to the corrosive properties of hypochlorite. (cdc.gov)
  • Household bleaches usually contain about 5% sodium hypochlorite (about pH11, irritant), and more concentrated bleaches contain 10-15% sodium hypochlorite (about pH13, corrosive). (inchem.org)
  • If it is more concentrated, it contains a concentration 10-15% sodium hypochlorite (with a pH of around 13, it burns and is corrosive). (gz-supplies.com)
  • This also happens when sodium hypochlorite comes in contact with acids, sunlight, certain metals and poisonous and corrosive gasses, including chlorine gas. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Colorsafe bleaches , on the other hand, contain much weaker oxidizers ( hydrogen peroxide or sodium percarbonate ) which, given enough time, are strong enough to tackle common stains but are over matched by durable industrial dyes. (lpeds.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite disintegrates if it contacts acids or certain metals creating flammable hydrogen gas or poisonous chlorine gas. (bigshotsupplies.ca)
  • Odor removal: Sodium hypochlorite is used to eliminate unpleasant smells from various sources, such as garbage, sewage, animal waste, industrial waste, and smoke. (arena-petrogas.com)
  • Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite can be prepared but, like many hypochlorites, it is highly unstable and decomposes explosively on heating or friction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is unstable. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is unstable and easily decomposes, liberating toxic chlorine gas, which is the active principle of such products. (bigshotsupplies.ca)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about sodium and calcium hypochlorite. (cdc.gov)
  • HIGHLIGHTS: The general public can be exposed to small amounts of sodium and calcium hypochlorite by using household products that contain these chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium and calcium hypochlorite can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium and calcium hypochlorite have been found 6 times each in the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • What are sodium and calcium hypochlorite? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to sodium and calcium of chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • You can be exposed to low levels of sodium and calcium naturally in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to sodium and calcium hypochlorite when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • If you inhale chlorine gas released from concentrated or calcium hypochlorite. (cdc.gov)
  • hypochlorite solutions you may experience nasal irritation, ` Household products containing sodium or calcium sore throat, and coughing. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium hypochlorite is a white solid that readily decomposes in water releasing oxygen and chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium and calcium hypochlorite are used primarily as bleaching agents or disinfectants. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary amines and calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite react to form normal chloramines, which are explosive. (nuvestchem.com)
  • Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite is soluble in methanol, and solutions are stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact of strong hypochlorite hypochlorite should be stored in safe locations, out of the solutions with your skin may cause burning pain, reach of children. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, technological advancements also may lead to the creation of new applications for sodium hypochlorite solutions, such as in agriculture and healthcare, further expanding the potential market. (emergenresearch.com)
  • These concerns can make it difficult for companies to sell sodium hypochlorite solutions, as customers may be hesitant to use a product that may harm the environment. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The food & beverage sector, agriculture, water treatment, and other industries all employ liquid sodium hypochlorite solutions. (emergenresearch.com)
  • The growing need for water treatment, sanitation, and bleaching solutions across various industrial sectors is driving the market for sodium hypochlorite solutions. (emergenresearch.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solutions are also available from dental suppliers. (uzh.ch)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite solutions should be stored at a temperature below 15 °C, away from acids, and protected from direct sunlight. (intratec.us)
  • For industrial purposes, fiberglass reinforced plastic, chlorobutyl rubber-lined, and polyethylene tanks are preferred to store Sodium Hypochlorite solutions. (intratec.us)
  • For small quantities, Sodium Hypochlorite solutions are transported by containers (500 mL to 20 L). (intratec.us)
  • Revitalising your outdoor space starts with effective cleaning solutions, and sodium hypochlorite is a great method. (elitejetting.co.uk)
  • 2) Viable P. aeraginosa was not detected immediately, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after exposure to 1: 500, 1: 800 and 1: 1000 sodium hypochloride solutions respectively. (ekja.org)
