A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
'Chemical burns' is a medical term that refers to injuries resulting from skin or eye contact with harmful substances, such as acids, alkalis, or irritants, which can cause damage ranging from mild irritation to severe necrosis and scarring.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor on corneal cytokine expression after alkali injury. (1/440)

PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-6 levels in the cornea are greatly elevated during the early stages after an alkali burn in mice. The authors investigated the effect of synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (SIMP) on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in alkali-burned murine corneas and evaluated the clinical appearance of the eyes. METHODS: After 0.5N NaOH-alkali burns to 400 corneas of ICR mice, 200 received 400 microg/ml of SIMP topically 4 times a day while 200 corneas were similarly treated with vehicle only. At days 4, 7 and 14 after injury, each cornea was assigned a clinical score for corneal opacity, corneal epithelial defect, hyphema and cataract. Extracts of injured corneas in each group were then assayed for cytokine production using ELISA systems for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). RESULTS: The levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 were significantly lower in the SIMP-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group 7 days after the burn. However, levels of these cytokines were similar in the SIMP and non-SIMP groups at days 4 and 14. Levels of TNF-alpha did not differ between both groups at any postinjury time. In the SIMP-treated corneas, there was less opacification and hyphema formation and epithelial regeneration was faster. CONCLUSIONS: Topical application of SIMP in alkali-burned murine corneas reduced the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 and lessened the severity of the injury.  (+info)

The effects of ouabain and potassium on peritoneal fluid and solute transport characteristics. (2/440)

BACKGROUND: We reported anomalous transport characteristics of potassium during experimental peritoneal dialysis in rats and suggested that mechanisms of peritoneal potassium transport could be other than simple passive transport. Intracellular transport of potassium in cultured human mesothelial cells was reported to be regulated by three different pathways, such as channels blocked by ouabain, channels blocked by furosemide, and other. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ouabain on peritoneal potassium and water transport characteristics. METHODS: A single 4-hour peritoneal dwell was performed in 28 Sprague-Dawley rats. To minimize the diffusive transport of potassium, 4.5 mmol/L of KCl was added into conventional dialysis solution with 3.86% glucose [acidic peritoneal dialysis solution (APD)]. To evaluate the effect of the pH of dialysis solution on the transport of potassium and water, 4 mmol/L of NaOH was added into the potassium-containing study solutions [neutral peritoneal dialysis solution (NPD)]. To evaluate the effect of a potassium channel blocker on peritoneal potassium transport ATPase sensitive Na+-K+-transport inhibitor, ouabain (10(-5) mmol/L) was added to dialysis solutions immediately before the dwell study in eight rats with APD (APD-O) and six rats with NPD (NPD-O). Ouabain was not added in eight and six rats with APD and NPD (APD-C and NPD-C, respectively). They were used as control. Infusion volume was 30 mL. The intraperitoneal volume (V(D)) was estimated by using a volume marker dilution method with corrections for the elimination of volume marker, radioiodinated human serum albumin (RISA), from the peritoneal cavity (K(E)). The diffusive mass transport coefficient (K(BD)) and sieving coefficient (S) were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. RESULTS: V(D) was significantly higher (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min) and K(E) (0.027+/-0.018 mL/min for APD-O, 0.026+/-0.017 mL/min for NPD-O, and 0.030+/-0.022 mL/min for NPD-C, vs 0.058+/-0.030 mL/min for APD-C, p < 0.05 for each) significantly lower during dialysis with APD-O, NPD-O, and NPD-C than with APD-C. The intraperitoneal glucose expressed as a percentage of the initial amount was significantly higher with APD-O, NPD-C, and NPD-O than with APD-C (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min). K(BD) for sodium was higher during dialysis with ouabain than without ouabain, while K(BD) for urea, glucose, and potassium, and S for urea, glucose, sodium, and potassium did not differ between the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: The physiologic potassium concentration in neutral dialysis solutions and the use of ouabain decreased the intraperitoneal fluid absorption. The diffusive transport coefficient and sieving coefficient for potassium did not differ, while the diffusive transport coefficient for sodium increased during use of ouabain.  (+info)

The molecular basis of the solution properties of hyaluronan investigated by confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. (3/440)

Hyaluronan (HA) is a highly hydrated polyanion, which is a network-forming and space-filling component in the extracellular matrix of animal tissues. Confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (confocal-FRAP) was used to investigate intramolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions in hyaluronan solutions. Self and tracer lateral diffusion coefficients within hyaluronan solutions were measured over a wide range of concentrations (c), with varying electrolyte and at neutral and alkaline pH. The free diffusion coefficient of fluoresceinamine-labeled HA of 500 kDa in PBS was 7.9 x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) and of 830 kDa HA was 5.6 x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1). Reductions in self- and tracer-diffusion with c followed a stretched exponential model. Electrolyte-induced polyanion coil contraction and destiffening resulted in a 2.8-fold increase in self-diffusion between 0 and 100 mM NaCl. Disruption of hydrogen bonds by strong alkali (0.5 M NaOH) resulted in further larger increases in self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients, consistent with a more dynamic and permeable network. Concentrated hyaluronan solution properties were attributed to hydrodynamic and entanglement interactions between domains. There was no evidence of chain-chain associations. At physiological electrolyte concentration and pH, the greatest contribution to the intrinsic stiffness of hyaluronan appeared to be due to hydrogen bonds between adjacent saccharides.  (+info)

Recovery of mycobacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis. (4/440)

Despite decontamination, overgrowth by pseudomonads renders cultural isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) difficult or impossible. We performed a prospective study by comparing levels of reduction of overgrowth and recovery of mycobacteria using either pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH alone or pretreatment with NALC-NaOH and then with oxalic acid. From 406 specimens of 148 CF patients, 11 specimens were positive for mycobacteria, 5 of which grew mycobacteria after decontamination by either procedure. Three specimens grew mycobacteria only after decontamination with NALC-NaOH, whereas three specimens grew mycobacteria only after treatment with NALC-NaOH followed by oxalic acid but were overgrown after decontamination with NALC-NaOH. Thus, inactivation of mycobacteria by the more aggressive oxalic acid treatment offsets its beneficial effect of reducing the proportion of cultures overgrown with microorganisms other than mycobacteria.  (+info)

Association of bacteriochlorophyll a with the CsmA protein in chlorosomes of the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (5/440)

