A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-

Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. (1/461)

Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (2/461)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

Thiorhodospira sibirica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium from a Siberian soda lake. (3/461)

A new purple sulfur bacterium was isolated from microbial films on decaying plant mass in the near-shore area of the soda lake Malyi Kasytui (pH 9.5, 0.2% salinity) located in the steppe of the Chita region of south-east Siberia. Single cells were vibrioid- or spiral-shaped (3-4 microns wide and 7-20 microns long) and motile by means of a polar tuft of flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes were of the lamellar type. Lamellae almost filled the whole cell, forming strands and coils. Photosynthetic pigments were bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin group. The new bacterium was strictly anaerobic. Under anoxic conditions, hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur were used as photosynthetic electron donors. During growth on sulfide, sulfur globules were formed as intermediate oxidation products. They were deposited outside the cytoplasm of the cells, in the peripheral periplasmic space and extracellularly. Thiosulfate was not used. Carbon dioxide, acetate, pyruvate, propionate, succinate, fumarate and malate were utilized as carbon sources. Optimum growth rates were obtained at pH 9.0 and optimum temperature was 30 degrees C. Good growth was observed in a mineral salts medium containing 5 g sodium bicarbonate l-1 without sodium chloride. The new bacterium tolerated up to 60 g sodium chloride l-1 and up to 80 g sodium carbonates l-1. Growth factors were not required. The DNA G + C composition was 56.0-57.4 mol%. Based on physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics, the newly isolated bacterium is recognized as a new species of a new genus with the proposed name Thiorhodospira sibirica.  (+info)

Evaluation of signals activating ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in a model of muscle wasting. (4/461)

The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system is stimulated in conditions causing muscle atrophy. Signals initiating this response in these conditions are unknown, although glucocorticoids are required but insufficient to stimulate muscle proteolysis in starvation, acidosis, and sepsis. To identify signals that activate this system, we studied acutely diabetic rats that had metabolic acidosis and increased corticosterone production. Protein degradation was increased 52% (P < 0.05), and mRNA levels encoding ubiquitin-proteasome system components, including the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E214k, were higher (transcription of the ubiquitin and proteasome subunit C3 genes in muscle was increased by nuclear run-off assay). In diabetic rats, prevention of acidemia by oral NaHCO3 did not eliminate muscle proteolysis. Adrenalectomy blocked accelerated proteolysis and the rise in pathway mRNAs; both responses were restored by administration of a physiological dose of glucocorticoids to adrenalectomized, diabetic rats. Finally, treating diabetic rats with insulin for >/=24 h reversed muscle proteolysis and returned pathway mRNAs to control levels. Thus acidification is not necessary for these responses, but glucocorticoids and a low insulin level in tandem activate the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system.  (+info)

Enhancement of chemotherapy by manipulation of tumour pH. (5/461)

The extracellular (interstitial) pH (pHe) of solid tumours is significantly more acidic compared to normal tissues. In-vitro, low pH reduces the uptake of weakly basic chemotherapeutic drugs and, hence, reduces their cytotoxicity. This phenomenon has been postulated to contribute to a 'physiological' resistance to weakly basic drugs in vivo. Doxorubicin is a weak base chemotherapeutic agent that is commonly used in combination chemotherapy to clinically treat breast cancers. This report demonstrates that MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro are more susceptible to doxorubicin toxicity at pH 7.4, compared to pH 6.8. Furthermore 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has shown that the pHe of MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts can be effectively and significantly raised with sodium bicarbonate in drinking water. The bicarbonate-induced extracellular alkalinization leads to significant improvements in the therapeutic effectiveness of doxorubicin against MCF-7 xenografts in vivo. Although physiological resistance to weakly basic chemotherapeutics is well-documented in vitro and in theory, these data represent the first in vivo demonstration of this important phenomenon.  (+info)

Roles of bicarbonate, cAMP, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation on capacitation and the spontaneous acrosome reaction of hamster sperm. (6/461)

Capacitation is a prerequisite for successful fertilization by mammalian spermatozoa. This process is generally observed in vitro in defined NaHCO3-buffered media and has been shown to be associated with changes in cAMP metabolism and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In this study, we observed that when NaHCO3 was replaced by 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)1-piperazine ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), hamster sperm capacitation, measured as the ability of the sperm to undergo a spontaneous acrosome reaction, did not take place. Addition of 25 mM NaHCO3 to NaHCO3-free medium in which spermatozoa had been preincubated for 3.5 h, increased the percentage of spontaneous acrosome reactions from 0% to 80% in the following 4 h. Addition of anion transport blockers such as 4,4'-diiso thiocyano-2, 2'-stilbenedisulfonate (DIDS) or 4-acetomido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) to the NaHCO3-containing medium inhibited the acrosome reaction, with maximal inhibition at 600 microM, and with an EC50 of 100 microM. Increasing either extracellular or intracellular pH did not induce the acrosome reaction in NaHCO3-free medium. In contrast, addition of 500 microM dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), alone or together with 100 microM 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX), induced the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa incubated in NaHCO3-free medium. These compounds also partially reversed the inhibition of the acrosome reaction caused by the DIDS or SITS in complete medium. In contrast to these results, IBMX or dbcAMP did not induce acrosome reactions in cells incubated in Ca2+-free medium. When hamster sperm were incubated in the absence of NaHCO3 or in the presence of NaHCO3 and DIDS, cAMP concentrations were significantly lower than the values obtained from sperm incubated in complete medium. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation has also been shown to be highly correlated with the onset of capacitation in many species. During the first hour of capacitation, an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in complete medium. In the absence of NaHCO3, the increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation was delayed for 45 min, and this delay was overcome by the addition of dbcAMP and IBMX. The induction of the acrosome reaction by calcium ionophore A23187 in NaHCO3-free medium was delayed 2 h, as compared with control medium. This delay was not observed in the presence of dbcAMP and IBMX. Taken together, these results suggest that a cAMP pathway may mediate the role of NaHCO3 in the capacitation of hamster spermatozoa and that protein tyrosine phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for complete capacitation.  (+info)

A minimally invasive tracer protocol is effective for assessing the response of leucine kinetics and oxidation to vaccination in chronically energy-deficient adult males and children. (7/461)

