A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The consumption of liquids.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The selection of one food over another.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/8610)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (2/8610)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (3/8610)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

H5 Histone and DNA-relaxing enzyme of chicken erythrocytes. Interaction with superhelical DNA. (4/8610)

The interaction of closed circular duplex DNA with the lysine-rich H5 histone fraction of avian erythrocytes has been studied. H5, like H1 histone, interacts preferentially with superhelical DNA. The extent of interaction increases with increasing negative or positive superhelicity. Salt-extracted lysine-rich histones show the same specificity for interaction with superhelices as do acid-extracted preparations. Chicken erythrocyte nuclei contain DNA-relaxing enzyme. This enzyme is extracted from the nuclei at lower salt concentrations than those required to extract H1 and H5 histones and is, therefore, probably a function of a protein distinct from H1 and H5 histones.  (+info)

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (5/8610)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (6/8610)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Electrostatic interactions during activation of coagulation factor IX via the tissue factor pathway: effect of univalent salts. (7/8610)

Interaction between the Gla-domain of coagulation proteins and negatively charged phospholipid membranes is essential for blood coagulation reactions. The interaction is calcium-dependent and mediated both by electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. This report focuses on the electrostatic component of factor IX activation via the extrinsic pathway. Effective charges during the reaction are measured by ionic titration of activity, according to the Debye-Huckel and Gouy-Chapman models. Rates of activation decrease with ionic strength independently of the type of monovalent salt used to control ionic strength. Moreover, the effect of ionic strength decreases at concentrations of charged phospholipid approaching saturation levels, indicating that membrane charges participate directly in the ionic interaction measured. The effective charge on calcium-bound factor IX during activation on phospholipid membranes is 0.95+/-0.1. Possible sites mediating contacts between the Gla-domain and membranes are selected by geometrical criteria in several metal-bound Gla-domain structures. A pocket with a solvent opening-pore of area 24-38 A2 is found in the Gla-domain of factors IX, VII, and prothrombin. The pocket contains atoms with negative partial charges, including carboxylate oxygens from Gla residues, and has a volume of 57-114 A3, sufficient to accommodate additional calcium atoms. These studies demonstrate that electrostatic forces modify the activity coefficient of factor IX during functional interactions and suggest a conserved pocket motif as the contact site between the calcium-bound Gla-domain and charged membranes.  (+info)

Electrical and mechanical responses to diltiazem in potassium depolarized myocardium of the guinea pig. (8/8610)

Effects of diltiazem on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig papillary muscle were investigated in K-rich Tyrode's solution (Kc1 12.7 mM). The electrical properties of cell membrane in K-rich solution were also examined in the ventricular muscle fibers. It was found that the overshoot as well as the maximum rate of rise (Vmax) of the action potential were highly sensitive to the extracellular concentration of CaC12 in K-rich solution. Vmax was also affected by NaC1. Diltiazem at a lower concentration (1.1 X 10(-7) M) caused a reduction in the contractile force of K-depolarized papillary muscle without producing significant changes in the resting and action potentials. In the presence of a higher concentration of diltiazem (1.1 X 10(-5) M), the contractile force decreased concurrently with the change in the action potential. Addition of CaC12 restored the original strength of contraction in parallel to the recovery of the action potential, especially in its overshoot and Vmax. From these results, it is inferred that diltiazem may decrease the contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscle either by interfering with the intrasmembrane calcium influx or by intracellularly reducing the free calcium ion concentration in the myoplasm.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium chloride on the structure and stability of spider silks N-terminal protein domain. AU - Gronau, Greta. AU - Qin, Zhao. AU - Buehler, Markus J.. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - A spiders ability to store silk protein solutions at high concentration is believed to be related to the proteins terminal domains. It has been suggested that a shift in salt concentration and pH can have a significant influence on the assembly process. Based on experimental data, a model has been proposed in which the N-terminal domain exists as a monomer during storage and assembles into a homodimer upon spinning. Here we perform a systematic computational study using atomistic, coarse-grained and well-tempered metadynamics simulation to understand how the NaCl concentration in the solution affects the N-terminal domain of the silk protein. Our results show that a high salt concentration, as found during storage, weakens key salt bridges between the monomers, inducing a loss in bond ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sodium chloride on pregnant sheep with reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure. AU - Leffler, Charles. AU - Hessler, Jack R.. AU - Green, Robert S.. AU - Fletcher, Anthony M.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - This study investigated the effects of NaCl supplementation (5 mEq/kg/day) on the arterial pressure of pregnant and nonpregnant sheep with and without reduction of uteroplacental perfusion pressure. In pregnant sheep receiving NaCl supplementation during the third trimester, reduction of aortic pressure caudal to the kidneys to 65% of the upstream pressure (occlusion) caused a progressive increase in mean arterial pressure from 89 ± 3 to 110 ± 3 mm Hg over 2 weeks. Occlusion was accompanied by a decrease in urine flow. Six of seven sheep died or were killed because of severe respiratory distress. No abnormalities were detected in nonpregnant sheep or pregnant sheep receiving NaCl supplementation only. Pregnant sheep that were occluded but received no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of sodium nitrite and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria. AU - Korkeala, H.. AU - Alanko, Timo. AU - Tiusanen, Tapani. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. UR - https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/1975/748/1992Korkeala-AVS-EffectOfSodiumNitrite.pdf?sequence=1&origin=publication_detail. M3 - Article. VL - 33. SP - 27. EP - 32. JO - Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. JF - Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. SN - 0044-605X. ER - ...
TY - GEN. T1 - The effect of dietary nitrogen and sodium chloride on production and composition of urine by dairy cows. AU - van Vuuren, A.M.. AU - van der Koelen, C.J.. AU - Smits, M.C.J.. AU - Valk, H.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. M3 - Conference paper. SP - 42. BT - Proceedings Society of Nutricion Physiology 5. ER - ...
Natrium chloratum (NaCl) 0.9% sodium chloride solution for external use 5 ml x 100 vials UK ✓reviews ✓english Natrium chloratum (NaCl) 0.9% sodium chloride solution for external use 5 ml x 100 vials
Sodium chloride meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Sodium chloride in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Sodium chloride in Hindi? Sodium chloride ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Sodium chloride का हिंदी में मतलब ). Sodium chloride meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is नमक.English definition of Sodium chloride : a white crystalline solid consisting mainly of sodium chloride (NaCl)
AUDIENCE: Pharmacy. ISSUE: Baxter International is voluntarily recalling one lot of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP, 500 mL Plastic Pour Bottle solution - Lot G120162, expiration 11/30/2018 - to the hospital/user level. This product is being recalled due to a customer complaint prior to use for the presence of particulate matter, identified as an insect.. Sodium Chloride Irrigation solution with foreign material contamination potentially could result in a series of complications dependent in which anatomic location the irrigation is used, which could include inflammatory reaction, foreign body reaction, and infection which could be life-threatening.. BACKGROUND: 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Irrigation USP - 500 mL is an isotonic solution intended for irrigation. This solution can be used to rinse debris and residue from wounds and as a single use for rinsing/irrigation during surgical procedures. It may also be used to flush or rinse medical equipment such as catheters.. The lot being recalled ...
Most people consume too much sodium and this can have negative effects on our bone health. Learn the signs to look out for and how to reduce intake here!
Centrealoil production - sodium chloride inhibitor. Product introduction:. The product is an organic synthesis of small organic molecular dispersant, poly carboxylic acid and organic phosphate compound. It has the functions of dispersed adsorption, lattice distortion and chelation solubilization. The product can quickly dispersed in saturated sodium chloride aqueous solution, chelating group in the formula and sodium ions in certain chelating molecular interactions, in the process of evaporation and crystallization in the early period of the main components in chelate crystallization inhibition effect. In the Sodium Chloride Solution continue to concentrate, small molecule organic component is adsorbed on the sodium chloride crystal, the crystal crystal dislocation, vacancy phenomenon, causing the distortion, distortion of the different crystal faces of different stress, crystal stress, crystal structure instability in sodium chloride crystals cannot aggregate growth.. Technical ...
S+M Sodium Chloride 0.9% is a sterile isotonic solution for use as an emergency eye or skin wash. The solution comes with an integrated eye cup which makes it e
FDAs Bacteriological Analytical Manual (the BAM) is the agencys preferred laboratory procedures for the detection in food and cosmetic products of pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasitic, plus yeast and mold) and of microbial toxins.
David F. Spencer ,dspencer at is.dal.ca, wrote in message news:dspencer-F875B7.17361622032001 at News.Dal.CA... , In article , at cnmailsvr.nmsu.edu,, , hroychow at nmsu.edu (Dr. Hiranya S. Roychowdhury) wrote: , , , At 02:54 PM 3/18/01 +0100, Gys de Jongh wrote: , , , , , , , ,Hi, , , ,if you use sodium acetate the SDS will precipitate. , , ,The SDS stays in solution at high NaCl concentrations. , , ,See maniatis appendix , , ,-- , , ,Gys Hi, got the flu , been away for a few days. Here is the reference : 1) Molecular cloning Sambrook,J second edition 1989 Volume 3 Appendix E : Commonly Used Techniques in Molecular Cloning subject : concentrating nucleic acids subtitle : precipitation with ethanol or isopropanol page : E.10 quote : Sodium chloride (0.2M) should be used if the DNA sample contains SDS. The detergent then remains soluble in 70% ethanol. Sodium acetate (0.3M;pH 5.2) is used for most routine precipitations of DNA and RNA. unquote. [ See the problem ...
To study the effects of abiotic stress on plants, in vitro setups are often used as a proxy for the complex field environments in which plants are subjected to stress. These experimental setups are based on the addition of compounds to the growth medium. Drought, for instance, is simulated by adding osmotica, such as mannitol, sorbitol, or polyethylene glycol (Verslues et al., 2006), which lower the water potential of the medium. This makes it harder for plants to extract water, simulating what happens in drying soil. Similarly, NaCl is added to the medium to expose plants to salt stress, which is a combination of osmotic stress, as NaCl also lowers the water potential of the medium, and Na+ toxicity, mainly important at high NaCl concentrations (Munns and Tester, 2008). To simulate general oxidative stress, occurring for instance under high-light conditions, the medium is supplemented with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or paraquat/methyl viologen, which induce the formation of the toxic reactive ...
Sodium Chloride Flakes Exporter in Kolkata West Bengal India - Usha Chemicals is a well-known Exporter & Supplier of Sodium Chloride Flakes Kolkata, Supplier of Sodium Chloride Flakes in Kolkata, Sodium Chloride Flakes Exporter Kolkata, Sodium Chloride Flakes Export Company in India.
to signal for attractive low-Na+ taste, while Na+-responsive GRNs in s-bristles were suspected to code for aversive high-Na+ gustation by an unknown molecular mechanism (Zhang et al., 2013). A model for the decision of aversion over attraction between the inputs from the two classes of GRNs was put together mainly based on the observation that low-Na+-sensing GRNs in L-bristles show a bell-shaped spiking response curve to increasing Na+ doses, such that, at high Na+ concentrations, aversive input from the s-bristle GRNs prevails to direct feeding suppression. However, the bell shape relationship, where the responses of L-bristle cells supposedly decrease at high NaCl concentrations with a maximal spiking frequency at 0.1 M NaCl, was not recapitulated in our hands. Rather, the dose dependences of L− and s-bristle cells are similarly sigmoidal (Figs. 3A and 3B), while L-bristle GRNs showed higher Na+ sensitivities at 10 and 50 mM than the s-bristle cells as observed in the previous study (Zhang ...
