A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.
A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.
The consumption of liquids.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit subtype that covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN4B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with long QT syndrome-10.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
An anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties in industry and used in medicine as an irritant and sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids and varicose veins.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
The sodium salts of the fatty acids in cod liver oil; an irritant and sclerosing agent used to treat varicose veins and arthritic joints.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Compounds that either stimulate the opening or prevent closure of EPITHELIAL SODIUM ION CHANNELS.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.

Inhibition by amiloride of sodium-dependent fluid reabsorption in the rat isolated caudal epididymis. (1/16576)

The rate of fluid reabsorption was studied in the rat isolated caudal epididymal sac in vitro. 2 Part of the fluid reabsorption was found to be dependent on intraluminal Na+. Amiloride (0.1 mM) completely inhibited this component of fluid reabsorption. 3 The log dose-inhibition curve to amiloride was sigmoid and the IC50 value was found to be 1.6 muM.  (+info)

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (2/16576)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (3/16576)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (4/16576)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (5/16576)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference in man. (6/16576)

Paracetamol has replaced aspirin as the analgesic of choice in many situations. The major reason is the damaging effect of aspirin on gastric mucosa. Alterations in gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference provide measures of aspirin-induced structural damage. We studied the effect of large doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen 2-0 g) on gastric ionic fluxes in man. In addition, the effect of 2-0 g paracetamol on gastric potential difference was compared with that of 600 mg aspirin. In contrast with salicylates, paracetamol caused no significant alteration in movement of H+ and Na+ ions over control periods. Aspirin causes a significant fall in transmucosal potential difference (PD) across gastric mucosa of 15 mv, while paracetamol cuased no significant change. Paracetamol in a dose four times that recommended does not alter gastric ionic fluxes or potential difference. These studies support choice of paracetamol as analgesic over aspirin where damage to gastric mucosa may be critical.  (+info)

Intracellular sodium modulates the expression of angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor in PC12W cells. (7/16576)

Although the angiotensin II subtype 2 receptor (AT2-R) is expressed abundantly in the adrenal medulla, its physiological significance has not yet been determined. To obtain fundamental knowledge of the regulation of AT2-R expression in the adrenal medulla, we investigated the effects of modulating several ion channels on AT2-R expression in PC12W cells. Experiments were performed after 24 hours of serum depletion under subconfluent conditions. After 48 hours of treatment with various agonists or antagonists, the receptor density and mRNA level of AT2-Rs were quantified by 125I-[Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II binding and Northern blot analysis. Ouabain (10 to 100 nmol/L) and insulin (10 to 100 nmol/L) dose-dependently increased receptor density and mRNA level. Analysis of the binding characteristics revealed that the ouabain-dependent increase in AT2-R levels was due to an increase in binding capacity without a change in the Kd value. These increases were blocked by lowering the Na+ concentration in the medium. A low concentration of the sodium ionophore monensin (10 nmol/L), the K+-channel blocker quinidine (10 micromol/L), and the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers tolbutamide (100 micromol/L) and glybenclamide (10 micromol/L) also significantly increased receptor density, but the ATP-sensitive K+-channel agonist cromakalim (100 micromol/L) decreased receptor density significantly (P<0.01). Nifedipine (10 micromol/L) decreased basal receptor density and completely blocked the increase in receptor density caused by these agents. The increase in receptor density caused by an increase in intracellular Na+ was accompanied by an increase in mRNA level, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+-channel blockers did not change mRNA level. Nifedipine slightly decreased mRNA level. These results suggest that AT2-R expression is sensitively regulated by intracellular cation levels. The change in intracellular Na+ level transcriptionally regulates AT2-R expression, whereas the K+-channel blocker-dependent upregulation appears to be at least in part posttranslational.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation. (8/16576)

Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation.  (+info)

Sodium movement across the luminal membrane of the toad bladder is the rate-limiting step for active transepithelial transport. Recent studies suggest that changes in intracellular sodium regulate the Na permeability of the luminal border, either directly or indirectly via increases in cell calcium induced by the high intracellular sodium. To test these proposals, we measured Na movement across the luminal membrane (th Na influx) and found that it is reduced when intracellular Na is increased by ouabain or by removal of external potassium. Removal of serosal sodium also reduced the influx, suggesting that the Na gradient across the serosal border rather than the cell Na concentration is the critical factor. Because in tissues such as muscle and nerve a steep transmembrane sodium gradient is necessary to maintain low cytosolic calcium, it is possible that a reduction in the sodium gradient in the toad bladder reduces luminal permeability by increasing the cell calcium activity. We found that the ...
The values of membrane action potentials and maximum depolarization rates of single muscle fibers in normal Tyrode solution and in low sodium solutions containing as little as 20 per cent of the sodium chloride were measured with intracellular microelectrodes. Under these conditions the membrane potential remains unchanged up to 36 per cent of [Na+]out concentration, whereas the overshoot of the action potential varies linearly with the logarithm of the external sodium concentration. The maximum depolarization rate is a linear function of the external sodium concentration. The results obtained support the ionic theory for sodium and the independence principle for sodium current related to the external sodium concentration.. ...
No, not quite. You are on the right lines, but incorrect in thinking that intracellular sodium concentration is higher. At the resting phase of a neuron, there is less sodium inside the cell and more sodium outside the cell. An ATPase sodium potassium pump is constantly pumping 3 sodium ions outside the cell for every 2 potassium cells that enter the cell. For voltage gated sodium channels to open, there must be a significant change in voltage, which can be triggered by the binding of neurotransmitter to receptors for example. This triggers the sodium channels open and sodium will flood into the cell due to a high concentration gradient (because there are more sodium outside than inside) but also due to an electrical gradient (the neuron is more negative on the inside; positive sodium ions will be attracted to the inside).. Because sodium is flooding into the cell, this will cause the membrane potential to become more positive (depolarised) and will eventually reach an action potential (30mV). ...
The results of this preliminary study confirm previous findings that preascitic cirrhotic patients have subtle sodium retention when placed on a 200 mmol sodium as opposed to a 100 mmol sodium per day intake,1 2 23 manifested as a reduced urinary sodium excretion, associated with suppression of systemic RAAS in the supine posture. The acute use of a low dose angiotensin II receptor antagonist resulted in normalisation of this subtle sodium handling abnormality in preascitic cirrhotic patients, despite unchanged renal and systemic haemodynamics.. A 200 mmol sodium per day diet was chosen for this study for several reasons. Preascitic cirrhotic patients have previously been shown to come into a steady state of subtle sodium retention after four days of this sodium intake,2 and therefore the study would not require a long run in period. Secondly, this level of sodium intake, although higher than that contained in the usual no added salt diet of 100-130 mmol sodium per day that the patients were ...
1. Sodium movement across the porcine aortic arch in vitro is greater from the intimal to the medial surface than in the reverse direction.. 2. A short-circuit current can be measured across the aortic arch and the calculated energy is greater than the energy required to support the net outward sodium movement, suggesting the possibility of active transport of other ions.. 3. Net sodium movement is not significantly altered by an adverse gradient on the outside (medial side) but is reduced by a gradient in the opposite direction.. 4. Sodium retention within the tissue is increased by a gradient on the medial side.. 5. The movement of [14C]inulin is greater from the medial to the intimal surface, suggesting greater porosity on the medial side. A slight rise in both total tissue fluid and extracellular fluid occurred when the sodium concentration on the medial side of the preparation was increased. This did not occur with the sodium concentration increased on the intimal side. The changes were ...
There is abundant evidence that sodium intake is related to blood pressure. However, the relationship varies between individuals and is probably determined by renal sodium handling. We investigated clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in relation to interactions between sodium dietary intake and renal handling, as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and endogenous lithium clearance, respectively. We calculated fractional excretion of lithium and fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium, as markers of proximal and distal sodium handling, respectively. The 766 subjects included 379 men and 478 ambulatory hypertensive patients. They were never treated (n=697) or did not take antihypertensive medication for ≥2 weeks (n=69). In adjusted analyses, none of the associations of urinary sodium excretion, fractional excretion of lithium, and fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium with clinic or ambulatory blood pressure were statistically significant (P≥0.09). However, there was ...