In disadvantaged populations, recurrent infections lead to a loss of body nitrogen and worsen nutritional status. The resulting malnutrition, in its turn, produces a greater susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to examine the ability of a new minimally invasive tracer protocol to measure leucine oxidation, and then to use it to quantify the effect of vaccination on leucine kinetics and oxidation. Undernourished men (n = 5; body mass index 16.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) and children (n = 9; age 4.1 +/- 0.6 y; weight-for-age Z-score -2.3 +/- 0.7) underwent metabolic studies 6 d before and 1 d after vaccination with diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT). The tracer protocol was performed in the fed state and involved two 3-h sequential periods of frequent (20 min) oral doses of NaH(13)CO(3) or [1-(13)C] leucine. Frequent breath samples and urine collections were made. Blood samples were obtained from the men and used for the determination of the isotopic enrichment of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid. The prevaccination oxidation of leucine (percentage of dose +/- SD) was 18.1 +/- 2.3 (men) and 16.7 +/- 3.8 (children). One day after vaccination, these values had risen to 19. 9 +/- 1.9 (P < 0.05) in the men and to 19.5 +/- 4.6 (P < 0.01) in the children. In the adults, vaccination was associated with a rise in whole-body protein breakdown [mg protein/(kg.h)] from 200 +/- 40 to 240 +/- 10 (P < 0.05). A minor simulated infection increases leucine catabolism in undernourished humans and this new, minimally invasive protocol is sufficiently sensitive to measure these changes.  (+info)

Combined effects of buffer and adrenergic agents on postresuscitation myocardial function. (8/461)

Although buffer agents alone have failed to improve the success of resuscitation, we now examine the widely held concept that it is the combined effect of alkaline buffer and adrenergic agents that improves outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the present report, the effects of both CO(2)-consuming and CO(2)-generating buffer agents in combination with adrenergic vasopressor drugs were investigated. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced in Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 450 and 550 g. Precordial compression and mechanical ventilation were initiated after 8 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation. Animals were then randomized to receive bolus injections of either inorganic sodium bicarbonate buffer, organic tromethamine buffer, or saline placebo. The beta(1) adrenergic effects of epinephrine were blocked with esmolol. The vasopressor amine was injected 2 min after injection of the buffer agent. Electrical defibrillation was attempted at the end of 8 min of precordial compression. In 15 additional animals, the sequence of administration of the adrenergic vasopressor and buffer agents was reversed such that the adrenergic vasopressor was injected before the buffer agents. All animals were restored to spontaneous circulation. Both bicarbonate and tromethamine significantly decreased coronary perfusion pressure from 26 to 15 mm Hg and reduced the magnitude of the vasopressor effect of the adrenergic vasopressor. When the vasopressor preceded the buffer, declines in coronary perfusion pressure after administration of buffer agents were prevented. In each instance, however, greater impairment of postresuscitation myocardial function and decreased postresuscitation survival were observed after treatment with buffer agents.  (+info)

Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste and is commonly used in cooking as a leavening agent.

In a medical context, sodium bicarbonate is used as a medication to treat conditions caused by high levels of acid in the body, such as metabolic acidosis. It works by neutralizing the acid and turning it into a harmless salt and water. Sodium bicarbonate can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the severity of the condition being treated.

It is important to note that sodium bicarbonate should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly. These may include fluid buildup in the body, electrolyte imbalances, and an increased risk of infection.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Sodium-bicarbonate symporters, also known as sodium bicarbonate co-transporters, are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of both sodium ions (Na+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane in the same direction. These transporters play a crucial role in maintaining acid-base balance in the body by regulating the concentration of bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer in the blood and other bodily fluids.

The term "symporter" refers to the fact that these proteins transport two or more different molecules or ions in the same direction across a membrane. In this case, sodium-bicarbonate symporters co-transport one sodium ion and one bicarbonate ion together, usually using a concentration gradient of sodium to drive the uptake of bicarbonate.

These transporters are widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidneys, where they help reabsorb bicarbonate ions from the urine back into the bloodstream, and the gastrointestinal tract, where they contribute to the absorption of sodium and bicarbonate from food and drink. Dysfunction of sodium-bicarbonate symporters has been implicated in several diseases, including renal tubular acidosis and hypertension.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

Alkalosis is a medical condition that refers to an excess of bases or a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood, leading to a higher than normal pH level. The normal range for blood pH is typically between 7.35 and 7.45. A pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis.

Alkalosis can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Metabolic alkalosis: This type of alkalosis occurs due to an excess of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the body, which can result from conditions such as excessive vomiting, hyperventilation, or the use of certain medications like diuretics.
2. Respiratory alkalosis: This form of alkalosis is caused by a decrease in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood due to hyperventilation or other conditions that affect breathing, such as high altitude, anxiety, or lung disease.

Symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on its severity and underlying cause. Mild alkalosis may not produce any noticeable symptoms, while severe cases can lead to muscle twitching, cramps, tremors, confusion, and even seizures. Treatment for alkalosis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and restoring the body's normal pH balance through medications or other interventions as necessary.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Respiratory acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when the lungs are not able to remove enough carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body, leading to an increase in the amount of CO2 in the bloodstream and a decrease in the pH of the blood. This can happen due to various reasons such as chronic lung diseases like emphysema or COPD, severe asthma attacks, neuromuscular disorders that affect breathing, or when someone is not breathing deeply or frequently enough, such as during sleep apnea or drug overdose.

Respiratory acidosis can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, coma and even death. Treatment for respiratory acidosis depends on the underlying cause but may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, or mechanical ventilation to help support breathing.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by an excess accumulation of lactic acid in the body. Lactic acid is a byproduct produced in the muscles and other tissues during periods of low oxygen supply or increased energy demand. Under normal circumstances, lactic acid is quickly metabolized and cleared from the body. However, when the production of lactic acid exceeds its clearance, it can lead to a state of acidosis, where the pH of the blood becomes too acidic.

Lactic acidosis can be caused by several factors, including:

* Prolonged exercise or strenuous physical activity
* Severe illness or infection
* Certain medications, such as metformin and isoniazid
* Alcoholism
* Hypoxia (low oxygen levels) due to lung disease, heart failure, or anemia
* Inherited metabolic disorders that affect the body's ability to metabolize lactic acid

Symptoms of lactic acidosis may include rapid breathing, fatigue, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Severe cases can lead to coma, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition and providing supportive care, such as administering intravenous fluids and bicarbonate to help restore normal pH levels.

An antidote is a substance that can counteract the effects of a poison or toxin. It works by neutralizing, reducing, or eliminating the harmful effects of the toxic substance. Antidotes can be administered in various forms such as medications, vaccines, or treatments. They are often used in emergency situations to save lives and prevent serious complications from poisoning.

The effectiveness of an antidote depends on several factors, including the type and amount of toxin involved, the timing of administration, and the individual's response to treatment. In some cases, multiple antidotes may be required to treat a single poisoning incident. It is important to note that not all poisons have specific antidotes, and in such cases, supportive care and symptomatic treatment may be necessary.

