A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The consumption of liquids.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The selection of one food over another.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/8610)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Calorimetric studies on the stability of the ribosome-inactivating protein abrin II: effects of pH and ligand binding. (2/8610)

The effects of pH and ligand binding on the stability of abrin II, a heterodimeric ribosome-inactivating protein, and its subunits have been studied using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. At pH7.2, the calorimetric scan consists of two transitions, which correspond to the B-subunit [transition temperature (Tm) 319.2K] and the A-subunit (Tm 324.6K) of abrin II, as also confirmed by studies on the isolated A-subunit. The calorimetric enthalpy of the isolated A-subunit of abrin II is similar to that of the higher-temperature transition. However, its Tm is 2.4K lower than that of the higher-temperature peak of intact abrin II. This indicates that there is some interaction between the two subunits. Abrin II displays increased stability as the pH is decreased to 4.5. Lactose increases the Tm values as well as the enthalpies of both transitions. This effect is more pronounced at pH7.2 than at pH4.5. This suggests that ligand binding stabilizes the native conformation of abrin II. Analysis of the B-subunit transition temperature as a function of lactose concentration suggests that two lactose molecules bind to one molecule of abrin II at pH7.2. The presence of two binding sites for lactose on the abrin II molecule is also indicated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plotting DeltaHm (the molar transition enthalpy at Tm) against Tm yielded values for DeltaCp (change in excess heat capacity) of 27+/-2 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the B-subunit and 20+/-1 kJ.mol-1.K-1 for the A-subunit. These values have been used to calculate the thermal stability of abrin II and to surmise the mechanism of its transmembrane translocation.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (3/8610)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

H5 Histone and DNA-relaxing enzyme of chicken erythrocytes. Interaction with superhelical DNA. (4/8610)

The interaction of closed circular duplex DNA with the lysine-rich H5 histone fraction of avian erythrocytes has been studied. H5, like H1 histone, interacts preferentially with superhelical DNA. The extent of interaction increases with increasing negative or positive superhelicity. Salt-extracted lysine-rich histones show the same specificity for interaction with superhelices as do acid-extracted preparations. Chicken erythrocyte nuclei contain DNA-relaxing enzyme. This enzyme is extracted from the nuclei at lower salt concentrations than those required to extract H1 and H5 histones and is, therefore, probably a function of a protein distinct from H1 and H5 histones.  (+info)

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (5/8610)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (6/8610)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Electrostatic interactions during activation of coagulation factor IX via the tissue factor pathway: effect of univalent salts. (7/8610)

Interaction between the Gla-domain of coagulation proteins and negatively charged phospholipid membranes is essential for blood coagulation reactions. The interaction is calcium-dependent and mediated both by electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. This report focuses on the electrostatic component of factor IX activation via the extrinsic pathway. Effective charges during the reaction are measured by ionic titration of activity, according to the Debye-Huckel and Gouy-Chapman models. Rates of activation decrease with ionic strength independently of the type of monovalent salt used to control ionic strength. Moreover, the effect of ionic strength decreases at concentrations of charged phospholipid approaching saturation levels, indicating that membrane charges participate directly in the ionic interaction measured. The effective charge on calcium-bound factor IX during activation on phospholipid membranes is 0.95+/-0.1. Possible sites mediating contacts between the Gla-domain and membranes are selected by geometrical criteria in several metal-bound Gla-domain structures. A pocket with a solvent opening-pore of area 24-38 A2 is found in the Gla-domain of factors IX, VII, and prothrombin. The pocket contains atoms with negative partial charges, including carboxylate oxygens from Gla residues, and has a volume of 57-114 A3, sufficient to accommodate additional calcium atoms. These studies demonstrate that electrostatic forces modify the activity coefficient of factor IX during functional interactions and suggest a conserved pocket motif as the contact site between the calcium-bound Gla-domain and charged membranes.  (+info)

Electrical and mechanical responses to diltiazem in potassium depolarized myocardium of the guinea pig. (8/8610)

Effects of diltiazem on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig papillary muscle were investigated in K-rich Tyrode's solution (Kc1 12.7 mM). The electrical properties of cell membrane in K-rich solution were also examined in the ventricular muscle fibers. It was found that the overshoot as well as the maximum rate of rise (Vmax) of the action potential were highly sensitive to the extracellular concentration of CaC12 in K-rich solution. Vmax was also affected by NaC1. Diltiazem at a lower concentration (1.1 X 10(-7) M) caused a reduction in the contractile force of K-depolarized papillary muscle without producing significant changes in the resting and action potentials. In the presence of a higher concentration of diltiazem (1.1 X 10(-5) M), the contractile force decreased concurrently with the change in the action potential. Addition of CaC12 restored the original strength of contraction in parallel to the recovery of the action potential, especially in its overshoot and Vmax. From these results, it is inferred that diltiazem may decrease the contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscle either by interfering with the intrasmembrane calcium influx or by intracellularly reducing the free calcium ion concentration in the myoplasm.  (+info)

The main symptoms of Gitelman syndrome include:

* Muscle weakness and paralysis that can be triggered by changes in potassium levels, stress, or certain medications
* Muscle cramps and twitching
* Fatigue and malaise
* Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
* Low blood pressure
* Constipation

Gitelman syndrome can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms with medications such as potassium supplements, salt substitutes, and medications to regulate heart rhythm and blood pressure. In some cases, a gluten-free diet may be recommended.

Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. The prevalence of Gitelman syndrome is estimated to be around 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 40,000 individuals worldwide.