Introduction. Investigate the electrical conductivity of salt solutions Aim To determine whether the concentration of sodium chloride in solutions affects the electrical conductivity of the solution Background Electrical conductivity is the ability to carry out the flow of an electric current. In solutions, this depends almost entirely on the solute present. Ions are capable of carrying an electrical current. When sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved into water, Na+ and Cl- ions are formed, which are able to conduct electricity. Electrical conductivity is measured in microSiemens per centimetre (�S/cm) ...read more. Middle. Controlling Variables Table 3,Variables and Method of control Type Variable Method of control Why is it to be controlled Controlled Volume of sodium chloride solution Measured using a 100mL cylinder (+0.5mL) All errors in measurement will be consistent The temperature under which the reaction occurs All reactions will be conducted under the same lab conditions Errors ...
It will calculate the total mass along with the elemental composition and mass of each element in the compound. To calculate the molar mass of a compound with multiple atoms, sum all the atomic mass of the constituent atoms. Mass percentage of the elements in the composition To prepare 1 L of 0.5 M sodium chloride solution, then, as per the formula, use 29.22 g of sodium chloride (0.5 mol/L * 1L * 58.44 g/mol = 29.22 g). Table salt (sodium chloride) (NaCl - Molecular mass), molar mass. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F. You can use parenthesis or brackets []. 0.1M NaCl = Moles/.025L. The molar mass of any molecule is how much mass (in grams) the molecule has per mole. Molarity = Moles/Liters. Molar concentration, also known as molarity, and can be denoted by the unit M, molar. Molar mass of NaCl, Sodium Chloride is 58.44277 g/mol. In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number ...
Just a curiosity question that occurred to me as I was reading through all the recent salt and potassium load posts: Since the reason to not go over about three 1/2 tsp. salt loads in a day is because of the sodium, can you also do potassium chloride loads the same day as a salt load (for those who are having such a detox situation that the three salt loads were not enough to take care of)? Or would that be too much of a chloride burden or too much of a toxin burden on the kidneys?
Evaporation. Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is an ionic compound consisting of cube-shaped crystals composed of the elements sodium … Physical properties are usually those that can be observed using our senses such as color, luster, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, density, hardness and odor. Properties of Sodium Chloride It is easily soluble in water and partially soluble or insoluble in other liquids. Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. Infoplease is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. Sodium chloride has been used to flavor and preserve foods for thousands of years. This is formed due to the ionic bonding, which involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another to ensure each atom has a full outer shell of electrons. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable ...
M/S Vatjat Pharma Foods Private Limited is a leading Manufacturer Exporter & Supplier of Sodium Chloride FOOD ADTIVE/LR/AR in Hubli Karnataka India, Exporter of Sodium Chloride FOOD ADTIVE/LR/AR in Karnataka, Wholesale Sodium Chloride FOOD ADTIVE/LR/AR Supplier in Hubli, Sodium Chloride FOOD ADTIVE/LR/AR Manufacturing Company in India.
challenging with each other in the worldwide Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride in terms of demand, sales, revenue generation, reliable products development, giving best services, and also post-sale processes at the global level.. To Get Free Sample Copy of Report Click Here: www.mrsresearchgroup.com/report/130149#request-sample. This Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride Market 2019 report is integrated with primary as well as secondary research of the Global industry. The worldwide Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride in detail and presents comprehensive forecasts regarding the markets growth trajectory during the forecast period (2019 - 2025). The Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride Market 2019 report is based on key players, which are combined by market share, history of growth and Industry forecasts, it provides in-detailed information, basic needs of the market, and the report shows the how this market is growing Globally. The main regions that contribute to the worldwide ...
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To cleanse wounds, scrapes and minor burns First aid wound cleansing and irrigation Laboratory proven pressure to help remove debris, dirt and foreign material No burning or stinging Revolutionary dispenser - sprays upside down
EWG level: 1 This is an inorganic salt (also called table salt). Sodium Chloride, or table salt, is a white crystalline solid. Sodium Chloride occurs naturally in seawater and as the mineral halite. Sodium Chloride is essential to biological organisms and is found in most tissues and body fluids. The sodium and chlorine elements of…
Sodium chloride commonly known as salt (though sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.. Request Sample Copy of this Report at https://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=533865. The Top key players of this Market is:. K+S, Akzonobel, Cargill, Hebei Huachen, Swiss Saltworks, Sudsalz Gmbh. The Medical Grade Sodium Chloride Market research report offers a fundamental overview of global market. It presents the far-reaching outline of the global market based on different parameters like market trends, market shares, size and various specifications of the market. It comprises an enormous database featuring various market segments and sub-segments.. It also offers a comparative study of the Medical Grade Sodium Chloride Market to understand the difference in performance among global competitors. Also, it represents how those competitors competing against each others to drive the ...
Dextrose 5% in Sodium Chloride 0.9% information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Teva, Dextrose 5% in Sodium Chloride 0.9% indications, usages and related health products lists
sodium chloride, NaCl, common salt. *Properties*Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. It forms small, transparent, colorless to white cubic crystals. Sodium chloride is odorless but has a characteristic taste.
10ML Sodium Chloride 0.9% is a sterile, single dose nonpyrogenic solution packaged in a fliptop plastic vial. Each mL contains sodium chloride 9 mg. No preservatives, antimicrobial, bacteriostatic or buffers added. Chemically designed NaCl soluble in water. Used to dilute and dissolving drugs. Nonpyrogenic Preservative free Single dose vial No bacteriostatic added Sodium Chloride 0.9% is packaged in a single 10 ml Flip-top single dose plastic vial. Warnings: This product is not meant for human consumption or ingestion, it is meant to reconstitute chemicals for research purpose only. For best results: Store at 20 to 25 degrees celsius (68 to 77 degrees fahrenheit). 2 Year shelf-life from purchase date ...
Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. Sodium chloride can reduce some types of bacteria in certain body secretions, such as saliva. Sodium chloride inhalation is used to produce sputum (mucus, or phlegm) from the mouth to help improve lung function in people with cystic fibrosis, or to collect sputum for...
Mistakes can occur when people have trouble swallowing a tablet or capsule and they try to chew, crush, break or mix the tablet or capsule in food or drink. The reason is certain medications have a special release mechanism designed to slowly release a certain amount of medication over a given extended time. If the medication is altered or destroyed in any way, the medication can be released European Impact Crusher. barlow jonker coal index; equipment manufacturer at patalganga; mobile crusher for sale ireland; pellet mill at sulit; crushing plant crusher role; mining mining machinery engineering; mobile jaw crusher hot sale in middle east; application of crusher; jaw crusher machginery manufacturer in china ; equipment list for granite quarry; scrap steel crushersscrap wing sodium chloride crusher . Sodium chloride as a catalyser for crushed reclaimed Just prior, the sodium chloride was added to the water and mixed for 10 min until total dissolution. The amount of carbide lime for each mixture ...
Bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride 0.9% in plastic container information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Hospira, Bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride 0.9% in plastic container indications, usages and related health products lists
Sodium chloride solution intended for intravenous injection Nonpyrogenic parenteral solution of electrolyte replenishers in water Intended as single-dose injection; unused portions should be discarded
Tabulated values of the dynamic and kinematic viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions are given. The tables cover the temperature range 20-150 C, the pressure range 0.1-35 MPa and the concentration range 0-6 molal. It is estimated that the accuracy of the tabulated values of + or - 0.5%. The correlating equations from which the tables were generated are given. (Author)*SODIUM CHLORIDE
WHAT DOES SODIUM CHLORIDE (SALT) DO FOR US?. 1. Sodium chloride is essential to all animal life and some plant life. It is used by the body to oppose the mineral potassium in order to build electrostatic charge on cell membranes. This electrostatic charge allows our nerves to transmit impulses as it dissipates creating a wave. (The post on potassium has a more involved description of this process.). The term electrolyte applies to a substance that separates into ions or charged particles of which sodium is one. Ions make it possible for electrical charges to be conducted throughout our bodies. A cation is a positive ion. Sodium cations along with chloride anions which are negatively charged ions are very important along with potassium cations in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in and outside of our cells and throughout our bodies. Blood plasma is mostly made up of sodium cations and cell fluid is made up mostly of potassium cations. Sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties ...
When did the Ancient Egyptians start believing in the afterlife? 1 - Draw a block diagram (see Example 1.8) that... Ch. 1 - Look at the photographs and measure the volume of... Ch. 1 - Explain how the coach of an athletic team might... Ch. Ch. 1 - If you repeat the same measurement many times,... Ch. 1 - The speed of sound in air at sea level is 340 m/s.... Ch. How much does does a 100 dollar roblox gift card get you in robhx? These electrostatic forces of attraction act in all directions which holds the ions in a giant ionic lattice. 1 - Express the measurements to the requested number... Ch. 1 - In describing the phase of a substance, is it... Ch. Ano ang pinakamaliit na kontinente sa mundo? Calcium chloride is used as a flux to lower the melting point of sodium chloride below 700 ° C. Calcium is less reductive than sodium and does not introduce impurities. (a)... Ch. 1 - Some scientists think the extinction of the... Ch. Are the... Ch. 1 - The melting point of sodium chloride, table salt,... ...
Sodium chloride / ˌ s oʊ d i ə m ˈ k l ɔːr aɪ d /, commonly known as salt (though sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible .... ...
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Baxter 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation (Saline) 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP, Plastic Pour Bottle. Not for Injection. Sterile, non-pyrogenic. Available in 500ml (15/cs) and 1000ml (12/cs) bottles.
Sodium chloride, or NaCl, is an extremely polar ionic compound, according to Kent Chemistry. Sodium chloride is composed of an Na+ cation and a Cl- anion. In a simple molecule, such as NaCl, the...
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AEON SODIUM CHLORIDE 5% is a phosphate and preservative free hypertonic ophthalmic solution used for temporary alleviation of symptoms associated with corneal oedema.. AEON SODIUM CHLORIDE 5% will be one of the first eye drops available that contains both sodium hyaluronate and PEG 400 that create a soothing and lubricating eye drop.. ...
General Information: Chemoheterotrophic obligate extreme halophilic archeon. Halobacterial species are obligately halophilic microorganisms that have adapted to optimal growth under conditions of extremely high salinity 10 times that of sea water. This bacterium (strain R1; DSM 671) is an obligately halophilic archeon and represents the type species for the genus Halobacterium. The first recorded isolation of this organism came from the spoilage of salted fish. It is also commonly found in neutral salt lakes, marine salterns, proteinaceous products heavily salted with crude solar salt and ancient evaporate deposits. ...
I need a formula for: 0.5 grams of sodium chloride is dissolved to make 0.05 liters of solution. next 0.5 grams of sodium chloride is dissolved to make 0.05 ml of solution. next 670 grams of Pb (C2H3O2)4 are dissolved to make 3.5 ml of solution. ...
1 Answer - Posted in: asthma, sodium chloride - Answer: Sodium chloride inhalation is not normally used to treat asthma. You can ...
Intravenous solutions containing sodium chloride are indicated for parenteral replenishment of fluid and sodium chloride as required by the clinical condition of the patient.
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Sodium chloride storage tanks. Bushmans Industrial chemical tanks are suited for a wide range of chemicals including Sodium chloride.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of guanyl-5′-yl imidodiphosphate and sodium chloride on the binding of the muscarinic agonist, [3H] cis methyldioxolane. AU - Ehlert, Frederick J.. AU - Yamamura, Henry I.. AU - Triggle, David J.. AU - Roeske, William R.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors whish to acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Reiko Yamada and Andy Chen and Secretarial assistance of Cathy Thomas. Portions of this work were supported by United States Public Health Service Grants MH-27257, MH-30626, HL-21486, and Program Project Grant HL-20984. H.I.Y. is a recipient of a USPHS RSDA, type II (MH-00095), from the National Institute of Mental Health.. PY - 1980/2/8. Y1 - 1980/2/8. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018859075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018859075&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-2999(80)90135-1. DO - 10.1016/0014-2999(80)90135-1. M3 - Article. C2 - 7363942. AN - SCOPUS:0018859075. VL - 61. SP - ...