The protein assumed to be associated with bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a in chlorosomes from the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus was investigated by alkaline treatment, proteolytic digestion and a new treatment using 1-hexanol, sodium cholate and Triton X-100. Upon alkaline treatment, only the 5.7 kDa CsmA protein was removed from the chlorosomes among six proteins detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, concomitantly with the disappearance of BChl a absorption at 795 nm. Trypsin treatment removed two proteins with molecular masses of 11 and 18 kDa (CsmN and CmsM), whereas the spectral properties of BChl a and BChl c were not changed. By the new hexanol-detergent (HD) treatment, most BChl c and all of the detected proteins except CsmA were removed from the chlorosomes without changing the BChl a spectral properties. Subsequent proteinase K treatment of these HD-treated chlorosomes caused digestion of CsmA and a simultaneous decrease of the BChl a absorption band. Based on these results, we suggest that CsmA is associated with BChl a in the chlorosomes. This suggestion was supported by the measured stoichiometric ratio of BChl a to CsmA in isolated chlorosomes, which was estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.7 by amino acid analysis of the SDS-PAGE-resolved protein bands.  (+info)

The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of core-lipid A region ofthe lipopolysaccharides from Proteus mirabilis wild-type strain S1959 (serotype O3) and its Ra mutant R110/1959. (6/440)

The following structure of core-lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus mirabilis strain 1959 (serotype O3) and its rough mutant R110/1959 (Proteus type II core) was determined using NMR and chemical analysis of the core oligosaccharide, obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS, and of the products of alkaline deacylation of the LPS: Incomplete substitutions are indicated by italics. All sugars are in pyranose form, alpha-Hep is the residue Lglycero-alpha-Dmanno-Hep, alpha-DD-Hep is the residue Dglycero-alpha-Dmanno-Hep. The differences with the previously reported structures are discussed.  (+info)

A comparison of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide digestion of mouse hair in the recovery of radioactivity following systemic administration of [3H]-nicotine and [3H]-flunitrazepam. (7/440)

Pigmented (C57BI) and nonpigmented (balb/c) mice, 25 days of age, were treated intraperitoneally with [3H]-nicotine (4 mg/kg, 555 dpm/ng) or [3H]-flunitrazepam (1 mg/kg, 2200 dpm/ng) daily for three days. After 21 days, shaved back hair was digested at 37 degrees C for 24 h with either 1 M sodium hydroxide or 1 M sodium sulfide. With both drugs, sodium sulfide extraction removed the same amount of radioactivity as sodium hydroxide from nonpigmented hair. However, sodium sulfide removed significantly more radioactivity from pigmented hair than did sodium hydroxide. In pigmented hair, sodium sulfide solubilized 35% and 74% of the flunitrazepam- and nicotine-associated radioactivity, respectively. Of this, 12% and 43%, respectively, could be partitioned into ethyl acetate. Microscopic examination of residual pellets after digestion demonstrated a more thorough dissolution of the hair shaft with sodium sulfide with only melanosomes remaining. The results demonstrate the significant interaction of flunitrazepam and nicotine with melanins and the utility of sodium sulfide in increasing drug recovery.  (+info)

Compound A does not accumulate during closed circuit sevoflurane anaesthesia with the Physioflex. (8/440)

We have investigated inspiratory and end-tidal gas composition during sevoflurane anaesthesia in a closed circle system with continuous gas flow (70 litre min-1, Physioflex) to determine possible accumulation of sevoflurane degradation products. During five abdominal operations in adults lasting more than 2 h, anaesthesia was maintained with an end-tidal concentration of 2% sevoflurane in 40% oxygen-air. The circle included an absorbing canister filled with 1 litre of fresh soda lime. Samples were obtained at the end of an expiration from the tracheal tube and from the inspiratory limb before, and at selected times after, addition of sevoflurane. The temperature of soda lime was 24.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C at the beginning and reached a maximum of 31.2 +/- 1.0 degrees C after 20-30 min, followed by a plateau. Inspiratory compound A (CH2F-O-C(= CF2)(CF3)) 3-8 ppm was detected after 10 min, but did not accumulate in the circle over 2 h without flushing. Expired concentrations were consistently lower with 1.5-3 ppm signalling absorption by patients. Calculated total amounts absorbed over 2 h varied between 2.0 and 7.2 ppm h. Other degradation products such as compound B or methanol were not detected. In summary, we did not detect sevoflurane metabolites with soda lime in significant amounts during closed circle anaesthesia with the Physioflex. The observed concentrations of compound A were below the threshold of nephrotoxicity in rats by a factor of more than 20.  (+info)

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

In medical terms, "caustics" refer to substances that can cause burns or destroy living tissue due to their corrosive nature. They can cause chemical burns upon contact with skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and potential scarring. Common caustic substances include strong acids and bases, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide (lye).

In dermatology, the term "caustics" may also refer to chemical peeling agents used for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as hyperpigmentation, acne scars, or fine lines. These substances, which include trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and phenol, cause a controlled injury to the skin, leading to exfoliation and the stimulation of new tissue growth. However, they must be used with caution, as improper application can result in unwanted side effects or complications.

Alkalies are a type of basic compound that has a pH level greater than 7. They are also known as bases and can neutralize acids. Alkalies can react with acids to form salts and water. Some common alkalies include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide. When in solution, alkalies can increase the pH level of a substance, making it more basic or alkaline. They are widely used in various industries for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and processing.

Chemical burns are a type of tissue injury that results from exposure to strong acids, bases, or other corrosive chemicals. These substances can cause damage by reacting chemically with the skin or other tissues, leading to destruction of cells and potentially serious harm. The severity of a chemical burn depends on several factors, including the type and concentration of the chemical, the duration of exposure, and the amount of body surface area affected.

Chemical burns can occur through direct contact with the skin or eyes, inhalation of toxic fumes, or ingestion of harmful substances. Symptoms may include redness, pain, blistering, swelling, and irritation at the site of contact. In severe cases, chemical burns can lead to scarring, disability, or even death.

Immediate medical attention is required for chemical burns, as they can continue to cause damage until the source of the injury is removed, and appropriate first aid measures are taken. Treatment typically involves thorough cleaning and irrigation of the affected area, followed by administration of pain medication and other supportive care as needed. In some cases, skin grafting or other surgical interventions may be required to promote healing and minimize scarring.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Eye burns typically refer to injuries or damage to the eyes caused by exposure to harmful substances, extreme temperatures, or radiation. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including redness, pain, tearing, swelling, and blurred vision.

