Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Burns, ChemicalCalcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lye: Generally speaking, it is the alkaline substance obtained from wood ashes by percolation. Preparations of lye can be solutions of either potassium or sodium hydroxide. The term lye, is also used to refer to the household product which is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Dental Casting Investment: Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Milk, HumanMilk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Asbestos, Amphibole: A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)IndiaVermontSoaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.

Effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor on corneal cytokine expression after alkali injury. (1/440)

PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-6 levels in the cornea are greatly elevated during the early stages after an alkali burn in mice. The authors investigated the effect of synthetic inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (SIMP) on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in alkali-burned murine corneas and evaluated the clinical appearance of the eyes. METHODS: After 0.5N NaOH-alkali burns to 400 corneas of ICR mice, 200 received 400 microg/ml of SIMP topically 4 times a day while 200 corneas were similarly treated with vehicle only. At days 4, 7 and 14 after injury, each cornea was assigned a clinical score for corneal opacity, corneal epithelial defect, hyphema and cataract. Extracts of injured corneas in each group were then assayed for cytokine production using ELISA systems for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). RESULTS: The levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 were significantly lower in the SIMP-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group 7 days after the burn. However, levels of these cytokines were similar in the SIMP and non-SIMP groups at days 4 and 14. Levels of TNF-alpha did not differ between both groups at any postinjury time. In the SIMP-treated corneas, there was less opacification and hyphema formation and epithelial regeneration was faster. CONCLUSIONS: Topical application of SIMP in alkali-burned murine corneas reduced the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 and lessened the severity of the injury.  (+info)

The effects of ouabain and potassium on peritoneal fluid and solute transport characteristics. (2/440)

BACKGROUND: We reported anomalous transport characteristics of potassium during experimental peritoneal dialysis in rats and suggested that mechanisms of peritoneal potassium transport could be other than simple passive transport. Intracellular transport of potassium in cultured human mesothelial cells was reported to be regulated by three different pathways, such as channels blocked by ouabain, channels blocked by furosemide, and other. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ouabain on peritoneal potassium and water transport characteristics. METHODS: A single 4-hour peritoneal dwell was performed in 28 Sprague-Dawley rats. To minimize the diffusive transport of potassium, 4.5 mmol/L of KCl was added into conventional dialysis solution with 3.86% glucose [acidic peritoneal dialysis solution (APD)]. To evaluate the effect of the pH of dialysis solution on the transport of potassium and water, 4 mmol/L of NaOH was added into the potassium-containing study solutions [neutral peritoneal dialysis solution (NPD)]. To evaluate the effect of a potassium channel blocker on peritoneal potassium transport ATPase sensitive Na+-K+-transport inhibitor, ouabain (10(-5) mmol/L) was added to dialysis solutions immediately before the dwell study in eight rats with APD (APD-O) and six rats with NPD (NPD-O). Ouabain was not added in eight and six rats with APD and NPD (APD-C and NPD-C, respectively). They were used as control. Infusion volume was 30 mL. The intraperitoneal volume (V(D)) was estimated by using a volume marker dilution method with corrections for the elimination of volume marker, radioiodinated human serum albumin (RISA), from the peritoneal cavity (K(E)). The diffusive mass transport coefficient (K(BD)) and sieving coefficient (S) were estimated using the modified Babb-Randerson-Farrell model. RESULTS: V(D) was significantly higher (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min) and K(E) (0.027+/-0.018 mL/min for APD-O, 0.026+/-0.017 mL/min for NPD-O, and 0.030+/-0.022 mL/min for NPD-C, vs 0.058+/-0.030 mL/min for APD-C, p < 0.05 for each) significantly lower during dialysis with APD-O, NPD-O, and NPD-C than with APD-C. The intraperitoneal glucose expressed as a percentage of the initial amount was significantly higher with APD-O, NPD-C, and NPD-O than with APD-C (p < 0.05 from 90 min to 240 min). K(BD) for sodium was higher during dialysis with ouabain than without ouabain, while K(BD) for urea, glucose, and potassium, and S for urea, glucose, sodium, and potassium did not differ between the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: The physiologic potassium concentration in neutral dialysis solutions and the use of ouabain decreased the intraperitoneal fluid absorption. The diffusive transport coefficient and sieving coefficient for potassium did not differ, while the diffusive transport coefficient for sodium increased during use of ouabain.  (+info)