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hydrogen-rich saline on pancreatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Eighty heterotopic pancreas transplantations (HPT) were performed in syngenic rats. The receptors were randomized blindly into the following three groups: the HPT group and two groups that underwent transplantation and administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HS, ,0.6 mM, 6 mL/kg) or normal saline (NS, 6 mL/kg) via the tail vein at the beginning of reperfusion (HPT + HS group, HPT + NS group). Samples from the pancreas and blood were taken at 12 hours after reperfusion. The protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against I/R injury were evaluated by determining the changes in histopathology and measuring serological parameters, oxidative stress-associated molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline produced notable protection against pancreatic I/R injury in rats. Histopathological improvements and recovery of impaired ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Saline infusion sonohysterography - An effective tool for evaluation of the endometrial cavity in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. AU - Mathew, Mariam. AU - Gowri, Vaidyanathan. AU - Rizvi, Syed Gauhar. PY - 2010/1/16. Y1 - 2010/1/16. N2 - We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of saline infusion sonohysterography (SISH) over transvaginal sonography (TVS) for the detection of intrauterine abnormalities using hysteroscopy as the gold standard in a retrospective study of 70 women mostly presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. TVS was normal in 32 women, while in the others polyps or fibroids projecting into the cavity (n = 19) or a thick endometrium (n = 19) were suspected. On performing SISH the uterine cavity was found to be normal in 29 women, while 35 had suspected polyps/fibroids and 6 had other abnormalities. Hysteroscopy proved to be normal in 28 women, 35 had polyps/fibroids and 7 had other abnormalities. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive ...
Buffer solution pH 4.0 (20oC) with fungicide, citric acid / sodium hydroxide / sodium chloride solution, traceable to SRM from NIST - We offer a range of laboratory equipment with no minimum orders and competitive prices for national and multinational companies
Unlike the laboratory spectra, our data show no evidence for an NaCl M-center absorption near 720 nm (Fig. 1B and fig. S1). By averaging all of the spectra from locations that exhibit the 450-nm absorption, weighted by the strength of the feature in each location, we conservatively rule out a band strength greater than 0.5%. This lack of an M-center absorption is perhaps expected, as the laboratory experiments in which the M-center was observed (23, 24) used radiation fluxes 104 to 105 times the true flux experienced on Europa. While such high fluxes can accurately simulate many aspects of Europas radiation chemistry and can achieve doses equivalent to hundreds of years on the surface in hours to days of real time, they inaccurately reflect kinetic effects controlling the formation and decay of color centers. Single-vacancy F-centers appeared immediately under such conditions, but binary M-centers took the rough equivalent of 1 year on Europa to form (24). Yet, when the radiation was halted, ...
The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up
Members of Vibrionaceae (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionales) have been known since 1854 (Pacini) and were shown to be distinct much before pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the most distinct diagnostic morphological feature, the existence of two chromosomes [1]. The interest in these bacteria is not surprising given that several species are pathogenic to humans and marine organisms and others are bioluminescent symbionts of marine fishes and squids e.g.[2-7]. Some lesser-known species are psychrophiles (live in cold temperatures), piezophiles (live at high pressures), or halophiles (live at high NaCl concentration; [8]). The diversity of ecologies represented by members of Vibrionaceae has led to enthusiastic genome sequencing in the group, which has focused most heavily on pathogenic species (more than 31 strains of V. cholerae are available on GenBank as of 2012).. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on complete genomes was desired for Vibrionaceae. While the analysis presented in [9] for ...
[Experimental studies of effects of hydrogen-rich saline in rats with severe acute pancreatitis].: Hydrogen-rich saline can decrease the levels of inflammatory
An acidophilic α-amylase from Aspergillus niger RBP7 was purified after solid state fermentation on potato peel substrate. Molecular mass of the purified α-amylase was 37.5 kDa and it exhibited 1.4 mg/ml and 0.992 μ/mol/min Km and Vmax values, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the pH range from 2.0 to 6.0, at high NaCl concentration (3 M) and at temperatures between 40 °C and 70 °C. The enzyme showed an optimal activity at pH 3.0 and at 45 °C. The enzyme was inhibited by Hg2+ and was stable in the presence of different surfactants (Tween 60, Tween 80, and SDS at 1% level) and different inhibitory reagents (β-mercaptoethanol, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and sodium azide). This acidophilic amylase enzyme can digest heterogeneous food materials, i.e. the mixture of rice, fish, bread and curry with comparable activity to the commercial diastase enzymes available.. ...
In section 3 (pharmaceutical form), the pharmaceutical form was expanded.. In section 4.2 (posology and method of administration), clarification was provided to reconstitute BOTOX with sterile unpreserved normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride solution for injection).. In section 4.8 (undesirable effects), adverse reactions listed for urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity, also occured in Phase 2 clinical trials. In additional information, dry eye (associated with periocular injections) and localised muscle twitching/involuntary muscle contractions were added.. In section 6.4 (special precautions for storage), freezer temperature was updated to -5°C to -20°C.. In section 6.6 (special precautions for disposal and other handling), clarification was provided to reconstitute BOTOX with sterile unpreserved normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride solution for injection). ...
Dependent Variable: Seed sprouting rate. Independent Variable: The salt solutions and salt concentration. Through my intensive research I discovered there were presently major environmental factors sing to the deficiency of works productiveness for harvest production parts, but through this research I discovered one of the chief factors was salt in dirt. Salt in dirt is a major issue for turning harvests for most parts of the planet, particularly the dry parts where the seed would miss H2O to turn. The husbandmans wo nt be able to cultivate their ain harvests due to seeds non being able to shoot as harvest output is decreased. However in some instances, if the seed does pull off to shoot, the works would frequently turn with many ion lacks. During my research I discovered a theory, which involved shooting a seed in saltwater and it was told it had a immense consequence on the seed. So I did research on saltwater and compared and I discovered it had assortment of different ions dissolved within ...
This dissertation addresses the anomalous properties of water at high temperatures near the vapor-liquid critical point and at low temperatures in the supercooled liquid region. The first part of the dissertation is concerned with the concentration dependence of the critical temperature, density, and pressure of an aqueous sodium chloride solution. Because of the practical importance of an accurate knowledge of critical parameters for industrial, geochemical, and biological applications, an empirical equation for the critical locus of aqueous sodium chloride solutions was adopted in 1999 by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) as a guideline. However, since this original ,italic,Guideline on the Critical Locus of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride,/italic, was developed, two new theoretical developments occurred, motivating the first part of this dissertation. Here, I present a theory-based formulation for the critical parameters of aqueous sodium ...
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To prepare this medicine, a 4ml vial is filled with sterile water for injection and is slowly turned until the essential material has been dissolved completely in the sterile water. Each vial can produce 20mg of Daunorrubicina. The required dosage is drawn using an injection syringe already containing 10to 15ml of 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution. The solution is then injected into a swiftly flowing 5 percent of dextrose injection or 0.9 percent of sodium chloride solution. Daunorrubicina should not be administered to patients with the combination of other medicines especially heparin.. The dosage of the medicament depends on the patients age, body surface area, condition and medical history.. For the patients under the age of 60 suffering from acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, the advised dosage is 45mg per m2 per day of Daunorrubicina IV infusion for first three days of the first treatment and on first two days of the succeeding courses. Another medicament, cytosine arabinoside should be ...
Before receiving Daunorubinine injection, tell the doctor about your past or existing medical history or condition. About making Daunorubicine, a vial is filled with 4 mL of sterile water for injection and slowly turned until the material is fully dissolved in water. Each vial offers 20 mg of Daunorubicine, then the specified dosage is drawn accompanied by a syringe already containing 10 to 15 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The solution is then injected in a rapidly flowing 5% dextrose injection or 0.9 sodium chloride solution. It is not recommended to give Daunorubicine with other medications, particularly heparin.. The dosage of Daunorubicine varies from person to person, depending on the patients age, area of the body surface and condition. Patients under 60years of age with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia is suggested a dosage of 45mg/m2 per day of Daunorubicine IV infusion and given on the first 3days of the first course of treatment. The other medication, cytosine arabinoside, they ...
576 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE (ii) Side-view. The cells are about 160 micro-millimetres long, and about 9 micro-millimetres wide without any appreciable tapering The cells show a uniform lumen varying from about 1 to 3 micro-millimetres in diameter. The cell-walls do not show a ribbed appearance owing to the absence of fine transverse strise. Tests. Physiological. A watery infusion of abrin or a decoction of the seeds, if dropped into the eye, causes purulent ophthalmia. A thin emulsion of the bruised seed in distilled water, when injected hypodermically into a fowl, produces inflammation and necrosis at the seat of injection and kills the bird in about twenty-four to thirty-six hours. The following method is used for extracting abrin from the seeds : The kernel left after the removal of the seed envelope is rubbed in a mortar with 4 per cent sodium chloride solution in which abrin is soluble. It is allowed to settle when the sodium chloride solution of abrin is separated out. This process is ...
Answer (1 of 2): It is called the litmus test. Sodium Chloride solution is very nearly neutral while Hydrochloric Acid is highly acidic. Blue litmus paper will turn red in the Hcl acid while it will turn rather purple in the neutral NaCl solution. BTW mixing HCL and NaOh ( Sodium Hydroxide) produces a neutral solution of NaCl (Table salt) and H2O (water).
When a high NaCl concentration was used to decrease selectively the synthesis of cell proteins, the synthesis of most cellular polypeptides was greatly diminished relative to human rotavirus...
It has been suggested that the pressor effect of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride on the Pulmonary circulation results from spasm of the pulmonary veins at their junction with the left atrium. These studies demonstrate that the increased resistance in the pulmonary vessels develops upstream to this site and that it may result primarily from mechanical blockage of vessels by clumped erythrocytes rather than from vasoconstriction.. ...
Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed. ...
14.6% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP Additive Solution must be diluted before infusion to avoid a sudden increase in the level of plasma sodium. Too rapid administration should be avoided.. Special caution should be used in administering sodium containing solutions to patients with severe renal impairment, cirrhosis of the liver, cardiac failure, or other edematous or sodium-retaining states.. Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation.. Caution must be exercised in the administration of parenteral fluids, especially those containing sodium ions, to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin.. Do not use unless the solution is clear and seal is intact. Discard unused portion.. Pregnancy. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with sodium chloride. It is also ...
Salt sensitivity has been implicated in the age-related increase in blood pressure. We studied the reproducibility of a rapid method for assessing sodium sensitivity and resistance of blood pressure as well as the effect of age on this phenomenon. Blood pressure after volume expansion with 2 l intravenous saline (0.9%) over 4 hours was compared with that after 1 day of 10 mmol sodium chloride intake and 3 and 40 mg oral doses of furosemide. Normal and hypertensive subjects (n = 28) were studied twice within a year. Cross-sectional observations of the effect of age were made from studies in 230 hypertensive and 430 normotensive subjects. Longitudinal observations of blood pressure change over time were made 10 or more years after categorization of sodium responsivity in 31 subjects. The blood pressure response was reproducible in 28 subjects studied twice (r = 0.56, p less than 0.002). Four subjects changed salt-responsiveness status and six were indeterminate on restudy. Sodium sensitivity of ...