Chemical eye burns can occur when the eyes come into contact with strong acids, alkalis, or other irritants. These substances can cause damage to the cornea, conjunctiva, and other structures of the eye. The severity of the burn will depend on the type and concentration of the chemical, as well as the length of time it was in contact with the eye.

Thermal eye burns can result from exposure to hot or cold temperatures, such as steam, flames, or extreme cold. These types of burns can cause damage to the surface of the eye and may require medical attention to prevent further complications.

Radiation eye burns can occur after exposure to high levels of ultraviolet (UV) light, such as from welding torches, sun lamps, or tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to these sources can cause damage to the cornea and other structures of the eye, leading to symptoms like pain, redness, and sensitivity to light.

If you experience symptoms of an eye burn, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Treatment may include flushing the eyes with water or saline solution, administering medication to relieve pain and inflammation, or in severe cases, surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Hydroxides are inorganic compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH−). They are formed when a base, which is an electron pair donor, reacts with water. The hydroxide ion consists of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, and it carries a negative charge. Hydroxides are basic in nature due to their ability to donate hydroxide ions in solution, which increases the pH and makes the solution more alkaline. Common examples of hydroxides include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). They have various applications in industry, medicine, and research.

Medically, hair is defined as a threadlike structure that grows from the follicles found in the skin of mammals. It is primarily made up of a protein called keratin and consists of three parts: the medulla (the innermost part or core), the cortex (middle layer containing keratin filaments) and the cuticle (outer layer of overlapping scales).

Hair growth occurs in cycles, with each cycle consisting of a growth phase (anagen), a transitional phase (catagen), and a resting phase (telogen). The length of hair is determined by the duration of the anagen phase.

While hair plays a crucial role in protecting the skin from external factors like UV radiation, temperature changes, and physical damage, it also serves as an essential aspect of human aesthetics and identity.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of ammonia (NH3) in water, and it is also known as aqua ammonia or ammonia water. It has the chemical formula NH4OH. This solution is composed of ammonium ions (NH4+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), making it a basic or alkaline substance with a pH level greater than 7.

Ammonium hydroxide is commonly used in various industrial, agricultural, and laboratory applications. It serves as a cleaning agent, a pharmaceutical aid, a laboratory reagent, and a component in fertilizers. In chemistry, it can be used to neutralize acids or act as a base in acid-base reactions.

Handling ammonium hydroxide requires caution due to its caustic nature. It can cause burns and eye damage upon contact, and inhalation of its vapors may lead to respiratory irritation. Proper safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear, should be taken when handling this substance.

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. It is a white solid that is amphoteric, meaning it can react as both an acid and a base. Magnesium hydroxide is commonly used as an over-the-counter antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. It works by increasing the pH of the stomach, which can help to reduce the production of stomach acid.

Magnesium hydroxide is also used as a laxative to relieve constipation, as it has a softening effect on stools and stimulates bowel movements. In addition, magnesium hydroxide is sometimes used in medical procedures to neutralize or wash away stomach acid, for example during endoscopies or the treatment of poisoning.

It's important to note that while magnesium hydroxide is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps. In addition, people with kidney disease or severe heart or lung conditions should use magnesium hydroxide with caution, as it can worsen these conditions in some cases.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