Overall, Gitelman syndrome is a rare and complex disorder that requires careful management by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle modifications, individuals with Gitelman syndrome can lead relatively normal lives.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

... is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride. Sodium carbonate, in turn, is ... In the Mannheim process, sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. Sodium chloride ... Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine ... Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular ...
Sodium+Chloride+Symporters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Sodium+Chloride+Symporter+ ... The sodium-chloride symporter or NCC is a member of the SLC12 cotransporter family of electroneutral cation-coupled chloride ... Using the sodium gradient across the apical membrane of the cells in distal convoluted tubule, the sodium-chloride symporter ... leaves the cells through the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb. The sodium-chloride symporter accounts for the absorption of ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on sodium chloride. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...
... , also known as Na(+)/Cl(-) betaine/GABA transporter (BGT-1), is a protein ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A6 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
... , also known as glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), is a protein that in humans ... Amoxapine Ethanol N-Arachidonylglycine (NAGly) Opiranserin (VVZ-149) ORG-25543 VVZ-368 Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter Solute ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Mutations of ... the SLC6A8 gene can cause cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome 1. Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter Solute carrier family ...
... , also known as glycine transporter 1, is a protein that in humans is ... by Pfizer Sarcosine which is thought to improve cognitive impairment due to schizophrenia Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter ...
Most commonly used brines are based on inexpensive calcium chloride and sodium chloride. It is used because the addition of ... Sodium chloride per se does not exist in water: it is fully ionized. Other cations found in various brines include K+, Mg2+, ... Sodium chloride brine spray is used on some fishing vessels to freeze fish. The brine temperature is generally −5 °F (−21 °C). ... The most common example are household dishwashers, utilizing sodium chloride in form of dishwasher salt. Brine is not involved ...
"HALITE (Sodium Chloride)". Galleries.com. Archived from the original on 2015-12-16. Retrieved 2015-12-16. Wales, University Of ... Halite (/ˈhælaɪt, ˈheɪlaɪt/), commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride ( ... Sodium minerals, Halide minerals, Cubic minerals, Minerals in space group 225, Edible salt, Evaporite, Luminescent minerals, ...
Sodium chloride "Sodium chlorate". "GPS Safety Summary of Sodium Chlorate" (PDF). arkema.com. Arkema. Retrieved 2014-05-25. ... Industrially, sodium chlorate is produced by the electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solutions. All other processes ... Sodium chlorate can be used with hydrochloric acid (or also sulfuric acid and sodium chloride, the reaction of which generates ... sodium chlorate with the balance being a fire depressant such as sodium metaborate or ammonium phosphates. Sodium chlorate is ...
... elevated sodium, chloride, sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and ...
... and sodium chloride dust. These materials originate from Io's volcanic activity, with the material that escapes to Jupiter's ... sodium chloride (NaCl), and atomic sulfur and oxygen. The atmosphere has significant variations in density and temperature with ... and consists primarily of sodium chloride. Dust measurements by Galileo showed that these dust streams originate from Io, but ... Fainter aurora from oxygen atoms along the limb of Io (the red glows in the image at right), and sodium atoms on Io's night- ...
... each sodium ion reabsorbed brings one potassium ion and two chloride ions. Sodium goes on to be reabsorbed into the blood, ... Sodium-Potassium-Chloride+Symporters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with ... Vasopressin stimulates sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the nephron by activating signaling pathways ... The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is a protein that aids in the secondary active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ...
Sodium chloride supplies essential ions. Dextrose is a source of fermentable carbohydrate. The eggs and beef serum cause the ...
High-temperature liquids: sodium chloride. Sulfuric acid in liquid form is strongly polar. It remains liquid at higher ... Simple hydrogen compounds: hydrogen chloride. More complex compounds: sulfuric acid, formamide, methanol. Very-low-temperature ...
Tested using sodium chloride particles. R for resistant to oil. Used when oil particulates are present and the filter is ...
29.1 ppm sodium chloride NaCl ; 30.8 ppm potassium chloride KCl ; 9.1 ppm magnesium chloride MgCl2 ; 8.5 ppm *These compounds ...
"Dextrose mixture with sodium chloride". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portals: Chemistry Medicine ... It is also on the list in combination with sodium chloride. The name glucose is derived from Ancient Greek γλεῦκος (gleûkos, " ... In dilute sodium hydroxide or other dilute bases, the monosaccharides mannose, glucose and fructose interconvert (via a Lobry ... In Barfoed's test, a solution of dissolved copper acetate, sodium acetate and acetic acid is added to the solution of the sugar ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride". ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. "Glyoxal Industrial Applications ...
US Patent US 3594384 A. Stachel A, Nitz RE (1966). Method of increasing sodium chloride excretion. US Patent US 3250676 A. ...
Table salt is a refined salt containing about 97 to 99 percent sodium chloride. Usually, anticaking agents such as sodium ... Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). Sea salt and mined salt may contain trace elements. Mined salt is often refined. Salt ... Solutions of sodium chloride have very different properties from those of pure water; the freezing point is −21.12 °C (−6.02 °F ... Sodium chloride is one of the largest volume inorganic raw materials. Its major chemical products are caustic soda and chlorine ...
The title of his doctoral thesis was Electronic Bands in Sodium Chloride, a topic suggested by his thesis advisor, John C. ... Shockley, William (October 15, 1936). "Electronic Energy Bands in Sodium Chloride". Physical Review. American Physical Society ...
Edible salt Sodium chloride Kostock, Dennis. The Material Flow of Salt. (U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, ...
"Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride". ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. "Safety (MSDS) data for ... "Sodium fluoride". hazard.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-07-31. Mayer B (January 2014). "How much ... "Mercuric Chloride Safety Data Sheet" (PDF). LabChem. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-11-26. Retrieved 2020-01-06 ... "Safety (MSDS) data for sodium nitrite". ox.ac.uk.[dead link] Gable RS (September 2004). "Acute toxic effects of club drugs". ...
NaCl denotes sodium chloride, common table salt; as a pun, the name of pepper was also used. Pepper API is a cross-platform, ...
"Salt & Sodium Chloride for safe winter roads". Saltinstitute.org. February 22, 2010. Archived from the original on October 22, ...
Rondestvedt Jr., Christian S.; Bordwell, F. G. (1954). "Sodium β-Styrenesulfonate and β-Styrenesulfonyl Chloride". Organic ... Sulfur trioxide can be prepared in the laboratory by the two-stage pyrolysis of sodium bisulfate. Sodium pyrosulfate is an ... It oxidizes sulfur dichloride to thionyl chloride. SO3 + SCl2 → SOCl2 + SO2 SO3 is a strong Lewis acid readily forming adducts ... 2000 doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_635 K.J. de Vries; P.J. Gellings (May 1969). "The thermal decomposition of potassium and sodium- ...
Sodium chloride max.: 50% (on dry matter) When foods are produced by canning, freezing, or drying, some flavor loss is almost ... After cooling, the hydrolysate is neutralized with either sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide to a pH of 5 to 6. The ... The remaining acid is then neutralized by mixing with an alkali such as sodium hydroxide, which leaves behind table salt, which ...
In sodium chloride there is a 1:1 ratio of sodium to chlorine atoms. The structure can also be described as an FCC lattice of ... Measurement of the sodium chloride structure factors". Acta Crystallogr. 18 (5): 926-932. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65002244. Kao, W ... Examples of compounds with this structure include sodium chloride itself, along with almost all other alkali halides, and "many ... In the rock-salt or sodium chloride (halite) structure, each of the two atom types forms a separate face-centered cubic lattice ...
... acidity regulator Sodium hydroxide - mineral salt Sodium lactate - food acid Sodium malates - food acid Sodium metabisulfite - ... Mace - Magnesium - Magnesium carbonate - anti-caking agent, mineral salt Magnesium chloride - mineral salt Magnesium citrate - ... anti-caking agent Sodium formate - preservative Sodium fumarate - food acid Sodium gluconate - stabiliser Sodium hydrogen ... mineral salt Sodium bisulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) - preservative, antioxidant Sodium carbonate - mineral salt Sodium ...
Sodium carbonic hydrocarbonate-chloride (i.e. salt-alkaline) water of springs #4 and #17, which have made the health resort ... Carbonic hydrogen-sulphide water of holes #1 and #2, as well as calcium-sodium hydrosulphuric sulphate-hydrocarbonate (the so- ...
Chlorides are confirmed by the chromyl chloride test. When the salt is heated with K2Cr2O7 and concentrated H2SO4, red vapours ... The sodium carbonate test (not to be confused with sodium carbonate extract test) is used to distinguish between some common ... Instead of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide may be added, this gives nearly the same colours, except that lead and zinc ... A sodium carbonate extract is made from the solution containing bromide or iodide, and CHCl3 or CS 2 is added to the solution, ...
Another application is the creation of selective astronomical filters to reduce the effect of light pollution from sodium and ... Neodymium compounds in fluorescent tube light-from left to right, the sulfate, nitrate, and chloride Neodymium compounds in ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ... the sharp absorption bands obliterate the strong sodium emission at 589 nm. The similar absorption of the yellow mercury ...
The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and the organic ion bicarbonate. The ... Inorganic elements play critical roles in metabolism; some are abundant (e.g. sodium and potassium) while others function at ... About 99% of a human's body weight is made up of the elements carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, hydrogen ... For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell ...
... potassium chloride) and halite (commonly known as rock salt - sodium chloride) Gypsum (calcium sulphate) - used for plaster ...
... can also react with the chloride salts of certain alkaline earth metals in aqueous solution, such as barium ... 3 H2O Alternatively the salt can be obtained by the reaction of sodium nitrate with sodium amide. Treatment of sodium azide ... Sodium azide increases cyclic GMP levels in the brain and liver by activation of guanylate cyclase. Sodium azide solutions ... In the first step, ammonia is converted to sodium amide by metallic sodium: 2 Na + 2 NH3 → 2 NaNH2 + H2 It is a redox reaction ...
Hygroscopic cloud seeding uses natural salts such as potassium chloride and sodium chloride that pre-exist in the atmosphere ...
Ferric chloride gives a bluish-violet coloration with the aqueous solution. Unlike resorcinol it does not give a fluorescein ... more interesting is its production when acetone dicarboxylic ester is condensed with the aid of sodium. It crystallizes in ...
It is generally prepared in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is kept in the saliva after spitting out the mouth ... These fluorides are often manufactured in the form of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, or sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). ... While multiple clinical trials demonstrate that 38% SDF is more effective than 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC, it ... Common active ingredients include sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, silver diamine fluoride. These ingredients account for ...
Sodium channels have similar functional properties across many different cell types. While ten human genes encoding for sodium ... Chloride channels are present in all types of neurons. With the chief responsibility of controlling excitability, chloride ... Voltage-gated sodium channels and calcium channels are made up of a single polypeptide with four homologous domains. Each ... In potassium and sodium channels, voltage-sensing S4 helices contain positively-charged lysine or arginine residues in repeated ...
