Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Contamination, RadioactivePotassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Strophanthins: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Laboratory Chemicals: Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Chalcogens: The elements OXYGEN; POLONIUM; SELENIUM; SULFUR; and TELLURIUM; that form group 16 (formerly group VI) of the periodic table.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Sodium Salicylate: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Nostoc commune: A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.UkraineIodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.TritiumTetraethylammonium CompoundsElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)ThymidineTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Sodium Channel Agonists: A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Some of the metals that are reactive with water are the alkali metals: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium. These ... Notable examples include alkali metals sodium through caesium. Water-reactive substances are classified as R2 under the UN ...
Enriched alkalis include sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. Other depleted elements include barium, phosphorus, titanium ...
Common vapor cell materials are sodium, potassium and caesium. Note that non-metallic vapors such as neon may be used. As the ... 1993), Gated blue caesium Faraday atomic line filter, Bibcode:1993STIA...9587745M . Molisch, Andreas F.; Oehry, Bernard P. ( ... The principles hitherto employed in infrared amplification were put together into a passive sodium ALF. This design and those ... Daytime mesopause temperature measurements with a sodium-vapor dispersive Faraday filter in a lidar receiver. Opt. Letters, 21( ...
... quantitatively precipitating sodium with uranyl zinc acetate and gravimetrically determining the sodium as uranyl zinc sodium ... The presence of caesium and rubidium does not interfere with this reaction, but the presence of potassium and lithium must be ... Zinc uranyl acetate is sometimes called "sodium reagent" since pale yellow NaZn(UO2)3(C2H3O2)9 is one of the very few insoluble ... Uranyl zinc acetate is used as a laboratory reagent in the determination of sodium concentrations of solutions using a method ...
ethyl formate, CH3CH2(HCOO) sodium formate, Na(HCOO) caesium formate, Cs(HCOO); see Caesium: Petroleum exploration methyl ... Methanol and carbon monoxide react in the presence of a strong base, such as sodium methoxide: CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3 Hydrolysis ...
All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ... Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap. Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Caesium compounds are rarely encountered by most people, but most caesium compounds are mildly toxic. Like rubidium, caesium ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ...
These are aluminium, bismuth, cesium, cobalt, gold, manganese, phosphorus, scandium, sodium, terbium, and thorium. Trace ...
The univalent cation can be potassium, rubidium, cesium, ammonium (NH4), deuterated ammonium (ND4) or thallium. Sodium or ... also includes Ni Cu ) Lakshman, S.V.J.; T.V.Krishna Rao (1984). "Absorption spectrum of VO2+ ion doped in caesium cadmium ... Lakshmana Rao, J.; K. Purandar (1980). "Absorption spectrum of VO2+ in zinc cesium sulphate hexahydrate". Solid State ...
The sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and ammonium phosphates are all water-soluble. Most other phosphates are only ... NaH2PO4 Sodium tripolyphosphate - Na5P3O10 Ouled Abdoun Basin "Phosphates - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem ...
potassium, rubidium, caesium, and barium salts are insoluble in water. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of ... Ammonium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and rare earth including lanthanum fluoropalatinate salts are soluble in water ...
Using caesium atoms, graphite-covered surfaces and thermionic converters as containment, the work function of the surface has ... studies have been conducted on theoretical possibilities like sodium, beryllium, magnesium and calcium. It has been suggested ... A. Manykin, M. I. Ozhovan, P. P. Poluéktov, "Decay of a condensate consisting of excited cesium atoms". Zh. Éksp. Teor. Fiz. ... R. Svensson and L. Holmlid, "Very low work function surfaces from condensed excited states: Rydberg matter of cesium". Surface ...
"Negative conductance caused by entry of sodium and cesium ions into the potassium channels of squid axons". The Journal of ... Sodium channels Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) Epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) Calcium channels (CaVs) Proton channels ... sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins). The study of ion channels often involves biophysics, ... It blocks sodium channels. Saxitoxin is produced by a dinoflagellate also known as "red tide". It blocks voltage-dependent ...