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To investigate interaction effects of salinity and nitrogen on growth, mineral composition and salinity tolerance of lemon seedlings, a greenhouse experiment with four sodium chloride concentrations (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) and four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg kg-1 soil ammonium sulfate) was carried out. Experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. Sodium and chloride ions in plant tissues were increased to toxic levels with increase in salinity which resulted in a significant reduction of plant dry weight. Nitrogen consumption up to 100 mg kg-1 soil increased plant dry weight. As the concentration of sodium chloride was increased, the improvement effect of nitrogen on plant growth was decreased. Although nitrogen had no considerable effect on sodium concentration in root and shoot, it made a decrease in chloride concentration in shoot and an increase in root concentration of this element. Salinity decreased essential nutrients concentration
In the present work, the cloud point extraction (CPE) of three organic pollutants (phenol,benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol) with aqueous solutions of biodegradable alkoxylated nonionic surfactants (TERGITOL 15-S-7 and SIMULSOL NW342), is investigated. First, the partial phase diagrams of the water-surfactant binary systems are established. Then, the effects of organic pollutants and sodium chloride on the cloud point (Tc) are determined. Extraction efficiency is evaluated by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (Xs,w, and Xt,w, respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕc). Three-dimensional empirical correlations are used for fitting the experimental results. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows model parameter identification. Based on these data, CPE was implemented in a continuous mixer-settler device. The feasibility of a multi-stage crossflow ...
Edited by Jennifer S. Fryer, DVMThe influence of crystalloid type on acid-base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstructionDrobatz KJ, Cole SG. JVECCS 2008; 18: 355 - 361.To compare the effect of a balanced isotonic crystalloid solution with that of 0.9% sodium chloride on the acid[ndash]base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction.…
Alfa Aesar™ Sodium chloride, crystalline powder PDV, 99+% 1000g Alfa Aesar™ Sodium chloride, crystalline powder PDV, 99+% halides
WebMD provides important information about Hydromorphone (PF) In 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Intravenous such as if you can you take Hydromorphone (PF) In 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Intravenous when you are pregnant or nursing or If Hydromorphone (PF) In 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Intravenous dangerous for children or adults over 60.
INTRODUCTION Soil salinity, resulting from natural processes or from crop irrigation with saline water, occurs in many arid to semi-arid regions of the world (Lauchli and Epstein, 1990). According to Tanji (1990), 20% of cultivated land worldwide is adversely affected by high salt concentration, which inhibits plant growth and yield. In warm and dry areas salt concentration increases in the upper soil layer due to high water losses which exceed precipitation (Ebert et al., 2002). Overcoming salt stress is a main issue in these regions to ensure agricultural sustainability and crop production. Algarrrobo (Prosopis alba) is a native legume from the semi-arid regions of north- western Argentina. Locally it is called the tree , because of its widespread occurrence and importance in providing nutritious pods suitable for human food and wood for the furniture industry (Felker et al., 2001). Compared with other forest species, algarrrobo is ranked as a very salt tolerant tree because it can grow at ...
Introduction. An investigation into whether the voltage affects the amount of gas produced during the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Prediction: I think that hydrogen gas will be produced due to the half equation 2H +2e --,H this will be produced at the cathode because opposites attract and the hydrogen ions are positive. At the anode I think that chlorine will be produced due to the half equation 2CL -2e --,CL the chlorine ions are negative so they are attracted to the positive electrode. I also think that as the voltage is increased the amount of hydrogen gas produced will increase this is because of a series of scientific equations: if the voltage is increased the current then is increased, this is because of ohms law, V=IxR, where the voltage is proportional to the current, if the current is increased the charge then increases because Q=IxT. The number of moles of electrons=charge -:- 96500, this is Faradays constant from his 2nd law. The relationship between the amount of ...
Experiments were performed on 30 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 275-300 gm; Charles River, St Aubin les Elbeuf, France). For all experimental procedures, rats were anesthetized with ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p., supplemented by 50 mg/kg, i.m.; Imalgène 500, Rhône-Mérieux, France) and fixed in a conventional stereotaxic apparatus (Horsley Clarke Apparatus; Unimécanique, Epinay-sur-Seine, France). Body temperature was monitored and maintained at 37°C with an homeothermic warming blanket (Harvard Apparatus, Kent, UK).. Electrophysiological analysis. Single-unit activity was recorded extracellularly using glass micropipettes (6-10 MΩ) filled with a 0.6 m sodium chloride solution containing 4% Pontamine sky blue. Action potentials of single neurons were amplified with a World Precision Instruments DAM-5A differential preamplifier and displayed on a Tektronix memory oscilloscope. Spikes were separated from noise using a window discriminator and sampled on-line by a computer connected to a ...
Halophilic bacteria grow over a wide range of salt concentrations. In this study we aimed to isolate and screen out the halophilic bacteria and to determine their activity for production of the bioactive compounds. A total of 50 water, sediments and soil samples were collected from Maharlu salt lake in southern region of Fars-Iran and subjected for isolation of the bioactive compound producing Halophilic bacteria. The results obtained indicated that out of all isolates, three strains could produce the bioactive compounds. The isolates were molecular (16SrRNA) identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacterium Culaeen. Furthermore, structural analysis of the bioactive compounds was carried out in order to achieve maximum information concerning to them. The results obtained illustrated the existence of glycoprotein in all the bioactive compounds. Although, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillusniger and Mucor…. were sensitive to all the bioactive compounds, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
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This sites design is only visible in a graphical browser that supports web standards, blood its content is accessible to any browser salt internet device. Always consult your physician for individual care. Sea salt, rock salt, garlic salt, natural salt are pressure salt and contain sodium. For not security, weve sent a confirmation what to the address you entered. These contain pressuee instead of sodium and may help to lower blood pressure. As for the factors that did seem to influence blood pressure, alcohol consumption, age, and most of all Does were strongly raise to a rise.. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. So when your doctor tells you to slash the salt in your diet, you may not know how to make food taste good without it. The latest U. On the low sodium chloride intake, blood pressures were not affected by high dietary sucrose group 1 versus 2. Multiply sodium by 2. Alternatives skip browser notice if you do not want to read about web standard browser ...
Sodium Chloride vs Potassium Chloride Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are ionic compounds. Both are solids, where cations and anions are in a
What is hydrogen-rich water?What is hydrogen-rich water? Hydrogen-rich water is water that dissolves hydrogen. Generally, hydrogen can be dissolved in the water slightly. In the conditions of atmosphe...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solubility of sodium chloride in phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents. AU - Ghareh Bagh, Fatemeh Saadat. AU - Hadj-Kali, Mohamed Kamel Omar. AU - Mjalli, Farouq S.. AU - Hashim, Mohd Ali. AU - Alnashef, Inas M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl) in several phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is studied in this work. Seven combinations of DESs were investigated. The solubility of NaCl increased with temperature in all DESs at all combinations. The type of salt and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and the salt:HBD mole ratio of the DES affected the solubility of NaCl. The solubility of NaCl in DESs that use ethylene glycol or glycerol (neutral molecules) as HBDs is very low in comparison to DESs that use zinc (II) chloride (ZnCl2) or ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) which are metal halides as complexing agents. DESs containing ZnCl2produced the highest solubility. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide:ZnCl2DES possessed a NaCl solubility of ...
Reduction of sodium chloride in food products has been reported to lower consumers acceptance. In this research, the physical characteristics and sensory property of an oil in water emulsion containing sodium chloride, as well as its application in corn soup were studied. The main objectives of this this research were to evaluate salt reduction that could be achieved through emulsion and to obtain a stable emulsion with most applicable viscosity for corn soup. In research stage I, three different oil concentrations (23, 28, and 33%) with constant salt and stabilizers concentration were applied into the emulsions. The result showed that emulsion with 33% oil was significantly more viscous than the others, whilst emulsion with 23% oil was found to be less salty than the others (α=0.05). Emulsion with 28% oil content was chosen for research stage II due to appropriate saltiness and viscosity. In research stage II, different types and concentrations of thickening agent (1 and 2% tapioca; 0.1 and ...
sodium chloride n. A colorless or white crystalline compound, NaCl, used in the manufacture of chemicals and as a food preservative and seasoning. sodium chloride n (Elements & Compounds) common table salt a soluble colourless crystalline compound occurring naturally as halite and in sea water: widely used as a seasoning and preservative for food and Read More ...
sodium chloride nasal sprayThe main use of sterile saline solution contact. It is used to wash to rinse contact lenses calcium deposits or debris that may build . The administration of this solution is also important immediately prior contact must be made in the case sodium chloride nasal spray . Is created to mimic natural…
0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, contains 4.5 g/L sodium chloride with an osmolarity of 154 mOsmol/L. It contains 77 mEq/L sodium and 77 mEq/L ...
PaperIndex salt (sodium chloride) directory has information about salt (sodium chloride) suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, exporters, and pulp and paper chemicals factories / mills around the world.
Read Characterization of an inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase gene that is essential for drought and salt stress responses in rice, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Main article: Sodium chloride. Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal ... Table salt is a refined salt containing about 97 to 99 percent sodium chloride.[33][34][35] Usually, anticaking agents such as ... Main article: Sodium chloride. Only about 6% of the salt manufactured in the world is used in food. Of the remainder, 12% is ... "Sodium chloride". IHS Chemical. 1 December 2008. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.. ...
For instance, a 20% saline (sodium chloride) solution has viscosity over 1.5 times that of pure water, whereas a 20% potassium ... Estimated values of these constants are shown below for sodium chloride and potassium iodide at temperature 25 °C (mol = mole, ...
The molecular weight of sodium chloride is approximately 58.5 grams per mole, so 58.5 grams of sodium chloride equals 1 mole. ... Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.[1] ... "Sodium Chloride Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on ... "Sodium Chloride in Water". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. ...
Sodium chloride onsen (ナトリウム泉, natoriumu-sen). *Hydrogen carbonate onsen (炭酸泉, tansan-sen) ...
... atomic sodium and potassium; molecular sulfur dioxide and sulfur; and sodium chloride dust.[54][55] These materials originate ... 2), with minor constituents including sulfur monoxide (SO), sodium chloride (NaCl), and atomic sulfur and oxygen.[106] The ... and consists primarily of sodium chloride.[55][60] Dust measurements by Galileo showed that these dust streams originate from ... 1999). "Galileo's close-up view of Io sodium jet". Geophys. Res. Lett. 26 (22): 3333-3336. Bibcode:1999GeoRL..26.3333B. doi: ...
Tailings ponds include substances of concern for the water quality that discharge to surface waters: • salts • elevated sodium ... chloride, sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and magnesium (soft water ...
Reaction with sodium chloride[edit]. It reacts with sodium chloride, and gives hydrogen chloride gas and sodium bisulfate: NaCl ... Reaction with sodium acetate, for example, displaces acetic acid, CH. 3COOH, and forms sodium bisulfate: H. 2SO. 4 + CH. 3COONa ... chloride: 2FeCl3 + 2H2O + SO2 → 2FeCl2 + H2SO4 + 2HCl. 2CuCl2 + 2H2O + SO2 → 2CuCl + H2SO4 + 2HCl. Two less well-known ...
Reaction with sodium chloride[edit]. It reacts with sodium chloride, and gives hydrogen chloride gas and sodium bisulfate: NaCl ... Reaction with sodium acetate, for example, displaces acetic acid, CH. 3COOH, and forms sodium bisulfate: H. 2SO. 4 + CH. 3COONa ...
"Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)". Americanheart.org. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010.. ... Salt (sodium chloride), dissolved in water, is used in the canning process.[20] As a result, canned food can be a major source ... "Sodium Chloride". Eat Well, Be Well. UK Government Food Standards Agency. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. ... Therefore, health authorities have recommended limitations of dietary sodium.[22][23][24][25][26] Many canned products are ...