The molecular basis of the solution properties of hyaluronan investigated by confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. (3/440)

Hyaluronan (HA) is a highly hydrated polyanion, which is a network-forming and space-filling component in the extracellular matrix of animal tissues. Confocal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (confocal-FRAP) was used to investigate intramolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions in hyaluronan solutions. Self and tracer lateral diffusion coefficients within hyaluronan solutions were measured over a wide range of concentrations (c), with varying electrolyte and at neutral and alkaline pH. The free diffusion coefficient of fluoresceinamine-labeled HA of 500 kDa in PBS was 7.9 x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) and of 830 kDa HA was 5.6 x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1). Reductions in self- and tracer-diffusion with c followed a stretched exponential model. Electrolyte-induced polyanion coil contraction and destiffening resulted in a 2.8-fold increase in self-diffusion between 0 and 100 mM NaCl. Disruption of hydrogen bonds by strong alkali (0.5 M NaOH) resulted in further larger increases in self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients, consistent with a more dynamic and permeable network. Concentrated hyaluronan solution properties were attributed to hydrodynamic and entanglement interactions between domains. There was no evidence of chain-chain associations. At physiological electrolyte concentration and pH, the greatest contribution to the intrinsic stiffness of hyaluronan appeared to be due to hydrogen bonds between adjacent saccharides.  (+info)

Recovery of mycobacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis. (4/440)

Despite decontamination, overgrowth by pseudomonads renders cultural isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) difficult or impossible. We performed a prospective study by comparing levels of reduction of overgrowth and recovery of mycobacteria using either pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH alone or pretreatment with NALC-NaOH and then with oxalic acid. From 406 specimens of 148 CF patients, 11 specimens were positive for mycobacteria, 5 of which grew mycobacteria after decontamination by either procedure. Three specimens grew mycobacteria only after decontamination with NALC-NaOH, whereas three specimens grew mycobacteria only after treatment with NALC-NaOH followed by oxalic acid but were overgrown after decontamination with NALC-NaOH. Thus, inactivation of mycobacteria by the more aggressive oxalic acid treatment offsets its beneficial effect of reducing the proportion of cultures overgrown with microorganisms other than mycobacteria.  (+info)

Association of bacteriochlorophyll a with the CsmA protein in chlorosomes of the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. (5/440)

The protein assumed to be associated with bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a in chlorosomes from the photosynthetic green filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus was investigated by alkaline treatment, proteolytic digestion and a new treatment using 1-hexanol, sodium cholate and Triton X-100. Upon alkaline treatment, only the 5.7 kDa CsmA protein was removed from the chlorosomes among six proteins detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, concomitantly with the disappearance of BChl a absorption at 795 nm. Trypsin treatment removed two proteins with molecular masses of 11 and 18 kDa (CsmN and CmsM), whereas the spectral properties of BChl a and BChl c were not changed. By the new hexanol-detergent (HD) treatment, most BChl c and all of the detected proteins except CsmA were removed from the chlorosomes without changing the BChl a spectral properties. Subsequent proteinase K treatment of these HD-treated chlorosomes caused digestion of CsmA and a simultaneous decrease of the BChl a absorption band. Based on these results, we suggest that CsmA is associated with BChl a in the chlorosomes. This suggestion was supported by the measured stoichiometric ratio of BChl a to CsmA in isolated chlorosomes, which was estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.7 by amino acid analysis of the SDS-PAGE-resolved protein bands.  (+info)

The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of core-lipid A region ofthe lipopolysaccharides from Proteus mirabilis wild-type strain S1959 (serotype O3) and its Ra mutant R110/1959. (6/440)