Bezanilla F, Armstrong CM (Nov 1972). "Negative conductance caused by entry of sodium and cesium ions into the potassium ... Calcium channel Potassium channel Sodium channel Schrempf H, Schmidt O, Kümmerlen R, Hinnah S, Müller D, Betzler M, Steinkamp T ... but they are too far from a sodium ion. Further work has studied thermodynamic differences in ion binding, topological ...
Double sulfates of this form exist of indium with the alkali metals sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. These can be ... The cesium alum can be used in the analysis of indium. It precipitates when cesium nitrate is added to indium sulfate solution ... The indium cesium alum CsIn(SO4)2•12H2O has formula weight 656.0, unit cell width 12.54 Å, cell volume 1972 Å3 and density 2.20 ... Sodium pyrophosphate causes a slimy precipitate of indium pyrophosphate, In4(P2O7)3•3H2O. Potassium periodate causes a ...
Bergmann observed lithium at 5347 cm−1, sodium at 5416 cm−1 potassium at 6592 cm−1. Bergmann observed that the lines in the ... and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Cesium (Cs I-Cs LV)" (PDF). Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 38 (4): 768- ... The fundamental series lines for sodium appear in the near infrared. The fundamental series lines for potassium appear in the ... Wiese, W.; Smith, M. W.; Miles, B. M. (October 1969). Atomic Transition Probabilities Volume II Sodium Through Calcium A ...
The concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in blood are similar to those of seawater. Blood also has lower ... For potassium, rubidium and caesium even the primary solvation shell is not well defined. [Be(H2O)4]2+ has a very well-defined ... There are most probably six water molecules in the primary solvation sphere of the sodium ion. ...
Sodium ozonide (NaO3) is a red solid which is produced from caesium ozonide via an ion-exchange process. Potassium ozonide (KO3 ... Caesium ozonide (CsO3) is a dark red solid which is produced when caesium is burned in ozone. Klein, W.; Armbruster, K.; Jansen ... Caesium superoxide (CsO2) is produced when caesium burns in air. Lithium ozonide (LiO3) is a red solid which is produced from ... Caesium peroxide (Cs2O2) is produced by the decomposition of caesium oxide above 400 °C. Lithium superoxide (LiO2) has only ...
With sodium, the double sulfate is nickelblödite Na2Ni(SO4)2·4 H2O from the blödite family. Nickel can be substituted by other ... The singly charged ion can be any of the full range of potassium, rubidium, cesium, ammonium (NH4), or thallium. As a mineral ... Nickel terephthalate can be made by a double decomposition of sodium terephtalate and nickel nitrate. Nickel terephthalate ... Other double trichlorides include potassium nickel trichloride KNiCl3·5H2O, yellow cesium nickel trichloride CsNiCl3, lithium ...
The caesium isotope produced is unstable and decays to 123I. The isotope is usually supplied as the iodide and hypoiodate in ... sodium-24, technetium-99m, silver-110m, argon-41, and xenon-133 are also used extensively because they are easily identified ... resulting in a saline solution containing the 99mTc as the dissolved sodium salt of the pertechnetate. The pertechnetate is ... dilute sodium hydroxide solution, at high isotopic purity. 123I has also been produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratories by ...
Principal isotopes produced: fluorine-18, chlorine-36, bromine-80, bromine-82, iodine-131, sodium-24, lanthanum-140, cesium- ...
A sodium channel in the taste cell wall allows sodium cations to enter the cell. This on its own depolarizes the cell, and ... In contrast, rubidium and cesium ions are far larger, so their salty taste differs accordingly.[citation needed] The saltiness ... This sodium channel is known as an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and is composed of three subunits. An ENaC can be blocked ... Saltiness is a taste produced primarily by the presence of sodium ions. Other ions of the alkali metals group also taste salty ...
Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride. Caesium chloride. Francium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ... Sodium chloride (octahedral 6:6)[edit]. The sodium chloride (NaCl) polymorph is most common. A cubic close-packed arrangement ... Caesium chloride (cubic 8:8)[edit]. At high temperature and pressure, RbCl adopts the caesium chloride (CsCl) structure (NaCl ...