Sodium chloride[7][8]. 塩化ナトリウム. - O2. Molecular oxygen[25]. 酸素(二酸素). - ...
... of sodium chloride (table salt). The difficulty of predicting stable crystal structures based on the ...
The production process also uses sodium chloride. Recycled PVC is broken down into small chips, impurities removed, and the ... Vinyl chloride monomer[edit]. Main article: Vinyl chloride. In the early 1970s, the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride (usually ... Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), as shown.[11] ... Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl;[6] abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic ...
... into sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions. Sodium atoms and ions are monoisotopic, with a mass of about 23 u. Chloride atoms ... Other analyzer types are treated below.) Consider a sample of sodium chloride (table salt). In the ion source, the sample is ... This information is used to determine the chemical element composition of the original sample (i.e. that both sodium and ... Sometimes samples are spiked with sodium or another ion-carrying species to produce adducts rather than a protonated species. ...
Example: sodium chloride, potassium oxide, or calcium carbonate.. When the metal has more than one possible ionic charge or ... chloride. S2−. sulfide. P3−. phosphide. Polyatomic ions: NH+. 4 ammonium. H. 3O+. hydronium. NO−. 3 nitrate. NO−. 2 nitrite. ... For example, NaCl is sodium chloride, and CaF2 is calcium fluoride. ... "ferric chloride" (instead calling it "iron(III) chloride"), but names like "potassium permanganate" (instead of "potassium ...
Sodium, an electrolyte; common in food and manufactured beverages, typically as sodium chloride. Excessive sodium consumption ... Chloride; electrolyte; see sodium, below. *Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, ... Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia, i.e., low serum sodium.[65][68] ... sodium, vitamins, fiber, and of intact, unoxidized (essential) fatty acids. In addition, processed foods often contain ...
... elevated sodium, chloride, sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and ...
... and sodium chloride dust. These materials originate from Io's volcanic activity, but the material that escapes to Jupiter's ... sodium chloride (NaCl), and atomic sulfur and oxygen. The atmosphere has significant variations in density and temperature with ... and consists primarily of sodium chloride. Dust measurements by Galileo showed that these dust streams originate from Io, but ... Fainter aurora from oxygen atoms along the limb of Io (the red glows in the image at right), and sodium atoms on Io's night- ...
... each molecule of sodium reabsorbed brings one molecule of potassium and two molecules of chloride. Sodium goes on to be ... Vasopressin stimulates sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the nephron by activating signaling pathways ... The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is a protein that aids in the secondary active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ... NKCC2 is found specifically in the kidney, where it serves to extract sodium, potassium, and chloride from the urine so that ...
Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source. hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 01500.0001500 2300; NE Quantity A ... Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea vegetables, milk, and spinach. hyponatremia hypernatremia ... A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Sweet potato, tomato, potato, beans, lentils, dairy ... sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body.[citation needed] Together these ...
Sodium chloride‎; 09:47 . . (-85)‎ . . ‎. (talk)‎ (→‎pH of sodium chloride solutions) ...
For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word ... An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius ...
For example, aqueous sodium chloride may be written as [Na+].[Cl-]. to show the dissociation. ...
Sodium chloride supplies essential ions. Dextrose is a source of fermentable carbohydrate. The eggs and beef serum cause the ...
High-temperature liquids: sodium chloride. Sulfuric acid in liquid form is strongly polar. It remains liquid at higher ... Simple hydrogen compounds: hydrogen chloride. More complex compounds: sulfuric acid, formamide, methanol. Very-low-temperature ...
Tested using sodium chloride particles. R for resistant to oil. Used when oil particulates are present and the filter is ...
29.1 ppm sodium chloride NaCl ; 30.8 ppm potassium chloride KCl ; 9.1 ppm magnesium chloride MgCl2 ; 8.5 ppm *These compounds ...
"Dextrose mixture with sodium chloride". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Chemistry portal Medicine ... It is also on the list in combination with sodium chloride. The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός ... In dilute sodium hydroxide or other dilute bases, the monosaccharides mannose, glucose and fructose interconvert (via a Lobry ... In Barfoed's test, a solution of dissolved copper acetate, sodium acetate and acetic acid is added to the solution of the sugar ...
... deposition of mineral salts such as sodium chloride and gypsum; windburn and breakage by storms; and wildfires. Similar ...
The presence of sodium chloride gives sweat a salty taste. The total volume of sweat produced depends on the number of ... The main electrolytes of sweat are sodium and chloride,[47] though the amount is small enough to make sweat hypotonic at the ... Cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed by a sweat test, as the disease causes the sweat glands ducts to reabsorb less chloride, ... Sweat glands are used to regulate temperature and remove waste by secreting water, sodium salts, and nitrogenous waste (such as ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride". ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. "Glyoxal Industrial Applications ...
M. D. Lind (1967). Crystal Structure of Ferric Chloride Hexahydrate. J. Chem. Phys. 47: 990. doi: 10.1063/1.1712067. ... halides and sodium ethoxide. Inorganica Chimica Acta 358 (12): 3506-3512. ... B. R. Tarr, H.S. Booth, A. Dolance (1950). Anhydrous Iron(III) Chloride. Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses 3: 191-194. ... A.R. Pray, R.F. Heitmiller, S. Strycker (1990). Anhydrous Metal Chlorides. Inorganic Syntheses 28: 321-323. doi 10.1002/ ...
Oxidation of amines with iron(III) chloride.[19]. *Hydrolysis of unsaturated secondary amides,[20] β-Keto acid esters,[11] or β ... With sodium amide resulting in C-C bond cleavage with formation of the amide RCONH2 and the alkane R'H, a reaction called the ... By the reaction of an acid chloride with organocadmium compounds or organocopper compounds. ... in presence of dilute Sodium Hydroxide to give violet coloration. ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... chloride with potassium to form metallic yttrium and potassium chloride.[6][7] ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ...
Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... Unlike the fast and transient sodium current, the persistent sodium current (INaP) is activated at very low membrane potentials ... NALCN sodium leak channels appear to give rise to an inward current that may play an important role in the modulation of ... Persistent Sodium Current and Its Role in Epilepsy. Epilepsy Currents. 2007;7(1):15-22. doi:10.1111/j.1535-7511.2007.00156.x.. ...
chloride channel complex. • cell junction. • plasma membrane. • GABA-ergic synapse. • integral component of postsynaptic ... chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • ... which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as ... chloride transport. • ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of ...
... we get positively charged sodium ions moving from positive to negative and negatively charged chloride ions moving from ... There are also solid ion conductors, eg for lithium or sodium, but they are special materials and not metals. The main electric ...
E.g. sodium chloride code H 1. Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentine ...
... is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide, ferrous chloride, and calcium hydroxide, the combination of ... Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 · ... Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS Archived 2010-05-17 at the Wayback Machine. *^ a b "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives ... A solution of this salt is then treated with sodium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-sodium salt CaNa2[Fe(CN)6], which in ...
Sodium compounds have many applications, the most well-known being sodium chloride as table salt. Sodium salts of fatty acids ... which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.[244] Caesium chloride has been promoted as an ... Sodium occurs mostly in seawater and dried seabed,[30] but is now produced through electrolysis of sodium chloride by lowering ... Sodium compounds have been known since ancient times; salt (sodium chloride) has been an important commodity in human ...
Basic blood tests can be used to check the concentration of hemoglobin, platelets, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, ...
... calcium chloride 25%, and zinc chloride 25% ). The carbon is then subjected to lower temperatures (250-600 °C). It is believed ... The chemical is typically an acid, strong base,[1][2] or a salt[20] (phosphoric acid 25%, potassium hydroxide 5%, sodium ... Youssef A.M.; Abdelbary E.M.; Samra S.E.; Dowidar A.M. (1991). "Surface-properties of carbons obtained from polyvinyl-chloride ... sodium, iron, lead, arsenic, fluorine, and boric acid. ... production of hydrogen chloride and many other applications. ...
Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
Sodium chloride - NaCl. *Sodium chlorite - NaClO2. *Sodium cobaltinitrite - CoN6Na3O12[6] ...
Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open its chloride channel to allow chloride ions into the neuron, making the ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ... Additionally, in the absence of GABA the presence of benzodiazepines alone does not open the chloride channel.[2] ... the chloride (Cl-) ion channel pore, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces, and the benzodiazepine (BZD ...
Addition of iodine chloride and back-titration with sodium thiosulphate by DIN 53241-1:1995-05. ... probably iodine chloride) is formed in situ from mercuric chloride and iodine. ... Introduced the iodine value was Hübl which titrated fats in the presence of mercuric chloride with iodine, but with the actual ... Now, the amount of iodine formed is determined by titration with sodium thiosulfate solution. ...
Crest Pro-Health mouthwash contains Cetylpyridinium chloride which is known to cause tooth staining in approximately 3 percent ... The active ingredient of Crest was changed in 1981 to sodium monofluorophosphate, or "Fluoristat".[8] Today, Crest toothpastes ... use sodium fluoride, or "Dentifrice with Fluoristat"; Crest Pro-Health uses stannous fluoride again and an abrasive whitener ...
Alternatively, it can be created by the interaction of barium chloride with sodium chromate. The precipitate is then washed, ... It can react with barium hydroxide in the presence of sodium azide to create barium chromate(V). The reaction releases oxygen ... It can be synthesized by reacting barium hydroxide or barium chloride with potassium chromate. ...
... glycyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride. The resulting N-(trifluoroacetyl)-α-aminoacetophenone was then N- ... with sodium borohydride. Chemically, N-methylphenyethanolamine is an aromatic compound, an amine, and an alcohol. The amino- ... α-amino acid chlorides. Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines ... and the product finally converted to racemic N-methylphenylethanolamine by means of sodium borohydride in ethanol. An efficient ...
Phenacyl chloride. *Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper). *Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers). *Tear gases ...
Sodium Bicarbonate. 小蘇打(Baking soda). 食物添加劑 ... 亞甲藍氯化物(Methylthioninium Chloride). 腎功能測定、
Cl−: Chloride channel. *Calcium-activated chloride channels *Anoctamin *ANO1. *Bestrophin *1. *2 ...
The reaction rate is pH dependent, and slightly alkaline conditions achieved by adding a weak base, e.g. sodium salicylate, ... It can be synthesized by reacting 2-carbopentoxy-3,5,6-trichlorophenol with oxalyl chloride. (Note: This article originally was ...
... sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Natron ... Chemistry of hydrated sodium carbonate[edit]. Natron is also the mineralogical name for the compound sodium carbonate ... The sodium carbonate is usually formed by absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by a highly alkaline, sodium-rich ... Most industrially produced sodium carbonate is soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate Na2CO3) which is obtained by calcination ( ...
Sodium chloride (NaCl), for example, melts at 801 °C (1,474 °F) into a liquid that consists largely of sodium cations (Na+. ) ... and chloride anions (Cl−. ). Conversely, when an ionic liquid is cooled, it often forms an ionic solid-which may be either ... "Potentiometric investigation of dialuminium heptachloride formation in aluminum chloride-1-butylpyridinium chloride mixtures". ... The IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride has been investigated for the recovery of uranium and other metals from spent ...
... sodium, the sodium salt of fluorescein, is used extensively as a diagnostic tool in the field of ophthalmology and ... It can be prepared from phthalic anhydride and resorcinol in the presence of zinc chloride via the Friedel-Crafts reaction. ... The most common adverse reaction is nausea, due to a difference in the pH from the body and the pH of the sodium fluorescein ... It is available as sterile single-use sachets containing lint-free paper applicators soaked in fluorescein sodium.[4] ...