1. A study has been made of the interaction between Na+ and K+ on the adenosine triphosphatase activity of erythrocyte ghosts, and on the K+ influx and Na+ efflux of intact erythrocytes. The adenosine triphosphatase activity and the ion movements were greater at a low external K+ concentration in the absence of Na+ than they were in the presence of 150mm-Na+. The inhibition by external Na+ of K+ influx had an inhibitory constant of 5-10mm. 2. Activation by K+ of kidney microsomal adenosine triphosphatase was retarded by Na+, and activation by Na+ was retarded by K+. Fragmented erythrocyte membranes behaved similarly. 3. These observations suggest that there is competition between Na+ and K+ at the K+-sensitive site of the membrane.. ...
Learn how many calories in Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter). Get all Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter) nutritional information - Rice-a-Roni Lower Sodium Beef (no butter) calories, protein, fat, carbs and more. Its Free.
Level of salt intake has an important impact in patients with high blood pressure or congestive heart failure. Despite this there is no convenient way for doctors or patients to assess their salt intake other than diet recall, which is unreliable, or measurement of sodium excretion in a 24 hour collection of urine, which is very inconvenient. As a result, salt intake is not monitored in most patients.. 2 innovations might enable a more convenient assessment of salt intake. A titrator stick that measures chloride ion concentration (chloride and sodium concentrations correlate strongly with each other), and a titrator stick that measures urine creatinine. The latter enables estimation of 24 hour excretion from a single sample of urine. In assessing sodium intake, a measurement that provides an approximation of urine sodium intake would be of considerable clinical value. In this study, we shall compare the estimation of urine sodium excretion measured by a laboratory with estimation of sodium ...
sodium content in foods to sell - 10183 sodium content in foods online Wholesalers provide popular sodium content in foods from China.
Hypertension accompanying diabetes mellitus may involve abnormalities in at least two major blood pressure-regulating systems: the body sodium-fluid volume state and cardiovascular reactivity. In metabolically stable nonazotemic diabetes, exchangeable sodium is increased by 10% on average, regardless of age, insulin dependence or nondependence, or the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy or clinical nephropathy (proteinuria greater than or equal to 0.3 g/24 hr). Possible contributing mechanisms include renal sodium retention and an extravascular shift of fluid and sodium; intracellular accumulation is not excluded. Circulatory volume is normal or low and the total exchangeable sodium/blood volume ratio increased. In hypertensive diabetes, the latter abnormality is particularly pronounced; systolic pressure tended to correlate with exchangeable sodium (r = 0.47, p less than 0.001) and diastolic pressure with the plasma sodium/potassium ratio (r = 0.25, p less than 0.05). Plasma ...
Sodium in London Drinking Water August 2013. Consumers of food and water have become more conscious of the amount of sodium that they ingest, especially for those individuals on sodium restricted diets. The information below is intended to assist London customers determine the contribution from drinking water to their total sodium dietary intake. Recently the water supplied to London from the Elgin Area Primary Water Supply System exceeded the mandatory reporting limit of 20 mg/L for sodium. Drinking water with sodium concentration greater than 20 mg/L is common in many other municipalities in Ontario. The amount of sodium in Londons drinking water does not pose a health risk to our customers and in fact the province has not established a health related standard for sodium in drinking water.. What is sodium?. Sodium is a naturally occurring mineral in food and water, and is a necessary element of human nutrition. Typically the consumption of sodium from food is much higher than from drinking ...
G.I. Sandle, S.A. Lewis, J.P. Hayslett, H.J. Binder; Dexamethasone Induces Amiloride Sensitive Na Transport in Rat Distal Colon. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1982; 62 (2): 30P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs062030Pa. Download citation file:. ...
the attempt to create my own model is not that necessary and Ill focus on making the original model work. Please see my other posts about reuse Extracellular Action Potential Simulation model, if you have any idea how should I modify the code according to the error messages, Thank you ...
php public static function ge_double_scalarmult_vartime( $a, ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Curve25519_Ge_P3 $A, $b ) { /** @var array,int, ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Curve25519_Ge_Cached, $Ai */ $Ai = array(); static $Bi = array(); /** @var array,int, ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Curve25519_Ge_Precomp, $Bi */ if (!$Bi) { for ($i = 0; $i , 8; ++$i) { $Bi[$i] = new ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Curve25519_Ge_Precomp( ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Curve25519_Fe::fromArray( array( ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][0]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][1]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][2]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][3]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][4]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][5]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][6]), ParagonIE_Sodium_Core32_Int32::fromInt(self::$base2[$i][0][7]), ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Total Body Sodium Deficit, Total Body Water, Total Body Water Excess, Free Water Deficit, Sodium Infusion Rate in Hyponatremia.
In 2005--2006, an estimated 29% of U.S. adults had hypertension (i.e., high blood pressure), and another 28% had prehypertension (1). Hypertension increases the risk for heart disease and stroke (2), the first and third leading causes of death in the United States (3). Greater consumption of sodium can increase the risk for hypertension (4). The main source of sodium in food is salt (sodium chloride [NaCl]); uniodized salt is 40% sodium by weight. In 2005--2006, the estimated average intake of sodium among persons in the United States aged ,2 years was 3,436 mg/day (5). In 2005, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture recommended that adults in the United States should consume no more than 2,300 mg/day of sodium (equal to approximately 1 tsp of salt), but those in specific groups (i.e., all persons with hypertension, all middle-aged and older adults, and all blacks) should consume no more than 1,500 mg/day of sodium (6). To estimate the proportion of ...
Fluxes of monovalent ions through the multiple pathways of the plasma membrane are highly interdependent, and their assessment by direct measurement is difficult or even impossible. Computation of the entire flux balance helps to identify partial flows and study the functional expression of individual transporters. Our previous computation of unidirectional fluxes in real cells ignored the ubiquitous cotransporters NKCC and KCC. Here, we present an analysis of the entire balance of unidirectional Na+, K+, and Cl- fluxes through the plasma membrane in human lymphoid U937 cells, taking into account not only the Na/K pump and electroconductive channels but all major types of cotransporters NC, NKCC, and KCC. Our calculations use flux equations based on the fundamental principles of macroscopic electroneutrality of the system, water balance, and the generally accepted thermodynamic dependence of ion fluxes on the driving force, and they do not depend on hypotheses about the molecular structure of the
We have previously described elevated Lii -Nao countertransport (CT) and Na-K cotransport (CO) in red cells of Caucasian patients from Boston. In this study, we report both transport systems in black patients from Philadelphia. The maximal rate (Vmax
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Shrimp Cocktail (lower sodium version) based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Shrimp, cooked, V8 Vegetable Juice, Low Sodium, Cucumber (peeled), Celery, raw, Red Ripe Tomatoes and the other ingredients in this recipe.
The sodium urine test examines the quantity of salt (sodium) in urine.Sodium in urine levels are typically measured in individuals who have irregular blood sodium levels to help identify whether an imbalance is from. For instance, taking in too much sodium or losing too much sodium. Urine sodium examination is also used to determine if a person with high blood pressure is taking too much salt. It is often used in patients with abnormal kidney tests to help identify the cause of kidney damage that can help to specify treatment.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
As more processed foods hit our shelves and as obesity rates continue to soar, it almost seems as though sodium levels would have continued to increase, not necessarily stay the same. Yet, after multiple studies were reviewed, all occuring between 1957 and 2003, it appears that 3700 milligrams of sodium was consistently consumed over the years. Of course, other measures of our sodium intake dont necessarily reflect the same pattern. In fact, the NHANES, or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, does indeed show an increase in salt consumption. The biggest difference between these survey results and that observed in the Harvard study is that the NHANES relies on food records where as the Harvard study took a look at urinary sodium output which is supposedly more accurate.. Current guidelines for sodium intake are 2300 milligrams a day for healthy adults and 1500 milligrams a day for those at risk of high blood pressure. Thats quite a difference. And although this message has been ...
The results from our meta-analyses of 36 randomised controlled trials in adults show that a reduction in sodium intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These results are consistent with five previous systematic reviews that reported reduced sodium intake decreased blood pressure in adults with and without hypertension.8 16 17 18 19 The quality of the evidence was high. A body of evidence from randomised controlled trials begins the GRADE categorisation at high quality and is then assessed on a set of characteristics that may reduce that quality. This body of evidence was not downgraded as there was no indication of serious risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, or imprecision across all studies. As heterogeneity was suggested in the meta-analyses we carefully examined the results. The χ2 test suggested the potential for considerable heterogeneity (large χ2, P,0.001).29 However, a large number of studies, as in this review, often leads to the detection of a statistically ...