... s are chemical compounds consisting of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium) ... and sodium nitrate produces a yellow color. Sodium and potassium nitrate are also commonly used as fertilisers. Alkali metal ... The main uses of alkali metal nitrates are in fertilizers in the case of the sodium and potassium derivatives. They are also ... Only two are of major commercial value, the sodium and potassium salts. They are white, water-soluble salts with relatively ...
Other salts have been prepared with sodium, caesium and rubidium, and vibrational spectra shows that these contain the same ...
... which employed a phoswich of sodium iodide and caesium iodide. It covered the energy range 15-200 keV with a 1.6° × 1.6° FOV ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ...
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Cesium and Francium - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080187990, 9781483187570 ... The Chemistry of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium 1st Edition. Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry. ... Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium. 1. Discovery and History. 2. Occurrence and Distribution. 3. Production and ... The Chemistry of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium studies the physical and chemical properties of the ...
Undercooled alkali metals sodium caesium temperature dependence structural properties dynamical properties PACS Nos. 61.20 ...
... sodium, potassium, and cesium chloride melts was studied as a... ... sodium, potassium, and cesium chloride melts was studied as a ... Polarization and adsorption effects on the wettability of a gold electrode by lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium chloride ... for lithium and sodium chlorides, the wetting energy increased monotonically, while in potassium and cesium chloride melts ...
Make research projects and school reports about cesium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... The alkalis include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and francium. Cesium is considered the most active metal. Although in ... Cesium carbonate and cesium fluoride are used to make specialty glasses. Cesium carbonate and cesium chloride are used in the ... Small amounts of cesium react with any air left in the bulb. It converts the gas into a solid cesium compound. Cesium is called ...
sodium amide are stronger.. There is an account that caesium, reacting with fluorine, takes up more fluorine than it ... The primary compounds of caesium are caesium chloride and its nitrate. The price of caesium metal in 1997 was about $US 30 per ... Caesium (also spelled cesium, IPA: /ˈsiːziəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cs and atomic ... Caesium. 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical elements. 55. xenon ← caesium → barium. ...
However, a caesium-water explosion is often less powerful than a sodium-water explosion with a similar amount of sodium. This ... The high density of the caesium ion makes solutions of caesium chloride, caesium sulfate, and caesium trifluoroacetate (Cs(O. 2 ... Caesium-134, and to a lesser extent caesium-135, have also been used in hydrology to measure the caesium output by the nuclear ... 2O) may contain only 0.002% caesium. Consequently, caesium is found in few minerals. Percentage amounts of caesium may be found ...
SODIUM (UNII: 9NEZ333N27) (SODIUM - UNII:9NEZ333N27) SODIUM. 4 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ... CESIUM (UNII: 1KSV9V4Y4I) (CESIUM - UNII:1KSV9V4Y4I) CESIUM. 4 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ... Label: TRACE MINERAL CORD- aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromine, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, ... TRACE MINERAL CORD- aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromine, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chloride, ...
IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.. Warning. EINECSNumber : 208-591-9. RTECSNumber : FK9400000. TSCA : TSCA. ...
Sodium (Na). 100ppm max.. Strontium (Sr). 10ppm max.. Boiling Point. 1251.0°C. ... cesium fluoride, caesium fluoride, cesium monofluoride, cesium fluoride, dicesium difluoride, tricesium trifluoride, unii- ... cesium fluoride, caesium fluoride, cesium monofluoride, cesium fluoride, dicesium difluoride, tricesium trifluoride, unii- ...
... an abrasive and cesium hydroxide and methods for polishing dielectric layers associated with integrated circuits using cesium ... Cesium ions have lower mobility than potassium and sodium ions. Furthermore, cesium ion containing polishing compositions ... Cesium hydroxide is an important ingredient of the polishing compositions of this invention because cesium acts as a silica ... Furthermore, the cesium ions do not penetrate into the dielectric layer to the same depth as ammonium or potassium ions ...
Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride. Caesium chloride. Francium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ... Sodium chloride (octahedral 6:6)[edit]. The sodium chloride (NaCl) polymorph is most common. A cubic close-packed arrangement ... Caesium chloride (cubic 8:8)[edit]. At high temperature and pressure, RbCl adopts the caesium chloride (CsCl) structure (NaCl ...