Examples of common antidotes include:

* Naloxone for opioid overdose
* Activated charcoal for certain types of poisoning
* Digoxin-specific antibodies for digoxin toxicity
* Fomepizole for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
* Dimercaprol for heavy metal poisoning.

Fluid therapy, in a medical context, refers to the administration of fluids into a patient's circulatory system for various therapeutic purposes. This can be done intravenously (through a vein), intraosseously (through a bone), or subcutaneously (under the skin). The goal of fluid therapy is to correct or prevent imbalances in the body's fluids and electrolytes, maintain or restore blood volume, and support organ function.

The types of fluids used in fluid therapy can include crystalloids (which contain electrolytes and water) and colloids (which contain larger molecules like proteins). The choice of fluid depends on the patient's specific needs and condition. Fluid therapy is commonly used in the treatment of dehydration, shock, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions that can affect the body's fluid balance.

Proper administration of fluid therapy requires careful monitoring of the patient's vital signs, urine output, electrolyte levels, and overall clinical status to ensure that the therapy is effective and safe.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess base (bicarbonate) and/or a decrease in carbon dioxide in the body. This leads to an increase in pH level of the blood, making it more alkaline than normal. Respiratory alkalosis is usually caused by conditions that result in hyperventilation, such as anxiety, lung disease, or high altitude. It can also be caused by certain medications and medical procedures. Symptoms of respiratory alkalosis may include lightheadedness, confusion, and tingling in the fingers and toes. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition.

Sodium channels are specialized protein structures that are embedded in the membranes of excitable cells, such as nerve and muscle cells. They play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in these cells. Sodium channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell during the initial phase of an action potential, which is the electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. This sudden influx of sodium ions causes the membrane potential to rapidly reverse, leading to the depolarization of the cell. After the action potential, the sodium channels close and become inactivated, preventing further entry of sodium ions and helping to restore the resting membrane potential.

Sodium channels are composed of a large alpha subunit and one or two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunit forms the ion-conducting pore, while the beta subunits play a role in modulating the function and stability of the channel. Mutations in sodium channel genes have been associated with various inherited diseases, including certain forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and muscle disorders.

"Taxus" is a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, also known as yews. While it is primarily a term used in botanical classification, some species of this plant have medicinal importance. The most notable example is "Taxus brevifolia," or the Pacific Yew, from which the chemotherapy drug Paclitaxel (also known as Taxol) is derived. This drug is used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. It works by interfering with the division of cancer cells. Please note that Paclitaxel must be administered under the supervision of a medical professional, as it can have serious side effects.

Acetazolamide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain, making it useful for treating conditions such as glaucoma and epilepsy.

In medical terms, acetazolamide can be defined as: "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, and other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain."

Acetazolamide may also be used for other purposes not listed here, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for specific medical advice.

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Drug incompatibility refers to a situation where two or more drugs cannot be mixed, combined, or administered together because they will interact in a way that reduces their effectiveness, causes unintended side effects, or even results in harm to the patient. This can occur due to chemical reactions between the drugs, physical interactions (such as precipitation), or pharmacological interactions (such as one drug inhibiting the metabolism of another).

Drug incompatibilities can be identified through various methods, including laboratory testing, literature review, and clinical experience. Healthcare professionals must be aware of potential drug incompatibilities and take steps to avoid them when prescribing or administering medications to patients. This may involve using different administration routes, changing the timing of medication administration, or selecting alternative drugs that are compatible with each other.

Plant poisoning is a form of poisoning that occurs when someone ingests, inhales, or comes into contact with any part of a plant that contains toxic substances. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type and amount of plant consumed or exposed to, as well as the individual's age, health status, and sensitivity to the toxin.

Symptoms of plant poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, seizures, or in severe cases, even death. Some common plants that can cause poisoning include poison ivy, poison oak, foxglove, oleander, and hemlock, among many others.

If you suspect plant poisoning, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and bring a sample of the plant or information about its identity if possible. This will help healthcare providers diagnose and treat the poisoning more effectively.

Methylcellulose is a semisynthetic, inert, viscous, and tasteless white powder that is soluble in cold water but not in hot water. It is derived from cellulose through the process of methylation. In medical contexts, it is commonly used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation, as well as a lubricant in ophthalmic solutions and a suspending agent in pharmaceuticals.

When mixed with water, methylcellulose forms a gel-like substance that can increase stool volume and promote bowel movements. It is generally considered safe for most individuals, but like any medication or supplement, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Lidocaine is a type of local anesthetic that numbs painful areas and is used to prevent pain during certain medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. In addition to its use as an anesthetic, lidocaine can also be used to treat irregular heart rates and relieve itching caused by allergic reactions or skin conditions such as eczema.

Lidocaine is available in various forms, including creams, gels, ointments, sprays, solutions, and injectable preparations. It can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or it can be administered by injection into a muscle or vein. The specific dosage and method of administration will depend on the reason for its use and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Like all medications, lidocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness that lasts too long, and in rare cases, heart problems or seizures. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using lidocaine to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic complication characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone bodies. It primarily occurs in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1, but it can also be seen in some people with diabetes mellitus type 2, particularly during severe illness or surgery.

The condition arises when there is a significant lack of insulin in the body, which impairs the ability of cells to take up glucose for energy production. As a result, the body starts breaking down fatty acids to produce energy, leading to an increase in ketone bodies (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) in the bloodstream. This process is called ketosis.

In DKA, the excessive production of ketone bodies results in metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by a lower than normal pH level in the blood (< 7.35) and an elevated serum bicarbonate level (< 18 mEq/L). The hyperglycemia in DKA is due to both increased glucose production and decreased glucose utilization by cells, which can lead to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, fruity breath odor, and altered mental status. If left untreated, DKA can progress to coma and even lead to death. Treatment typically involves administering insulin, fluid replacement, and electrolyte management in a hospital setting.

Alkalies are a type of basic compound that has a pH level greater than 7. They are also known as bases and can neutralize acids. Alkalies can react with acids to form salts and water. Some common alkalies include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide. When in solution, alkalies can increase the pH level of a substance, making it more basic or alkaline. They are widely used in various industries for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and processing.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly excrete acid into the urine, leading to an accumulation of acid in the bloodstream. This results in a state of metabolic acidosis.

There are several types of RTA, but renal tubular acidosis type 1 (also known as distal RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability of the distal tubules to acidify the urine, leading to an inability to lower the pH of the urine below 5.5, even in the face of metabolic acidosis. This results in a persistently alkaline urine, which can lead to calcium phosphate stones and bone demineralization.