C and it requires specifically sodium chloride (NaCl) for its growth. (Other salts do not promote growth of A. aquaeolei.) ...
... amount of sodium chloride nNaCl). The value of the Avogadro constant NA has been defined as 6.02214076×1023 mol−1. The mole ( ... the amount concentration of sodium chloride in ocean water is typically about 0.599 mol/L. The denominator is the volume of the ... about 35 g/L for sodium chloride in ocean water). Confusingly, the amount concentration, or "molarity", should also be ...
Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... Unlike the fast and transient sodium current, the persistent sodium current (INaP) is activated at very low membrane potentials ... NALCN sodium leak channels have been hypothesized to give rise to an inward current that may play an important role in the ... Since NALCN sodium leak channels may contribute to the depolarization of neurons, their regulation by G-protein coupled ...
Murray, R. L.; Babcock, J. H. (1946). The Preparation of Sodium Trifluoroacetate and Ethyl Trifluoroacetate. Atomic Energy ... can be prepared by a two-step reaction starting from trichloroacetonitrile by reaction with hydrogen chloride and fluorination ... The compound can also be obtained by reacting trifluoroacetic acid or sodium trifluoroacetate with ethanol. Ethyl ...
With sodium amide in ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DME), however, the dibromene oxide behaves as a 1,3-aryne equivalent and ... In his 1885 dissertation, Adolf Scheufelen published the synthesis of a purer sample using iron(III) chloride FeCl3 as a ... forms with furan a phenanthrene-like tricyclic 1,3-adduct, which can react with furan and sodium amide to a triphenylene ...
... resulting in an influx of sodium and calcium ions into the cell, and an efflux of chloride ions. This influx of positive ions ... When the neuron is depolarizing, the CNG ion channel is open allowing sodium and calcium to rush into the cell. The influx of ... CaM will then bind to the CNG channel and close it, stopping the sodium and calcium influx. CaMKII will be activated by the ...
... is an electrochemically processed solution made from water and sodium chloride (NaCl). They may be used during wound care. They ...
The effect is usually noticeable at pH > 12, and cat concentrations of lithium or sodium ions of 0.1 moles per litre or more. ... usually silver chloride electrode or calomel electrode internal solution, usually a pH=7 buffered solution of 0.1 mol/L KCl for ... Potassium ions usually cause less error than sodium ions. Acidic error range - at a very high concentration of hydrogen ions ( ... There are also specialized ion sensitive glass electrodes used for the determination of the concentration of lithium, sodium, ...
Sodium chloride (NaCl) or common table salt is known to corrode silver-copper alloy, typically seen in silver salt shakers ...
... such as zinc chloride or aluminum chloride) are used with tertiary amines (such as triethylamine) as catalysts for the ... Hydrogenation of 2-methylene glutaronitrile in the presence of ammonia with manganese-containing sodium oxide-doped cobalt ... 2-Methylene glutaronitrile can be polymerized to various homo- and copolymers via anionic polymerization with sodium cyanide, ... sodium in liquid ammonia or with butyllithium. However, the polymers are formed only in low yields and show unsatisfactory ...
Substances reabsorbed include: water, sodium chloride, glucose, amino acids, lactate, magnesium, calcium phosphate, uric acid, ... sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium). A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for ... In passing through the ascending limb, the filtrate grows hypotonic since it has lost much of its sodium content. This ... Atrial natriuretic peptide causes the distal convoluted tubule to secrete more sodium. A part of Distal nephron. This is the ...
The sodium thiolate can be converted to an intermediate zinc mercaptide with zinc sulfate, followed by reaction of the ... mercaptide with for instance benzoyl chloride, forming a 1,3-benzothiazole. Aniline 5 is converted to compound 6, in three ... to the corresponding sodium thiolate (3): The Herz salts hydrolyze to give aminothiophenols, which are suitable for ...
... is prepared by oxidizing aniline with sodium nitrite in the presence of hydrogen chloride to form the diazonium ... which is subsequently reduced using sodium sulfite in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form the final product. ...
"When added to water, brown fumes are evolved; when hydrolyzed in sodium hydroxide solution, both nitrate and nitrite ions are ... produced." The straw-colored adduct Be(NO3)2(N2O4) forms upon treatment of beryllium chloride with dinitrogen tetroxide: BeCl2 ...
... from hexamethyldisilazane and sodium amide or from hexamethyldisilazane, sodium and styrene - with trimethylchlorosilane in 80 ... In 1972, K. Shiina observed that lithium (as an electron donor) forms with trimethylsilyl chloride under darkening tris( ... 241-244, doi:10.1021/ja01206a028 C.R. Krüger, H. Niederprüm, M. Schmidt, O. Scherer (1966), H.F. Holtzlow (ed.), Sodium Bis( ... sodium has been used instead of lithium as the electron donor and molybdenum and iron compounds (such as pentacarbonyl iron or ...
3 CO2 It can also be obtained by reacting sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide with a praseodymium chloride ...
... is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide, ferrous chloride, and calcium hydroxide, the combination of ... Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 · ... A solution of this salt is then treated with sodium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-sodium salt CaNa2[Fe(CN)6]2, which ... Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS Archived 2010-05-17 at the Wayback Machine "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including ...
Thus, sodium/benzophenone can be used as an indicator of air-free and moisture-free conditions in the purification of solvents ... environment it is usually sufficient to connect a guard tube filled with calcium chloride to the reflux condenser to slow ... Aside from being inefficient, sodium as a desiccant (below its melting point) reacts slowly with trace amounts of water. When ...
