Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Salicylate: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Sodium Channel Agonists: A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Sodium Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers: A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.NAV1.9 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-1 Subunit: A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Cardanolides: The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel beta-4 Subunit: A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit subtype that covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN4B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with long QT syndrome-10.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Chlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate: An anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties in industry and used in medicine as an irritant and sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids and varicose veins.CitratesDeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Sodium Morrhuate: The sodium salts of the fatty acids in cod liver oil; an irritant and sclerosing agent used to treat varicose veins and arthritic joints.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Epithelial Sodium Channel Agonists: Compounds that either stimulate the opening or prevent closure of EPITHELIAL SODIUM ION CHANNELS.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.

Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis. (1/16576)

The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM.  (+info)

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (2/16576)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (3/16576)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (4/16576)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (5/16576)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference in man. (6/16576)

Paracetamol has replaced aspirin as the analgesic of choice in many situations. The major reason is the damaging effect of aspirin on gastric mucosa. Alterations in gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference provide measures of aspirin-induced structural damage. We studied the effect of large doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen 2-0 g) on gastric ionic fluxes in man. In addition, the effect of 2-0 g paracetamol on gastric potential difference was compared with that of 600 mg aspirin. In contrast with salicylates, paracetamol caused no significant alteration in movement of H+ and Na+ ions over control periods. Aspirin causes a significant fall in transmucosal potential difference (PD) across gastric mucosa of 15 mv, while paracetamol cuased no significant change. Paracetamol in a dose four times that recommended does not alter gastric ionic fluxes or potential difference. These studies support choice of paracetamol as analgesic over aspirin where damage to gastric mucosa may be critical.  (+info)

Intracellular sodium modulates the expression of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in PC12W cells. (7/16576)

Although the angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor (AT2-R) is expressed abundantly in the adrenal medulla, its physiological significance has not yet been determined. To obtain fundamental knowledge of the regulation of AT2-R expression in the adrenal medulla, we investigated the effects of modulating several ion channels on AT2-R expression in PC12W cells. Experiments were performed after 24 hours of serum depletion under subconfluent conditions. After 48 hours of treatment with various agonists or antagonists, the receptor density and mRNA level of AT2-Rs were quantified by 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II binding and Northern blot analysis. Ouabain (10 to 100 nmol/L) and insulin (10 to 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently increased receptor density and mRNA level. Analysis of the binding characteristics revealed that the ouabain-dependent increase in AT2-R levels was due to an increase in binding capacity without a change in the Kd value. These increases were blocked by lowering the Na+ concentration in the medium. A low concentration of the sodium ionophore monensin (10 nmol/L), the K+-channel blocker quinidine (10 micromol/L), and the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers tolbutamide (100 micromol/L) and glybenclamide (10 micromol/L) also significantly increased receptor density, but the ATP-sensitive K+-channel agonist cromakalim (100 micromol/L) decreased receptor density significantly (P<0.01). Nifedipine (10 micromol/L) decreased basal receptor density and completely blocked the increase in receptor density caused by these agents. The increase in receptor density caused by an increase in intracellular Na+ was accompanied by an increase in mRNA level, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers did not change mRNA level. Nifedipine slightly decreased mRNA level. These results suggest that AT2-R expression is sensitively regulated by intracellular cation levels. The change in intracellular Na+ level transcriptionally regulates AT2-R expression, whereas the K+-channel blocker-dependent upregulation appears to be at least in part posttranslational.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation. (8/16576)

Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation.  (+info)

Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepithelial transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal membrane (th Na influx) and found that it is reduced when intracellular Na is increased by ouabain or by removal of external potassium. Removal of serosal sodium also reduced the influx, suggesting that the Na gradient across the serosal border rather than the cell Na concentration is the critical factor. Because in tissues such as muscle and nerve a steep transmembrane sodium gradient is necessary to maintain low cytosolic calcium, it is possible that a reduction in the sodium gradient in the toad bladder reduces luminal permeability by increasing the cell calcium activity. We found that the ...
The values of membrane action potentials and maximum depolarization rates of single muscle fibers in normal Tyrode solution and in low sodium solutions containing as little as 20 per cent of the sodium chloride were measured with intracellular microelectrodes. Under these conditions the membrane potential remains unchanged up to 36 per cent of [Na+]out concentration, whereas the overshoot of the action potential varies linearly with the logarithm of the external sodium concentration. The maximum depolarization rate is a linear function of the external sodium concentration. The results obtained support the ionic theory for sodium and the independence principle for sodium current related to the external sodium concentration.. ...
The results of this preliminary study confirm previous findings that preascitic cirrhotic patients have subtle sodium retention when placed on a 200 mmol sodium as opposed to a 100 mmol sodium per day intake,1 2 23 manifested as a reduced urinary sodium excretion, associated with suppression of systemic RAAS in the supine posture. The acute use of a low dose angiotensin II receptor antagonist resulted in normalisation of this subtle sodium handling abnormality in preascitic cirrhotic patients, despite unchanged renal and systemic haemodynamics.. A 200 mmol sodium per day diet was chosen for this study for several reasons. Preascitic cirrhotic patients have previously been shown to come into a steady state of subtle sodium retention after four days of this sodium intake,2 and therefore the study would not require a long run in period. Secondly, this level of sodium intake, although higher than that contained in the usual "no added salt diet of 100-130 mmol sodium per day" that the patients were ...
1. Sodium movement across the porcine aortic arch in vitro is greater from the intimal to the medial surface than in the reverse direction.. 2. A short-circuit current can be measured across the aortic arch and the calculated energy is greater than the energy required to support the net outward sodium movement, suggesting the possibility of active transport of other ions.. 3. Net sodium movement is not significantly altered by an adverse gradient on the outside (medial side) but is reduced by a gradient in the opposite direction.. 4. Sodium retention within the tissue is increased by a gradient on the medial side.. 5. The movement of [14C]inulin is greater from the medial to the intimal surface, suggesting greater porosity on the medial side. A slight rise in both total tissue fluid and extracellular fluid occurred when the sodium concentration on the medial side of the preparation was increased. This did not occur with the sodium concentration increased on the intimal side. The changes were ...