... is a popular strong base used in industry. Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of sodium salts and ... Sodium hydroxide is used for hard bar soap, while potassium hydroxide is used for liquid soaps. Sodium hydroxide is used more ... Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an ... Sodium hydroxide was first prepared by soap makers.: p45 A procedure for making sodium hydroxide appeared as part of a recipe ...
Toxicology, National Research Council (US) Committee on (1984). SODIUM HYDROXIDE. National Academies Press (US). Archived from ... It is then desalted to remove inorganic salts (primarily sodium chloride). Following the desalter, the crude oil is further ...
Sodium Hydroxide is also another chemical that was found. This chemical has no odor, but it is a white, solid. In order to be ... Sodium Hydroxide could also can be very destructive to tissues. Adding to the list, chromic acid was also another chemical ... "SODIUM HYDROXIDE". Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2017. "CHROMIC ACID". Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 ... Another chemical that was found was sodium peroxide. This is a yellow, white powder that is odorless, and one can get exposed ...
Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and the hydroxides of the other alkali metals are also strong bases. Beryllium hydroxide ... Gallium hydroxide, indium hydroxide, and thallium(III) hydroxide are also amphoteric. Thallium(I) hydroxide is a strong base. ... Potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide are two well-known reagents in organic chemistry. The hydroxide ion may act as a base ... The hydroxide ion by itself is not a strong enough base, but it can be converted in one by adding sodium hydroxide to ethanol ...
DS-2 is 70% diethylene triamine; 28% ethylene glycol monomethyl ether; and 2% sodium hydroxide. It is not known if the DS-2 was ...
Sodium and/or potassium hydroxide. Household substances in dry forms such as granules, powder, and flakes containing 10% or ... Sodium fluoride drug preparations including liquid and tablet forms containing no more than 110 mg of sodium fluoride per ... more by weight of free or chemically deneutralized sodium and/or potassium hydroxide. Turpentine. Household substances in ...
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) produces "hard" soaps; hard soaps can also be used in water containing Mg, Cl, and Ca salts. By ... Typically aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions are used. When the carboxylate is long chain, its salt is called a soap. The ... The hydroxide anion adds to the carbonyl group of the ester. The immediate product is called an orthoester. Expulsion of the ... Some soap-makers, precipitate the soap by salting it out with sodium chloride. Fat in a corpse converts into adipocere, often ...
Sodium hydroxide solution partially dissolves MoTe2. Another molybdenum telluride has formula Mo2Te3. Yet another molybdenum ... The sheets in α-MoTe2 can be separated and dispersed in water with a sodium cholate surfactant and sonication. It forms an ...
A solution of sodium fluoroberyllate and sodium hydroxide in water is then used to form beryllium hydroxide by precipitation. ... This procedure can be done using reagents such as calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or sodium phosphate. A more common method ... It dissolves in concentrated sodium hydroxide. Be + NaOH + 2H2O → Na[Be(OH)3] + H2 Reaction with alkyl halides Magnesium reacts ... Most beryllium is extracted from beryllium hydroxide. One production method is sintering, done by mixing beryl, sodium ...
"Products of the Sodium Hydroxide Tree" (PDF). WorldChlorine.org. Retrieved 17 June 2019. This article incorporates text from a ... Sodium alum is also used as an acidity regulator in food, with E number E521. Sodium alum is also a common mordant for the ... Sodium aluminum sulfate is produced by combining sodium sulfate and aluminium sulfate. An estimated 3000 ton/y (2003) are ... some brands combine sodium aluminum sulfate with sodium bicarbonate and monocalcium phosphate in formulations of double acting ...
A common example is sodium hydroxide (NaOH). base anhydride An oxide of a group I or II metal element. beaker A cylindrical ... sodium hydroxide (NaOH). hydroxy hygroscopy Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also ... For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) is the solute in a solution of saline water. solution A homogeneous mixture made up of ... hydroxide A diatomic anion consisting of a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an oxygen atom, having an overall negative charge ...
Developers originally often contained sodium hydroxide (NaOH). However, sodium is considered an extremely undesirable ... Metal-ion-free developers such as tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) are now used. The resulting wafer is then "hard-baked" ... contaminant in MOSFET fabrication because it degrades the insulating properties of gate oxides (specifically, sodium ions can ...
... dissolves in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide; reacts with lead- and copper-based pigments (such as lead white and ...
Deprotonation with sodium hydroxide gives sodium trimethylsiloxide. TMS reacts with the silanol groups (R3SiOH) giving silyl ...
Caustic paint removers, typically sodium hydroxide (also known as lye or caustic soda), work by breaking down the chemical ... Alkaline activators are usually based on sodium hydroxide. Some cosolvents double as activators. Amine activators, alkalines ... The most common sequestrants used in paint strippers are EDTA, tributyl phosphate, and sodium phosphate. Colorants may be added ... Anionic surfactants (e.g., dodecyl benzenesulfonate or sodium xylene sulfonate) are used for acidic formulas, cationic or non- ...
Typical bases are sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The process occurs in two steps, illustrated with the hydroxide: HF + ... Sodium bifluoride has a number of applications in industry. Sodium bifluoride dissociates to hydrofluoric acid and sodium ... sodium peroxide, diethyl sulfoxide, and diethylzinc. The main role of sodium bifluoride is as a precursor to sodium fluoride, ... For example, calcium hydroxide gives calcium fluoride. Sodium bifluoride is produced by neutralizing waste hydrogen fluoride, ...
Bases Sodium hydroxide - household chemical for drain cleaning. Other 3% hydrogen peroxide - common skin disinfectant. Pure ...
... and sodium hydroxide are the most consistent. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of sodium hydroxide. Sterilization can ... July 2006). "Critical factors influencing prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide". Vox Sanguinis. 91 (1): 34-40. doi:10.1111/j. ... and sodium hydroxide reduce prion levels by more than 4 logs; chlorine (too corrosive to use on certain objects) ...
Waste products are sodium chloride, water and excess sodium hydroxide (alkaline brine). One of the quality control tests would ... The next step is dehydrochlorination with sodium hydroxide. This forms the diglycidyl ether. ...
Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Alcohols are sometimes used to precipitate the NaF:[citation ... Sodium pyrophosphate and Sodium orthovanadate are also used for this purpose. Sodium fluoride is used as a cleaning agent (e.g ... Sodium fluoride is an inorganic ionic compound, dissolving in water to give separated Na+ and F− ions. Like sodium chloride, it ... Like other fluorides, sodium fluoride finds use in desilylation in organic synthesis. Sodium fluoride can be used to produce ...
Distilling with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) produced ammonia (NH3). The anions of hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) precipitated as ... Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III: Halides, Hydroxides, ... "Effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 6 GPa on the crystal structures of ammonium and sodium hexafluorosilicates, (NH4)2SiF6 and ...
Waste products are sodium chloride, water and excess sodium hydroxide (alkaline brine). As the molecule has 3 oxirane ... The next step is dehydrochlorination with sodium hydroxide. This forms the triglycidyl ether. ...
The next step is dehydrochlorination with sodium hydroxide. This forms the triglycidyl ether. As the molecule has 3 oxirane ...