... the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate. Sodium ... this reaction occurs in sodium hypochlorite solutions at high temperatures, forming sodium chlorate and sodium chloride: 3 ... In the process, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are formed when chlorine is passed into cold dilute ... Some of the sodium chloride precipitates and is removed by filtration, and the pentahydrate is then obtained by cooling the ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Sodium Chloride Injection Solution. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, ... Sodium Chloride Injection Solution. Generic name: Sodium Chloride Injection Solution [ SOW-dee-um-KLOR-ide ]. Brand names: ... Sodium chloride side effects (more detail). What are some other side effects of Sodium Chloride Injection Solution?. All drugs ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sodium Chloride Injection Solution?. *If you have an allergy to sodium chloride ...
... sodium chloride intravenous on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ...
Table 2. Adequate Intake (AI) for Sodium and Sodium Chloride (Salt). Life Stage. Age. Males and Females. Sodium (mg/day). Males ... Most of the sodium and chloride in the diet comes from salt (21). Very little sodium occurs naturally in food. Instead, sodium ... Sodium and Chloride. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, D.C.: National ... Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. Total body sodium in an average 70-kg person is of about 4,200 mmol (~100 g), of ...
Sources of sodium and chloride in the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin, Rhode Island October 1, 2002 ... Sources of sodium and chloride in the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin, Rhode Island. ...
Given that sodium chloride is not the only source of chloride ions, we used diet bread as the control since it is supposed to ... Given that bread is a staple food in the country, its consumption alone provides a daily intake of sodium chloride exceeding ... Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 23, 2017 , Volume 23, issue 10 , Sodium chloride composition of ... A calibration range was prepared using known concentrations of sodium chloride.. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, ...
Im writing because I just realized that I accidentally used sodium chloride for a round that my mom had given me her left over ... Accidental use of sodium chloride Hello all, Im writing because I just realized that I accidentally used sodium chloride for a ... Sodium chloride is table salt. Are you talking about saline solution used instead of water? Or, non-iodized table salt? ... I have been doing another round now and just realized that Id used the plain sodium chloride in that round, and read that its ...
Read chapter Sodium and Chloride : Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health ... PART III: SODIUM AND CHLORIDE 395 KEY POINTS FOR SODIUM AND CHLORIDE Sodium and chloride are necessary to maintain ... Sodium and chloride ions are typically consumed as sodium chloride. About 98 percent of ingested sodium chloride is absorbed, ... Sodium chloride (salt) accounts for about 90 percent of total 3 sodium intake in the United States. Most of the sodium chloride ...
Macron™ Chemicals - Sodium Hydroxide - Zinc Chloride. By Avantor™ Performance Materials - Macron™ Chemicals *Chemicals ... Sodium Hydroxide, Pellet. 2.5kg. AR® (ACS). Poly. 1310-73-2. $0.00. 1/EA. CALL FOR PRICE. Add To Favorites. $572.79. 4/CS. Add ... Sodium Iodide, Granular. 2.5kg. AR®. Glass. 7681-82-5. $0.00. 1/EA. CALL FOR PRICE. Add To Favorites. $7250.65. 4/CS. Add To ... Zinc Chloride, Granular. 2.5kg. AR® (ACS). Poly. 7646-85-7. $0.00. 1/EA. CALL FOR PRICE. Add To Favorites. $3087.38. 4/CS. Add ...
Effect of sodium chloride-induced salinity on phytoavailability and speciation of Cd in soil solution. Water Air and Soil ... Sodium chloride salinity reduces Cd uptake by edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) via competition for Ca channels. ... Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity ... Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco. Ecotoxicology and Environmental ...
Luo J, Wei S, Su Y, Chen X, Wan Y. Desalination and recovery of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) from its sodium chloride mixtures by ... Luo, J, Wei, S, Su, Y, Chen, X & Wan, Y 2009, Desalination and recovery of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) from its sodium chloride ... Desalination and recovery of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) from its sodium chloride mixtures by nanofiltration. In: Journal of ... Dive into the research topics of Desalination and recovery of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) from its sodium chloride mixtures by ...
29.95 Sodium Chloride, Citrus Paradisi, Mentha Arvensis... in General Household ... (22 Nov 22) by ABC Auctions ... Sodium Chloride, Citrus Paradisi, Mentha Arvensis, Litsea Cubeba, *Limonene, *Citral, *Linalool, *Geraniol, *Citronellol, CI ... Wake Up Potion 7kg Hessian Sack RRP £29.95 Sodium Chloride, ... by ABC Auctions ...
Voltar aos Detalhes do Artigo Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753) ...
... (NaCl), also called salt, is used by our bodies to:Absorb and transport nutrientsMaintain blood ... What is sodium chloride?. Sodium chloride (NaCl), also called salt, is used by our bodies to: ... When your doctor prescribes salt treatment, they will use the term sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is mixed with water to form ... Approximately 75% to 90% of sodium intake comes from salt or sodium chloride. Salt provides essential minerals (sodium) that ...
Sodium chloride is used in pyrotechnics as delay agent in a few glitter formulas, but besides that, it is hardly ever used, ... Sodium chloride. Submitted by pyrodataUser on Wed, 2014-03-12 15:46. ...
Administer isotonic sodium chloride solution until blood glucose levels have fallen to 250-300mg/dL (ie, 12-15mmol/L), at which ... Have the pharmacy prepare the syringe at a concentration of 1 U/mL (ie, 50 U insulin qs with 0.9% sodium chloride to 50 mL). ... Have the pharmacy prepare the syringe at a concentration of 1 U/mL (ie, 50 U insulin qs with 0.9% sodium chloride to 50 mL). ... Sodium chloride 0.9%. This agent is used for resuscitation and for dehydration associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. Calculate ...