There is abundant evidence that sodium intake is related to blood pressure. However, the relationship varies between individuals and is probably determined by renal sodium handling. We investigated clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in relation to interactions between sodium dietary intake and renal handling, as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and endogenous lithium clearance, respectively. We calculated fractional excretion of lithium and fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium, as markers of proximal and distal sodium handling, respectively. The 766 subjects included 379 men and 478 ambulatory hypertensive patients. They were never treated (n=697) or did not take antihypertensive medication for ≥2 weeks (n=69). In adjusted analyses, none of the associations of urinary sodium excretion, fractional excretion of lithium, and fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium with clinic or ambulatory blood pressure were statistically significant (P≥0.09). However, there was ...
1. A study has been made of the interaction between Na+ and K+ on the adenosine triphosphatase activity of erythrocyte ghosts, and on the K+ influx and Na+ efflux of intact erythrocytes. The adenosine triphosphatase activity and the ion movements were greater at a low external K+ concentration in the absence of Na+ than they were in the presence of 150mm-Na+. The inhibition by external Na+ of K+ influx had an inhibitory constant of 5-10mm. 2. Activation by K+ of kidney microsomal adenosine triphosphatase was retarded by Na+, and activation by Na+ was retarded by K+. Fragmented erythrocyte membranes behaved similarly. 3. These observations suggest that there is competition between Na+ and K+ at the K+-sensitive site of the membrane.. ...
Learn how many calories in Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter). Get all Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter) nutritional information - Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter) calories, protein, fat, carbs and more. Its Free.
Level of salt intake has an important impact in patients with high blood pressure or congestive heart failure. Despite this there is no convenient way for doctors or patients to assess their salt intake other than diet recall, which is unreliable, or measurement of sodium excretion in a 24 hour collection of urine, which is very inconvenient. As a result, salt intake is not monitored in most patients.. 2 innovations might enable a more convenient assessment of salt intake. A titrator stick that measures chloride ion concentration (chloride and sodium concentrations correlate strongly with each other), and a titrator stick that measures urine creatinine. The latter enables estimation of 24 hour excretion from a single sample of urine. In assessing sodium intake, a measurement that provides an approximation of urine sodium intake would be of considerable clinical value. In this study, we shall compare the estimation of urine sodium excretion measured by a laboratory with estimation of sodium ...
sodium content in foods to sell - 10183 sodium content in foods online Wholesalers provide popular sodium content in foods from China.
Hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus may involve abnormalities in at least two major blood pressure-regulating systems: the body sodium-fluid volume state and cardiovascular reactivity. In metabolically stable nonazotemic diabetes, exchangeable sodium is increased by 10% on average, regardless of age, insulin dependence or nondependence, or the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy or clinical nephropathy (proteinuria greater than or equal to 0.3 g/24 hr). Possible contributing mechanisms include renal sodium retention and an extravascular shift of fluid and sodium; intracellular accumulation is not excluded. Circulatory volume is normal or low and the total exchangeable sodium/blood volume ratio increased. In hypertensive diabetes, the latter abnormality is particularly pronounced; systolic pressure tended to correlate with exchangeable sodium (r = 0.47, p less than 0.001) and diastolic pressure with the plasma sodium/potassium ratio (r = 0.25, p less than 0.05). Plasma ...
Sodium in London Drinking Water August 2013. Consumers of food and water have become more conscious of the amount of sodium that they ingest, especially for those individuals on sodium restricted diets. The information below is intended to assist London customers determine the contribution from drinking water to their total sodium dietary intake. Recently the water supplied to London from the Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System exceeded the mandatory reporting limit of 20 mg/L for sodium. Drinking water with sodium concentration greater than 20 mg/L is common in many other municipalities in Ontario. The amount of sodium in Londons drinking water does not pose a health risk to our customers and in fact the province has not established a health related standard for sodium in drinking water.. What is sodium?. Sodium is a naturally occurring mineral in food and water, and is a necessary element of human nutrition. Typically the consumption of sodium from food is much higher than from drinking ...
G.I. Sandle, S.A. Lewis, J.P. Hayslett, H.J. Binder; Dexamethasone Induces Amiloride Sensitive Na Transport in Rat Distal Colon. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1982; 62 (2): 30P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs062030Pa. Download citation file:. ...
the attempt to create my own model is not that necessary and Ill focus on making the original model work. Please see my other posts about reuse Extracellular Action Potential Simulation model, if you have any idea how should I modify the code according to the error messages, Thank you ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Total Body Sodium Deficit, Total Body Water, Total Body Water Excess, Free Water Deficit, Sodium Infusion Rate in Hyponatremia.
We have previously described elevated Lii -Nao countertransport (CT) and Na-K cotransport (CO) in red cells of Caucasian patients from Boston. In this study, we report both transport systems in black patients from Philadelphia. The maximal rate (Vmax
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Shrimp Cocktail (lower sodium version) based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Shrimp, cooked, V8 Vegetable Juice, Low Sodium, Cucumber (peeled), Celery, raw, Red Ripe Tomatoes and the other ingredients in this recipe.
The sodium urine test examines the quantity of salt (sodium) in urine.Sodium in urine levels are typically measured in individuals who have irregular blood sodium levels to help identify whether an imbalance is from. For instance, taking in too much sodium or losing too much sodium. Urine sodium examination is also used to determine if a person with high blood pressure is taking too much salt. It is often used in patients with abnormal kidney tests to help identify the cause of kidney damage that can help to specify treatment.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
As more processed foods hit our shelves and as obesity rates continue to soar, it almost seems as though sodium levels would have continued to increase, not necessarily stay the same. Yet, after multiple studies were reviewed, all occuring between 1957 and 2003, it appears that 3700 milligrams of sodium was consistently consumed over the years. Of course, other measures of our sodium intake dont necessarily reflect the same pattern. In fact, the NHANES, or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, does indeed show an increase in salt consumption. The biggest difference between these survey results and that observed in the Harvard study is that the NHANES relies on food records where as the Harvard study took a look at urinary sodium output which is supposedly more accurate.. Current guidelines for sodium intake are 2300 milligrams a day for healthy adults and 1500 milligrams a day for those at risk of high blood pressure. Thats quite a difference. And although this message has been ...