In molten sodium hydroxide it forms sodium rhenate. Rhenium(VI) oxide, or rhenium trioxide, is another oxide of rhenium. It is ... G. Glemser "Sodium Rhenate (IV)" Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963 ... It is possible to reduce this dimer with sodium amalgam to Na[Re(CO)5] with rhenium in the formal oxidation state −1. ... Rhenium is most available commercially as salts of perrhenate, including sodium and ammonium perrhenates. These are white, ...
Its preparation involves reacting sodium hydroxide with selenium dioxide. "Sodium hydrogen selenite". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ... Sodium hydrogen selenite is an inorganic chemical consisting of a ratio of one hydrogen, one sodium, three oxygen, and one ... It is the sodium salt of the conjugate base of selenous acid. This compound finds therapeutic application for providing the ... "Sodium hydrogen selenite (PubChem)". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2023-08-09. (Articles needing additional ...
"On the porosification of LTCC substrates with sodium hydroxide". Composites Part B: Engineering. 157: 14-23. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Porosification behaviour of LTCC substrates with potassium hydroxide". Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 38 (5): 2369- ...
The method has been in use since World War I. A heavy steel pressure vessel is filled with sodium hydroxide and ferrosilicon, ... The chemical reaction uses sodium hydroxide, ferrosilicon, and water. The generator is small enough to fit a truck and requires ... sodium silicate, hydrogen and steam are produced. Biological hydrogen can be produced in an algae bioreactor. In the late 1990s ... closed, and a controlled amount of water is added; the dissolving of the hydroxide heats the mixture to about 93 °C and starts ...
Sodium hydroxide is added to make the solution basic. The solution is extracted with chloroform and then dried with magnesium ...
Storage over sodium hydroxide precipitates the intermediate ether hydroperoxides. Water and peroxides can be removed by either ... distillation from sodium and benzophenone, or by passing through a column of activated alumina. The compound may have been ...
... in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide the sodium and chloride ions, Na+ and Cl− take no part in the ... For example, sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is a strong base. NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH−(aq) Therefore, when a strong acid reacts with a ... For pH control, popular chemicals include calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate. The ... This can also be remedied by the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Sodium bicarbonate is also commonly used to ...
... is preferred over sodium hydroxide because its solutions are more conductive. The nickel-metal hydride ... Like sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide attracts numerous specialized applications, virtually all of which rely on its ... Otto, H.W; Seward, R.P. (1964). "Phase equilibria in the potassium hydroxide-sodium hydroxide system". J. Chem. Eng. Data. 9: ... Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), KOH is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of ...
Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of sodium salts and ... Sodium hydroxide is used for hard bar soap, while potassium hydroxide is used for liquid soaps. Sodium hydroxide is used more ... Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an ... Sodium hydroxide was first prepared by soap makers.: p45 A procedure for making sodium hydroxide appeared as part of a recipe ...
Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. It is present in several domestic cleaning products. Very low levels can produce ... Sodium hydroxide separates in water to sodium cations (positively charged sodium atoms) and hydroxide anions (negatively ... How can sodium hydroxide affect my health?. Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe burns in all tissues that ... How can sodium hydroxide affect children?. There are no studies on the health effects of children exposed to sodium hydroxide. ...
This article discusses poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. ... Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. ... Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This article discusses poisoning from ... Sodium hydroxide is found in many industrial solvents and cleaners, including products to strip floors, brick cleaners, cements ...
Sodium hydroxide. Also known as lye, caustic soda, and soda lye.. Corrosive. Eye, skin and respiratory irritant. Can burn eyes ...
... domestic demand for sodium hydroxide in South Korea amounted to around 1.1 million metric tons. ... www.statista.com/statistics/736908/south-korea-sodium-hydroxide-domestic-demand/. KOSIS, Domestic demand for sodium hydroxide ... Domestic demand for sodium hydroxide in South Korea from 2012 to 2022 (in metric tons) table column chart ... Premium Statistic Sodium hydroxide production volume in South Korea 2010-2022. * Premium Statistic Jet fuel oil production ...
Learn about Sodium hydroxide poisoning or find a doctor at Mount Sinai Health System. ... Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This article discusses poisoning from ... Sodium hydroxide is found in many industrial solvents and cleaners, including products to strip floors, brick cleaners, cements ... Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). wwwn.cdc.gov/TSP/MMG/MMGDetails.aspx?mmgid=246&toxid=45. . Updated ...
Chemistry: Na(Mn, Ca)2Si3O8(OH), Sodium Manganese Calcium Silicate Hydroxide *Class: Silicates *Subclass: Inosilicates *Uses: ...
Shop Spectrum Chemical Sodium Hydroxide, 20 Percent (w/v) Solution at Thomas Scientific, your trusted partner in Science. ... Sodium Hydroxide, 20 Percent (w/v) Solution. * PRODUCT AVAILABILITY: Did you know you can view a products availability right ...
The biOrigins logo and "LYE CAUSTIC SODA/SODIUM HYDROXIDE" are printed on the front of the bag on a white and blue label. The ... The product contains sodium hydroxide which must be in child resistant packaging as required by the Poison Prevention Packaging ... biOrigins Sodium Hydroxide Products Recalled Due to Failure to Meet Child-Resistant Packaging Requirement and Violation of FHSA ... The recall involves biOrigins-branded sodium hydroxide products. The product was sold in 500 grams and 1-kilogram zip-top, ...
What is the procedure for the preparation of 1-100 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide standard solution? and find homework help for ... What mass of sodium hydroxide would be present in 100 L of the waste water? The concentration of sodium hydroxide in waste ... What mass of sodium sulphate is produced when 25.0 mL of 0.100 M sulphuric acid is added to 20.0 mL of 0.15 M sodium hydroxide ... "What is the procedure for the preparation of 1-100 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide standard solution?" eNotes Editorial, 16 Nov. ...
For additional information on storing sodium hydroxide, including recommended storage tanks and components, Read out our Sodium ... CAUTION! Fiberglass tanks are NOT designed for sodium hydroxide dilution. Dilution of sodium hydroxide will cause an exothermic ... Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is a white solid crystalline that is highly soluble in water. Sodium ... Sodium hydroxide storage tanks may require the use of insulation and/or heat maintenance on the exterior, to ensure the product ...
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Potassium Hydroxide, Ammonium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Potassium carbonate and Ammonium carbonate) Poison on Pediatric ... Alkalies (Sodium hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide, Ammonium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Potassium carbonate and Ammonium ... Sodium hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide, Ammonium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Potassium carbonate and Ammonium carbonate) ... Sodium/Potassium hydroxide - 5g. Potassium carbonate - 18 g. Sodium carbonate - 30 g. Ammonia - 5 to 10 ml.. Fatal Period : ...
Water Treatment Plant Sodium Hydroxide Bulk Storage Improvements CIP FY 2024. Project Number: not yet assigned ... Details: Installation of new dry polymer feed systems and new sodium hydroxide tanks to improve treatment capacity. ...