... chloride,[16] ammonium chloride, and a fluoride (e.g. sodium fluoride). Presence of silicon in the alloy impairs the flux ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... Acid flux types (not used in electronics) may contain hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or ammonium chloride, which are harmful ... At high temperatures, copper oxide reacts with hydrogen chloride to water-soluble and mechanically weak copper chloride, and ...
Thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride ... calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ... This is large in comparison to normal renal sodium reabsorption which leaves only about 0.4% of filtered sodium in the urine. ... Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ...
... and a study of its diuretic effects on humans showed significant increases in urinary sodium, potassium, and chloride. Human ...
Yet another small-scale route for the production of silane is from the action of sodium amalgam on dichlorosilane, SiH2Cl2, to ... The most commonly used catalysts for this process are metal halides, particularly aluminium chloride. This is referred to as a ... Still other industrial routes to silane involve reduction of SiF4 with sodium hydride (NaH) or reduction of SiCl4 with lithium ... First, silicon is treated with hydrogen chloride at about 300 °C to produce trichlorosilane, HSiCl3, along with hydrogen gas, ...
Properties*Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. It forms ... Sodium chloride is odorless but has a characteristic taste. ... Sodium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide ... Sodium chloride. Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt , rock salt, sea salt and the mineral halite, is ... sodium chloride (common salt) A colourless crystalline solid, NaCl, that is soluble in water. Sodium chloride has a key role in ...
... is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI:36093) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) is a inorganic sodium salt ( ... sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role emetic (CHEBI:149552) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role flame retardant (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:26710 - sodium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Sodium chloride. ... Immediately download the Sodium chloride summary, chapter-by- ... Sodium Chloride Overview Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide) is a colorless to white powder or crystalline solid with no odor ... Sodium Chloride Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is ... Sodium chloride Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Sodium chloride. ...
... is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is also in the form of a crystal lattice ... Salt (Sodium Chloride). Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is ... How do you separate sodium chlorate and sodium chloride. ?. Asked by Wiki User ...
... chloride is not an electrolyte and is not an electrical conductor.Sodium chloride in water solutions or molten sodium chloride ... Why is sodium chloride different from sodium chloride crystals in its electricity conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not ... Does sugar sodium chloride create conductivity?. 1. Sodium chloride as solid is not conductive. 2. Sodium chloride in water ... Sodium chloride and sodium chloride crystals in its electrical conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte. ...
... The classic case of ionic bonding, the sodium chloride molecule forms by the ionization of sodium and ... The classic studies are the extremes of ionic bonding in sodium chloride and covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule. ... and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. ... An atom of sodium has one 3s electron outside a closed shell, and it takes only 5.14 electron volts of energy to remove that ...
... An animation that shows the process at the particle level for dissolving table salt (sodium chloride ...
Tradename: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP. Manufacturer: Fresenius Kabi AG. Indication:. * A pre-attached subassembly ... September 5, 2019 Approval Letter - 0.9 % Sodium Chloride Injection USP. *August 1, 2019 Summary Basis for Regulatory Action - ...
... architecture of the sodium chloride structure. A common sulfide mineral that crystallizes in this manner is the ore mineral of ... The structure of the common sulfide pyrite (FeS2) also is modeled after the sodium… ... Other articles where Sodium chloride structure is discussed: mineral: Sulfides: … ... www.britannica.com/science/sodium-chloride-structure", "title": "Sodium chloride structure", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED ...
Slow sodium tablets contain the active ingredient sodium chloride, which is a salt that is normally found dissolved in the body ... Slow sodium (sodium chloride). Slow sodium tablets contain the active ingredient sodium chloride, which is a salt that is ... Sodium chloride tablets are used to replace sodium lost from the body and thereby return sodium chloride levels to normal. This ... Slow sodium tablets contain the active ingredient sodium chloride, which is a salt that is normally found dissolved in the body ...
Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Sodium chloride essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about ... and sodium chloride. The goal of this experiment was to successfully separate these compounds with the least amount of lost ...
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Ochs, S.A.; Cote, R.E.; Kusch, P., On the radiofrequency spectrum of the components of a sodium chloride beam. The dimerization ... Ismail, Z.K.; Hauge, R.H.; Margrave, J.L., Infrared studies of matrix isolated sodium and potassium chloride and cyanide dimers ... For IR spectrum of matrix isolated sodium chloride see Ismail, Hauge, et al., 1975. ... Nierenberg, W.A.; Ramsey, N.F., The radiofrequency spectra of the sodium halides, Phys. Rev., 1947, 72, 1075. [all data] ...
Sodium Chloride is an inorganic salt (also called table salt).. ROCK SALT and SODIUM CHLORIDE ...
Sodium Chloride Intravenous. Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Clindamycin In 0.9 % Sodium ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Sodium Chloride 0.9% Demo is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Sodium Chloride 0.9% Demo is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Sodium Chloride 0.9% Demo. Sodium Chloride. Sodium Chloride is reported as an ingredient of Sodium ... Sodium Chloride 0.9% Demo. Sodium Chloride 0.9% Demo may be available in the countries listed below. ...
SODIUM CHLORIDE. SODIUM CHLORIDE FOR INHALATION. Ocean Saline Nasal Spray (Sodium Chloride) relieves nasal congestion by ...
SODIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 451W47IQ8X) (CHLORIDE ION - UNII:Q32ZN48698). SODIUM CHLORIDE. 240 mg in 4 mL. ... NEBUSAL- sodium chloride To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... NEBUSAL- sodium chloride Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Out of scope ...
SODIUM CHLORIDE. SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.45 %. Ocean Saline Nasal Spray (Sodium Chloride) relieves nasal congestion by thinning mucus ...
Click here to learn about the benefits and side effects of active ingredients in beauty products including Sodium Chloride from ... Sodium Chloride. * Table salt Sodium Chloride is more commonly known as table salt, and is used as a preservative in a number ... Sodium Chloride is considered safe and non-carcinogenic or toxic.. Recommended Products with Sodium Chloride: ... Sodium Chloride is more commonly known as table salt, and is used as a preservative in a number of food products, as well as in ...
Under certain conditions sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, can conduct electricity. When solid NaCI cannot conduct ... is atomically 50 percent sodium and 50 percent chloride. However, by weight, sodium only makes up 40 per... Full Answer , Filed ... A: Halite is the mineral name for salt, or sodium chloride; its referred to as rock salt when in rock form. Halite is ... As sodium chloride contains charged particles, only the state of the chemical matters when considering its ability to conduct ...
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Wholesale Various High Quality Sodium Chloride 0.9% Products from Global Sodium Chloride 0.9% Suppliers and Sodium Chloride 0.9 ... sodium chloride methylene chloride magnesium chloride cesium chloride ferric chloride copper chloride methanesulfonyl chloride ... Tags: 0.9% Sodium Chloride , High Quality 0.9% Sodium Chloride , Uses Of 0.9% Sodium Chloride In Medicine , View larger image ... Tags: Sodium Chloride 0.9% , Sodium Chloride 0.9% Price , Bulk Sodium Chloride 0.9% Price , View larger image ...
Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl¯) ions. Sodium (Na+) is the principal cation of ... 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP provides an isotonic saline irrigation identical in composition with 0.9% Sodium Chloride ... Each 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP contains: Sodium chloride 900 mg. pH 5.6 (4.5 - 7.0). The solution is ... 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP is supplied in a single-dose 3000 mL flexible irrigation container (List No. 7972). ...
Some of the drugs - such as Sodium Chloride 0.9 percent Injection Bags - have been in short supply for months, while others ...
Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride. Sodium carbonate, in turn, is ... Solid sodium chlorideEdit. See also: Cubic crystal system. In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the ... pH of sodium chloride solutionsEdit. The pH of a sodium chloride solution remains ≈7 due to the extremely weak basicity of the ... Solid sodium chloride has a melting point of 801 °C. Thermal conductivity of sodium chloride as a function of temperature has a ...
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BAM R71: Sodium Chloride Dilution Water, 2% and 3% January 2001. 2% solution: NaCl 20 g, Distilled water 1 liter.. 3% solution ...
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Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
  • Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is an ionic compound consisting of cube-shaped crystals composed of the elements sodium and chlorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. (answers.com)
  • The potential diagram above is for gaseous NaCl, and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. (gsu.edu)
  • Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water. (nih.gov)
  • [7] commonly known as salt (though sea salt also contains other chemical salts ), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl , representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined, in immobilization, the effect of a diet high in sodium chloride (NaCl) on bone markers, nitrogen balance, and acid-base status. (nih.gov)
  • Based on form, the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market is segmented into API-NaCl and HD-NaCl. (bccresearch.com)
  • Sodium chloride , sometimes referred to as table salt, is an inorganic compound and the sodium salt of hydrochloric acid , with formula NaCl . (sciencemadness.org)
  • It is the starting point for the chloralkali process, the industrial process to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide, according to the chemical equation 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH This electrolysis is conducted in either a mercury cell, a diaphragm cell, or a membrane cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The classic case of ionic bonding , the sodium chloride molecule forms by the ionization of sodium and chlorine atoms and the attraction of the resulting ions. (gsu.edu)
  • The atoms of solid sodium are bound together through metallic bonding, which involves the presence of delocalized electrons around positive ions of sodium. (reference.com)
  • Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl¯) ions. (nih.gov)
  • It is an ionic compound, being made up of equal numbers of positively charged sodium and negatively charged chloride ions . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The sample water is treated with a reagent to suppress interference from all other ions in the water, and the electrode measures the sodium concentration in the water as it flows by in a continuous stream. (mt.com)
  • A chloride and sulfate analyzer is an on-line measurement system that uses microfluidic capillary electrophoresis as a method for detecting chloride and sulfate ions at very low ppb limits. (mt.com)
  • Chloride and sulfate ions are highly corrosive and can cause pitting, stress cracking and other types of corrosion on boiler and steam generator tubes and turbines. (mt.com)
  • Generally speaking, for dilute solutions, trivalent ions NOTE: In this table, sodium (Na) is arbitrarily given are preferred over divalent ones, which, in turn, are preferred over monovalent a value of 1.00 in each column. (scribd.com)
  • Noida, India, July 18, 2015 --( PR.com )-- Sodium chloride or NaCI is an ionic compound with the chemical formula representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. (pr.com)
  • Sodium chloride can serve as a convenient source of either chloride or sodium ions in reaction mixtures, and can also be combined with concentrated sulfuric acid to generate hydrogen chloride or with dilute sulfuric acid to form hydrochloric acid in solution. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection 23.4% is added to intravenous solutions (IV) to treat patients with lower than normal salt levels (sodium or chloride ions) in their blood. (nps.org.au)
  • The sodium-chloride symporter (also known as Na+-Cl− cotransporter, NCC or NCCT, or as the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl− cotransporter or TSC) is a cotransporter in the kidney which has the function of reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the tubular fluid into the cells of the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium Chloride Injections USP are sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic and contain no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. (bbraunusa.com)
  • Sodium chloride is often given as tablets or injections in adults who need an electrolyte supplement, often due to dehydration or excessive sweating. (sharecare.com)
  • A formulation for preparing Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 20% Sclerotherapy Injections. (ijpc.com)
  • The pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market is segmented on the basis of applications such as injections, hemodialysis, oral rehydration salts, osmotic agents, and others. (bccresearch.com)
  • Pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride is characterized on the basis of applications that include injections, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, & hemofiltration solutions, oral rehydration salts (ORS), channeling agents/ osmotic agent, mechanical cleansing solutions, and others (dietary formulations and infant formulations). (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The report " Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride Market by Applications (injections, oral rehydration salt (ORS), hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, & hemofiltration solutions, channeling agents/ osmotic agent, mechanical cleansing solutions, dietary formulations and infant formulations), by Region - Industry Trends & Forecasts to 2019 ", defines and segments the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market with analysis and forecasting of volume consumed and value generated. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Various expansions and joint ventures in the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride industry, growing demands from the injections, dialysis, and pharmaceutical formulations and will drive the pharmaceutical grade salt market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Sodium chloride, found abundantly in nature, occurs in seawater, other saline waters or brines, and in dry rock salt deposits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ocean Saline Nasal Spray (Sodium Chloride) relieves nasal congestion by thinning mucus and moisturizing the inside of your nose. (propublica.org)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP provides an isotonic saline irrigation identical in composition with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (normal saline). (nih.gov)
  • Sodium chloride mixed with water creates a saline solution, which has a number of different medical purposes. (healthline.com)