Type 1 RTA is often caused by inherited genetic defects, but it can also be acquired due to various kidney diseases, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of type 1 RTA may include fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Treatment typically involves alkali therapy to correct the acidosis and prevent complications.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

Isotonic solutions are defined in the context of medical and physiological sciences as solutions that contain the same concentration of solutes (dissolved particles) as another solution, usually the bodily fluids like blood. This means that if you compare the concentration of solute particles in two isotonic solutions, they will be equal.

A common example is a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, also known as normal saline. The concentration of NaCl in this solution is approximately equal to the concentration found in the fluid portion of human blood, making it isotonic with blood.

Isotonic solutions are crucial in medical settings for various purposes, such as intravenous (IV) fluids replacement, wound care, and irrigation solutions. They help maintain fluid balance, prevent excessive water movement across cell membranes, and reduce the risk of damaging cells due to osmotic pressure differences between the solution and bodily fluids.

Kidney tubules are the structural and functional units of the kidney responsible for reabsorption, secretion, and excretion of various substances. They are part of the nephron, which is the basic unit of the kidney's filtration and reabsorption process.

There are three main types of kidney tubules:

1. Proximal tubule: This is the initial segment of the kidney tubule that receives the filtrate from the glomerulus. It is responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of the filtrate, including water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes.
2. Loop of Henle: This U-shaped segment of the tubule consists of a thin descending limb, a thin ascending limb, and a thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to concentrate urine by creating an osmotic gradient that allows water to be reabsorbed in the collecting ducts.
3. Distal tubule: This is the final segment of the kidney tubule before it empties into the collecting duct. It is responsible for fine-tuning the concentration of electrolytes and pH balance in the urine by selectively reabsorbing or secreting substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ions.

Overall, kidney tubules play a critical role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, regulating acid-base balance, and removing waste products from the body.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

A drug overdose occurs when a person ingests, inhales, or absorbs through the skin a toxic amount of a drug or combination of drugs. This can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the type of drug involved. In some cases, an overdose can be fatal.

An overdose can occur accidentally, for example if a person mistakenly takes too much of a medication or if a child accidentally ingests a medication that was left within their reach. An overdose can also occur intentionally, such as when a person takes too much of a drug to attempt suicide or to achieve a desired high.

The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary widely depending on the type of drug involved. Some common symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Dizziness or confusion
* Difficulty breathing
* Seizures
* Unconsciousness
* Rapid heart rate or low blood pressure

If you suspect that someone has overdosed on a drug, it is important to seek medical help immediately. Call your local poison control center or emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) for assistance. If possible, try to provide the medical personnel with as much information as you can about the person and the drug(s) involved. This can help them to provide appropriate treatment more quickly.

'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. Its molecular formula is C14H10N2O6S2. This compound is a derivative of stilbene, which is a type of organic compound that consists of two phenyl rings joined by a ethylene bridge. In '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid', the hydrogen atoms on the carbon atoms of the ethylene bridge have been replaced with isothiocyanate groups (-N=C=S), and the phenyl rings have been sulfonated (introduction of a sulfuric acid group, -SO3H) to increase its water solubility.

This compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cell biological studies due to its ability to form covalent bonds with primary amines, such as those found on proteins. This property allows researchers to label and track specific proteins or to measure the concentration of free primary amines in a sample.

It is important to note that '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a hazardous chemical and should be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment and safety measures.

Etorphine is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic drug that is primarily used for the immobilization and veterinary purposes in large animals. It is not commonly used in human medicine due to its high potency and potential for serious side effects, including respiratory depression and death. In medical context, etorphine is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, due to its high abuse potential.

Etorphine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which leads to pain relief, sedation, and decreased breathing rate. It is typically administered via injection and its effects can last for several hours. In veterinary medicine, etorphine may be used to immobilize animals such as elephants, rhinos, and large deer species for medical procedures or relocation.

It's important to note that due to its high potency and potential for serious side effects, etorphine should only be administered by trained professionals in a controlled setting.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Dietary sodium is a mineral that is primarily found in table salt (sodium chloride) and many processed foods. It is an essential nutrient for human health, playing a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. However, consuming too much dietary sodium can increase blood pressure and contribute to the development of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems.

The recommended daily intake of dietary sodium is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day for most adults, but the American Heart Association recommends no more than 1,500 mg per day for optimal heart health. It's important to note that many processed and restaurant foods contain high levels of sodium, so it's essential to read food labels and choose fresh, whole foods whenever possible to help limit dietary sodium intake.

Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form bicarbonate and protons. This enzyme is primarily found in muscle tissues, where it plays a role in regulating pH levels during muscle contraction and relaxation. CAIII has a lower catalytic activity compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms, suggesting that it may have additional functions beyond simple CO2 hydration. Additionally, CAIII has been implicated in various physiological processes such as protection against oxidative stress and regulation of muscle metabolism.