Caustic alkali refers to either sodium hydroxide (also known as caustic soda) or to potassium hydroxide (also known as potash). ... either sodium hydroxide, NaOH (also known as caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide, KOH (also known as potash) - is mixed with ... Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, comes as little white tablets or balls. It is a very dangerous product, one must be very ... Indeed, mixing sodium hydroxide with water generates vapours which are quite noxious. However, the highest precaution is to ...
Sodium Hydroxide 相关的文章列表 ... Sodium Hydroxide Home Sodium Hydroxide. *Sodium hydroxide2022- ...
Sodium Hydroxide 2 2. Sodium Hydroxide solution Sodium Hydroxide solution Sodium Hydroxide 2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3 ... Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2 2-4 4. Sodium hydroxide solution 30% SDS Safety Data Sheet for Sodium hydroxide solution 30% 105589 ... Tlv-Twa Sodium Hydroxide solution Sodium Hydroxide solution Sodium Hydroxide 4 % solution ) PAGE 4 of 10 8 EXPOSURE. Name..... ... Sodium Hydroxide, 0.4% (w/v) (4 g/L) 7243 ( R7243000 ) Sodium Hydroxide, 1% (w/v) (10 g/L) SAFETY DATA SHEET: SODIUM HYDROXIDE ...
Sodium hydroxide is completely ionic, containing sodium ions and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ion makes sodium hydroxide a ... Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide.. *Sodium hydroxide is also the chemical that ... and therefore sodium hydroxide can be used to precipitate metal hydroxides. One such hydroxide is aluminium hydroxide, used as ... Sodium hydroxide is the most used base in chemical laboratories. Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, ...
These are Dry Flakes. Dont Touch the Drain Cleaner without Hand Gloves Used to Clear Clogged Drains, Sinks, Pipes ChimneysTo clear the clogged sinks and pipes add 5-6 spoons of Caustic Soda and then add 3-4 Lites of hot boiling water. All blockages would be cleared.These are Dry Flakes. Dont Touch
Be the first to review "Sodium Hydroxide" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ... Sodium Hydroxide is natural ash commonly used for making hard bar soap. ...
Sodium Hydroxide. - Product Overview. Sodium Hydroxide is an essential ingredient in an array of industrial applications. It is ... Sodium Hydroxide solution is typically produced in a Chloro-Alkali facility. Sodium Hydroxide supplied by Gouldings is ... Sodium Hydroxide is a highly corrosive and reactive chemical. It can be irritating to the skin, eyes and gastrointestinal tract ... Salt in the form of brine is electrolysed to produce Sodium Hydroxide, Chlorine and Hydrogen. ...
Sodium Disulfite(Sodium Metabisulfite)GR ACS. Merck 106528.1000. Sodium Disulfite(Sodium Metabisulfite)GR ACS. Merck ... Sodium Carbonate 0,1 N Titrisol. Merck 109940.0001. Sodium Chloride GR, ACS, ISO. Merck 106404.1000. Sodium Chloride EMPROVE®. ... Sodium Borohydride GR. Merck 106371.0100. Sodium Bromide extra pure. Merck 106360.1000. Sodium Carbonate anhydrous GR, ISO. ... Sodium Dithionite LAB. Merck 106507.0500. Sodium Dithionite Technical Grade. Merck 106505.1000. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate ph EUR. ...
Transene Companys quality system is ISO 9001:2015 certified. A copy of our quality policy is available upon request ...
Sodium Hydroxide in dry form. Used for making bar soap. Must be mixed with water before making soap. Always wear gloves and ... Sodium Hydroxide in dry form. Used for making bar soap. Must be mixed with water before making soap. Always wear gloves and ...
The hydroxide ion bonds with the sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Sodium hydroxid ... During this process the water (H20) is reduced to hydrogen gas (H) and hydroxide ion (OH). ... Sodium hydroxide is derived from salt water (brine). It is most commonly manufactured by the electrolysis of brine, a salt ( ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a white, waxy, opaque, odorless crystal consisting of sodium ions and hydroxide ions. It is also ...
... Poly Bottle 500 mL 1 Each $68 ... Sodium Hydroxide, 20% w/v. Poly Bottle 1 L 1 Each $77 ... Sodium Hydroxide, 20% w/v. Poly Bottle 4 L 1 Each $103 ...
Transene Companys quality system is ISO 9001:2015 certified. A copy of our quality policy is available upon request ...
Sodium hydroxide. Evidence-based: No. Many skin care products contain this ingredient, which balances and maintains the pH of a ... Sodium lauryl sulfate. Evidence-based: Yes. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a surfactant that reduces the surface tension in ... Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, is a basic chemical that helps neutralize acid. Its sometimes used in DIY acne and skin ...
  • Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The monohydrate NaOH·H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide can form several hydrates NaOH·nH2O, which result in a complex solubility diagram that was described in detail by Spencer Umfreville Pickering in 1893. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soap making results from the saponification chemical reaction which occurs when caustic alkali (lye water mixture) - either sodium hydroxide , NaOH (also known as caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide , KOH (also known as potash) - is mixed with animal or vegetable oils or fats. (homemadesoapstore.com)
  • Company Identification: Fisher Scientific 1 Reagent Lane Fair Lawn, NJ â ¦ Product identifier Product name Sodium Hydroxide Solution 50% Chemical name (NaOH) codium Hydroxide solution (10 - 60%) CAS number 1310-73-2 EU index number 011-002-00-6 EC number 215-185-5 1.2. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Unlike NaOH, the hydroxides of most metals are insoluble, and therefore sodium hydroxide can be used to precipitate metal hydroxides. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a white, waxy, opaque, odorless crystal consisting of sodium ions and hydroxide ions. (miamibeachbody.online)
  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one of the most useful industrial sodium compounds. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Its chemical formula is NaOH, wherein Na+ stands for sodium and OH- stands for hydroxide ions. (lesielle.com)
  • For years, the plant had been using 50% NaOH (sodium hydroxide or caustic soda) to perform this function. (parklink.nz)
  • Conversely, the high product pH of 50% NaOH is due to the free nature of the hydroxide in the product, which is also what makes caustic hazardous. (parklink.nz)
  • As soon as NaOH enters a water stream, the hydroxides are immediately released, which can result in a high pH spike if overdosed. (parklink.nz)
  • For this reason, liquid caustic products NaOH and KOH (potassium hydroxide) are not recommended for biological (secondary) wastewater treatment processes where the performance of a microorganism population may suffer due to pH swings. (parklink.nz)
  • Again, just as the "free hydroxide" in NaOH effectively dissolves crud off vessel walls, it also dissolves the skin off your hand! (parklink.nz)
  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) commonly called lye , or caustic soda is a white, odorless alkali. (rusticwise.com)
  • It's a bit confusing because the term "lye" applies to both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). (rusticwise.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide (also caustic soda), chemical formula NaOH, is a white hygroscopic solid. (itwreagents.com)
  • Determination of alkaline content by titration procedure or caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide) purity analysis procedure and purity of NaOH ( sodium hydroxide) pellets. (chemicalslearning.com)
  • Caustic soda, also known as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is a versatile chemical compound with a wide range of uses in various industries. (chemicalslearning.com)
  • Two parts 6 molar sodium hydroxide (NaOH) should be mixed with one part 96% ethanol (C((2))H((5))OH). (cdc.gov)
  • The Bureau procedure consists of reacting chromite with molten sodium hydroxide (naoh) under oxidizing conditions to form sodium chromate (na2cro4). (cdc.gov)
  • GMT Monday through Friday, email [email protected] , or online at www.mysticmomentsuk.com/products/lye- caustic-soda-sodium-hydroxide or www.madarcorporation.co.uk and click on "Important Recall Information For US Customers" for more information. (cpsc.gov)