The results from our meta-analyses of 36 randomised controlled trials in adults show that a reduction in sodium intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results are consistent with five previous systematic reviews that reported reduced sodium intake decreased blood pressure in adults with and without hypertension.8 16 17 18 19 The quality of the evidence was high. A body of evidence from randomised controlled trials begins the GRADE categorisation at high quality and is then assessed on a set of characteristics that may reduce that quality. This body of evidence was not downgraded as there was no indication of serious risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, or imprecision across all studies. As heterogeneity was suggested in the meta-analyses we carefully examined the results. The χ2 test suggested the potential for considerable heterogeneity (large χ2, P,0.001).29 However, a large number of studies, as in this review, often leads to the detection of a statistically ...
http://download3.coupons.com/7/19/7125/1450/insight.coupons.com/COS20/_Cache/_ImageCache/079/16014079.gif Print Now: $0.55 off one Hillshire Farm Lower Sodium Product Expiration Date: 4/6/2011 11:59:00 PM Date Coupon Became Active: 2/28/2011 12:01:00 AM Additional coupons available in
... helps maintain fluid levels individual cells body controls fluid pressures between cells environment that surrounds them what doctors call osmotic equilibrium Sodium also helps direct flow other nutrients from cells Sodium potassium help transmit electrical charges body Plus sodium potassium necessary components gastric juices that help digest foods Even though only small percentage sodium consume comes from salt shaker
So you think you can go low sodium? Remember all living things contain sodium. So the foods you eat already has sodium in it, so count sodium in. I also learned low sodium needs to be , team40575board
Signal transduction is the molecular basis for cellular communication. Complex networks of intracellular molecules enable cells to receive signals from their environment and to modify their behavior in response to these signals. Signaling molecules are interconnected, and depending on how they are linked together they can form different types of networks. We have recently described a novel network of proteins that becomes activated by increases in cell sodium permeability and that regulates active sodium transport. Because each component of this sodium-sensing network so far described have been independently associated with multiple and essential cell functions, our work on the network topology and modeling is of importance because it will help us to understand the networks role and complexity when transforming the sodium signal into transcription activation and gene expression leding to changes in myocardial- and/or renal cells growth.. Also, understanding the function and relevance of the ...
J.L.] While trying to provoke an always enjoyable give-and-take with Seamus McSeamus, I intentionally worded my comment so that those who are so inclined would overreact. Fact is, I never offered an opinion on the pros-or-cons of sodium (most commonly in the form of sodium chloride) intake. I only poked good-natured fun at the idea of playing chemist at the dinner table. :-). However, as you may recall from Psychology 101, sodium is ABSOLUTELY necessary for the proper communication between neurons. In addition, your muscles simply could not contract without it. There are any number of bodily functions that depend on proper levels of sodium in the blood and tissues. It really isnt the Evil Element weve been conditioned to believe. I mean, there really is a reason saline drips are s-o-p in hospitals.. That being said, TOO MUCH sodium IS no good. Quiet as its kept, I rarely add any kind of salt to foods, as I prepare them or at the table. When I do use *salt*, it is usually potassium chloride or ...
Eloquent exploration of Global Sodium Dehydroacetate Market 2019 including competitive, segmentation, forecast, and regional analysis.. The Global Sodium Dehydroacetate Report enlists several considerable facets in the global Sodium Dehydroacetate industry that holds the potential to fuel growth or declines in the market. The report enfolds valuable analysis of significant factors such as market size, share, sales volume, product demand, market value, revenue, and growth rate. The report also deeply considers influential factors including Sodium Dehydroacetate market trends, dynamics, growth driving forces, and other elements.. The global Sodium Dehydroacetate market is exhibiting a substantial CAGR figure in 2018 and it is exacted to report more vigorous growth during the forecast period of 2019 to 2024. Market growth is being boosted by raw material affluence, product awareness, rapidly growing Sodium Dehydroacetate demand, financial stability, and favorable industry environment. It holds the ...
[56 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sodium Bichromate (CAS 10588-01-9) Market Study 2016-2026, by Segment (Sodium Bichromate =98.0%, Sodium Bichromate =98.3%,) , by Market (Pigment, Tanning,) , by Company (Elementis (US) , Soda Sanayii (TR) ,) report by 99Strategy. Summary The global Sodium Bichromate (CAS 10588-01-9) market...
A sodium blood test may be used to detect low sodium or high sodium levels as part of a health checkup or to help evaluate conditions such as dehydration, edema or heart, lung or kidney diseases. Sodium is an electrolyte that is vital to normal nerve and muscle function and helps regulate the amount of fluid in the body.
With respect to model development, the importance of the absolute Na+ transport rate derives from the constraint it imposes on the magnitude of rheogenic transport. The only reported cellular electrophysiology on IMCD is that of Stanton (47), who found a small transepithelial electrical PD and a high fractional apical resistance. Admittedly, these findings could, in part, be an artifact of the in vitro preparation and its low reabsorptive Na+ flux. In the calculations of this model, only when channel-mediated luminal membrane Na+ reabsorption was less than 25% of the total was the fractional apical resistance greater than 85%. Although one early determination of transepithelial PD was −11 mV (37), subsequent investigations have shown it close to zero (16, 19). Indeed, the transepithelial PD of this model, −12 mV, is high and is attributable largely to the component of rheogenic Na+ transport. This suggests that the bulk of Na reabsorption is electrically silent, as via a thiazide-sensitive ...
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
Sodium Silicofluoride, Wholesale Various High Quality Sodium Silicofluoride Products from Global Sodium Silicofluoride Suppliers and Sodium Silicofluoride Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
Browse our list of low sodium products. Shop for all your favorite products without worrying about them having high sodium levels.
Versatile serve as is, or blend with our other soups to reduce sodium without sacrificing flavor. Campbells Low Sodium Ready-to-Serve soups are designed for use in sodium restricted diets.
Versatile serve as is, or blend with our other soups to reduce sodium without sacrificing flavor. Campbells Low Sodium Ready-to-Serve soups are designed for use in sodium restricted diets.