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After injection, intravenous sodium bicarbonate dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and bicarbonate (HCO3−) anions. Bicarbonate ... Sodium bicarbonate is available as a generic medication. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate is indicated in the treatment of ... Intravenous sodium bicarbonate at Drugs.com, with more detailed dosages "Sodium bicarbonate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. ... where low sodium intake is strongly indicated to prevent sodium retention. By similar rationale, intravenous sodium bicarbonate ...
... generated from the reaction of an acid with sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate rockets are often used in science classes to ... A sodium bicarbonate rocket (sometimes called an Alka-Seltzer rocket) is a model rocket fashioned from a 35mm film canister and ... Various experiments and lessons can center around the use of a bicarbonate rocket. For example, students are sometimes asked to ...
... sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7". Ishibashi K, Sasaki S, Marumo F (1998). "Molecular cloning of a new sodium ... Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 3 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC4A7 gene. Solute carrier family GRCh38: ... Loiselle FB, Jaschke P, Casey JR (2004). "Structural and functional characterization of the human NBC3 sodium/bicarbonate co- ... a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (23): 16569-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.23.16569. ...
Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) mediate the coupled movement of sodium and bicarbonate ions across the plasma membrane ... Electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter is a membrane transport protein that in ... This is an electrogenic process with an apparent stoichiometry of 3 bicarbonate ions per sodium ion. Sodium bicarbonate co- ... 2002). "Expression of a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter in human parotid salivary glands". Arch. Oral Biol. 47 (1): 1-9. doi: ...
Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are involved in intracellular pH regulation and electroneural or electrogenic sodium ... This gene encodes a member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) family, part of the bicarbonate transporter ... Electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A5 gene. ... Hunt SC, Xin Y, Wu LL, Cawthon RM, Coon H, Hasstedt SJ, Hopkins PN (2006). "Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter polymorphisms are ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A8 gene. Solute carrier family ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A8 solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 8". Pushkin A, Abuladze N, Newman D, ... a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (23): 16569-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.23.16569. ... cotransporter SLC4A8 has been shown to interact with Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 3 regulator 1 and Cystic fibrosis transmembrane ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A11 gene. Solute carrier ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A11 solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate transporter-like, member 11". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB ... Parker MD, Ourmozdi EP, Tanner MJ (Apr 2001). "Human BTR1, a new bicarbonate transporter superfamily member and human AE4 from ... "Mutations in sodium-borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED2)". Nat ...
The site does not endorse any cures, including treatment with sodium bicarbonate. Quackwatch lists sodium bicarbonate ... "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014. PhD, Neha ... He also is known for claims that cancer can be cured with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. On his website, Simoncini says that ... an oncologist but that designation has been challenged by the medical community because of his use of sodium bicarbonate in the ...
Others include potassium citrate, calcium carbonate, sodium lactate and calcium acetate. "Sodium Bicarbonate". Drugs.com. " ... Used for oral or parenteral therapy, sodium bicarbonate is the commonly preferred alkalinizing agent. ...
Using sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) as a cancer treatment is espoused by Tullio Simoncini and is known as the Simoncini ... "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2015. ... sodium carbonate, through that line, and flushing out the fungus. ... These are some procedures that are not FDA-approved in ...
Sircus, Dr Mark (August 5, 2014). Sodium Bicarbonate. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781312412149 - via Google Books. Michaud, ...
2009). "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed ... According to the American Cancer Society: "evidence also does not support the idea that sodium bicarbonate works as a treatment ... Sodium bicarbonate (or baking soda) - the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3, sometimes promoted as cure for cancer by ... Edzard Ernst has called the promotion of sodium bicarbonate as a cancer cure "one of the more sickening alternative cancer ...
... sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3); dimethyl sulfide (DMS) gives an aldehyde and a dimethyl acetal Using acetic anhydride (Ac2O), ... While the use of sodium borohydride produces alcohols. (R group can also be hydrogens) The use of hydrogen peroxide can produce ...
... sodium bicarbonate and citric acid - which created effervescence when mixed with water. Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid. Bromo ... Its final formulation used acetaminophen, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid, the latter two of which provided the carbonation ... The product took its name from a component of the original formula, sodium bromide; each dose contained 3.2 mEq/teaspoon of it ... It originally contained sodium bromide and acetanilide, both toxic substances which were eventually removed. Its final ...
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... sodium, bicarbonate; Moffettes; Subalpine tonic-stimulant bioclimate; Stănescu Spring: output of 405 L / h, T 7 °C, pH 6.2; ... naturally carbonated, with bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium; Apor Spring: output of 7200 L / h, T 7 °C, pH 5.3; ... bicarbonate, sodium. Băile Tușnad is twinned with: Balatonalmádi, Hungary Bicske, Hungary Csepel (Budapest), Hungary Harkány, ... hypotonic, naturally carbonated, ferruginous, with chlorine, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium; Mikes Spring: free output, T 14 °C, ...
Administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate as an antidote has been shown to be an effective treatment for resolving the ... If sodium bicarbonate therapy fails to improve cardiac symptoms, conventional antidysrhythmic drugs or magnesium can be used to ... In those who have a wide QRS complex (> 100 ms) sodium bicarbonate is recommended. If seizures occur benzodiazepines should be ... role of sodium bicarbonate". Toxicol Rev. 24 (3): 195-204. doi:10.2165/00139709-200524030-00012. PMID 16390221. S2CID 7162287. ...
The predominating mineral content was sodium bicarbonate. From 1897, the source of mineral (soda) water was tapped, using deep ...
It is a sodium sulphate bicarbonate hotspring. Ottmar Dillenburg (b. 1961), Catholic priest, Federal Praeses of the Kolpingwerk ...
The powder contains sugar; an antacid, sodium bicarbonate (22.6% w/w); citric acid (to provide effervescence) (19.5% w/w); and ...
The bicarbonate (HCO3−) exits at the basal portion of the cell via sodium (Na+) symport and chloride (Cl−) antiport and re- ... Sodium bicarbonate, potential for kidney stone formation. Anticoagulants, cardiac glycosides, may have their effects ... Inversely, serum Na+ and bicarbonate (HCO3−) are decreased, and serum H+ and Cl− are increased. H2O generally follows sodium, ... The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is found here, allowing the reabsorption of bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride. By inhibiting this ...
This effect is potentiated by sodium bicarbonate. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis has an anxiolytic effect in animals. ...
Since sodium bicarbonate is much softer than the silicon carbide or aluminium oxide used in sandblasting, the blast nozzle used ... Soda blasting is a mild form of abrasive blasting in which sodium bicarbonate particles are blasted against a surface using ... The blasting material consists of formulated sodium bicarbonate (also known as baking soda). Blasting soda is an extremely ... Brian Waple (June 19, 2017). "Sodium Bicarbonate: The User-Friendly Blasting Abrasive". Restoration & Remediation. In the ...
The source is a calcium-sodium-bicarbonate-sorrel. The spring water is very cloudy with sediment. W. Spielmann, 2003. ...