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An essential mineral that our bodies regulate and conserve. Excess sodium retention increases the fluid volume (edema) and low sodium leads to less fluid and relative dehydration. The adult body averages a total content of over 100 grams of sodium, of which a surprising one-third is in bone. A small amount of sodium does get into cell interiors, but this represents only about ten percent of the body content. The remaining 57 percent or so of the body sodium content is in the fluid immediately surrounding the cells, where it is the major cation (positive ion). The role of sodium in the extracellular fluid is maintaining osmotic equilibrium (the proper difference in ions dissolved in the fluids inside and outside the cell) and extracellular fluid volume. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle tone and nutrient transport. All of these functions are interrelated with potassium. ...
4% Iron 0.8mg. Win at meal time with these crowd-pleasing recipes. There are 70 calories in 1/2 cup (120 ml) of Prego Lower Sodium Traditional Sauce. It is my Prego Pasta Sauce Pi So, it is a great way to add flavor without touching the nutrition content! Calorie breakdown: 19% fat, 69% carbs, 12% protein. Prego Lower Sodium Traditional Italian Pasta Sauce has a rich, sweet flavor from vine-ripened tomatoes thats balanced with savory herbs, seasonings, and just hint of salt. Pregos Italian Pasta Sauce, Roasted Garlic & Herb ($2.19 for 24 oz) Credit: Walmart. This brings out even more flavor, rather than just adding them to the sauce and letting them simmer. We will definitely be making again. I have absolutely heard you should never cook with wine you are not willing to drink. Many people should not exceed 1500mg. Feel free to add more to taste! It is SO important to make sure you find low sodium tomato sauce or canned pepper if you go this route. Enjoy the naturally sweet flavor of ...
Herb-Ox Sodium Free Bouillon Bundle - 4 Items (2 Beef Bouillon and @ Chicken Bouillon) - Super Value: Amazon.ca: Grocery Personalized health review for WylerS Bouillon Cubes,Beef Reduced Sodium: 5 calories, nutrition grade (C minus), problematic ingredients, and more. Better Than Bouillon bases are available in a wide variety of flavors made with only premium ingredients. 10 / 2,000 cal left. This gives them a richer, more robust flavor than ordinary bouillons. Once cooked, grind the tomatoes with garlic, onion, salt, peppers, cumin, and some water. clicking our Amazon buttons will give us a little referral bonus. Within the fat content, a Beef Broth or Bouillon contains 0.26 g of saturated fat, 0 g of trans fat, 0.02 g of polyunsaturated fat and 0.22 g of monounsaturated fat. Only 1 tsp Better Than Bouillon = one cube or one 8 oz can broth. Some brands sell low sodium or sodium free bouillon as well. Health Canada recommends a sodium intake of 1500 mg/day. By continuing to use MyFitnessPal, ...
Sodium helps maintain fluid levels individual cells body controls fluid pressures between cells environment that surrounds them what doctors call osmotic equilibrium Sodium also helps direct flow other nutrients from cells Sodium potassium help transmit electrical charges body Plus sodium potassium necessary components gastric juices that help digest foods Even though only small percentage sodium consume comes from salt shaker
So you think you can go low sodium? Remember all living things contain sodium. So the foods you eat already has sodium in it, so count sodium in. I also learned low sodium needs to be , team40575board
Signal transduction is the molecular basis for cellular communication. Complex networks of intracellular molecules enable cells to receive signals from their environment and to modify their behavior in response to these signals. Signaling molecules are interconnected, and depending on how they are linked together they can form different types of networks. We have recently described a novel network of proteins that becomes activated by increases in cell sodium permeability and that regulates active sodium transport. Because each component of this sodium-sensing network so far described have been independently associated with multiple and essential cell functions, our work on the network topology and modeling is of importance because it will help us to understand the networks role and complexity when transforming the sodium signal into transcription activation and gene expression leding to changes in myocardial- and/or renal cells growth.. Also, understanding the function and relevance of the ...
J.L.] While trying to provoke an always enjoyable give-and-take with Seamus McSeamus, I intentionally worded my comment so that those who are so inclined would overreact. Fact is, I never offered an opinion on the pros-or-cons of sodium (most commonly in the form of sodium chloride) intake. I only poked good-natured fun at the idea of playing chemist at the dinner table. :-). However, as you may recall from Psychology 101, sodium is ABSOLUTELY necessary for the proper communication between neurons. In addition, your muscles simply could not contract without it. There are any number of bodily functions that depend on proper levels of sodium in the blood and tissues. It really isnt the Evil Element weve been conditioned to believe. I mean, there really is a reason saline drips are s-o-p in hospitals.. That being said, TOO MUCH sodium IS no good. Quiet as its kept, I rarely add any kind of salt to foods, as I prepare them or at the table. When I do use *salt*, it is usually potassium chloride or ...
Insulin has been shown to have antinatriuretic actions in humans and animal models. Moreover, endogenous hyperinsulinemia and insulin infusion have been correlated to increased blood pressure in some models. In this review, we present the current state of understanding with regard to the regulation …
Eloquent exploration of Global Sodium Dehydroacetate Market 2019 including competitive, segmentation, forecast, and regional analysis.. The Global Sodium Dehydroacetate Report enlists several considerable facets in the global Sodium Dehydroacetate industry that holds the potential to fuel growth or declines in the market. The report enfolds valuable analysis of significant factors such as market size, share, sales volume, product demand, market value, revenue, and growth rate. The report also deeply considers influential factors including Sodium Dehydroacetate market trends, dynamics, growth driving forces, and other elements.. The global Sodium Dehydroacetate market is exhibiting a substantial CAGR figure in 2018 and it is exacted to report more vigorous growth during the forecast period of 2019 to 2024. Market growth is being boosted by raw material affluence, product awareness, rapidly growing Sodium Dehydroacetate demand, financial stability, and favorable industry environment. It holds the ...
[56 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Sodium Bichromate (CAS 10588-01-9) Market Study 2016-2026, by Segment (Sodium Bichromate =98.0%, Sodium Bichromate =98.3%,) , by Market (Pigment, Tanning,) , by Company (Elementis (US) , Soda Sanayii (TR) ,) report by 99Strategy. Summary The global Sodium Bichromate (CAS 10588-01-9) market...
A sodium blood test may be used to detect low sodium or high sodium levels as part of a health checkup or to help evaluate conditions such as dehydration, edema or heart, lung or kidney diseases. Sodium is an electrolyte that is vital to normal nerve and muscle function and helps regulate the amount of fluid in the body.
With respect to model development, the importance of the absolute Na+ transport rate derives from the constraint it imposes on the magnitude of rheogenic transport. The only reported cellular electrophysiology on IMCD is that of Stanton (47), who found a small transepithelial electrical PD and a high fractional apical resistance. Admittedly, these findings could, in part, be an artifact of the in vitro preparation and its low reabsorptive Na+ flux. In the calculations of this model, only when channel-mediated luminal membrane Na+ reabsorption was less than 25% of the total was the fractional apical resistance greater than 85%. Although one early determination of transepithelial PD was −11 mV (37), subsequent investigations have shown it close to zero (16, 19). Indeed, the transepithelial PD of this model, −12 mV, is high and is attributable largely to the component of rheogenic Na+ transport. This suggests that the bulk of Na reabsorption is electrically silent, as via a thiazide-sensitive ...
The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test. Alternative Names: Serum sodium; Sodium - serum
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What Makes up a VW Turbo Diesel ! There are a few differences between the Turbo and the Non-Turbo Motors. 1- Starting with the Head The regular head is Cast in aluminum-alloy. While the Turbo has a stronger, sodium-injected alloy. I seen sodium and tasted sodium ( not by choice ) Just like Loren I have a bit of problems with this one . I know it is a better alloy but sodium ? ---interesting . Must be a typo. IMHO after reading the SAE papers on the crank ---I say a lot different. But I still say with care --a NA crank will do the job. Sodium melts at 97.7 degree C --- go figure. Sodium looks like low temp solder and can be cut with a knife. Hagar. PS: How do I identify the tortional damper on my Turbo ?. A number of changes were made to the crankshaft. The front end of the crankshaft was reinforced. The highly loaded crank-pin, at cylinder 4, has its radius induction hardened and the oil hole ground while radii at the other pins are roll-hardened. A torsional vibration damper is used ...