Researchers found that obesity and excess consumption of salt may be causing an increase in blood pressure among children and adolescents.
Get an answer for Analyze the properties of a sodium atom and a sodium ion. What are the differences in mass, stability & reactivity that are caused due to the differences? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Find measuring sodium ion (sodium monitoring - monitoring and testing) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Find all the evidence you need on Fractional Excretion of Sodium via the Trip Database. Helping you find trustworthy answers on Fractional Excretion of Sodium | Latest evidence made easy
Sodium: An element that is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the extracellular body fluids. Its salts are the most widely used in medicine. (From Dorland, 27th ed) Physiologically the sodium ion plays a major role in blood pressure regulation, maintenance of fluid volume, and electrolyte balance.
22Na radionuclide water. Used as a tracer for sodium transport assays, sodium influx and efflux assays, and Na+ permeability studies.
Riding below 75% MHR will burn fat. If you stay below 75% then you probably won t need any carbs to avoid bonking. You will need to keep hydrating and replacing electrolytes and sodium. If you sweat a lot then sodium intake is a MUST! DO NOT take in a huge amount of water all at once. It will dilute the sodium in your system and can result in death. The easiest way to keep hydrated and the electrolytes and sodium at good levels is drink a low sugar sports drink. If you stay on the flats then you ll probably find it hard to exceed 75% unless you do occasional sprints ...
A transcellular sodium reabsorption through high-resistance epithelia: couples passive electrodiffusion of sodium through the apical membrane, and active extrusion of intracellular sodium by...
... is being described as essential, and it is said that too much is not healthy. There is talk about reducing sodium but not elimination. This latter point is important, for without sodium (sodium chloride) we die.
16:08, 2 August 2018‎ Mabus (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (4,331 bytes) (+4,331)‎ . . (Created page with {{Chembox , Name = Sodium persulfate , Reference = , IUPACName = Sodium peroxydisulfate , PIN = , SystematicName = , OtherNames = Sodium peroxodisulfate,br,Sodium peroxodisulp...) ...
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the sodium-dependent transport and excretion of organic anions, some of which are potentially toxic. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein and may be localized to the basolateral membrane. Four transcript variants encoding four different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
The experiments used 76 adult male albino rats weighing 250-320 g. The animals were housed singly in hanging wire cages for at least 1 wk before experiments and had free access to food, water, and 2% NaCl. Room lights were on for 14 h/day, and temperature was controlled at 23°C.. Sodium appetite was stimulated by an acute body sodium depletion induced by PD. The technique, described previously (9), consisted of an intraperitoneal injection of a 5% glucose solution warmed at 37°C, in a volume equivalent to 10% of rat body weight. After 1 h, the ascitic fluid was recovered by inserting a needle into the peritoneal cavity. The amount of NaCl withdrawn by this method in the dialyzed or experimental group (experimental) was 0.84 ± 0.02 meq/100 g body wt (mean ± SE, n = 18). In control sham-depleted rats (control sham), no injection was given but the needle was inserted into the peritoneal cavity. Dialyzed and control rats were caged individually without food and with distilled water as the only ...
American diets need to get less sweet and a lot less salty, according to new government food rules. Registered dietician Elisa Zied explains what that means for your family.
Eliminate high sodium foods from your childs lunches. There are many ways that you can lower the sodium content and help them eat healthy.
The cell membrane is not very permeable to sodium ions, so they must enter through a process known as facilitated diffusion. In facilitated diffusion, sodium passes through the cell membrane in a...
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility (By similarity).
You need to eat less salt (reduce your sodium intake) if you have medical conditions such as heart failure and high blood pressure. Thats because exc
... (sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula Na(CH3(C6H4COO)O). It is the sodium salt ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_methylparaben&oldid=788369748" ...
Sodium valproate[edit]. Sodium valproate has been used for the treatment of generalized and partial seizures in humans for both ...
Transcrocetinate sodium[edit]. The sodium salt of crocetin, transcrocetinate sodium (INN, also known as trans sodium ... Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin ... a b c US patent 6,060,511, Gainer J, "Trans-sodium crocetinate, methods of making and methods of use thereof", issued 2000-05- ... 2006). "Trans sodium crocetinate and diffusion enhancement". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 110 (37): 18078-18080. doi: ...
Scrubbing processes may be based on sodium hydroxide.[6][7] The CO2 is absorbed into solution, transferred to lime via a ... Sodium hydroxide[edit]. Zeman and Lackner outlined a specific method of air capture.[9] ... Other strong bases such as soda lime, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and lithium hydroxide are able to remove carbon ... First, CO2 is absorbed by an alkaline NaOH solution to produce dissolved sodium carbonate. The absorption reaction is a gas ...
Common scintillators include thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl))-often simplified to sodium iodide (NaI) detectors-and ... For example, a sodium iodide (NaI) detector may have a FWHM of 9.15 keV at 122 keV, and 82.75 keV at 662 keV. These resolution ... Thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) has two principal advantages:. *It can be produced in large crystals, yielding good ... Sodium iodide systems, as with all scintillator systems, are sensitive to changes in temperature. Changes in the operating ...
"Sodium Hydroxide - Compound Summary". Retrieved June 12, 2012.. *^ "1310-73-2,Sodium hydroxide solution,Sigma Aldrich,sodium ... a b c d e f g h i j k Spencer Umfreville Pickering (1893): "LXI.-The hydrates of sodium, potassium, and lithium hydroxides". ... For example, when sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride is formed: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2 ... sodium hydroxide was produced by treating sodium carbonate with calcium hydroxide in a metathesis reaction. (Sodium hydroxide ...
High-pressure sodium (HPS)[edit]. An HPS (High Pressure Sodium) grow light bulb in an air-cooled reflector with hammer finish. ... High-pressure sodium lights have a long usable bulb life, and six times more light output per watt of energy consumed than a ... PCA reduces sodium loss, which in turn reduces color shift and variation compared to standard MH bulbs.[14] Horticultural CDM ... High-pressure sodium lights are a more efficient type of HID lighting than metal halides. HPS bulbs emit light in the yellow/ ...