The bi-carbonate-chloride-sodium-iodide acidic water recommended in diseases of the digestive system, inflammations of the ... The bicarbonate-chloride-sodium acidic water recommended in catarrhs of nose and throat, inflammations, asthma, emphysema, gout ... The bi-carbonate-chloride-sodium-iodide acidic water. Recommended, among others, in urinary tract inflammations, ... JAN - spring discovered in 1869 - bicarbonate-chloride-sodium acidic water. Used in mineral baths and in production of ...
Fluids should include sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and glucose. Abubakar I, Aliyu SH, Arumugam C, Hunter PR, Usman NK ( ... Symptomatic treatment primarily involves fluid rehydration, electrolyte replacement (sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and ...
... and chloride for bicarbonate, this causes hypokalaemia and acidosis. Many patients take sodium bicarbonate to combat this. ... As well as this, the urine entering the colon can cause diarrhea and salt imbalance due to the sodium and chloride in the urine ... In the large intestine, sodium is swapped for potassium, ...
Metabolic acidosis is treated by administering sodium bicarbonate. Low blood pressure is usually treated with intravenous fluid ...
SbtB, which stands for sodium-bicarbonate-transporter B, is a protein found in bacteria. This small soluble protein has been ... It acts as a post-translational regulator (inhibitor) of the SbtA protein (one of the three sodium-dependant bicarbonate (Na+/ ... Wey L (2016). McKay D (ed.). "Regulation of sodium-dependent bicarbonate transporter, SbtA" (PDF). The ANU Undergraduate ... Du J, Förster B, Rourke L, Howitt SM, Price GD (December 2014). "Characterisation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters in ...
Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used to make a dry or wet deodorant. Sodium bicarbonate may be ... Sodium bicarbonate is used as a cattle feed supplement, in particular as a buffering agent for the rumen. Sodium bicarbonate is ... Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogencarbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical ... It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is ...
Find patient medical information for omeprazole-sodium bicarbonate oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... Omeprazole-Sodium Bicarbonate - Uses, Side Effects, and More Common Brand(S): Zegerid, konvomep. Generic Name(S): omeprazole- ... Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate decreases stomach acid, so it may change how well these products work. Some affected products ... Does Omeprazole-Sodium Bicarbonate interact with other drugs you are taking? Enter your medication into the WebMD interaction ...
SODIUM BICARBONATE (UNII: 8MDF5V39QO) (BICARBONATE ION - UNII:HN1ZRA3Q20) SODIUM BICARBONATE. 1916 mg. ... BROMO SELTZER- aspirin, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid tablet, effervescent. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL ... BROMO SELTZER- aspirin, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid tablet, effervescent. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by ... BROMO SELTZER- aspirin, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid tablet, effervescent. Number of versions: 6. ...
Fass environmental information for bicaVera 1.5% Glucose, 1.25 mmol/l Calcium (contains sodium bicarbonate) from Fresenius ...
Sodium bicarbonate acts as a buffer which allows the medication to dissolve completely without getting affected by the acid in ... The medication is a combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate. Omeprazole, one of the active ingredients in Zegerid, ... while Sodium Bicarbonate belongs to a group of medicines known as salt solutions, which are used as irrigating solutions. ... Omeprazole/Sodium Bicarbonate 20mg/1680mg/Packet from $3.20 USD/sachet Omeprazole/Sodium Bicarbonate 20mg/1680mg/Packet ...
Francisco Contreras Sodium bicarbonate helps to increase the pH of the blood thus making the cancer patient more alkaline. ... "Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy" by Dr. Francisco Contreras. Sodium bicarbonate helps to increase the pH of the blood thus making ... Gillies showed that, when he added sodium bicarbonate to the drinking water of mice implanted with an aggressive human breast ... Gillies has now initiated a formal clinical study evaluating sodium bicarbonate as a therapy for late-stage cancer patients. ...
Buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 with sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate) in a 3:1 ratio is less painful ... Does a lower ratio of buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 solution (Lido/Epi) to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution ... sodium chloride 0.9%). Mixing occurred within one minute before infiltration, and the injections randomly occurred on various ...
Cardiac arrest and metabolic acidosis dosing for sodium bicarbonate, frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive ... encoded search term (sodium bicarbonate ((sodium bicarbonate))) and sodium bicarbonate ((sodium bicarbonate)) What to Read Next ... sodium bicarbonate oral SODIUM BICARBONATE - ORAL (SOE-dee-um bye-KAR-bo-nate) USES: Sodium bicarbonate reduces stomach acid. ... aspirin/citric acid/sodium bicarbonate. Minor (1)sodium bicarbonate, aspirin/citric acid/sodium bicarbonate. Mechanism: passive ...
Sterile alkalinizing agent Sodium Bicarbonate 8.4%, in a 50mL single dose vial with brown flip-top. Preservative free. ... Sodium Bicarbonate Injectable 8.4%, 50mL - Preservative Free. Click to view a larger image ... Sterile alkalinizing agent Sodium Bicarbonate 8.4%, in a 50mL single dose vial with brown flip-top. Preservative free. ...
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white ... Sodium bicarbonate is not listed as a dangerous cargo. Consult the applicable MSDS sheet on transport advice etc. ... Sodium bicarbonate. From Cargo Handbook - the worlds largest cargo transport guidelines website ... and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb. NaHCO3 is ...
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... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from ... Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters (SLC4A5 Protein). proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular ...
... manufacturers of Sodium bicarbonate(144-55-8). At last,Sodium bicarbonate(144-55-8) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more Sodium bicarbonate(144-55-8) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point, ... SodiuM Bicarbonate (AS) Sodium bicarbonate, extra pure, 99+% Sodium bicarbonate, for analysis ACS, 99.7+% Sodium bicarbonate, ... sodium bicarbonate solution;Sodium bicarbonate, GR,≥99.8%;BICARBONATE OF SODA;Sodium hydrocarbonate;TSQN;Sodium bicarbonate, AR ...
Chemtradeasia is one of the largest suppliers and distributors of Sodium Bicarbonate (Food) - China. Inquire now to get the ... 2. Retrieving Sodium Bicarbonate. The outcome of the reaction in step 1 results in sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. ... 1. Production of Sodium Bicarbonate. The manufacturing process involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ... This method involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ammonia in water. The sodium bicarbonate obtained ...
Sodium bicarbonate is one of the most researched supplements in sports, proven to improve athletic performance above the ... Sodium Bicarbonate tablets by Nduranz help you to load sodium bicarbonate before training or a race. ... Ingredients: sodium bicarbonate, bulking agent: magnesium salts of fatty acids. Store in a cool and dry place. May contain ... Sodium bicarbonate is one of the most researched supplements in sports, used by professional athletes to increase muscle ...
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Adults and children 6 yrs. of age and older: Take 1/2 level tsp. in 1/2 glass (4 fl oz) of water every 2 hrs. up to maximum dosage or as directed by a doctor. NOT FOR INJECTIONS
Also called sodium bicarbonate or baking soda. Purity at least 99%. Free of pesticides and contains a maximum of 5 ppm heavy ... Also called sodium bicarbonate or baking soda. Purity at least 99%. Free of pesticides and contains a maximum of 5 ppm heavy ... Also called sodium bicarbonate or baking soda. Purity at least 99%. Free of pesticides and contains a maximum of 5 ppm ... ... Home Herb Garden Sodium Bicarbonate 500 g Back to products Back to products ...
Sodium Bicarbonate, Calcium Propionate offered by Ramya Group, Hyderabad, Telangana. ... SODIUM BICARBONATE FOOD GRADE (Baking soda, Sodium hydrogen carbonate) commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte ... Sodium bicarbonate is used as animal feed additive, human food additive and it is used in pharmaceuticals. It is also used to ...
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Baking Soda or sodium-bi-carbonate or soda-bi-carb is a salt having Na+ as cation and. HCO3- as anion and molecular formula. ...