  • The biOrigins logo and "LYE CAUSTIC SODA/SODIUM HYDROXIDE" are printed on the front of the bag on a white and blue label. (cpsc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is a white solid crystalline that is highly soluble in water. (beldingtank.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, comes as little white tablets or balls. (homemadesoapstore.com)
  • Template:Chembox new Sodium hydroxide ( Na OH ), also known as lye , caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature) [1] sodium hydrate , is a caustic metallic base . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide is commonly available as an aqueous solution known as caustic soda, soda lye, or simple as lye. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is a highly caustic substance that is used used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.Sodium Hydroxide is a extremely important compound in our lives because it has so many uses. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Lye is a common name for Sodium hydroxide, just like caustic soda. (lesielle.com)
  • The first observation was that magnesium hydroxide is infinitely safer than caustic soda. (parklink.nz)
  • Liquid caustic products that contain "free hydroxide" are better suited for CIP (clean in place) cleaning processes, where a high pH is required for optimum removal of organic debris from the walls of vessels and pipes. (parklink.nz)
  • Product Description soda caustic flakes caustic soda flakes&sodium hydroxide Packaging & Shipping Application 1. (saltadditive.com)
  • High purity of Caustic soda liquid 49-50% Product Description English Name:Sodium Hydroxide, Caustic Soda Physical properties: white flakes, granules, shiny, color allowed, hygroscopic, soluble in water. (saltadditive.com)
  • Sodium/Potassium hydroxide - 5g. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • it is then potassium hydroxide KOH (potash) which is at work. (homemadesoapstore.com)
  • It also dissolves in ethanol and methanol , though it exhibits lower solubility in these solvents than potassium hydroxide . (wikidoc.org)
  • Cannot be combined with potassium hydroxide purchase unless the sizes are under a total of 4KG. (soapandmore.ca)
  • Some soapers use both sodium and potassium hydroxide. (soapandmore.ca)
  • Potassium hydroxide is also called potash lye. (rusticwise.com)
  • Potassium hydroxide does not harden well, but is good for making soft or liquid soaps. (rusticwise.com)
  • If you want to read up more on the similarities and differences of sodium and potassium hydroxide, check out our post here . (rusticwise.com)
  • Sodium and potassium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, natural gas, and sulfuric acid were the most frequent substances in transportation-related incidents. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2022, domestic demand for sodium hydroxide in South Korea amounted to around 1.1 million metric tons. (statista.com)
  • Global demand for sodium hydroxide for use in water treatment applications is expected to rise in the near future. (decisionmarketinsights.com)
  • Household bleaches commonly consist of 5 percent sodium hypochlorite solutions and cause mild irritation. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Chemifloc provide a wide range of general chemical products, including aluminium sulphate, ferric sulphate, sodium hypochlorite and fluoride. (chemifloc.com)
  • 12. Turkun M, Cengiz T. The effects of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide on tissue dissolution and root canal cleanliness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide is completely ionic , containing sodium ions and hydroxide ions. (wikidoc.org)
  • begingroup$ Hydroxide ppts are notorious for absorbing other ions. (stackexchange.com)
  • Sodium Hydroxide 2% ACC# 88802 Section 1 - Chemical Product and Company Identification: MSDS Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2% Catalog Numbers: M-307, M307, MCC-031353 Synonyms: None known. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Ingestion of solid or liquid sodium hydroxide can cause spontaneous vomiting, chest and abdominal pain, and difficulty swallowing. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of solid or liquid sodium hydroxide can cause (negatively charged oxygen and hydrogen atoms), which spontaneous vomiting, chest and abdominal pain, and ultimately decrease the acidity of the water. (cdc.gov)
  • We have carved a niche in offering the superior quality Sodium Hydroxide Pellets that is processed from graded chemicals as per the international standards. (powderpackchem.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a highly corrosive base and alkali that decomposes lipids and proteins at ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium Hydroxide solution is typically produced in a Chloro-Alkali facility. (chemifloc.com)
  • As one of the simplest hydroxides, sodium hydroxide is frequently used alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C (604 °F) without decomposition and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C (2,530 °F). It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highly soluble sodium hydroxide remains in the filtrate. (itwreagents.com)
  • This involves the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride . (wikidoc.org)
  • The Acker process for the preparation of sodium hydroxide by fused-salt electrolysis of sodium chloride was developed by Charles Ernest Acker (1868-1920) in the United States of America. (itwreagents.com)
  • Environmental evaluation reveals that employee exposure to phenol (108952), cresol, methylene-chloride (75092) and sodium-hydroxide (1310732) mist found in the cleaning room and chassis cleaning area of a maintenance shop engaged in servicing diesel engines are not toxic. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • HIGHLIGHTS: Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is the most used base in chemical laboratories. (wikidoc.org)
  • Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, and the glass becomes frosted. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sodium Hydroxide is a highly corrosive and reactive chemical. (chemifloc.com)
  • Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, is a basic chemical that helps neutralize acid. (healthline.com)
  • Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilution of sodium hydroxide will cause an exothermic reaction resulting in temperatures higher than those allowed for fiberglass tanks. (beldingtank.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide separates in water to sodium cations (positively charged sodium atoms) and hydroxide anions (negatively charged oxygen and hydrogen atoms), which ultimately decrease the acidity of the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is produced (along with chlorine and hydrogen ) via the chloralkali process . (wikidoc.org)
  • Salt in the form of brine is electrolysed to produce Sodium Hydroxide, Chlorine and Hydrogen. (chemifloc.com)
  • During this process the water (H 2 0) is reduced to hydrogen gas (H) and hydroxide ion (OH). (miamibeachbody.online)
  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe burns in all tissues that come in contact with it. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe present in commercial drain and oven cleaners. (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrated sodium hydroxide is a strong irritant and corrosive to the skin, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal system if ingested. (miamibeachbody.online)
  • ACTI-Mag (60% Mg(OH)2 or 60% magnesium hydroxide) has a higher neutralizing value per pound than any other alkaline additive. (parklink.nz)
  • At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. (cdc.gov)
  • At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline contact with moisture. (cdc.gov)
  • Dissolution in sodium hydroxide/ethanol. (cdc.gov)
  • sodium hydroxide is added to maintain solubility. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium Hydroxide is natural ash commonly used for making hard bar soap. (soapsalon.net)
  • Sodium hydroxide is mainly used for hydrolyzing fat and making soap for years. (lesielle.com)
  • If you're aiming to make hard bars of soap , you'll need sodium hydroxide. (rusticwise.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide released to the atmosphere breaks down readily by reacting with other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • It's also used to create other chemicals like sodium salts, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. (chemicalslearning.com)