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Heparin sodium salt,Industry news,PROSPECT CHEMICAL LIMITED,Englishname:Heparinsodiumsalt;Deligoparinsodium;Minolteparinsodium;NadroparinesodiumOthernames:liverphospholipids;CASNo.:9041-08-01Molecularweight:6000~20000Level:BRPotency:≥150u/mgPH:5.5
Versatile serve as is, or blend with our other soups to reduce sodium without sacrificing flavor. Campbells Low Sodium Ready-to-Serve soups are designed for use in sodium restricted diets.
Versatile serve as is, or blend with our other soups to reduce sodium without sacrificing flavor. Campbells Low Sodium Ready-to-Serve soups are designed for use in sodium restricted diets.
Researchers found that obesity and excess consumption of salt may be causing an increase in blood pressure among children and adolescents.
1. Erythrocyte sodium, sodium transport (ouabain-sensitive efflux rate of sodium, oMosNa, and ouabain-sensitive efflux rate constant of sodium, oMosNa), sodium-potassium activated ouabain-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity and [3H]ouabain-binding capacity were measured in 15 patients with chronic renal failure and in 10 healthy subjects.. 2. As a group, patients with chronic renal failure had a lower erythrocyte sodium and oMosNa compared with healthy subjects.. 3. When patients were divided according to their erythrocyte sodium (greater or less than 4 mmol/kg of cells), in the group of patients whose erythrocyte sodium was less than 4 mmol/kg of cells (group A) the oMosNa was higher than that in healthy subjects and the oMosNa, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and [3H]ouabain-binding capacity were the same as those in healthy subjects. In the subgroup of patients with renal failure whose erythrocyte sodium content was greater than 4 mmol/kg of cells (group B) the oMosNa was ...
We have investigated effects of altered extracellular sodium, intracellular sodium concentration, and membrane potential on the contractile responses of rat isolated mesenteric small arteries (internal diameter ca. 200 microns), when mounted as ring preparations on an isometric myograph. To avoid possible neural effects, all vessels were denervated in vitro using 6-hydroxydopamine. In unstimulated vessels, exposure to low-Na+ solutions (25 mM sodium, sucrose, or choline-substituted) did not cause any response nor did exposure to ouabain (1 mM) for 1 hour [when intracellular sodium concentration increased to 64 mmol/(liter-cell)]. However, a response was obtained if ouabain-exposed vessels were subjected to low-sodium solutions (ca. 15% of maximal response). The magnitude of the response was dependent on the ratio of intracellular to extracellular sodium and was not inhibitable by the calcium blockers, felodipine (1 nM) or D600 (10 microM). This response could therefore be explained in terms of ...
At the hospital its important to monitoring body weight and the intake and output of fluids. Fluid restriction is only necessary if the serum sodium concentration drops below 120 mmol per liter. It is also important to determine the sodium balance which can be approximated by monitoring intake(diet, sodium-containing medications and intravenous solutions) and urinary excretion because, a negative sodium balance is a predictor of weight loss.. A reasonable goal for a patient without peripheral edema is a negative sodium balance with a weight loss of 0.5 Kg per day.. Drugs. Most patient with cirrhotic ascites respond to dietary sodium restriction and diuretics. The combination of spironolactone and furosemide is the most effective regimen for rapid diminution of ascites. The starting dose is 100 mg of Spironolactone and 40 mg of Furosemide together in the morning. If there is no decrease in body weight or increase in urinary sodium excretion after two or three days, the doses of both drugs should ...
Research indicates that an inversion can be understood in a number of ways. The different ways of understanding an inversion overlap and relate to one another. Let us discuss them one by one.. Adrenal Burnout. The sodium/potassium ratio is called the vitality ratio. A low ratio is indicative of an exhaustion stage of stress. A high sod-ium/potassium ratio is an alarm or early stage of stress. As the ratio declines, the body moves into an exhaustion stage of stress.. The sodium level is controlled by aldosterone. As adrenal activity declines, sodium falls in relation to potassium. Potassium is more closely tied to the level of the glucocorticoid hormones (cortisone and cortisol). Hans Selye, M.D. noted that cortisol levels rise in the exhaustion stage of stress.. Glucose Intolerance. An inversion is a clear indica-tor of glucose intolerance. The body is unable to adequately burn glucose in the Krebs and glycol-ysis cycles adequately. This contributes to fatigue, cravings for sweets and many ...
Erythrocyte membrane alterations mirror those of vascular smooth muscle and renal tubular cell membrane. The interaction between adducin and Na-K pump is the most likely biochemical mechanism responsible for the increased tubular Na reabsorption and hypertension in Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats. To substantiate this hypothesis in humans, we tested to see if α-adducin Gly460Trp genotype is associated with erythrocyte sodium transport rate in a new cohort of n268 never-treated North Sardinian primary hypertensives. Plasma renin activity and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide were also measured to evaluate the relationship between sodium transport rate and two intermediate phenotypes with a higher degree of genetic complexity. Na-K pump, Na-K-Cl cotransport, and Li-Na countertransport at Vmax were faster (P,0.0001), whereas intracellular Na concentration was lower (P,0.0001) in patients carrying one or two 460Trp alleles. Such behavior was mirrored by opposite changes of ...
A coastal cline in sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana is driven by natural variation of the sodium transporter AtHKT1;1 ...
The effect of ionic strength and dissolved wood components (DWC) in form of industrial black liquor on the delignification rate and the brightness of the unbleached softwood kraft pulp has been investigated. A technique with a high liquor-to-wood ratio (75 L/kg) a so-called constant composition cook was used to separate the effects of the different parameters. The study showed that an increase in the ionic strength led to a decrease in the rate of delignification and gave a more coloured pulp, where as the presence of DWC gave a more coloured pulp and an increase in the delignification rate.. The influence of the ionic strength and DWC on the bleachability of the softwood kraft pulp in an ECF-sequence (D(EOP)DD) was also investigated. The results show that the bleachability i.e. consumption of bleaching chemicals to reach a certain brightness, was not affected by the ionic strength during the cook. The addition of DWC, on the other hand, increased the consumption of bleaching chemicals to reach ...
Another way to view this is that the high Na/K ratio, provided it is within a normal range between about 2 and 10, is indicative of a person who is responding well to their environment. A lower or higher ratio indicates abnormal responses that are less healthful. The exception is if the circumstances demand a different response. This could either be one of extreme fight-or-flight (a very high Na/K ratio) or one of paralysis or fright that demands that one just stop and rest, which could cause a low Na/K ratio ...
As the sodium/potassium ratio rises on a hair mineral analysis above about 5 or perhaps 6, more symptoms involving this ratio are likely to arise. These may include a tendency for acute stress, inflammation or pain somewhere in the body. Other symptoms may include water retention, edema, and perhaps a higher blood pressure or a labile or fluctuating blood pressure due to water retention and/or kidney stress. These are among the prominent physical symptoms that come with higher aldosterone levels in relation to cortisol, for example ...
To help in the effort to reduce consumers sodium intake, Heinz will reduce sodium by 15 percent in its core line of ketchup beginning the summer of 2010. As the largest producer of ketchup in the U.S., Heinz is dedicated to meeting the growing consumer demand for better-for-you products, particularly with lower sodium, said Idamarie Laquatra, Director of Global Nutrition, Heinz. Heinz Ketchup is proud to provide consumers with lower sodium ketchup with the great taste that Americans expect. This reduction in sodium will make Heinz Ketchup the lowest-sodium, nationally available ketchup in the U.S. ...
Hyponatremia is an electrolyte imbalance in which the sodium ion concentration in the plasma is lower than normal. Normal serum sodium levels are between approximately 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is generally defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L. Shown on the left is a normal brain. On the right, serum sodium ion level is less than 130 mEq/L and water is drawn into the cells causing the brain to swell. Labelled illustration. - Stock Image C027/6721
The effect of sodium balance on systemic arterial blood pressure and the renal response to intravenous infusion of prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) was studied in hypertensive subjects. PGA1 (0.4 µg/kg min-1) was infused for 1 hour in ten hypertensive subjects who were receiving a constant diet containing 40 mEq of sodium and 80 mEq of potassium. During PGA1 infusion a significant fall in both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure occurred. There was a significant rise in urine flow rate, renal plasma flow, and urine sodium excretion; plasma renin activity (PRA) rose slightly but not significantly. Eight of the ten subjects and one additional subject were then placed on furosemide (80 mg/day) for 1 week. In all subjects, a significant weight loss and a rise in midday PRA occurred with the administration of the diuretic. Systolic blood pressure fell, but diastolic pressure was unchanged. Following salt depletion with furosemide, PGA1 infusion studies were repeated. PGA1 then produced no ...