What Is Sodium Bicarbonate Baking soda is a common name for sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate comes from trona deposits, ... Benefits of Sodium Bicarbonate On Athletic Performance. The effects of sodium bicarbonate on exercise performance have been ... When used as a supplement sodium bicarbonate provides more dietary bicarbonate, which can increase serum levels, normally ... or sodium bicarbonate (alkalosis condition).. On average, participants cycled for 438 ± 120 seconds after ingesting sodium ...
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  • Does a lower ratio of buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 solution (Lido/Epi) to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) solution cause less pain during infiltration? (aafp.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO 3 . (cargohandbook.com)
  • NaHCO 3 is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. (cargohandbook.com)
  • The dissolved sodium bicarbonate is pumped to the surface where it is treated to recover NaHCO 3 from solution. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, commonly referred to as baking soda and denoted by the molecular formula NaHCO 3 , is a white crystalline or powdery substance that easily dissolves in water or mineral springs. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate has the chemical formula of NaHCO 3 . (camachem.com)
  • As previously stated, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) is the agent most commonly used to correct metabolic acidosis. (medscape.com)
  • It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO3−2) per sodium in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as there is in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern chemical formulas of these compounds now express their precise chemical compositions which were unknown when the name bi-carbonate of potash was coined (see also: bicarbonate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, soapy taste and a yellow color. (wikipedia.org)
  • the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffered lidocaine 1%/epinephrine 1:100,000 with sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogen carbonate) in a 3:1 ratio is less painful than a 9:1 ratio: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. (aafp.org)
  • Pure product is obtained from sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. (cargohandbook.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate can also be produced from the trona deposits, which is a source of sodium carbonates (see Sodium Carbonate). (bestpetlove.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC03, also known as sodium acid carbonate and baking soda, is a white water-soluble crystalline solid.It has an alkaline taste, loses carbon dioxide at 270°C (518 °F).and is used in food preparation. (bestpetlove.com)
  • When exposed to temperatures exceeding 149°C, sodium bicarbonate undergoes decomposition, producing sodium carbonate along with the release of water and carbon dioxide as by-products. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • It can act as a substitute for sodium carbonate, contributing to the formulation of milder detergent products. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is manufactured in industries by reacting sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water. (camachem.com)
  • When sodium bicarbonate is heated above 80°C, it undergoes thermal decomposition to form sodium carbonate, water and, carbon dioxide. (camachem.com)
  • SODIUM BICARBONATE FOOD GRADE (Baking soda, Sodium hydrogen carbonate) commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions. (ramyagroup.com)
  • Trona is processed into soda ash (sodium carbonate), which is then used as baking soda. (swolverine.com)
  • 5 participants undertook 40 min of submaximal cycling until exhaustion at 95% of their maximum power output on three separate tests, following the ingestion of calcium carbonate (placebo condition), ammonium chloride (acidosis condition), or sodium bicarbonate (alkalosis condition). (swolverine.com)
  • Fass environmental information for bicaVera 1.5% Glucose, 1.25 mmol/l Calcium (contains sodium bicarbonate) from Fresenius Medical Care (downloaded 2023-03-01). (janusinfo.se)
  • Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate (also found in baking soda) and an acid (such as cream of tartar). (medlineplus.gov)
  • It helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, helps prevent ulcers, and may help prevent cancer of the esophagus.If you are self-treating with this medication, over-the-counter omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate products are used to treat frequent heartburn (occurring 2 or more days a week). (webmd.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate has a pH of 8.4 and can buffer hydrogen during anaerobic exercise. (swolverine.com)
  • Sodium acetate is a very efficient sorber for hydrogen fluoride, and its solubility in water proves to be highly advantageous for subsequent HF determination by ion selective electrode. (cdc.gov)
  • THAM combines with hydrogen ions to form a bicarbonate buffer. (medscape.com)
  • It reduces the reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at the renal tubule and increases excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and water. (medscape.com)
  • The outcome of the reaction in step 1 results in sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • however, below room temperature, ammonium chloride exhibits greater solubility than sodium bicarbonate, facilitating the extraction of crystals from the solution. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • An alternative method involves extracting sodium bicarbonate from ammonium chloride by reacting calcium hydroxide with ammonium chloride. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmetics: In bath bombs, bubble baths and other things where effervescent effect is desired, as it is utilized that sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide (effervescent effect) by reaction with acids, such as citric acid. (helsemin.dk)
  • Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate, or cream of tartar. (wikipedia.org)
  • A separate sodium-calcium channel then serves to pump additional sodium into the cell in exchange for calcium extrusion from the cell. (medscape.com)
  • Our range of products include sodium bicarbonate and calcium propionate. (ramyagroup.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogencarbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate also delays combustion reactions through the release of carbon dioxide and water, both of which are flame retardants, when heated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbreviated colloquial forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • In colloquial usage, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb. (cargohandbook.com)
  • Because it has long been known and widely used, the salt has many different names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda and can often be found near baking powder in stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term baking soda is more common in the United States, while bicarbonate of soda is more common in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Baking powder, also sold for cooking, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients that are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. (cargohandbook.com)
  • sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is an inorganic salt used as a buffering agent and a pH adjuster, it also serves as a neutralizer. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda is a very useful Industrial Chemical , composed of sodium cation and bicarbonate anion. (camachem.com)
  • Also called sodium bicarbonate or baking soda. (helsemin.dk)
  • Baking soda is a common name for sodium bicarbonate. (swolverine.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda, has been used for centuries in various household and personal care products. (typeost.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). (cdc.gov)
  • The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus (meaning "aerated salt"), was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3, 4, 5] Under normal conditions, the sodium potassium ATPase pump maintains a very low intracellular sodium content. (medscape.com)
  • The concentration gradients are maintained by the sodium/potassium ATP pump (in an energy-dependent process) that transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, because the nerve membrane is permeable to potassium ions and impermeable to sodium ions, 95% of the ionic leak in excitable cells is caused by K + ions in the form of an outward flux, accounting for the negative resting potential. (medscape.com)
  • Once membrane depolarization is complete, the membrane becomes impermeable to sodium ions again, and the conductance of potassium ions into the cell increases. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid that reduces stomach acid and helps omeprazole to work better. (webmd.com)