Sodium ethoxide pyrolysis[edit]. Gram-quantities were produced by the reduction of ethanol by sodium metal, followed by ... pyrolysis of the ethoxide product and washing with water to remove sodium salts.[77] ...
FAP 2A3672 Cyclamate (cyclamic acid, calcium cyclamate, and sodium cyclamate). *^ a b Weihrauch MR, Diehl V (2004). "Artificial ... Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener. It is 30-50 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), making ... Cyclamate is the sodium or calcium salt of cyclamic acid (cyclohexanesulfamic acid), which itself is prepared by the ... Prior to 1973, Abbott Laboratories produced sodium cyclamate (Sucaryl) by a mixture of ingredients including the addition of ...
Sodium-based[edit]. Sodium-based processes use a recovery system similar to that used in the kraft recovery process, except ... The counter ion can be sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+). ... The sulfite process can use calcium, ammonium, magnesium or sodium as a base. ...
Synthesis of sodium BARF[edit]. The sodium salt of the BARF ion is abbreviated NaBArF4 (or sometimes as NaBArF24[2] recognising ... It can be formed from the sodium salt in diethyl ether in the presence of hydrogen chloride as sodium chloride is insoluble in ... which is then treated with sodium tetrafluoroborate. A method for assaying the water content of the product was also described. ... "Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals in a Colloidal Suspension Generated by Sodium Tetrakis(3,5-trifluoromethylphenyl)borate in ...
Sodium[edit]. Cortisol promotes sodium absorption through the small intestine of mammals.[27] Sodium depletion, however, does ... A sodium load augments the intense potassium excretion by cortisol. Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol in this case.[30] ... Sandle GI, Keir MJ, Record CO (1981). "The effect of hydrocortisone on the transport of water, sodium, and glucose in the ... Mason PA, Fraser R, Morton JJ, Semple PF, Wilson A (August 1977). "The effect of sodium deprivation and of angiotensin II ...
Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment[edit]. The Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE) characterized the performance of four 40 ... Each cell is composed of a sodium anode, sulfur cathode, and solid ceramic sodium ion conducting electrolyte and separator. The ... ampere-hour sodium-sulfur battery cells, representing the first test of sodium-sulfur battery technology in space. ... the Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE), the Turbulent GAS Jet Diffusion (G-744) experiment and the Autonomous EVA Robotic ...
... tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about ... Potassium sodium tartrate and monopotassium phosphate were the first materials discovered to exhibit piezoelectricity.[3] This ... Sodium tartrate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ... Sodium Potassium tartrate is also important in the food industry. [5] ...
Sodium chloride (octahedral 6:6)[edit]. The sodium chloride (NaCl) polymorph is most common. A cubic close-packed arrangement ... Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride. Caesium chloride. Francium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ...
... is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 · ... Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS Archived 2010-05-17 at the Wayback Machine. *^ a b "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives ... A solution of this salt is then treated with sodium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-sodium salt CaNa2[Fe(CN)6], which in ... Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535 in the EU. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticaking ...
Sodium consumption and health. Main article: Health effects of salt. Table salt is made up of just under 40% sodium by weight, ... Main article: Sodium chloride. Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal ... Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt states 38.9 percent sodium by weight which equals 97.3 percent sodium ... sodium iodide or sodium iodate. A small amount of dextrose may also be added to stabilize the iodine.[40] Iodine deficiency ...
50 mM sodium fluoride (NaF). *0.2 mM fresh sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4.2H2O, it has phosphatase inhibitor function because it ... SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) lysis buffer[edit]. SDS is ionic denaturing detergent. Hot SDS buffer is often used when the ... Ionic detergents like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic detergents like ethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are denaturing ...
Diclofenac sodium gel[edit]. Topical diclofenac sodium gel is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is thought to work in ...
... sodium stearyl-2-lactylate; sodium 2-stearoyllactylate; sodium stelate; stearoyl-2-lactylic acid, sodium salt; sodium alpha-( ... sodium carbonate) or caustic soda (concentrated sodium hydroxide). Commercial grade SSL is a mixture of sodium salts of ... sodium salt; stearic acid ester with lactic acid bimol. ester sodium salt; sodium 2-(1-carboxylatoethoxy)-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl ... sodium 2-{[2-(stearoyloxy)propanoyl]oxy}propanoate; sodium stearoyl lactylate; sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate; ...
Sodium perborate. Main article: Sodium perborate. Sodium perborate, Na2H4B2O8, is made by reacting borax with sodium hydroxide ... Sodium percarbonate. Main article: Sodium percarbonate. Sodium percarbonate is produced industrially by reaction of sodium ... Sodium hypochlorite. Main article: Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly encountered bleaching agent, ... sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate. While most bleaches are oxidizing agents, some are reducing agents such as sodium ...
Sodium hypochlorite accident[edit]. A sodium hypochlorite incident is an immediate reaction of severe pain, followed by edema, ... less than 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)[17][18][19]. *6% sodium hypochlorite with surface modifiers for better flow into nooks ... Certain irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine, have proved to be effective antimicrobials in vitro[20] and ...
Reduction via sodium borohydride[edit]. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction occurs by ... The silver seeds are synthesized by mixing silver nitrate and sodium citrate in aqueous solution and then rapidly adding sodium ... Some of these surface stabilizing species are: NaBH4 in large amounts,[19] poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP),[21] sodium dodecyl ... There are many different wet synthesis methods, including the use of reducing sugars, citrate reduction, reduction via sodium ...
... , also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), ... Sodium thiopental was a core medicine in the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines,[3] which is a list of ... Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5- to 26-hour ... "Sodium 1-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-10-oxo-8-thioxo-7,9-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-6-en-6-olate - C12H17N2NaO2S - ChemSpider". chemspider.com. ...
... and then reacting the cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate to form sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Excess sodium ... Sodium croscarmellose is an internally cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose for use as a superdisintegrant in ... Sodium croscarmellose was first used as a stabilizer in horse supplements.[citation needed] ... Sodium croscarmellose also resolves formulators′ concerns over long-term functional stability, reduced effectiveness at high ...
Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia. Official Title ICMJE Open Label, Pilot Study of Adjunctive Xyrem (Sodium Oxybate ... Patients will then begin a four-week trial of adjunctive sodium oxybate, with a three-week taper of sodium oxybate to follow. ... A three-week taper (by 3 g/day weekly) of sodium oxybate will follow the four-week trial of sodium oxybate. ... Sodium Oxybate in Schizophrenia With Insomnia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
Making sodium hydroxide[change , change source]. Sodium hydroxide can be made (with chlorine and hydrogen) using the ... A solution of sodium chloride is electrolyzed and sodium hydroxide is made around the cathode, where water is reduced to ... The hydrogen is released and the hydroxide bonds with the sodium to make sodium hydroxide. Special care is required to prepare ... Sodium hydroxide is used as a solution called lye to make soap. Lye is also used to unclog drains. Its dissolving properties ...
The sodium benzoate preferably has a purity of 99% and a particle size of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns. ... The sodium benzoate ranges up to 1000 ppm. The polypropylene used in making the film preferably has an isotacticity exceeding ... A mono-axially oriented polypropylene film with sodium benzoate as a nucleating agent results in reduced shrinkage and increase ... The concentration of sodium benzoate seem to be optimum at 0.025 wt % (250 ppm). The shrinkage decreases as the sodium benzoate ...
Nedocromil sodium for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. *The effects of sodium cromoglycate compared with ... Nedocromil sodium versus sodium cromoglycate for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. *Inhaled corticosteroids ... Nedocromil sodium for chronic asthma in children. Nedocromil (or Tilade) is a preventer therapy used to treat chronic asthma ... The objective of this review is to compare the safety and efficacy of inhaled nedocromil sodium with placebo in the treatment ...
... sodium hydroxide solubility, Solubility--alkali, Cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Pulp, Sodium hydroxide, Solubility, ... Standard Test Method for Solubility of Cellulose in Sodium Hydroxide , cellulose, ... Standard Test Method for Solubility of Cellulose in Sodium Hydroxide. Active Standard ASTM D1696 , Developed by Subcommittee: ... The measurement of soluble oxidizable components of cellulose in sodium hydroxide is indicative of the purity of the cellulose ...
SODIUM TETRADECYL SULFATE (SOE dee um tet ra DES uhl SUHL feyt) is used to improve the appearance of varicose veins. ... Generic Name: sodium tetradecyl sulfate. It is used to improve the appearance of varicose veins. ... an unusual or allergic reaction to sodium tetradecyl sulfate, benzyl alcohol, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize acids and as a source of sodium ions for reactions that produce other sodium compounds. ... Sodium Hydroxide - Sodium Hydroxide In Household Products. Two of the more common household products containing sodium ... Sodium Hydroxide - Sodium hydroxide in household products, Industrial uses of sodium hydroxide. ... Sodium Hydroxide - Sodium hydroxide in household products, Industrial uses of sodium hydroxide. ...
The infusion of half-molar sodium lactate increased (mean ± SD) CO from 4.05 ± 1.37 L/min to 5.49 ± 1.9 L/min (P , 0.01) and ... Patients in the intervention group received a 3 ml/kg bolus of half-molar sodium lactate over the course of 15 minutes followed ... We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac performance in AHF. We conducted a prospective, ... Infusion of half-molar sodium lactate improved cardiac performance and led to metabolic alkalosis in AHF patients without any ...
您所在的位置:首页 , 科学研究 , 学术论文 , 高分子物理 , Fabrication of Oxidized Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose from Viscose Fibers and Their Viscosity ... Fabrication of Oxidized Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose from Viscose Fibers and Their Viscosity Behaviors. ... The oxidized sodium carboxymethylcellulose (O-CMC) fibers have been successfully synthesized via the oxidation-etherification ... Fabrication of Oxidized Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose from Viscose Fibers and Their Viscosity
Comparison of sodium polyanetholesulfonate with EDTA and heparin anticoagulants by assessing packed cell volume and blood smear ... Comparison of sodium polyanetholesulfonate with EDTA and heparin anticoagulants by assessing packed cell volume and blood smear ... Tocidlowski, M. E., .Stoskopf, M. K. (1997). Comparison of sodium polyanetholesulfonate with EDTA and heparin anticoagulants by ...
Sodium Reduction Is Challenging. * Types of food matter: More than 40% of the sodium we eat each day comes from just 10 types ... Sodium Is Everywhere. *Foods that otherwise seem healthy may have high levels of sodium. Examples include cottage cheese and ... Learn more about sodiums role in processed food Cdc-pdf. [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. ... Sources of food matter: About 65% of sodium comes from food bought at retail stores, where you can look for lower sodium ...
Sodium Bicarbonate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Sodium bicarbonate comes as a tablet and powder to take by mouth. Sodium bicarbonate is taken one to four times a day, ... Do not use sodium bicarbonate for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor tells you to. If sodium bicarbonate does not improve ... Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.. Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 ...
Too much sodium increases a persons risk for high blood pressure. High blood pressure often leads to heart disease and stroke ... of Americans eat more sodium than is recommended for a healthy diet. ... The words salt and sodium are sometimes used interchangeably because most of the sodium we eat is in the form of salt (sodium ... Sodium adds up quickly in our daily diet. Above is a sample diet of 3 meals and 3 small snacks with a total sodium content of ...
Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. It is present in several domestic cleaning products. Very low levels can produce ... Sodium hydroxide separates in water to sodium cations (positively charged sodium atoms) and hydroxide anions (negatively ... How can sodium hydroxide affect my health?. Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe burns in all tissues that ... How can sodium hydroxide affect children?. There are no studies on the health effects of children exposed to sodium hydroxide. ...
A major source of sodium is table salt, and the average American eats five or more teaspoons of it each day, about 20 times as ... Read ingredient labels to identify foods high in sodium. Items with 400 mg or more of sodium are high in sodium. High sodium ... When limiting sodium in your diet, a common target is to eat less than 2,000 milligrams of sodium per day.. Continue reading ... Low Sodium Diet. A main source of sodium is table salt. The average American eats five or more teaspoons of salt each day. This ...
Sodium Oxybate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Sodium oxybate may help to control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to take sodium oxybate even if you ... Sodium oxybate begins to work very quickly, within 5 to 15 minutes after taking it. Place your second dose of sodium oxybate in ... Before taking sodium oxybate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to sodium oxybate, any other medications, ...
Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide for softening; Pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide ... Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often ... to leave sodium acetate (a salt) and water. An alternative, but less effective alternative is sodium bicarbonate. ... Sodium silicate is often used as a corrosion inhibitor to prevent lye from corroding pipes while it removes the blockage. ...
Sodium methylparaben (sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula Na(CH3(C6H4COO)O). It is the sodium salt ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_methylparaben&oldid=788369748" ...
Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 · ... Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS Archived 2010-05-17 at the Wayback Machine. *^ a b "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives ... A solution of this salt is then treated with sodium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-sodium salt CaNa2[Fe(CN)6], which in ... Sodium ferrocyanide is a chemical additive known as E 535 in the EU. It is added to road and food grade salt as an anticaking ...
... is a variety, talk show featuring guests who share experiences, thoughts and ideas on the topics of ... Sodium Pentothal Sunday is a variety, talk show featuring guests who share experiences, thoughts and ideas on the topics of ...
... is a medication used to treat mild to moderate pain from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. ... Naproxen sodium (over-the-counter). Drug Class: NSAIDs (Traditional NSAID) Brand Names: Aleve ...
sodium. Further reading[edit]. *"sodium" in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=sodium&oldid=50999747" ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
... ​These 5 Surprising Foods Make Up the Most Salt In Our Diet ​No, chips dont make the list ... A new study says prescription pills and supplements are packed with sodium. Should you be worried? ...
... regulates the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It is also responsible for the absorption of nutrients and ... How much sodium do I need?. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of sodium for adults in the UK is 2.4g per day. ... Sodium. Sodium regulates the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It is also responsible for the absorption of ... Do sodium supplements have any drug interactions?. Consult a health professional before taking a sodium supplement if you have ...
  • Nedocromil sodium is associated with a very good safety profile with no significant short term or long- term adverse side effects. (cochrane.org)
  • The objective of this review is to compare the safety and efficacy of inhaled nedocromil sodium with placebo in the treatment of chronic asthma in children. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised placebo controlled trials comparing nedocromil sodium to placebo in the treatment of chronic asthma in children (0 to 18 years). (cochrane.org)
  • Short term studies (duration between 4 weeks to 12 weeks) showed that nedocromil sodium produced some improvement in a number of efficacy measures compared to placebo including FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 % predicted, PC20 FEV 1 , evening PEF and symptom scores. (cochrane.org)
  • Nedocromil sodium has a good safety profile. (cochrane.org)
  • Learn more about sodium's role in processed food Cdc-pdf [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. (heart.org)
  • Michael Alderman, M.D., of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York and former president of the International Society of Hypertension, also has repeatedly argued for caution in the nation's push to reduce sodium. (aarp.org)
  • The Marilyn Magaram Center (MMC) and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) is proud to announce a partnership to reduce sodium consumption with the launch of LACDHP's Sodium Reduction Initiative (SRI). (csun.edu)
  • Eat Your Best" promotes serving fresh and delicious plant-based foods as a strategy to reduce sodium on university campuses and among health care providers. (csun.edu)
  • The potassium-sodium pump also helps to maintain the electrical charge within the cell, which is particularly important to muscle and nerve cells. (everything2.com)
  • During muscle contraction, potassium exits and sodium enters, reversing the electrical charge and causing muscle contractions or nerve impulses. (everything2.com)
  • The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. (gsu.edu)
  • The sodium-potassium pump is an important contributer to action potential produced by nerve cells. (gsu.edu)
  • The sodium-potassium pump moves toward an equilibrium state with the relative concentrations of Na + and K + shown at left. (gsu.edu)
  • That's because getting enough potassium may help counterbalance dietary sodium and lower blood pressure. (cbn.com)
  • Replace high-sodium foods with high-potassium foods. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Harding MM (2002) Metal-ligand geometry relevant to proteins and in proteins: sodium and potassium. (springer.com)
  • An electronic controller detonates this mixture during an automobile crash: 2 NaN3 → 2Na + 3 N2 The same reaction occurs upon heating the salt to approximately 300 °C. The sodium that is formed is a potential hazard alone and, in automobile airbags, it is converted by reaction with other ingredients, such as potassium nitrate and silica. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is breads and rolls, primarily because so much more of them are consumed than the other nine main sources of sodium: cold cuts and cured meats, pizza, poultry (often infused with salt water), soups, sandwiches, cheese, pasta dishes, meat dishes and snacks. (nytimes.com)
  • More than 75 percent of the sodium in the average American diet comes from salt added to processed foods. (heart.org)
  • This result was seen in 13.5 percent of the sodium chloride group vs.13.6 percent of the sodium bicarbonate group. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ten types of foods contribute more than 40 percent of the sodium consumed by Americans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nytimes.com)
  • Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is an ionic compound consisting of cube-shaped crystals composed of the elements sodium and chlorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The potential diagram above is for gaseous NaCl, and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. (gsu.edu)
  • When in doubt about a food's sodium content, check the amount of sodium per serving on the nutrition label. (cbn.com)
  • This means that if neutral sodium and chlorine atoms found themselves closer than 0.94 nm, it would be energetically favorable to transfer an electron from Na to Cl and form the ionic bond. (gsu.edu)
  • The chief complaints are that the end result of the sodium bicarbonate process is a lot of dissolved sodium, which leaches chlorine atoms from PVC pipes and creates a salt-water waste flow that increases municipal water costs. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium gives its single electron away to other atoms that need electrons, and a compound is then formed. (reference.com)
  • In fact, most Americans already get more daily sodium than recommended before they ever pick up a salt shaker. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium can be sneaky, showing up in a vast majority of the foods we eat every day even if we never pick up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • Most of us are eating much more sodium than we need, even if we never pick up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • The AHA created the "Salty Six" - to show you the top six foods that contribute the most sodium to our diets, without even picking up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • Read ingredient labels to identify foods high in sodium. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Epilim crushable tablets, gastro-resistant (enteric-coated) tablets, syrup, liquid and injection all contain the active ingredient sodium valproate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But as a chef and food writer, I know sodium chloride salt is an important ingredient in many recipes. (cnn.com)