  • The company, which manufactures and sells a range of chemicals and has clients all over the world, has growth potential for the sodium hydroxide market due to favourable changes in the global chemicals business. (decisionmarketinsights.com)
  • If released to soil, sodium hydroxide will separate into sodium cations and hydroxide anions when it comes into contact with moisture. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • An intentional ingestion of 100 mL of chloropicrin sodium solution resulted in death from metabolic acidosis and acute heart failure approximately 7 hours after ingestion. (medscape.com)
  • Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4}$$ I looked on Google Images, and the color of copper hydroxide is light-blue, but something interesting happened when I mixed these two solutions: the precipitate formed - and was originally light-blue, as expected - however, it turned into this black-green sludge within a few seconds. (stackexchange.com)
  • Small amounts of sodium hydroxide are sometimes used in or a 50% solution. (cdc.gov)
  • What is the procedure for the preparation of 1-100 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide standard solution? (enotes.com)
  • Sodium Hydroxide solution Eye Contact Rinse immediately with plenty of water, also under the eyelids, for at least 15 minutes. (euroasfalti.net)
  • SAFETY DATA SHEET Sodium Hydroxide Solution 50% SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Material Safety Data Sheet or SDS for Sodium hydroxide solution 30% 105589 from Merck for download or viewing in the browser. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Sodium hydroxide solution 30% SDS Safety Data Sheet for Sodium hydroxide solution 30% 105589. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Sheet Sodium Hydroxide solution 30 % 105589 Sheet Sodium Hydroxide 2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3 mg/m3! (euroasfalti.net)
  • First-Aid measures General Advice Show this safety Data Sheet ( Sodium Hydroxide solution 30 % SDS Data. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Sheet for Sodium Hydroxide solution 30 % 105589 from Merck for download viewing. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Page 1 of 6 safety Data Sheet for Sodium Hydroxide solution Sodium Hydroxide solution Hydroxide. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Sheet or SDS for Sodium Hydroxide solution 30 % 105589 for download or viewing in the browser Established None. (euroasfalti.net)
  • A sodium hydroxide solution will leave a yellow stain on fabric and paper. (wikidoc.org)
  • In 1986 an aluminium road tanker in the UK was mistakenly used to transport 25% sodium hydroxide solution, causing pressurisation of the contents and damage to the tanker. (wikidoc.org)
  • In a strong hydroxide solution I'd expect the ppt to drag extra $\ce{OH^-}$ out of solution. (stackexchange.com)
  • In water it dissolves very well under great heat generation due to the negative enthalpy of solution of -44.4 kJ/mol to the strongly alkaline reacting sodium hydroxide solution (pH 14 at c = 1 mol/L). It is always completely dissociated in aqueous solution. (itwreagents.com)
  • The sodium chromate product is recovered by evaporative crystallization from the aqueous solution. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium Hydroxide supplied by Gouldings is manufactured using electrolysis utilising membrane cell technology. (chemifloc.com)
  • Common to all processes are additional purification and concentration stages to obtain anhydrous sodium hydroxide. (itwreagents.com)
  • The reaction product is leached with methanol to remove the majority of the unreacted sodium hydroxide, then with water to remove the sodium chromate and the remainder of the sodium hydroxite. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the making of wood pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain opener. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrated (50%) aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide have a characteristic viscosity, 78 mPa·s, that is much greater than that of water (1.0 mPa·s) and near that of olive oil (85 mPa·s) at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide has many uses: water treatment, pulp and paper manufacturing and cleaning agents such as soaps and detergents. (beldingtank.com)
  • Lawn, NJ the doctor in attendance INGREDIENT PEL TLV-TWA Sodium Hydroxide 2 mg/m3 water None Established mg/m3 2 water. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Hydroxide 2 mg/m3 2 mg/m3 water None Established Established None Established None Established Established! (euroasfalti.net)
  • One such hydroxide is aluminium hydroxide , used as a gelatinous floc to filter out particulate matter in water treatment . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide is derived from salt water (brine). (miamibeachbody.online)
  • Shortly, sodium hydroxide demand for use in water treatment applications has increased globally. (decisionmarketinsights.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is found in many industrial solvents and cleaners, including products to strip floors, brick cleaners, cements, and many others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The product contains sodium hydroxide which must be in child resistant packaging as required by the Poison Prevention Packaging Act (PPPA). (cpsc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide storage tanks may require the use of insulation and/or heat maintenance on the exterior, to ensure the product does not crystallize. (beldingtank.com)
  • Exposure LIMITS Fair Lawn, sodium hydroxide sds Product Name. (euroasfalti.net)
  • In most cases, the sodium hydroxide is not present in the final product. (miamibeachbody.online)
  • Product categories of sodium hydroxide , we are specialized manufacturers from China, sodium hydroxide , sodium hydroxide suppliers/factory, wholesale high-quality products of sodium hydroxide R & D and manufacturing, we have the perfect after-sales service and technical support. (saltadditive.com)
  • There's not too much difference in the end-product in our humble opionion so long as you're working only with pure sodium hydroxide . (rusticwise.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, is produced or used may be exposed to this compound. (cdc.gov)
  • Original on 01/19/2017 Page 1 of 6 Safety Data Sheet Sodium Hydroxide 5.0 M Reagent 1. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Identification: Fisher Scientific 1 Reagent Lane Fair Lawn, NJ Sheet or SDS for Hydroxide. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Of 6 safety Data Sheet or SDS for Sodium Hydroxide 5.0 M Reagent 1 % 105589 from Merck for or. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Sodium Hydroxide is an essential ingredient in an array of industrial applications. (chemifloc.com)
  • We do not know if exposure to sodium hydroxide could affect reproduction in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Below are symptoms of sodium hydroxide poisoning or exposure in different parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to sodium hydroxide can result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide reacts readily with carboxylic acids to form their salts and is even a strong enough base to form salts with phenols . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sodium Hydroxide in dry form. (karmasuds.com)
  • When added into an acidic wastewater stream, the Mg(OH)2 particles dissolve to provide two moles of free hydroxide (OH-) that neutralize two moles of acid (H+). (parklink.nz)
  • For example phosphorus forms sodium hypophosphite , while silicon gives sodium silicate . (wikidoc.org)
  • Small amounts of sodium hydroxide are sometimes used in drain and oven cleaners. (cdc.gov)
  • It might be in the same aisle as drain cleaners as sodium hydroxide is also a powerful cleaning agent. (rusticwise.com)
  • Using these products may expose you to sodium hydroxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Other products also contain sodium hydroxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The recall involves biOrigins-branded sodium hydroxide products. (cpsc.gov)
  • When buying sodium hydroxide for home soapmaking, it's important that you buy pure lye from a reputable lye supplier (many are labelled as 99 percent pure) . (rusticwise.com)