The influence of dehydration on the position of sodium and cesium cations obtained by ion exchange in the structure of FAU(Y) ... The sodium and cesium cations were found to be mobile in the hydrated samples. In dehydrated zeolites CsNaFAU(Y), cesium is ... The influence of dehydration on the position of sodium and cesium cations obtained by ion exchange in the structure of FAU(Y) ... The effect of dehydration on the position of cesium cations in the structure of CsNaFAU(Y) studied by powder X-ray diffraction ...
Sodium fluoride. Fluoride poisoning. Fluorine. Fluoride. [report] Question 4: 135Cs is one of ________ of uranium which form in ... Question 6: Caesium chloride is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of applications and it crystallizes in the ... More interesting facts on Caesium Include this on your site/blog: Question 1: Compounds like acetate, carbonate, halides, oxide ... Question 9: [86][87][88] Accumulation of caesium-137 in lakes has been a high concern after the ________.. Plutonium. Chernobyl ...
Cesium behavior and control in sodium systems. [LMFBR] Description: A series of capsule tests were performed to screen ... Aerosol behavior during sodium pool fires in a large vessel: CSTF tests AB1 and AB2 Description: Two large-scale aerosol ... In both tests, sodium burned for one hour in a 4.38-m/sup 2/ pool, and the only difference between them was that steam was ... Comparison of aerosol behavior during sodium fires in CSTF with the HAA-3B code. [LMFBR] Description: Four large-scale tests ...
However, a caesium-water explosion is often less powerful than a sodium-water explosion with a similar amount of sodium. This ... The high density of the caesium ion makes solutions of caesium chloride, caesium sulfate, and caesium trifluoroacetate (Cs(O. 2 ... Caesium-134, and to a lesser extent caesium-135, have also been used in hydrology to measure the caesium output by the nuclear ... This solution can be evaporated to produce caesium chloride or transformed into caesium alum or caesium carbonate. Though not ...
Sodium bicarbonate and tubular diuretics. Cesium. Prussian blue. Tritium. Water. Phosphorus. Individualize treatment; consult ... Bicarbonate, sodium. Fentanyl. Kayexalate™ (see sodium polystyrene sulfonate). Morphine. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate. ... Do not mix sodium bicarbonate with vasoactive amines or calcium.. Routine initial use of sodium bicarbonate to treat cardiac ... Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit; Dey, LP, Napa, CA) is preferred antidote; cyanide kit (amyl nitrate, sodium nitrate, sodium ...
Cesium: pH 14. Magnesium: pH 9. Potassium: pH 14. Sodium: pH 14. Although it might seem that citrus fruits would have an ... Naturopathy Calcium For Cancer Stop Cancer Cells with Cesium using pH Therapy Autopathy The Raw Gourmet Common Cause of Disease ... Hydrogen Peroxide Cecium Carbonate and Cesium Chloride Kills Cancer Cells Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C Natural Cures & Natural ... High sodium to aid digestion.. 24. High levels of utilizable calcium. Grind before eating.. 25. Alkalinity and digestibility ...
The trend from sodium to caesium is linear and consistent with ionization energies, meaning the enthalpies of hydration are not ... Why do potassium, rubidium, cesium all have lower standard potentials than sodium?. Ask Question ... Why do potassium, rubidium, cesium all have lower standard potentials than sodium? ... Sodium has a higher charge density than any of them, so its enthalpy of hydration should be larger, right? The argument applies ...
Some of the metals that are reactive with water are the alkali metals: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium. These ... Notable examples include alkali metals sodium through caesium. Water-reactive substances are classified as R2 under the UN ...
Enriched alkalis include sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. Other depleted elements include barium, phosphorus, titanium ...
found in: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Magnesium Chloride Anhydrous, Citric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, Potassium Sorbate, Cesium ... Chloride, Sodium Sulfate.. ... Cesium Chloride Amresco. Grade: Ultra Pure Molecular Weight: ...