  • Different types of saline solutions will contain different ratios of sodium chloride to water. (healthline.com)
  • In the form of saline, sodium chloride is used to clean objects like contact lenses. (msdsonline.com)
  • This salt can also be prepared chemically by reacting hydrochloric acid (chemical formula HCl) with sodium hydroxide (chemical formula NaOH) to form sodium chloride and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process , sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride, when it's in the form of hydrochloric acid (hydrogen and chloride) is also a component of gastric juice. (healthline.com)
  • Though it is not economical to do so, sodium chloride is easily synthesized by neutralizing sodium bicarbonate , sodium carbonate , or sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Sodium carbonate, in turn, is used to produce glass , sodium bicarbonate , and dyes , as well as a myriad of other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride is one of the most important chemicals used in the chemical industry, mainly for the manufacture of caustic soda, sodium chlorite, ammonium chlorite and sodium bicarbonate. (pr.com)
  • Each of those use a different method to separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide enables industries that produce paper, soap, and aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also be electrolyzed to produce, depending on the conditions, sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas , sodium chlorate , sodium perchlorate , or sodium hypochlorite , all enormously useful, but the process is not necessarily economical or efficient. (sciencemadness.org)
  • This means that it takes only 1.52 eV of energy to donate one of the sodium electrons to chlorine when they are far apart. (gsu.edu)
  • This means that if neutral sodium and chlorine atoms found themselves closer than 0.94 nm, it would be energetically favorable to transfer an electron from Na to Cl and form the ionic bond. (gsu.edu)
  • Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. (wikipedia.org)
  • it can be decomposed into sodium and chlorine by passing an electrical current through it (see electrolysis ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nearly all chemical compounds that contain either sodium or chlorine are ultimately derived from salt. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an excellent oxygen-based bleaching chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further goes the analysis of global sodium chloride market with emphasis on its main components which are production, consumption, prices, global trade, future forecast, etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • A recent report released by IMARC Group analyses the global sodium chloride market and gives an insight into the industry trends, key success and risk factors, manufacturing process, price trends, key players and the industry outlook. (pr.com)
  • Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride Market research report contributes important criterion's of the report such as top leading players, applications, vital definitions, major product types and key geographical regions. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The market volume of Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride industry may present a noticeable growth of $$ million USD and annual development of xx% CAGR forecasted from 2011 to 2017. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The beginning part of the report throws a light towards different business parameters such as product categorization, cost of the product, major sectors involved in Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride also covers company's in-depth information in the form of company profiles, contact information, market price scrutiny, market chain value and industry chain structure . (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It gives an adjoining affiliation between current market strategies, demands, top manufacturers involved in the Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market and major geographical regions .Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride report also describes company analysis with gross margin, major products, sales revenue and cost of the product. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The subsequent part of the Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride report assays contrasting commercial and observable policies, flourishing trends, regionally classified industrial prototypes and different industrial measures involved in the Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market report is segregated on the basis of product types, applications, regions and company information. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Segregation of Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market on the basis of product types includes the size of the market forecasted from 2017 to 2022, product types according to their manufacturers. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Finally, various applications of Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market with market size, demands, end-users and consumer profiles are displayed. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride report ends by giving details about the research findings, conclusions, the primary and secondary source of data and the addendum. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Leading topographical countries featuring Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride industry includes Asia-Pacific Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market, Middle and Africa Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market, Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride market of Europe and North America. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • major upgrades and developments, utilization value, product volume, supply exuberance, investment usability and investment return analysis are also recommended through global Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride research report. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats )analysis is implemented precisely to enhance the growth of the Pharmaceutical Grade Sodium Chloride industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A recent market study published by FMI on the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market includes global industry analysis for 2014-2018 & opportunity assessment for 2019-2029, and delivers a comprehensive assessment of the market dynamics. (bccresearch.com)
  • After thorough research on the historical as well as current growth parameters of the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market, the growth prospects of the market are obtained with maximum precision. (bccresearch.com)
  • Executive summary of the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market with insights on supply-side as well as demand-side trends of the market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The market overview includes market definition and taxonomy to give the reader a market description of pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride. (bccresearch.com)
  • Factors and strategies adopted by key market participants, which have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market. (bccresearch.com)
  • This section helps readers understand the global market value analysis and forecast for the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market. (bccresearch.com)
  • This chapter explains how the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market will grow across various geographic regions. (bccresearch.com)
  • Important growth prospects of the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market based on its end users in several countries such as Germany, Italy, France, Spain, the U.K., Russia, Benelux, and the rest of Europe are included in this chapter. (bccresearch.com)
  • This chapter highlights the growth of the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market in South Asia by focusing on India, ASEAN, and the Rest of South Asia. (bccresearch.com)
  • Analysis of pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market in countries such as Australia and New Zealand during the forecast period. (bccresearch.com)
  • Growth of the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market in MEA by focusing on South Africa, Turkey, GCC Countries, and the Rest of MEA is given here. (bccresearch.com)
  • This chapter highlights the emerging countries in the pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market, which show a substantial growth rate in the market. (bccresearch.com)
  • sodium chloride is used in manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • This market research study provides a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This research report categorizes the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market on the basis of applications and region along with forecasting volume, value, and trends in each of the markets. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Regional level segmentation is done for Pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride that includes North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe and Rest of the World and further for key countries in each region that include U.S., China, Japan, India, Germany, France, and Belgium. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market, in terms of volume is projected to reach 690KT by 2019, registering a CAGR of 6.9% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The report also defines driving and restraining factors for the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market with the analysis of trends, opportunities, burning issues, winning imperatives, and challenges. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market is experiencing faster growth rate, especially in Asia-Pacific, due to the increased demands of IV solutions and dialysis solutions in emerging markets. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The regional pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market is further segmented on the basis of its major applications. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The North-America region was the world s largest market for pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride in terms of volume in 2013. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • United States was the key consumers of pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride in the North-America. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Abundant availability and demand have in turn made the North American region a potential growth market for pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The report forecasts value of the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market and its various sub-markets with respect to main regions namely, Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, and Rest of the World. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The report segments the global pharmaceutical grade sodium chloride market by its end-use applications in different regions. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The MSDS further corroborated these findings, noting Sodium Chloride as "Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation" and "Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. (truthinaging.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about sodium chloride inhalation? (cigna.com)
  • Sodium chloride inhalation is used to produce sputum (mucus, or phlegm) from the mouth to help improve lung function in people with cystic fibrosis, or to collect sputum for medical testing. (cigna.com)
  • Sodium chloride inhalation may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using sodium chloride inhalation? (cigna.com)
  • FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether sodium chloride inhalation is harmful to an unborn baby. (cigna.com)
  • How is sodium chloride inhalation given? (cigna.com)
  • Sodium chloride inhalation is given using a nebulizer. (cigna.com)
  • Since sodium chloride inhalation is sometimes used only as needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. (cigna.com)
  • Sodium chloride is used to prevent or treat sodium loss, to treat nasal dryness, and to dilute and deliver certain medications for injection and inhalation. (sharecare.com)
  • In several regions of North America and Europe, sodium chloride is used to de-ice the streets and highways during heavy snowfall. (pr.com)
  • Currently, Asia represents the largest region producing sodium chloride followed by Europe, North America and South & Central America. (pr.com)
  • Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is usually not pure sodium chloride-it may contain natural impurities that provide dietary minerals, or small amounts of other substances (e.g., magnesium carbonate, hydrated calcium silicate, or tricalcium phosphate) may be added to prevent lumping. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Iodized table salt usually contains small amounts of potassium iodide, sodium carbonate, and sodium thiosulfate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • it is also used in large amounts in the Solvay process for making sodium carbonate . (encyclopedia.com)
  • If we take two soluble salts such as calcium chloride and sodium carbonate, as described in the first part of this series (see "Part I," WC&P, April 1998), and mix them together in solution, eventually the calcium will react with the carbonate ion and precipitate out as CaCO3. (scribd.com)
  • For high density medication such as potassium chloride, squeeze ports while ports are upright and mix thoroughly. (rxlist.com)
  • The sodium-chloride symporter or NCC is a member of the SLC12 cotransporter family of electroneutral cation-coupled chloride cotransporter, along with the potassium-chloride cotransporters (K+-Cl− cotransporters or KCCs), the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters (Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporters or NKCCs) and orphan member CIP (cotransporter interacting protein) and CCC9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride hypertonic ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to reduce swelling of the cornea (the front surface of your eye) caused by surgery, infection, trauma, or other eye conditions. (cigna.com)
  • An overdose of sodium chloride hypertonic is not expected to be dangerous. (cigna.com)
  • What should I avoid while using sodium chloride, hypertonic, ophthalmic? (cigna.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of sodium chloride, hypertonic, ophthalmic? (cigna.com)
  • What other drugs will affect sodium chloride, hypertonic, ophthalmic? (cigna.com)
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about sodium chloride hypertonic (ophthalmic). (cigna.com)
  • 3% and 5% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment in single dose containers for intravenous administration. (rxlist.com)
  • An inorganic chloride salt having sodium(1+) as the counterion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sodium Chloride is an inorganic salt (also called table salt). (ewg.org)
  • Sodium aluminum phosphate, or SAIP, is a group of inorganic compounds that are formed from aluminum phosphates and sodium salts. (reference.com)
  • The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl¯) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output. (nih.gov)
  • Although salt and sodium are different, salt is 40 percent sodium and we get most of our sodium intake from salt. (healthline.com)
  • You can limit your sodium intake by eating unprocessed foods. (healthline.com)
  • You may also find it easier to manage your sodium intake by making more meals at home. (healthline.com)
  • High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses. (nih.gov)
  • Keeping your sodium intake within healthy limits can help prevent high blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • It has been estimated that our sodium intake breaks down as follows: 5 percent is added in cooking, 6 percent is added at the table, 12 percent occurs naturally in the foods we eat, and, most importantly, a whopping 77 percent comes from processed and restaurant foods. (everydayhealth.com)
  • According to an article in the September 26, 2007 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, "Finland, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand are ahead of the United States in addressing dietary sodium intake. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Writing in its official journal, EFSA's Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens assign a value of 2.0 grams (g) sodium ​ ​ per day as a safe and adequate intake for the general EU adult population. (nutraingredients.com)