  • In Group A -11% Ethanolic extract of propolis and in Group B - 3% sodium hypochlorite were used as the irrigating solutions. (journalcra.com)
  • Agriculture industry: Sodium hypochlorite is used to disinfect irrigation water and soil for crops. (arena-petrogas.com)
  • The effects of sodium hypochlorite for the destruction of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonias and S. anreas and for the prevention of contamination of irrigation fluid, which is either exposed to ICU environment or used for cleansing oral or trachea catheter tips, were tested and the following results were obtained. (ekja.org)
  • It is concluded that the use of fluid containing sodium hypochlorite for the irrigation of catheter tips can reduce development of infections in the ICU patients. (ekja.org)
  • Although sodium hypochlorite remains a well accepted choice for irrigation, it possesses certain disadvantages like burning of surrounding tissues, damage to the permanent tooth follicles, tissue necrosis and chemical burns. (journalcra.com)
  • Breathing sodium hypochlorite fumes may also cause poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dilute sodium hypochlorite has no contraindications. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] Dilute sodium hypochlorite rinse (0.5%) has produced a 47% greater reduction in dental plaque mass compared with water rinsing. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Formula is also known as sodium oxychloride by many people. (extramarks.com)
  • The Sodium Hypochlorite Formula is the same as the sodium oxychloride formula and many people can call it that interchangeably. (extramarks.com)
  • Sodium oxychloride is the alternative name for Sodium Hypochlorite Formula. (extramarks.com)
  • The IUPAC or the accepted name of sodium oxychloride is sodium hypochlorite. (extramarks.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a strong oxidator and reacts with flammable compounds and reductors. (gz-supplies.com)
  • Besides that, a 100mL sample of the sodium hypochlorite irrigant used by them was collected. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: The present study puts forth the use of propolis as an effective root canal irrigant in pediatric patients with anti-microbial efficacy comparable to sodium hypochlorite. (journalcra.com)
  • If you are in need of sodium hypochlorite house wash mix Contact Ecolink here and learn about the right chemicals for your needs. (ecolink.com)
  • Once on the loose in the wash, sodium hypochlorite attacks the stain in two ways. (lpeds.com)
  • Apple Wash, Apple Boost, Dragon Grip and Agent Green were designed specifically for use with Sodium Hypochlorite. (bigshotsupplies.ca)
  • These are very important uses because the Sodium Hypochlorite Formula can kill any microorganisms. (extramarks.com)
  • 3. Can sodium hypochlorite be used to disinfect drinking water? (gz-supplies.com)
  • Known for its powerful stain-removing properties and versatile application, sodium hypochlorite is not just a cleaning agent, but a transformative tool for patios and outdoor areas. (elitejetting.co.uk)
  • Sodium hypochlorite's ability to adapt to various surfaces makes it a go-to choice for patio cleaning. (elitejetting.co.uk)
  • Watered-down (diluted) sodium hypochlorite generally causes only mild stomach irritation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ToxFAQsTM Internet address is http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html hypochlorite) you may experience gastrointestinal irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Delicate Surfaces: For more delicate surfaces, it's crucial to adjust the application strength of the sodium hypochlorite to prevent any potential damage. (elitejetting.co.uk)
  • Can transport sodium hypochlorite liquid of any concentration without particles. (rister-cn.com)
  • In this study, some characteristics of commonly used sodium hypochlorite irrigants were investigated, such as: concentration, pH, and storage conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • HypoSense exploits this science and measures the amount of light absorbed across the measurement path to calculate the concentration of chlorine in the hypochlorite. (processinstruments.net)
  • 6000-8000 ppm concentration Hypochlorite Sodium Generator on sale is our newly-developed product and goes on sale starting now. (zkbetter-epe.com)
  • The sodium hypochlorite generator is divided into two categories according to the intended use for sanitation and environmental protection. (bjhighstar.com)
  • In terms of environmental protection, there are mainly sewage treatment plants for hospitals and sodium hypochlorite generators for various industrial wastewater treatments. (bjhighstar.com)
  • SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE can be found in 129 products. (ewg.org)
  • Medical applications: Sodium hypochlorite is used to clean wounds and skin ulcers, prevent or treat skin infections, remove mold and dental stains, and synthesize pharmaceutical products. (arena-petrogas.com)
  • What products is sodium hypochlorite in? (forceofnatureclean.com)