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NaCl, or sodium chloride, is a well-known substance. Indeed, it is ordinary table salt (yet purified especially for the food ...
Salt (Sodium Chloride) Electrolysis. Electrolytic water purifiers generate a mixture of oxidants, including hypochlorite, by ... Sodium hypochlorite, the active ingredient in common household bleach, has been used for over a century and is the primary ... Wilhelm N, Kaufmann A, Blanton E, Lantagne D. Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated ... calcium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate), are equally effective for water treatment. ...
We examine computationally the dipeptide and tetrapeptide of alanine in pure water and solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and ... We examine computationally the dipeptide and tetrapeptide of alanine in pure water and solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and ... Specific interactions of sodium salts with alanine dipeptide and tetrapeptide in water: Insights from molecular dynamics  ... Specific interactions of sodium salts with alanine dipeptide and tetrapeptide in water: Insights from molecular dynamicsAAA  ...
The aim of this work was to study the effect of sodium chloride replacement by potassium chloride on the quality of smoked sea ... The reduction of the content of sodium chloride in dry-cured ham was studied in to prevent the problems related to high sodium ... Browsing by Subject "Sodium chloride". RiuNet: Institutional repository of the Polithecnic University of Valencia. ... In order to extract salt-soluble proteins, such as myofibrillar proteins, sodium chloride is added to restructured products ...
Measurement of Urine Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride. All assays were conducted using the Cobas ISE/Na+, K+, Cl- assay ... Urine Chloride (mmol/L) MEC spot urine. English Text: Urine Chloride (mmol/L). English Instructions: Urine Chloride (mmol/L) ... Sodium, Potassium & Chloride - Casual Urine (SSUE10_R). RDC Only Data File: SSUE10_R.xpt. First Published: September 2012. Last ... SSUNAMP - Urine Sodium (mmol/L) MEC spot urine. Variable Name: SSUNAMP. SAS Label: Urine Sodium (mmol/L) MEC spot urine. ...
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Where is sodium chloride used? What makes calico cats unique? How does thunder form? A scientific trivia quiz ... Where is sodium chloride used? What makes calico cats unique? How does thunder form? A scientific trivia quiz. ...
Sodium Chloride is a human prescription drug by Liebel-flarsheim Company Llc. The product is distributed in 2 packages with NDC ... codes 0019-1188-27, 0019-1188-81.This solution is used to supply water and salt (sodium chloride) to the body. ... What are the uses for Sodium Chloride?. This solution is used to supply water and salt (sodium chloride) to the body. Sodium ... Which are Sodium Chloride UNII Codes?. The UNII codes for the active ingredients in this product are:. *SODIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: ...
Sodium, chlorides, and conductivity in drinking-water : report on a WHO working group, The Hague, 1-5 May 1978. by World Health ... Regional Office for Europe , WHO Working Group on Sodium Chlorides and Conductivity in Drinking-Water (1978 : The Hague, ... by International Conference on Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Sodium Chloride Intake (1979: University of Pennsylvania) ... Sodium in medicine and health : a monograph / edited by Campbell Moses ; with summary by Fredrick J. Stare and Mohamed el Lozy ...
This product contains a purified gentle salt solution (also called saline or sodium chloride solution). It does not contain any ... This product contains a purified gentle salt solution (also called saline or sodium chloride solution). It does not contain any ...
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity. Specific Function. Terminates the action of GABA by its high affinity sodium- ... lcl,BSEQ0010219,Sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 MATNGSKVADGQISTEVSEAPVANDKPKTLVVKVQKKAADLPDRDTWKGRFDFLMSCVGY ... lcl,BSEQ0010220,Sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 (SLC6A1) ... Sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1. Name. Sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1. ...
Excessive sodium chloride ingestion promotes inflammation and kidney fibrosis in aging mic ... Excessive sodium chloride ingestion promotes inflammation and kidney fibrosis in aging mice. ... and abrogated response to sodium chloride. Taken together, HSD promotes progressive kidney fibrosis with premature cell aging, ... NOTEWORTHY Short-term experimental studies link excessive sodium ingestion with extracellular matrix accumulation and ...
  • Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline powder freely soluble in water. (nih.gov)
  • 1998). Second, NaCl increases Cd mobilization through the formation of soluble inorganic chloride complexes (CdCln2-n) and Cd desorption (due to the decreases of positive charges) from charged sites in soil solid phase (Weggler-Beaton et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP contains 9 g/L Sodium Chloride, USP (NaCl) with an osmolarity of 308 mOsmol/L (calc). (nih.gov)
  • NaCl, or sodium chloride, is a well-known substance. (melscience.com)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection, USP solutions are sterile and nonpyrogenic. (nih.gov)
  • They are parenteral solutions containing various concentrations of sodium chloride in water for injection intended for intravenous administration. (nih.gov)
  • For 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, each 100 mL contains 450 mg sodium chloride in water for injection. (nih.gov)
  • For 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, each 100 mL contains 900 mg sodium chloride in water for injection. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention. (nih.gov)
  • The intravenous administration of Sodium Chloride Injection, USP can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with diminished renal function, administration of Sodium Chloride Injection, USP may result in sodium retention. (nih.gov)
  • What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sodium Chloride Injection Solution? (drugs.com)
  • If you have an allergy to sodium chloride or any other part of sodium chloride injection solution. (drugs.com)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with sodium chloride injection solution. (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take sodium chloride injection solution with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • What are some things I need to know or do while I take Sodium Chloride Injection Solution? (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take sodium chloride injection solution. (drugs.com)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using sodium chloride injection solution while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • How is this medicine (Sodium Chloride Injection Solution) best taken? (drugs.com)
  • Use sodium chloride injection solution as ordered by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Burning, stinging, or redness where sodium chloride injection solution goes into the body. (drugs.com)
  • Pain and irritation where sodium chloride injection solution goes into the body. (drugs.com)
  • What are some other side effects of Sodium Chloride Injection Solution? (drugs.com)
  • How do I store and/or throw out Sodium Chloride Injection Solution? (drugs.com)
  • If you need to store sodium chloride injection solution at home, talk with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist about how to store it. (drugs.com)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution of sodium chloride and water for injection. (who.int)
  • Sodium chloride injection containing additives should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. (who.int)
  • Whether you use water or sodium chloride, it must be bacteriostatic when the mixture is used for injection. (hcgdietinfo.com)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment in single dose containers for intravenous administration. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection, USP has value as a source of water and electrolytes. (nih.gov)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP is also indicated for use as a priming solution in hemodialysis procedures. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the volume and rate of infusion, and the patient's underlying clinical condition, the intravenous administration of Sodium Chloride Injection, USP can cause fluid disturbances such as overhydration/hypervolemia and congested states, including pulmonary congestion and edema. (nih.gov)
  • Avoid 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP in patients with or at risk for fluid and/or solute overloading. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium Chloride Injection, USP may cause hyponatremia. (nih.gov)
  • The risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia is increased in patients with cardiac or pulmonary failure, and in patients with non-osmotic vasopressin release (including SIADH) treated with high volume of Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection for mild ischemic stroke: A multicenter controlled study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Efficacy of Guhong injection versus Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection for mild ischemic stroke: A multicenter controlled study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The patients were given Guhong injection (experimental group) or Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection ( control group ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Guhong injection is safe and more effective than Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection for treatment of IS. (bvsalud.org)
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Irrigation, USP in the Baxter Sterile Container System is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution for the preparation of slushed solution. (nih.gov)
  • Solutions which provide combinations of hypotonic or isotonic concentrations of sodium chloride are suitable for parenteral maintenance or replacement of water and electrolyte requirements. (nih.gov)
  • Isotonic concentrations of sodium chloride are suitable for parenteral replacement of chloride losses that exceed or equal the sodium loss. (nih.gov)
  • In a child with severe acidosis or compromised circulation, an initial resuscitation of 10-20mL/kg of isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%) can be administered over 30 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • Administer isotonic sodium chloride solution until blood glucose levels have fallen to 250-300mg/dL (ie, 12-15mmol/L), at which time glucose-containing fluids should be introduced (eg, 5% glucose with 0.45% sodium chloride). (medscape.com)
  • 1610. Adulteration of isotonic solution of three chlorides and dextrose in isotonic solution of sodium chloride. (nih.gov)
  • U. S. v. 26 Flasks of Isotonic Solution of Three Chlorides and 38 Flasks of Dextrose in Isotonic Solution of Sodium Chloride. (nih.gov)
  • The distribution and excretion of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) are largely under the control of the kidney which maintains a balance between intake and output. (nih.gov)
  • Fatal voluntary salt intake resulting in the highest ever documented sodium plasma level in adults (255 mmol L-1): a disorder linked to female gender and psychiatric disorders. (nih.gov)
  • In 2019, the National Academy of Medicine established an adequate intake ( AI ) for sodium of 1.5 grams (g)/day in adults, equivalent to 3.8 g/day of sodium chloride (salt). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The National Academy of Medicine established a Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) for sodium of 2.3 g/day (5.8 g/day of salt) for adults based on evidence of potential long-term health benefits on blood pressure and risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease associated with reducing sodium intakes below this level. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The high salt content of white bread might be a contributing factor to the high sodium intake in Morocco, especially considering that bread is a staple food in the country. (who.int)
  • Any policies or initiatives to reduce sodium consumption should target bread as a strategic vehicle to reduce salt intake. (who.int)
  • Evidence shows that high intake of sodium leads to hypertension, heart attacks and strokes, and several population-based studies around the world have reported that high salt intake is associated with elevated blood pressure (3). (who.int)
  • Since one teaspoon of salt contains approximately 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium, it is easy to exceed the daily intake. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • You can limit your sodium intake by eating unprocessed foods. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • You may also find it easier to control sodium intake by cooking more at home. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • EN] The reduction of the content of sodium chloride in dry-cured ham was studied in to prevent the problems related to high sodium intake (i.e. the hypertension). (upv.es)
  • Sodium chloride in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl − ) ions. (nih.gov)