  • For infants aged 7-11 months, an Adequate Intake (AI) of 0.2 g/day is proposed based on the estimated sodium intake in exclusively breast-fed infants aged 0-6 months. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "Consistent with the reference values for sodium, these levels of chloride intake are considered to be safe and adequate for the general EU population, under the consideration that the main dietary source of chloride intake is sodium chloride," ​ the opinion concludes. (nutraingredients.com)
  • European intakes in adults are typically higher so EU decision-makers can use this value where appropriate to set population targets for reducing sodium intake. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • If found to approximate sodium excretion, the titrator sticks could provide a convenient means for doctors and patients to monitor their salt intake. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite this there is no convenient way for doctors or patients to assess their salt intake other than diet recall, which is unreliable, or measurement of sodium excretion in a 24 hour collection of urine, which is very inconvenient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As sodium chloride contains charged particles, only the state of the chemical matters when considering its ability to conduct electricity. (reference.com)
  • The standard is named ASTM E534-13 and is the standard test methods for chemical analysis of sodium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical soda ash, which contains sodium, is used in the manufacturing of water softeners, soaps, paper and glass. (reference.com)
  • Sodium metasilicate is a colorless or white chemical compound that forms an alkaline solution when mixed with water. (reference.com)
  • Reagent Grade Sodium Chloride is purified salt that is carefully selected and washed to meet specifications as defined by the American Chemical Society. (mortonsalt.com)
  • Reagent Grade Sodium Chloride meets specifications as defined in Reagent Chemicals: American Chemical Society. (mortonsalt.com)
  • Sodium chloride is the chemical name given to salt or table salt. (msdsonline.com)
  • The sodium chloride market is largely impacted by its end-use in various sectors - food, medical, industrial and chemical. (pr.com)
  • What are the chemical reactions involved during the manufacturing of sodium chloride? (pr.com)
  • While most commonly known as a flavoring in numerous foods, sodium chloride finds substantial use as a chemical reagent. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Sodium chloride in water solutions or molten sodium chloride are electrolytes. (answers.com)
  • Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na + ) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium and potassium are electrolytes in the fluid outside and inside your cells. (healthline.com)
  • Sodium chloride, commonly referred to as salt or table salt, are used to replace electrolytes, especially sodium, in the body. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Now it has been shown by various American workers that adrenalectomy is followed by a severe disturbance in the excretion and distribution of electrolytes, and that by means of a diet containing no potassium and much sodium it is possible to maintain life with adrenalectomized animals indefinitely. (nature.com)
  • 3% and 5% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is indicated as a source of water and electrolytes. (rxlist.com)
  • For more information on sodium chloride and other chemicals, search our database of MSDS information here . (msdsonline.com)
  • Sodium chloride can reduce some types of bacteria in certain body secretions, such as saliva. (cigna.com)
  • Inhaling sodium chloride helps remove certain bacteria in body secretions. (pr.com)
  • Hospira, Inc. (NYSE: HSP), announced today it will initiate a voluntary nationwide recall of one lot of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 250 mL (NDC 0409-7983-02, Lot 44-002-JT, Expiry 1AUG2016) to the user level due to one confirmed customer report of particulate in a single unit. (petpoisonhelpline.com)
  • Pink Himalayan salt, like all other forms of salt, is atomically 50 percent sodium and 50 percent chloride. (reference.com)
  • The weight of salt is usually a combination of 40 percent sodium and 60 percent chloride. (healthline.com)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Reaction Rate of Titanium and Titanium Subchlorides in Molten Sodium Chloride from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Slow sodium tablets contain the active ingredient sodium chloride, which is a salt that is normally found dissolved in the body fluids. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • An overview of the results of an experiment conducted on three known compounds, M-toluic acid, acetanilide, and sodium chloride. (bookrags.com)
  • Table salt is a mixture of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, glucose, and anti-caking compounds to make it pour easily and resist humidity. (sci-toys.com)
  • An ionic compound such as sodium chloride is held together by an ionic bond . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The classic studies are the extremes of ionic bonding in sodium chloride and covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule . (gsu.edu)
  • Sodium chloride, commonly referred to as salt or table salt, is an ionic compound found in medical treatments and various foods. (reference.com)
  • Brine is a solution of sodium chloride and water that may or may not contain other salts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Oxygen content was found to be an important factor influencing the corrosiveness of the sodium chloride brine solutions, with aerated conditions being the most corrosive ones. (onepetro.org)
  • Also increasing chloride content and decreasing pH increased the corrosiveness of sodium chloride brine solution. (onepetro.org)
  • The amount of sodium chloride needed to adjust the viscosity of Cola®Det 190-NPF at various concentrations is shown in Figure 2. (scribd.com)
  • A critical evaluation of data on the viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions is presented. (unt.edu)
  • Government-mandated sodium levels will open the door for regulation of all food ingredients - and will lead to limited, less tasty food options. (chem.info)
  • Sodium chloride is a colorless or white crystalline solid with a cubic crystal structure. (sciencemadness.org)
  • We now investigate whether a sodium (Na) chloride (Cl) containing diet likewise associates with a low-grade metabolic acidosis of severity proportional to the sodium chloride content of the diet as indexed by the steady-state Na and Cl excretion rates. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We plan to assess the accuracy of a new means of estimating urine sodium excretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we shall compare the estimation of urine sodium excretion measured by a laboratory with estimation of sodium excretion from measurement of chloride/creatinine ration in a random urine sample. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Your doctor may want you to have regular blood tests to check your sodium level and levels of other salts while you are taking this medicine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Whether it is sea salt, kosher salt, table salt or any of the various new gourmet salts, they are all sodium chloride . (everydayhealth.com)
  • In fact, several food giants - including PepsiCo, ConAgra , Campbell Soup, General Mills, to name a few - have already voluntarily pledged to reduce the sodium content in many of their products. (chem.info)
  • The risk for corrosion in brines is associated with the chloride content, temperature, pH and oxygen level. (onepetro.org)
  • The resistance to localized corrosion of stainless steels in 20,000,100,000 and 200,000 ppm Cl - sodium chloride solutions was investigated at 90°C. The effects of chloride content, oxygen content and solution pH were studied on test coupons with and without welds and on U-bend specimens. (onepetro.org)
  • Though there are many different formulas for rock salt (used to de-ice roads), brands that contain only sodium chloride may be a good purchase for those that don't want to buy massive amounts of water purification tablets but also don't want to spend lots of money on food-grade salt. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Sodium Chloride is a crystalline compound consisting of equal amounts of sodium and chloride atoms in a lattice type structure. (ecostore.co.nz)
  • Since ancient times, the salt sodium chloride has been of importance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since 2013, Colombia Import of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Including Solution, Salt Water fell by 0.4% year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • In 2018, the country was number 63 among other countries in Import of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Including Solution, Salt Water with $7,983,034. (nationmaster.com)
  • Since 2013, Armenia Export of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Including Solution, Salt Water was down by 27.1% year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • At $47,445.44 in 2018, the country was ranked number 106 among other countries in Export of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Including Solution, Salt Water. (nationmaster.com)
  • MYXREDLIN (insulin human in sodium chloride injection) for intravenous use is a sterile, preservative-free, nonpyrogenic, clear, aqueous, and colorless solution supplied in a 100 mL GALAXY single-dose container. (rxlist.com)
  • Suitably pure sodium chloride can be bought as uniodized ( iodine -free) salt in grocery stores, or in bulk as water-softening tablets at hardware stores, by far the cheapest method. (sciencemadness.org)
  • To prepare for inhaling sodium chloride through a nebulizer, you may be given another inhaled medication to prevent bronchospasm (muscle contractions within the airways of the lungs). (cigna.com)
  • Your kidneys , brain , and adrenal glands work together to regulate the amount of sodium in your body. (healthline.com)
  • Sterile Sodium Chloride Concentrate 30% Martindale may be available in the countries listed below. (drugs.com)
  • The sodium-chloride symporter accounts for the absorption of 5% of the salt filtered at the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride in the form of a nasal spray is used treat adults who have dry nasal passages. (sharecare.com)
  • Under certain conditions sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, can conduct electricity. (reference.com)
  • After hydrogen and oxygen, the two most abundant or "common" elements dissolved in seawater are sodium and chloride, which combine to form salt. (reference.com)
  • This Molecule: Sodium Chloride (Salt) Color clipart is great to illustrate your teaching materials. (abcteach.com)
  • This Molecule: Sodium Chloride (Salt) Color clipart is provided in jpeg format. (abcteach.com)
  • Most of them precipitate before sodium chloride and therefore are left behind as the seawater is moved from one evaporating pond to another. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Meats, dairy products and margarine are preserved with sodium chloride because it slows down the growth of microorganisms. (reference.com)
  • The American Dietary Guidelines recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium per day. (healthline.com)
  • The European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) finally publish dietary reference values (DRVs) for sodium and chloride marking the culmination of a decade's work by the Agency's nutrition scientists. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Measurement of sodium, potassium, and chloride in a subset of stored casual urine samples from NHANES 2010. (cdc.gov)
  • The volume of urine needed per test is 150 µL (combined measurement of sodium, potassium, and chloride). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium Chloride is more commonly known as table salt, and is used as a preservative in a number of food products, as well as in foods as a flavor additive. (truthinaging.com)
  • Sodium chloride -- also known as table salt -- is a compound your body needs to perform a variety of daily functions. (livestrong.com)
  • Each 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP contains: Sodium chloride 900 mg. pH 5.6 (4.5 - 7.0). (nih.gov)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP is considered generally compatible with living tissues and organs. (nih.gov)
  • Slow sodium tablets should be swallowed whole with water (at least 70ml of water per tablet in people with normal kidney function). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People receiving therapy to decrease sodium and/or water levels in the body, eg people taking diuretics. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If doses are too high, or insufficient amounts of water are drunk, this could result in the level of sodium in the blood rising too high (hypernatraemia). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • METTLER TOLEDO offers a series of sodium, silica and chloride/Sulfate Analyzers that use industry-proven technology with innovative approaches to provide assurance of water purity to minimize corrosion while maximizing water production. (mt.com)
  • A sodium analyzer is an on-line measurement system to ensure that water is not contaminated with sodium, which can be corrosive and damaging in processes that require pure or ultrapure water. (mt.com)
  • It can detect when a cation exchanger needs to be regenerated, whereas conductivity cannot 'see' the sodium until the levels are too high because of the high background conductivity of pure water. (mt.com)
  • The analyzer uses an ion-selective electrode designed to specifically measure sodium in the water. (mt.com)
  • These hormones are constantly measuring the amount of fluid and sodium in the body to determine how much water you have in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Special receptors in the body can signal the body to absorb more sodium, which adds water to your body. (livestrong.com)
  • These same receptors can stimulate your body to release sodium when you have too much water in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Sodium chloride increases the amount of water your body retains. (livestrong.com)
  • The more sodium you eat, the more water in your blood, which increases the amount of fluid in your blood. (livestrong.com)
  • A large quantity of sodium chloride is also used as feedstocks in many industrial processes and for water softening purposes. (pr.com)
  • Sodium chloride is used to produce other chemicals. (reference.com)
  • Chemicals formed from the combination of sodium chloride and other elements are used in metallurgy, ceramic glazes, photography and curing of hides. (reference.com)
  • Sodium chloride is also lost from the body in urine and sweat. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The method quantitatively determines sodium, potassium and chloride in urine. (cdc.gov)
  • The laboratory achieved satisfactory participation in the CAP proficiency testing surveys during 2011 for the urine chemistry surveys for sodium, potassium, and chloride and for the linearity and calibration verification surveys for sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • The data were collected only for a single year (2010) rather than a typical NHANES 2-year data collection period, therefore, the single year urine sodium weight, WTNA, should be used in estimating the prevalence and in testing statistical hypotheses using these data. (cdc.gov)
  • We will compare the chloride to creatinine ratio obtained by titrator sticks with urine sodium measured by a standard laboratory. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A titrator stick that measures chloride ion concentration (chloride and sodium concentrations correlate strongly with each other), and a titrator stick that measures urine creatinine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will compare the estimate obtained by titrator stick with the sodium concentration from the same urine sample, and from measurements obtained from a 24 hour urine collection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will assess the accuracy with which the titrator stick estimate approximates the measured urine sodium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As of March 2007, we have recruited 50 subjects, and continue to study the predictive value of spot urine chloride/creatinine ratio, as described. (clinicaltrials.gov)