  • Additionally, sodium bicarbonate finds application in creating effervescent salts and beverages. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate comes from trona deposits, which is a naturally occurring mineral found in ancient salt lake basins. (swolverine.com)
  • This method involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ammonia in water. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • The manufacturing process involves the reaction of sodium chloride with carbon dioxide and ammonia in water. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Salt is sodium chloride which is table salt. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium chloride is 40% sodium and 60% chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Is Sodium Bicarbonate an Electrolyte compound? (camachem.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a powerful electrolytic compound because sodium ion is a strong electrolyte. (camachem.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate acts as a buffer which allows the medication to dissolve completely without getting affected by the acid in the stomach. (northdrugstore.com)
  • Its reaction with acetic acid results in sodium acetate, while with base compounds like sodium hydroxide, it forms carbonates. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • The combination of sodium bicarbonate and acid can serve as a substitute for yeast in facilitating dough rise. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Studies show that sodium bicarbonate supplementation can effectively negate the effects of lactic acid production, aka "the burn", increasing workout volume, maximizing training performance and ergogenic outcomes. (swolverine.com)
  • Dr. Robert Gillies and colleagues at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Florida have helped to characterize these effects of acidity on cancer behavior, and they have also developed a simple strategy for alleviating the acidity (raising the pH) of acidic tumors - they simply administer sodium bicarbonate in drinking water! (oasisofhope.com)
  • Serving as an amphoteric compound, sodium bicarbonate interacts with both acidic and basic substances. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • sodium bicarbonate, bulking agent: magnesium salts of fatty acids. (4endurance.com)
  • Because sodium bicarbonate is extremely basic, with a Ph of around 9, it is used to neutralize acids. (camachem.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a natural alkaline compound that reacts with acids to produce carbon dioxide. (typeost.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, being an alkali substance soluble in water, finds application in the detergent industry. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • With a correct ingestion protocol, sodium bicarbonate regulates pH levels in your blood and muscles during intense exercise, reducing muscle acidity and increasing endurance. (4endurance.com)
  • Omeprazole, one of the active ingredients in Zegerid, belongs to a family of drugs known as proton pump inhibitors, while Sodium Bicarbonate belongs to a group of medicines known as salt solutions, which are used as irrigating solutions. (northdrugstore.com)
  • Ryan International is one of the highly recognized Soda Ash Suppliers in , offering bulk quantity of Sodium Bicarbonate to different industries. (ryan-international.in)
  • Eggs and omelets are the tenth leading source of sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Being a noteworthy Industrial Salt, Sodium Tripolyphosphate Dealer and Titanium Dioxide Wholesaler in , we have the capabilities to meet your bulk orders shortly. (ryan-international.in)
  • While sodium has many forms, most sodium we consume is from salt. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium or Salt? (cdc.gov)
  • Salt and sodium are not the same. (cdc.gov)
  • One teaspoon of table salt contains about 2,400 mg of sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is typically employed as a leavening ingredient, causing the batter to expand and rise, giving it a characteristic texture. (camachem.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a versatile and beneficial ingredient in soap, providing gentle exfoliation and balancing the pH level of the skin. (typeost.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate occurs as an odorless, white, crystalline powder with a saline, slightly alkaline taste. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate 99% appears as a white crystalline solid that is frequently seen in powder form and has no distinct odor. (camachem.com)
  • The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate helps to increase the pH of the blood thus making the cancer patient more alkaline. (oasisofhope.com)
  • Initially, sodium ions gradually enter the cell through the nerve cell membrane. (medscape.com)
  • The entry of sodium ions causes the transmembrane electric potential to increase from the resting potential. (medscape.com)
  • Once the potential reaches a threshold level of approximately -55 mV, a rapid influx of sodium ions ensues. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate also finds use as a medicine,a butter preservative, in ceramics,and to prevent timber mold. (bestpetlove.com)
  • Sodium nitrate (a preservative). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate is a fine white powder that is primarily used in the food industry, whereas sodium Bisulfite is a white crystal that is primarily utilized in the mining sector. (camachem.com)
  • Additionally, sodium bicarbonate is included in livestock feed for nutritional purposes and as a buffering agent for the rumen in dairy cows. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Dr. Gillies showed that, when he added sodium bicarbonate to the drinking water of mice implanted with an aggressive human breast cancer, the bicarbonate greatly suppressed the formation of new metastases. (oasisofhope.com)
  • Doing so may give you too much sodium bicarbonate and increase your risk of side effects (such as swelling of the hands/feet). (webmd.com)
  • sodium bicarbonate will increase the level or effect of digoxin by increasing gastric pH. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is one of the most researched supplements in sports, used by professional athletes to increase muscle endurance. (4endurance.com)
  • Use Sodium Bicarbonate to increase your endurance above the lactate threshold and reduce muscle acidity! (4endurance.com)
  • Eating too much sodium can increase your blood pressure and your risk for heart disease and stroke . (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a systemic and urinary alkalinizer used to increase serum or urinary HCO 3 - concentration and raise pH. (medscape.com)
  • Sterile alkalinizing agent Sodium Bicarbonate 8.4%, in a 50mL single dose vial with brown flip-top. (accutome.com)
  • The rubber and plastic manufacturing sector utilizes sodium bicarbonate as a blowing agent, leading to the release of carbon dioxide. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Data from cancer treatment centers such as Moffit Cancer Center and Arizona Cancer Center have shown that oral bicarbonate therapy significantly reduces the incidence of cancer metastases in cancers. (oasisofhope.com)
  • On average, participants cycled for 438 ± 120 seconds after ingesting sodium bicarbonate, which was significantly longer than in the acidosis (160 ± 22 s) and control (270 ± 13 s) conditions [ R ]. (swolverine.com)
  • The production of sodium bicarbonate can be achieved through the Solvay process, which was originally introduced by Ernest Solvay in the 1860s. (chemtradeasia.lk)
  • Acidosis with a pH less than 7.1 will require Sodium bicarbonate (NaHO3). (who.int)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is extracted using solution mining by pumping hot water through injection wells to dissolve the nahcolite from the Eocene beds where it occurs 1,500 to 2,000 feet below the surface. (bestpetlove.com)
  • This medication is a combination of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate . (webmd.com)
  • Adrenaline was the medication that expired most frequently but the greatest financial losses occurred from expired sodium bicarbonate. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pdf Sodium Bicarbonate has found been, both there and yet understanding. (marceichler.de)
  • Where is Sodium Bicarbonate found? (camachem.com)
  • The most frequently used emergency medicines were adrenaline, sodium bicarbonate and Ringer's lactate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Do not substitute the capsules, the powder packets, or the suspension for each other, unless approved by your doctor, because they contain different amounts of sodium bicarbonate . (webmd.com)
  • Ont été inclus tous les patients reçus en consultation ORL ayant déclaré avoir utilisé des substances actives sans prescription médicale pour soulager leur plainte actuelle. (bvsalud.org)