Solutions containing sodium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention.. Excessive administration of potassium-free solutions may result in significant hypokalemia.. In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing sodium ions may result in sodium retention.. The intravenous administration of these solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema.. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of administered parenteral solutions. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentrations of such solutions. ...
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Hillshire Farm Ham, Smoked, Lower Sodium. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Hillshire Farm Ham, Smoked, Lower Sodium. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
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Shrinkage of dog red blood cells (RBC) activates a Na transport pathway that is Cl dependent, amiloride sensitive, and capable of conducting Na-proton counterfl
Sodium is an essential component to many aspects of human performance. Sodium is readily available to the body through the consumption and digestion of the salt, the mineral composed of sodium and chloride. Salt is expressed as the chemical equation NaCl, of which sodium is 40% of the composition.. The usual concern regarding sodium and its impact on health is the consumption of excess sodium, given the dietary practices prevalent throughout many parts of the world. Most commercially prepared foods have salt or a similar sodium compound in their formulation. Elevated levels of sodium place significant stresses on the bodys fluid and blood volume balance. Sodium is the major underlying cause of transient high blood pressure and chronic hypertension present in a significant proportion of the adult population of most Western countries. As the body does not store water-soluble sodium for lengthy periods, the sodium must be disposed of and excreted through the production of urine in the renal ...
Harrap, SJ, Di Nicolantonio, Robert and Doyle, AE 1984, Sodium intake and exchangeable sodium in hypertensive rats, Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. Part A: Theory and Practice, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 427-440, doi: 10.3109/10641968409062575. ...
Maintaining proper sodium levels in your blood is critical to health. Learn about the symptoms of low sodium, sodium blood tests, and normal sodium levels.
Pls excuse my english, Im european. Anyone with kidney disease whom also suffer from low sodium? I have this very rare condition in which my body will not contain sodium. If I add sodium orally I get severe stommach pain, need to have it intranevously. Also suffer with diarrhea when sodium is too low. Im stuck in hospital and they cant give a diagnosis. I have epilepsy (since 5yrs) and are allready aware that Trileptal (and likes) can reduce sodium level. This is more complex than that. I have allways been low on sodium, even before epilepsy, but didnt know until now. I think it was the other way around, that low sodium gave me epilepsy. But why do I have this sodium condition? I have pigmentation lines in handpalms and think it could be kidneys? Anyone ...
Sodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal part of the kidney nephron and colon is the major factor determining total-body Na+ levels, and thus, long-term blood pressure. Aldosterone plays a major role in sodium and potassium metabolism by binding to epithelial mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the renal collecting duct cells localized in the distal nephron, promoting sodium resorption and potassium excretion. Aldosterone enters a target cell and binds MR, which translocates into the nucleus and regulates gene transcription. Activation of MR leads to increased expression of Sgk-1, which phosphorylates Nedd4-2, an ubiquitin-ligase which targets ENAC to proteosomal degradation. Phosphorylated Nedd4-2 dissociates from ENAC, increasing its apical membrane abundance. Activation of MR also leads to increased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, thus causing a net increase in sodium uptake from the renal filtrate. The specificity of MR for aldosterone is ...
Q. Considering the tremendous amount of concern currently being expressed about salt/sodium usage, I`m puzzled when I find a high sodium content in frozen dinners made for the weight-conscious market. A recently purchased Lean Cuisine dinner contained in excess of 1,100 milligrams of sodium. Why? -- Gloria Williamson, Margate, N.J. A. ``Fourteen of the current 21 Lean Cuisine entrees,`` says Marguerite Dannemiller, communications specialist with Stouffer`s Foods, ``contain less than 1,000 milligrams of sodium. Some are as low as 460 milligrams. Many health professionals find this an appropriate level for people who are following moderately sodium-restricted diets. Unfortunately, people on severely restricted programs (less than 2,000 milligrams a day) may not be able to include any processed foods in their menus. In many instances, a severe reduction in sodium results in products, which consumers find unacceptable because they simply don`t taste good.`` The sodium in the dinner you bought, which you
Healthy Heart Market offers low sodium food & no sodium food products! Our heart healthy food products include: no salt pickles, low sodium soy sauce, low sodium cheese, no salt added soups and dressings! If you have heart disease, Menieres disease, kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes, or any other health problems that require a salt restricted diet this is the store for you. We offer over 500 low sodium food and no sodium food products, many are no salt added food!
NaChBac was the first discovered bacterial sodium voltage-dependent channel, yet computational studies are still limited due to the lack of a crystal structure. In this work, a pore-only construct built using the NavMs template was investigated using unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics. The potential of mean force (PMF) from the unbiased run features four minima, three of which correspond to sites IN, CEN, and HFS discovered in NavAb. During the run, the selectivity filter (SF) is spontaneously occupied by two ions, and frequent access of a third one is often observed. In the innermost sites IN and CEN, Na+ is fully hydrated by six water molecules and occupies an on-axis position. In site HFS sodium interacts with a glutamate and a serine from the same subunit and is forced to adopt an off-axis placement. Metadynamics simulations biasing one and two ions show an energy barrier in the SF that prevents single-ion permeation. An analysis of the permeation mechanism was performed both ...
NaV1.8 is a voltage gated sodium channel mainly expressed on the membrane of thin diameter c-fibre neurons involved in the transmission of pain signals. In these neurons NaV1.8 is essential for the propagation of action potentials. NaV1.8 is located in lipid rafts along the axons of sensory neurons and disruption of these lipid rafts leads to NaV1.8 dependant conduction failure. Using computational modelling, I show that the clustering of NaV1.8 channels in lipid rafts along the axon of thin diameter neurons is energetically advantageous and requires fewer channels to conduct action potentials. During an action potential NaV1.8 currents across the membrane in these thin axons are large enough to dramatically change the sodium ion concentration gradient and thereby void the assumptions upon which the cable equation is based. Using scanning electron microscopy NaV1.8 is seen to be clustered, as are lipid raft marker proteins, on neurites at scales below 200nm. FRET signals show that the lipid raft ...
Serum sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratios are often reported in biochemical studies of dogs, although their value has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to identify diseases associated with a low Na:K ratio in dogs and to compare their prevalence with the prevalence in dogs from the same referral hospital with normal Na:K ratios. A total of 238 dogs with a Na:K ratio less than 27 were identified from medical records. Sample contamination with edta was suspected in 74 cases (31 per cent) and these and two cases that had been supplemented with potassium were removed from the analysis. The remaining 162 cases and 147 control dogs were divided into five categories depending on the organ system affected. Among the cases there were significantly more in the endocrine category than among the control dogs. Hypoadrenocorticism was the most single common cause of a low Na:K ratio and affected 27 (16·7 per cent) of the cases. Other clinical problems associated with low Na:K ratios included ...
Další názvy:. ALPHA-SULFO-OMEGA- (DODECYLOXY) POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , SODIUM SALT. DODECYL SODIUM SULFATE. laurylglukozid PEG- (1-4) LAURYL ETHER SULFATE, SODIUM SALT. POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , .ALPHA.-SULFO-.OMEGA.- (DODECYLOXY) -, SODIUM SALT. POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) ,A -SULFO-W (DODECYLOXY) -, SODIUM SALT. POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (1-4) LAURYL ETHER SULFATE, SODIUM SALT. POLYOXYETHYLENE (1-4) LAURYL ETHER SULFATE , SODIUM SALT. SODIUM PEG LAURYL ETHER SULFATE. SODIUM POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL ETHER SULFATE. SODIUM POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL SULFATE. Funkce:. ...
Its no surprise that reading a label for sodium content is not only wise, but necessary whenever youre on a fluid restricted diet. There are actually several reasons you dont want to consume an excessive amount of sodium on a renal diet or while living with chronic kidney disease. Reading a label for sodium content is a small price to pay to stay healthy and maintain your current quality of life (if not to improve your quality of life).