The following structure of core-lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Proteus mirabilis strain 1959 (serotype O3) and its rough mutant R110/1959 (Proteus type II core) was determined using NMR and chemical analysis of the core oligosaccharide, obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS, and of the products of alkaline deacylation of the LPS: Incomplete substitutions are indicated by italics. All sugars are in pyranose form, alpha-Hep is the residue Lglycero-alpha-Dmanno-Hep, alpha-DD-Hep is the residue Dglycero-alpha-Dmanno-Hep. The differences with the previously reported structures are discussed.  (+info)

A comparison of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide digestion of mouse hair in the recovery of radioactivity following systemic administration of [3H]-nicotine and [3H]-flunitrazepam. (7/440)

Pigmented (C57BI) and nonpigmented (balb/c) mice, 25 days of age, were treated intraperitoneally with [3H]-nicotine (4 mg/kg, 555 dpm/ng) or [3H]-flunitrazepam (1 mg/kg, 2200 dpm/ng) daily for three days. After 21 days, shaved back hair was digested at 37 degrees C for 24 h with either 1 M sodium hydroxide or 1 M sodium sulfide. With both drugs, sodium sulfide extraction removed the same amount of radioactivity as sodium hydroxide from nonpigmented hair. However, sodium sulfide removed significantly more radioactivity from pigmented hair than did sodium hydroxide. In pigmented hair, sodium sulfide solubilized 35% and 74% of the flunitrazepam- and nicotine-associated radioactivity, respectively. Of this, 12% and 43%, respectively, could be partitioned into ethyl acetate. Microscopic examination of residual pellets after digestion demonstrated a more thorough dissolution of the hair shaft with sodium sulfide with only melanosomes remaining. The results demonstrate the significant interaction of flunitrazepam and nicotine with melanins and the utility of sodium sulfide in increasing drug recovery.  (+info)

Compound A does not accumulate during closed circuit sevoflurane anaesthesia with the Physioflex. (8/440)

We have investigated inspiratory and end-tidal gas composition during sevoflurane anaesthesia in a closed circle system with continuous gas flow (70 litre min-1, Physioflex) to determine possible accumulation of sevoflurane degradation products. During five abdominal operations in adults lasting more than 2 h, anaesthesia was maintained with an end-tidal concentration of 2% sevoflurane in 40% oxygen-air. The circle included an absorbing canister filled with 1 litre of fresh soda lime. Samples were obtained at the end of an expiration from the tracheal tube and from the inspiratory limb before, and at selected times after, addition of sevoflurane. The temperature of soda lime was 24.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C at the beginning and reached a maximum of 31.2 +/- 1.0 degrees C after 20-30 min, followed by a plateau. Inspiratory compound A (CH2F-O-C(= CF2)(CF3)) 3-8 ppm was detected after 10 min, but did not accumulate in the circle over 2 h without flushing. Expired concentrations were consistently lower with 1.5-3 ppm signalling absorption by patients. Calculated total amounts absorbed over 2 h varied between 2.0 and 7.2 ppm h. Other degradation products such as compound B or methanol were not detected. In summary, we did not detect sevoflurane metabolites with soda lime in significant amounts during closed circle anaesthesia with the Physioflex. The observed concentrations of compound A were below the threshold of nephrotoxicity in rats by a factor of more than 20.  (+info)