  • In processed foods, you'll see oodles of additives and preservatives on the ingredient list that contain the word 'sodium. (cbn.com)
  • Because selenium is an essential element , sodium selenite is an ingredient in dietary supplements such as multi-vitamin/mineral products, but supplements that provide only selenium use L-selenomethionine or a selenium-enriched yeast . (rug.nl)
  • A report from an expert panel of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review committee released by the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association concluded, " Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate appear to be safe in formulations designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by thorough rinsing from the surface of the skin. (nuskin.com)
  • Some foods that seem healthy may have high levels of sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Foods that otherwise seem healthy may have high levels of sodium (e.g., cottage cheese and turkey breast luncheon meat). (cdc.gov)
  • In the first step, ammonia is converted to sodium amide: 2 Na + 2 NH3 → 2 NaNH2 + H2 The sodium amide is subsequently combined with nitrous oxide: 2 NaNH2 + N2O → NaN3 + NaOH + NH3 These reactions are the basis of the industrial route, which produced about 250 tons/y in 2004, with production increasing owing to the popularization of airbags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel by serine proteases in human airways," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 10, pp. 8338-8345, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • About 65% of sodium comes from food bought at retail stores, where you can look for lower sodium choices. (cdc.gov)
  • Sources of foods matter: About 65% of sodium eaten comes from food bought at retail stores, so look for lower sodium choices. (cdc.gov)
  • Brine is a solution of sodium chloride and water that may or may not contain other salts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Most table salts are made from sodium chloride. (eatright.org)
  • At the same time, patients with contact allergy to gold have a higher chance of sensitivity to other monovalent gold salts, such as gold sodium thiomalate, as well as to nickel and cobalt. (news-medical.net)
  • At the time the regulatory action was taken, only the inorganic selenium salts (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) were available at a cost permitting their use in animal feed. (rug.nl)
  • If sodium bicarbonate does not improve your symptoms, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you take too much sodium oxybate, you may experience life-threatening symptoms including seizures, slowed or stopped breathing, loss of consciousness, and coma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may also develop a craving for sodium oxybate, feel a need to take larger and larger doses, or want to continue taking sodium oxybate even though it causes unpleasant symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction to sodium supplements include rash, dizziness, breathing difficulties, itching or swelling of the face, tongue or throat. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate provides rapid relief (within 15 minutes) of heartburn symptoms and should only be used to provide temporary relief of occasional episodes of stomach acid problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the withdrawal symptoms for sodium oxybate (Xyrem)? (medicinenet.com)
  • I also did the following search on Google: 'chloride sodium pump human body site:.edu' As always, please let me know if you need more information! (google.com)
  • Most people in search of making sodium polyacrylate are actually looking for a way to make fake snow. (ehow.com)
  • We incorporated the latest consensus from systematic reviews and publications identified by a literature search through Medline and Web of Science with the search strategy terms "hyponatraemia," "hypernatraemia," and "sodium. (bmj.com)
  • This book offers a systematic account of the behaviour of the sodium hungry animal, the endocrine and physiological mechanisms that act to maintain sodium balance and then act on the brain to promote the search for and the ingestion of salt. (waterstones.com)
  • This means that it takes only 1.52 eV of energy to donate one of the sodium electrons to chlorine when they are far apart. (gsu.edu)
  • Retrieved on July 20, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Gold-(Gold-Sodium-Thiosulfate)-Allergy.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • 2019. Gold (Gold Sodium Thiosulfate) Allergy . (news-medical.net)
  • It does not allow person 2 to know who sent it, as only their public key way used (see sodium_crypto_box to do that). (php.net)
  • Most of the sodium Americans eat comes from packaged, processed, store-bought, and restaurant foods. (cdc.gov)
  • About 90% of Americans eat more sodium than is recommended for a healthy diet. (cdc.gov)
  • About 90% of Americans aged 2 years or older eat too much sodium. (cdc.gov)
  • Reducing the sodium Americans eat by 1,200 mg per day on average added up to $20 billion a year in medical costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Americans eat on average about 3,300 mg of sodium a day. (cdc.gov)
  • Most Americans get nearly double the daily recommended amount of sodium. (cnn.com)
  • Nine out of 10 Americans eat more sodium (salt) than they need. (healthfinder.gov)
  • The guidelines, and the American Heart Association, recommend an even lower limit, 1,500 milligrams daily, for about 60 percent of American adults: those already afflicted with ailments adversely affected by sodium, African-Americans (who are more susceptible to high blood pressure), and everyone age 51 and older. (nytimes.com)
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate is used for the temporary relief of occasional episodes of acid ingestion, heartburn, and upset stomach. (medicinenet.com)
  • In this account of the field Jay Schulkin draws together information across a range of disciplines and topics, ranging from the ecology of salt ingestion to the sodium molecule and the action of various hormones. (waterstones.com)
  • A new harmonized standard for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate has been approved by the Pharmacopeial Discussion Group (PDG) as described in its PDG Stage 6 Sign-Off Cover Page . (usp.org)
  • Having reached Stage 6 of the PDG process, the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph has been formally approved by the USP Monographs-Excipients Expert Committee in accordance with the Rules and Procedures of the 2010-2015 Council of Experts. (usp.org)
  • The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph will be incorporated into and become official in USP 39-NF 34. (usp.org)
  • Should you have any questions about the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph, please contact Kevin Moore (301-816-8369 or [email protected] ). (usp.org)
  • The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph that was posted on April 24, 2015 had an incorrect official date of May 1, 2015, instead of May 1, 2016. (usp.org)
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate can be an irritant if formulated incorrectly, and a shampoo containing 15 percent SLS is tolerable because it comes in contact with the scalp for just a few minutes and is diluted with water while in use. (nuskin.com)
  • Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does require that fluoride toothpastes shipped as of April 7, 1998, carry a warning label about the dangers of swallowing too much toothpaste, and sodium lauryl sulfate is identified as one of the three ingredients posing a health risk (along with sorbitol and fluoride), it is because it can cause diarrhea, not because it causes cancer. (nuskin.com)