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You may have noticed that recipes that I share on this blog, and the most of the recipes that are posted on the Wildwood website call for lower sodium ingredients when possible. This is because the average American gets too much sodium in their diet. While sodium does have some important roles in the body such as controlling fluid balance, as well as maintaining blood volume, too much has a negative impact on most people. It is especially important that we help children limit their sodium intake. Not only have foods high in sodium been linked with increased intake of sugary drinks, a recent study showed that eating smaller amounts of salt each day as a teenager could reduce high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke in adulthood. The American Heart Association recommends no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day for most people, while the average person gets more than 5 times this amount! Interestingly enough, the majority of sodium in our diets comes from processed and restaurant foods, not ...
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Background Hypertension is a growing concern, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Sodium (salt) intake has been proven to have a major effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. It will therefore be beneficial to decrease the amount of sodium added to certain foodstuffs to relieve the burden of disease in the country and ultimately sustain a reduced consumption of sodium in the diet. Aim The aim of the study is to investigate if the food industries are making changes to the sodium content of foodstuffs over a 14-month period as listed in the Regulations (identified in R214:20 March 2013), before the first target date of June 2016. Study design This study is a descriptive, observational study. Methods Data collection took place at two well-known retailers over a 14-month period (March 2014 and May 2015). Photographs of foodstuffs were taken and data was statistically analysed regarding minimum to maximum ranges, mean and standard deviation of sodium per 100g as ...
If your dog has been diagnosed with Hypernatremia then it means your dog has too much sodium in his system. While sodium is important to help regulate blood pressure, nerve impulse transmission, blood volume, and the balance of acid/base in the body, too much can cause symptoms and issues such as unusual thirst, disorientation, confusion, diarrhea, vomiting, coma, and seizures.. Treating high sodium will require regular lab testing because there could be an underlying cause such as a heart disease. Thus, before you try any low sodium diet, it is important to understand the exact diagnosis of your dog because if it is caused by a heart disease, you will have further customize the diet to avoid causing more problems like kidney failure or fluid in the lungs.. According to the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, a 33 pound healthy dog must take no more than 100 mg of sodium daily. A dog with heart disease should take much lower amounts because sodium causes water retention which will make ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Helping Consumers Reduce Sodium Intake On this page:. Seeking a Gradual Reduction Whats a Consumer to Do? Most Americans consume way too much sodium, with salt (sodium chloride) being the most common form. That can be a serious health hazard, because excess sodium consumption contributes to the development and escalation of high blood pressure, a leading cause of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.. Research shows that Americans consume on average about 3,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends a reduction of sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg daily.. And those age 51 and older, and people of any age who are African-American or have high blood pressure, diabetes or chronic kidney disease should further reduce sodium intake to 1,500 mg daily. This amount meets your essential need for sodium. These populations comprise about half the U.S. population.. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...
1. WilczekAM. RoeJL. KnappMC. Lopez-GallegoC. MartinLJ. 2009 Effects of genetic perturbation on seasonal life history plasticity. Science 323 930 934. 2. PaabyAB. BlacketMJ. HoffmannAA. SchmidtPS. 2010 Identification of a candidate adaptive polymorphism for Drosophila life history by parallel independent clines on two continents. Mol Ecol 19 760 774. 3. McKechnieSW. BlacketMJ. SongSV. RakoL. CarrollX. 2010 A clinally varying promoter polymorphism associated with adaptive variation in wing size in Drosophila. Mol Ecol 19 775 784. 4. StorzJF. RunckAM. SabatinoSJ. KellyJK. FerrandN. 2009 Evolutionary and functional insights into the mechanism underlying high-altitude adaptation of deer mouse hemoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 14450 14455. 5. BradyK. KruckebergA. BradshawHJ. 2005 Evolutionary ecology of plant adaptation to serpentine soils. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36 243 266. 6. LowryDB. RockwoodRC. WillisJH. 2008 Ecological reproductive isolation of coast and ...
Background Current measurements of dietary and urinary sodium are fraught with methodological difficulties. Dietary methods tend to underestimate sodium consumption due to under-reporting of discretionary sources of salt (added at the table, or during cooking). The 24-hour urine collection method which is considered the gold standard is burdensome and potentially limited by under-collection. Several methods have been used to predict 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine samples, including arithmetic extrapolation and the application of predictive formulae based on spot sodium to creatinine ratios as a means of controlling for urinary concentration, including those of Tanaka and Kawasaki. However the use of these methods in analytical epidemiological research is controversial. The aim of this study was to validate diet and urinary excretion derived estimates of sodium intake against those derived from 24-hour urine collections in an Irish manufacturing workplace sample. ...
GT:ID BAD55196.1 GT:GENE BAD55196.1 GT:PRODUCT putative sodium/proton antiporter GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(362840..364090) GB:FROM 362840 GB:TO 364090 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative sodium/proton antiporter GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD55196.1 LENGTH 416 SQ:AASEQ MITRVRSELTRYLRTETVGGAILLVAAAIALLWVNSPWGDSYLRMTETVLAIEPLHLELTLADWTKDGLLAVFFFVAGLELKRELVVGELADPKRAALPIIAAVGGVVTPALIAAVIGHGAPGMDKGWAIPVATDIAFALGVLALTGSRIPATARVFLLSLAVVDDLLAIILIAVLFTVGVSLLWLLAAAACMAGWWLAQRRRLRTPLVYVPLALVTWYALHEAGVHPTLAGVALGLLTRVRPDPDEEWAPAARLEHLIQPVSAGICVPLFALFAAGVPLNATVFGELFTDRLALAVMLGLLLGKTIGIFGISWVAIRFGLATRPSGLGYRDMFALSVLGAIGFTVSLLVAELALPDGDTVELAKAAVLITSLAASLAGSALLLRRGRVHQARQDALELQPDEGDASDPSEGGSLR GT:EXON 1,1-416:0, SW:ID NHAA_NOCFA SW:DE RecName: Full=Na(+)/H(+) antiporter nhaA;AltName: Full=Sodium/proton antiporter nhaA; SW:GN Name=nhaA; OrderedLocusNames=NFA_3540; SW:KW Antiport; Cell membrane; Complete proteome; Ion transport; Membrane;Sodium; Sodium transport; ...
Natalies sodium levels have to be monitored, so Noemi, the lab tech was called in to take a quick blood sample for the test (note the silver bandage on Natalies right middle finger). She also has a daughter named Natalie, which is a very special name. Sodium levels look good. There was an initial concern because Natalies urine output was high, which is a sign that sodium may be off - and this is a particular concern with brain surgery.. ...
According to the present invention, the types and the stages of the ovarian disorders or the presence of pregnancy may be diagnosed from the results of measured sodium ion concentration on vaginal mucosa and change therein, based on the impedance value between the electrodes 14 and 14 on the vaginal mucosa, while compressing the electrodes 14 and 14 on the vaginal mucosa in mammals.
Limit total sodium intake to less than 2400mg per day by consuming less than 1 teaspoon of salt per day. Besides table salt, high sodium levels are found in packet soups, stock cubes, gravies, processed cheese, many breakfast cereals, bread, salty snacks and tinned food. Reduce the intake of those foods, remove the salt cellar from the table, and gradually reduce added salt in food preparation. Food may taste bland originally and the use of lemon juice, herbs and spices are encouraged as alternative seasoning. Taste adaptation to reduce sodium intake occurs with time. Food labels list salt content as sodium. Sodium-free means less than 5mg per 100g serving, very low sodium means up to 40mg per 100g serving and low sodium means up to 120mg per 100g serving. To calculate the salt content, multiply sodium content by 2.5. ...
Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Industry. The Oxacillin sodium monohydrate industry report firstly announced the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market fundamentals: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on.. Global and Chinese Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Industry report 2012-2022 Provides professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Oxacillin sodium monohydrate market with a focus on the Chinese market.. Get PDF Sample of Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10631239. Table of Contents:. Chapter 1 Overview of Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market ...
... (sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula Na(CH3(C6H4COO)O). It is the sodium salt ... "Sodium methylparaben" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_methylparaben&oldid=962190750" ...
Sodium valproate[edit]. Sodium valproate has been used for the treatment of generalized and partial seizures in humans for both ...
Transcrocetinate sodium[edit]. The sodium salt of crocetin, transcrocetinate sodium (INN, also known as trans sodium ... Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin ... a b c US patent 6,060,511, Gainer J, "Trans-sodium crocetinate, methods of making and methods of use thereof", issued 2000-05- ... 2006). "Trans sodium crocetinate and diffusion enhancement". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 110 (37): 18078-18080. doi: ...