Some Optical Properties of Lead-Activated Sodium Chloride Phosphors James H. Schulman, Robert J. Ginther, and Clifford C. Klick ... Optical Properties of Cesium Iodide* William S. Rodney. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45(11) 987-992 (1955) ... G. W. Day and P. M. Gruzensky, "Some Optical Properties of Cesium Cupric Chloride," Appl. Opt. 9, 2794-2795 (1970) ... Some Optical Properties of Cesium Cupric Chloride G. W. Day and P. M. Gruzensky ...
Sodium; Potassium; Rubidium; Cesium; Beryllium; Magnesium; Calcium; Strontium; Barium; Zirconium; Titanium; Vanadium; ...
  • This colorless solid is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of niche applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion is coordinated by 8 chlorine ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When both ions are similar in size (Cs+ ionic radius 174 pm for this coordination number, Cl− 181 pm) the CsCl structure is adopted, when they are different (Na+ ionic radius 102 pm, Cl− 181 pm) the sodium chloride structure is adopted. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that the both the ligands exhibited a strong extraction ability and selectivity for Cesium (I) over all the metal ions. (omicsonline.org)
  • In order to explain the high cesium selectivity over sodium ions by theoretically, the three different models has been selected. (omicsonline.org)
  • The caesium chloride structure adopts a primitive cubic lattice with a two-atom basis, where both atoms have eightfold coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon heating to above 445 °C, the normal caesium chloride structure (α-CsCl) converts to the β-CsCl form with the rocksalt structure (space group Fm3m). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caesium fluoride is widely used in organic chemistry as a base , [ 65 ] or as a source of anhydrous ________ ion. (thefullwiki.org)
  • R. Allemand, C. Gresset, J. Vacher, Potential advantages of a cesium fluoride scintillator for a time-of-flight positron camera, J Nucl Med 21: 153-155, 1980. (springer.com)
  • There are two main types of sodium-beta batteries, based on the materials used for the positive electrode: those that use sulfur are called sodium-sulfur batteries, while those that use nickel chloride are known as ZEBRA batteries. (eurekalert.org)
  • Probably the most widespread use of caesium today is in caesium formate-based drilling fluids for the oil industry. (mcgill.ca)
  • The high density of the caesium formate brine (up to 2.3 sg,) coupled with the relative benignity of 133 Cs , reduces the requirement for toxic high-density suspended solids in the drilling fluid, which is a significant technological, engineering and environmental advantage. (mcgill.ca)
  • Since the 1990s, the largest application of the element has been as caesium formate for drilling fluids , but it has a range of applications in the production of electricity, in electronics, and in chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paper published today in Nature Communications describes an electrode made of a liquid metal alloy that enables sodium-beta batteries to operate at significantly lower temperatures. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new electrode enables sodium-beta batteries to last longer, helps streamline their manufacturing process and reduces the risk of accidental fire. (eurekalert.org)
  • Key among them is getting the negative sodium electrode to fully coat, or "wet" the ceramic electrolyte. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instead of the 350 degrees Celsius at which traditional sodium-beta batteries operate, a test battery with the new electrode worked well at 150 degrees - with a power capacity of 420 milliampere-hours per gram, matching the capacity of the traditional design. (eurekalert.org)
  • After 100 charge and discharge cycles, a test battery with PNNL's electrode maintained about 97 percent of its initial storage capacity, while a battery with the traditional, sodium-only electrode maintained 70 percent after 60 cycles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Caesium ( IUPAC spelling ) ( also spelled cesium in American English ) [note is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tungsten fuses, or melts, only at extremely high temperatures (3,370°C.), while cesium has a melting point of 28.5°C. The best metallic conductor of electricity is silver. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Molten sodium resists covering beta alumina's surface when it's below 400 degrees Celsius, causing sodium to curl up like a drop of oil in water, making the battery less efficient. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cs[ICl}} Caesium chloride occurs naturally as an impurity in the halide minerals carnallite (KMgCl3·6H2O with up to 0.002% CsCl), sylvite (KCl) and kainite (MgSO4·KCl·3H2O), and in mineral waters. (wikipedia.org)