  • Although this review emphasizes the function and requirements of sodium, sodium and chloride ions work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) are the principal ions in the extracellular compartment, which includes blood plasma , interstitial fluid (fluid between cells), and transcellular fluid (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid , joint fluid). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Dosages for chloride, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sodium (Na + ) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium (K + ) is the principal positively charged ion ( cation ) inside of cells, while sodium is the principal cation in extracellular fluid . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Potassium chloride is commonly administered in electrolyte replacement therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this work was to study the effect of sodium chloride replacement by potassium chloride on the quality of smoked sea bass, as well as the effect of different types of packaging. (upv.es)
  • Potassium chloride is a common salt substitute. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Current sodium intakes of the US adult population far exceed the CDRR. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Hypotonic concentrations of sodium chloride are suited for parenteral maintenance of water requirements when only small quantities of salt are desired. (nih.gov)
  • Explants in these media established and in some of concentrations of sodium chloride (68.37-102.56 mM L -1 ) produced calli and adventitious shoots and roots better than the same media but free from sodium chloride. (scialert.net)
  • BRITTO, Maria Letícia Borges and NABESHIMA, Cleber K. . Comparison of differents concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and sodium chloride as irrigants . (bvsalud.org)
  • Various mechanisms act on the kidney to ensure that the amount of sodium lost via renal excretion compensates adequately for the amount of sodium consumed, thereby maintaining sodium homeostasis . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The best outcomes have been achieved by using normal- or half-strength saline (ie, 0.9% or 0.45% sodium chloride) for first resuscitation and replacement. (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous solutions containing sodium chloride are indicated for parenteral replenishment of fluid and sodium chloride as required by the clinical condition of the patient. (nih.gov)
  • Disturbances in sodium concentrations in the extracellular fluid are associated with disorders of water balance. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Total body chloride averages 2,310 mmol (~82 g), of which 70% is distributed in the extracellular fluid and the remaining is found in the collagen of connective tissue (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • PART III: SODIUM AND CHLORIDE 387 SODIUM CHLORIDE AND S odium and chloride are necessary to maintain extracellular fluid volume and plasma osmolality. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Total body sodium in an average 70-kg person is of about 4,200 mmol (~100 g), of which 40% is found in bone and 60% in the fluid inside and outside of cells (1) . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of chloride, amino acids , glucose , and water. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium and chlorine play an important role in your small intestine. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • A hypertonic concentration of sodium chloride may be used to repair severe salt depletion syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Water distribution depends primarily on the concentration of electrolytes in the body compartments and sodium (Na + ) plays a major role in maintaining physiologic equilibrium. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The concentration differences between potassium and sodium across cell membranes create an electrochemical gradient known as the membrane potential . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The large proportion of energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Have the pharmacy prepare the syringe at a concentration of 1 U/mL (ie, 50 U insulin qs with 0.9% sodium chloride to 50 mL). (medscape.com)
  • The solution may contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. (who.int)
  • It is made by combining Na (sodium) and Cl (chloride) to form a white crystalline cube. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • Sodium and chloride - major electrolytes of the fluid compartment outside of cells (i.e., extracellular) - work together to control extracellular volume and blood pressure. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium has been identified as a nutrient of public health concern for overconsumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sodium is a mineral and a naturally occurring nutrient. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • Sodium chloride is mixed with water to form a saline solution, which has many different medical uses. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • La haute teneur en sel du pain blanc pourrait être un facteur qui contribue à la forte consommation de sodium au Maroc, surtout quand nous savons que le pain est un aliment de base dans le pays. (who.int)
  • Eaux de boisson : teneur en sodium, teneur en chlorures et conductivité, rapport sur la réunion d' un groupe de travail de l' OMS, La Haye, 1er-5 mai 1978. (who.int)
  • Hyponatremia (abnormally low sodium concentrations in blood) is common among older adults and in individuals with hypertension , kidney disease, and heart disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Salt chlorination uses an electrolysis principle to generate chlorine from common non-iodised salt (sodium chloride) which has been added to the pool or spa water in a measured quantity. (resiglas.mu)
  • Different types of saline solutions will contain different ratios of sodium chloride and water. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • Sodium, chlorides, and conductivity in drinking-water : report on a WHO working group, The Hague, 1-5 May 1978. (who.int)
  • Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The laboratory achieved satisfactory participation in the CAP proficiency testing surveys during 2011 for the urine chemistry surveys for sodium, potassium, and chloride and for the linearity and calibration verification surveys for sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • EN] Meat and meat products are generally recognised as good sources of high biological-value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals and trace elements as well as some other bioactive compounds. (upv.es)
  • Excess dietary sodium is a major contributor to hypertension, which is a leading preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Yet, current evidence fails to support a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with moderate sodium restriction in patients with hypertension. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The flexible plastic slush container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PL 146 Plastic). (nih.gov)
  • EN] A new methodology to obtain desalted cod by partial sodium replacement with potassium, and ready-to-eat, was proposed. (upv.es)
  • Sodium chloride is table salt. (hcgdietinfo.com)
  • Chloride is found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most Americans probably get more chloride than they need from table salt and the salt in prepared foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have high sodium levels or swelling. (drugs.com)
  • If you are at risk for high blood pressure or heart disease, your doctor may recommend that you stick to a low-sodium diet. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • EN] High Hydrostatic Pressure technology emerged several years ago in response to consumer interest for products having greater organoleptic and nutritional quality than those traditionally processed by heat. (upv.es)
  • Canadian Stockman® mineral feed offers high-quality sodium chloride products, helping today's producers and ranchers make the right choice for healthier, higher-performing herds. (siftocanadianstockman.com)
  • Randomized controlled studies demonstrated that dietary sodium reduction (by 1.8 to 3.2 g/day) could lower blood pressure in subjects with elevated blood pressure. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Additional adverse health outcomes, including gastric cancer , osteoporosis , and kidney stones , have also been linked to sodium overconsumption. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In medical situations, your doctor or nurse will usually inject sodium chloride. (healthypig.com.hk)
  • Chloride (Cl − ) has an integral role in buffering action when oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the red blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • What does your body use sodium chloride for? (healthypig.com.hk)
  • Chloride is needed to keep the proper balance of body fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Too little chloride in the body can occur when your body loses a lot of fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is used to treat low sodium levels. (drugs.com)