Scrubbing processes may be based on sodium hydroxide.[6][7] The CO2 is absorbed into solution, transferred to lime via a ... Sodium hydroxide[edit]. Zeman and Lackner outlined a specific method of air capture.[9] ... Other strong bases such as soda lime, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and lithium hydroxide are able to remove carbon ... First, CO2 is absorbed by an alkaline NaOH solution to produce dissolved sodium carbonate. The absorption reaction is a gas ...
Common scintillators include thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl))-often simplified to sodium iodide (NaI) detectors-and ... For example, a sodium iodide (NaI) detector may have a FWHM of 9.15 keV at 122 keV, and 82.75 keV at 662 keV. These resolution ... Thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) has two principal advantages:. *It can be produced in large crystals, yielding good ... Sodium iodide systems, as with all scintillator systems, are sensitive to changes in temperature. Changes in the operating ...
Sodium Hypochlorite (household bleach)[edit]. Sodium Hypochlorite (SH) is the chemical commonly known as household bleach. SH ... Sodium Hypochlorite also has carcinogenic properties, which can be cancerous for living organisms. Thus, this chemical ...
"Sodium Hydroxide - Compound Summary". Retrieved June 12, 2012.. *^ "1310-73-2,Sodium hydroxide solution,Sigma Aldrich,sodium ... a b c d e f g h i j k Spencer Umfreville Pickering (1893): "LXI.-The hydrates of sodium, potassium, and lithium hydroxides". ... For example, when sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride is formed: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2 ... sodium hydroxide was produced by treating sodium carbonate with calcium hydroxide in a metathesis reaction. (Sodium hydroxide ...
High-pressure sodium (HPS)[edit]. An HPS (High Pressure Sodium) grow light bulb in an air-cooled reflector with hammer finish. ... High-pressure sodium lights have a long usable bulb life, and six times more light output per watt of energy consumed than a ... PCA reduces sodium loss, which in turn reduces color shift and variation compared to standard MH bulbs.[14] Horticultural CDM ... High-pressure sodium lights are a more efficient type of HID lighting than metal halides. HPS bulbs emit light in the yellow/ ...
Sodium ethoxide pyrolysis[edit]. Gram-quantities were produced by the reduction of ethanol by sodium metal, followed by ... pyrolysis of the ethoxide product and washing with water to remove sodium salts.[77] ...
Sodium emission had been previously observed in other comets, but had not been shown to come from a tail. Hale-Bopp's sodium ... the sodium tail appeared to lie between the two. This implies that the sodium atoms are driven away from the comet's head by ... 1997). "Neutral Sodium from Comet Hale-Bopp: A Third Type of Tail". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 490 (2): L199-L202. ... Cremonese, G.; Fulle, Marco (1997). "Sodium In Comets". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 79 (1): 209-220. Bibcode:1997EM&P...79..209C ...
FAP 2A3672 Cyclamate (cyclamic acid, calcium cyclamate, and sodium cyclamate). *^ a b Weihrauch MR, Diehl V (2004). "Artificial ... Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener. It is 30-50 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), making ... Cyclamate is the sodium or calcium salt of cyclamic acid (cyclohexanesulfamic acid), which itself is prepared by the ... Prior to 1973, Abbott Laboratories produced sodium cyclamate (Sucaryl) by a mixture of ingredients including the addition of ...
Sodium-based[edit]. Sodium-based processes use a recovery system similar to that used in the kraft recovery process, except ... The counter ion can be sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+). ... The sulfite process can use calcium, ammonium, magnesium or sodium as a base. ...
Synthesis of sodium BARF[edit]. The sodium salt of the BARF ion is abbreviated NaBArF4 (or sometimes as NaBArF24[2] recognising ... It can be formed from the sodium salt in diethyl ether in the presence of hydrogen chloride as sodium chloride is insoluble in ... which is then treated with sodium tetrafluoroborate. A method for assaying the water content of the product was also described. ... "Deprotection of Acetals and Ketals in a Colloidal Suspension Generated by Sodium Tetrakis(3,5-trifluoromethylphenyl)borate in ...
Sodium[edit]. Cortisol promotes sodium absorption through the small intestine of mammals.[27] Sodium depletion, however, does ... A sodium load augments the intense potassium excretion by cortisol. Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol in this case.[30] ... Sandle GI, Keir MJ, Record CO (1981). "The effect of hydrocortisone on the transport of water, sodium, and glucose in the ... Mason PA, Fraser R, Morton JJ, Semple PF, Wilson A (August 1977). "The effect of sodium deprivation and of angiotensin II ...
Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment[edit]. The Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE) characterized the performance of four 40 ... Each cell is composed of a sodium anode, sulfur cathode, and solid ceramic sodium ion conducting electrolyte and separator. The ... ampere-hour sodium-sulfur battery cells, representing the first test of sodium-sulfur battery technology in space. ... the Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE), the Turbulent GAS Jet Diffusion (G-744) experiment and the Autonomous EVA Robotic ...
... tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about ... Potassium sodium tartrate and monopotassium phosphate were the first materials discovered to exhibit piezoelectricity.[3] This ... Sodium tartrate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ... Sodium Potassium tartrate is also important in the food industry. [5] ...
Sodium chloride (octahedral 6:6)[edit]. The sodium chloride (NaCl) polymorph is most common. A cubic close-packed arrangement ... Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride. Caesium chloride. Francium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for ...
... is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula [Fe(CN)6]4−. In its hydrous form, Na4Fe(CN)6 • ... A solution of this salt is then treated with sodium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-sodium salt CaNa2[Fe(CN)6], which in ... Sodium ferrocyanide MSDS Archived 2010-05-17 at the Wayback Machine *^ "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives ... Sodium ferrocyanide is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide, ferrous chloride, and calcium hydroxide, the combination of ...
Sodium consumption and health. Main article: Health effects of salt. Table salt is made up of just under 40% sodium by weight, ... Main article: Sodium chloride. Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal ... Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt states 38.9 percent sodium by weight which equals 97.3 percent sodium ... sodium iodide or sodium iodate. A small amount of dextrose may also be added to stabilize the iodine.[40] Iodine deficiency ...
50 mM sodium fluoride (NaF). *0.2 mM fresh sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4.2H2O, it has phosphatase inhibitor function because it ... SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) lysis buffer[edit]. SDS is ionic denaturing detergent. Hot SDS buffer is often used when the ... Ionic detergents like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic detergents like ethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are denaturing ...
Diclofenac sodium gel[edit]. Topical diclofenac sodium gel is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is thought to work in ...
... sodium stearyl-2-lactylate; sodium 2-stearoyllactylate; sodium stelate; stearoyl-2-lactylic acid, sodium salt; sodium alpha-( ... sodium carbonate) or caustic soda (concentrated sodium hydroxide). Commercial grade SSL is a mixture of sodium salts of ... sodium salt; stearic acid ester with lactic acid bimol. ester sodium salt; sodium 2-(1-carboxylatoethoxy)-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl ... sodium 2-{[2-(stearoyloxy)propanoyl]oxy}propanoate; sodium stearoyl lactylate; sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate; ...
Sodium perborate. Main article: Sodium perborate. Sodium perborate, Na2H4B2O8, is made by reacting borax with sodium hydroxide ... Sodium percarbonate. Main article: Sodium percarbonate. Sodium percarbonate is produced industrially by reaction of sodium ... Sodium hypochlorite. Main article: Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly encountered bleaching agent, ... sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate. While most bleaches are oxidizing agents, some are reducing agents such as sodium ...
Sodium hypochlorite accident[edit]. A sodium hypochlorite incident is an immediate reaction of severe pain, followed by edema, ... less than 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)[17][18][19]. *6% sodium hypochlorite with surface modifiers for better flow into nooks ... Certain irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine, have proved to be effective antimicrobials in vitro[20] and ...
Reduction via sodium borohydride[edit]. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction occurs by ... The silver seeds are synthesized by mixing silver nitrate and sodium citrate in aqueous solution and then rapidly adding sodium ... Some of these surface stabilizing species are: NaBH4 in large amounts,[19] poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP),[21] sodium dodecyl ... There are many different wet synthesis methods, including the use of reducing sugars, citrate reduction, reduction via sodium ...