  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe burns in all tissues that come in contact with it. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of sodium hydroxide can cause severe corrosive injury to the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and stomach. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive, It can cause severe burns and even more sever damage. (smore.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of soap, and for its corrosive and alkaline properties. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Aluminum sulfate, however, may be mixed with sodium hydroxide to form aluminum hydroxide, a compound that is used in filtering out particles during water treatment. (reference.com)
  • 8.Foresti V. Intestinal obstruction due to kayexalate in a patient concurrently treated with aluminum hydroxide and morphine sulfate. (webmd.com)
  • Inhalation of low levels of sodium hydroxide as dusts, mists or aerosols may cause irritation of the nose, throat, and respiratory airways. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of sodium hydroxide in air as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of sodium hydroxide in air found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the three processes, the membrane cell process requires the lowest consumption of electric energy and the amount of steam needed for concentration of the caustic is relatively small (less than one tonne per tonne of sodium hydroxide). (vias.org)
  • A stable concentration of the Sodium Hydroxide is thus obligatory and has to be monitored very closely. (flexim.com)
  • As of the good experiences the customer already made with FLEXIM's non-invasive ultrasonic FLUXUS flow meters as well as FLEXIM's non-invasive PIOX S process analyzer for the concentration monitoring of Sulphuric Acid, now also the online concentration measurement of Sodium Hydroxide should be carried out by PIOX S. (flexim.com)
  • The concentration of sodium hydroxide in water can be easily and quickly determined by refractive index measurement. (anton-paar.com)
  • The Abbemat Refractometers from Anton Paar are ideal for determining the concentration of sodium hydroxide solutions. (anton-paar.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is soluble in water, ethanol and methanol. (google.com)
  • Citric acid, or other acids, are often used in coordination with lye as it creates an exothermic reaction (heat) to leave sodium acetate (a salt) and water. (google.com)
  • 2 O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper , textiles , drinking water , soaps and detergents , and as a drain cleaner . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C (604 °F) without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C (2,530 °F). It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutions of sodium hydroxide are made by adding the solid compound to water, and never water to the solid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The reason is that large amounts of heat are generated when sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That heat is absorbed by water, but would not be absorbed by solid sodium hydroxide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Only sodium ions and a little water pass through the membrane. (vias.org)
  • Connected to the chains are triangular BO 3 groups with the sodiums and water molecules interspersed between the chains. (galleries.com)
  • During the 8-10 week curing time, the water used to dilute the sodium hyroxide evaporates out, taking with it any last traces of sodium hydroxide and the finished bar is left caustic free and perfectly safe to use, even on sensitive skins. (purenuffstuff.co.uk)
  • The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Accepta 1020 is a concentrated sodium hydroxide based alkalinity builder and is used for controlling or increasing the pH or alkalinity of water in boilers, cooling systems and effluent streams. (accepta.com)
  • Specific applications for Accepta 1020 include imparting hydroxide alkalinity to boiler feed water and neutralising acidity in cooling systems and effluents. (accepta.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide released to the atmosphere breaks down readily by reacting with other chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is used to help regenerate the chemicals used to pulp the wood chips into fibers in the chemical pulping process, which allows the pulp mill to reuse many of the chemicals and reduce the cost of producing pulp. (madsci.org)
  • Therefore sodium hydroxide cannot be substituted for potassium hydroxide and vice versa because soap making recipes will have different quantity requirements for these two chemicals depending on the kind of soap being manufactured. (earthoria.com)
  • In Food Prep: Food uses of sodium hydroxide include wGreat ashing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream. (google.com)
  • If you work in an industry that uses sodium hydroxide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide can also be produced easily by means of other chemical reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a widely preferred chemical and is used in many daily use products. (sooperarticles.com)
  • These are some of the uses of sodium hydroxide, which shows that it is the most common and important part of the chemical industry and a commonly used agent in our daily use products. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, and the glass becomes frosted. (vias.org)
  • For example, when sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching chemical, sodium hydroxide is used to help keep the pH as close to 8.0 as possible, because sodium hypochlorite is most effective at that pH. (madsci.org)
  • In soapmaking, sodium hydroxide is added to heated oils to create a chemical reaction that turns the oil into soap, together the two things become a third and different thing effectively. (purenuffstuff.co.uk)
  • Duda's Red Hot Devil Lye Sodium Hydroxide meets food chemical Codex, generally regarded as safe for use with foods. (createforless.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified sodium hydroxide for carcinogenicity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. (mdpi.com)