... , also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), ... Sodium thiopental was a core medicine in the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines,[3] which is a list of ... Sodium thiopental would have to be given in large amounts to maintain an anesthetic plane, and because of its 11.5- to 26-hour ... "Sodium 1-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-10-oxo-8-thioxo-7,9-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-6-en-6-olate - C12H17N2NaO2S - ChemSpider". chemspider.com. ...
... and then reacting the cellulose with sodium monochloroacetate to form sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Excess sodium ... Sodium croscarmellose is an internally cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose for use as a superdisintegrant in ... Sodium croscarmellose was first used as a stabilizer in horse supplements.[citation needed] ... Sodium croscarmellose also resolves formulators′ concerns over long-term functional stability, reduced effectiveness at high ...
Sodium[edit]. Sodium-22 and chlorine-36 are commonly used to study ion transporters. However, sodium-22 is hard to screen off ...
... is hypogeal, which means the cotyledons of the germinating seed stay in the ground and inside the seed coat. Therefore, it is less vulnerable to frost, wind erosion, or insect attack.[3] The plant is a diploid, annual, bushy herb of erect, semierect, or spreading and compact growth and normally varies from 30 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in) in height. It has many hairy branches and its stem is slender and angular. The rachis bears 10 to 15 leaflets in five to eight pairs. The leaves are alternate, of oblong-linear and obtuse shape and from yellowish green to dark bluish green in colour. In general, the upper leaves are converted into tendrils, whereas the lower leaves are mucronate. If stipules are present, they are small. The flowers, one to four in number, are small, white, pink, purple, pale purple, or pale blue in colour. They arise from the axils of the leaves, on a slender footstalk almost as long as the leaves. The pods are oblong, slightly inflated, and about 1.5 cm long. Normally, each of ...
Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source. hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 01500.0001500 2300; NE Quantity A ... Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea vegetables, milk, and spinach. hyponatremia hypernatremia ... A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Sweet potato, tomato, potato, beans, lentils, dairy ... sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body.[citation needed] Together these ...
Some foods that seem healthy may have high levels of sodium. ... Learn about how most people consume too much sodium. ... Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyoneplus icon *Sodium Reduction Fact Sheetsplus icon *Sodium Q & A ... Sodium Reduction is Everywhere. *Types of food matter: More than 40% of the sodium we eat each day comes from just 10 types of ... Sodium Reduction Tools and Training for Health Professionalsplus icon *Journal Articles About Sodium for Health Professionals ...
... sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate.[78] ... Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium ... Metallic sodium is used mainly for the production of sodium borohydride, sodium azide, indigo, and triphenylphosphine. A once- ... See also: Sodium supplements. Though metallic sodium has some important uses, the major applications for sodium use compounds; ...
Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide for softening; Pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide ... Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often ... to leave sodium acetate (a salt) and water. An alternative, but less effective alternative is sodium bicarbonate. ... Sodium silicate is often used as a corrosion inhibitor to prevent lye from corroding pipes while it removes the blockage. ...
Sodium methylparaben (sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) is a compound with formula Na(CH3(C6H4COO)O). It is the sodium salt ... "Sodium methylparaben" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_methylparaben&oldid=962190750" ...
Eating and drinking too much sodium can raise blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and ... The body needs a small amount of sodium to function, but most Americans consume too much sodium. High sodium consumption can ... About 70% of sodium consumed is from processed and restaurant foods. Only a small portion of sodium or salt is used in cooking ... Facts About Sodium Consumption and Sodium in Our Food Supply. *The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that ...
Read about what you can do to manage your sodium intake ... Did you know that most Americans get more sodium than they need ... Most people in the U.S. get more sodium in their diets than they need. A key to healthy eating is choosing foods low in sodium ... Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too much and your kidneys cant get rid it, sodium builds up ... Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with ...
sodium. Further reading[edit]. *"sodium" in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=sodium&oldid=50999747" ...
See ICSC 0360 (sodium hydroxide). Inhalation risk Effects of long-term or repeated exposure ... Sodium is always kept under mineral oil.. Reacts violently with fire extinguishing agents such as water and carbon dioxide. ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
... regulates the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It is also responsible for the absorption of nutrients and ... How much sodium do I need?. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of sodium for adults in the UK is 2.4g per day. ... Sodium. Sodium regulates the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It is also responsible for the absorption of ... Do sodium supplements have any drug interactions?. Consult a health professional before taking a sodium supplement if you have ...
Like sodium_bin2hex(), sodium_hex2bin() is resistant to side-channel attacks while hex2bin() is not. ...
sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, chemical compound, NaHCO3, a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly ... Sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also known as baking soda or sodium hydrogen carbonate, is a white powder that ... Sodium Bicarbonate Chemical Compounds COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Sodium Bicarbonate. OVERVIEW. Sodium bicarbonate (SO-dee-um ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also known as baking soda, bread soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate of soda, and sodium ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Properties*Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. It forms ... Sodium chloride is odorless but has a characteristic taste. ... sodium chloride (klor-ryd) n. common salt: a salt of sodium ... 65 percent of all the sodium chloride consumed in the United States was used in the production of sodium hydroxide, sodium ... Chlorine and sodium hydroxide are electrolically produced from brine.. KEY TERMS. Brine -A solution of sodium chloride and ...
CHEBI:31351 - Carbenoxolone sodium. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
sodium_add(string &$string1. , string $string2. ): void. This adds the parameter string2. to string1. , overwriting the value ...
... is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI:36093) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) is a inorganic sodium salt ( ... sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role emetic (CHEBI:149552) sodium chloride (CHEBI:26710) has role flame retardant (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:26710 - sodium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Health Information on Sodium: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Sodium: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Sodio en la dieta: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Lowering Sodium in Your Diet - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Lowering Sodium in Your Diet - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
... sodium (fr); Natrij (hr); सोडियम (mr); ସୋଡ଼ିଅମ (or); натријум (sr); Natrium (lb); natrium (nb); Natrium (az); Sodium (hif); 鈉 ( ... Induced-Effects-of-Sodium-Ions-on-Dopaminergic-G-Protein-Coupled-Receptors-pcbi.1000884.s002.ogv 55 s, 537 × 546; 26.19 MB. ... Sodium skirting over Water with few drops of Phenolphthalein solution added.webm 46 s, 480 × 640; 675 KB. ... sodio (es); natrín (is); Natrium (ms); sodium (en-gb); سوډيوم (ps); sodyum (tr); صوداصر (ur); sodík (sk); натрій (uk); 钠 (zh-cn ...
Sodium hydroxide is a manufactured chemical. It is present in several domestic cleaning products. Very low levels can produce ... Sodium hydroxide separates in water to sodium cations (positively charged sodium atoms) and hydroxide anions (negatively ... How can sodium hydroxide affect my health?. Sodium hydroxide is very corrosive and can cause severe burns in all tissues that ... How can sodium hydroxide affect children?. There are no studies on the health effects of children exposed to sodium hydroxide. ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Sodium bicarbonate. ... Immediately download the Sodium bicarbonate summary, chapter-by ... Sodium Bicarbonate Overview Sodium bicarbonate (SO-dee-um bye-KAR-bun-ate) is a white, odorless, crystalline solid or powder ... Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a white crystalline powder commonly known to as baking soda. It is classified ... Sodium bicarbonate Summary. Everything you need to understand or teach Sodium bicarbonate. ...
Media in category "Sodium chromate". The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Sodium_chromate&oldid=32604858" ...
... is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is also in the form of a crystal lattice ... Salt (Sodium Chloride). Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. Salt gives flavor to many meals. This compound is ... How do you separate sodium chlorate and sodium chloride. ?. Asked by Wiki User ...
Tips for Reducing Sodium in Your Diet- (PDF) Reducing sodium (salt) in your diet can help lower your blood pressure. Read these ... Low Sodium Foods: Shopping List Next time you go grocery shopping, take this list to help you choose low sodium foods. ... Eat Less Sodium: Quick Tips These tips can help you cut back on the sodium (salt) in your diet. ... Test Your Knowledge of Sodium High-sodium diets are linked to increased blood pressure and a higher risk for heart disease and ...
Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte and is not an electrical conductor.Sodium chloride in water solutions or molten ... Why is sodium chloride different from sodium chloride crystals in its electricity conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not ... Does sugar sodium chloride create conductivity?. 1. Sodium chloride as solid is not conductive. 2. Sodium chloride in water ... Sodium chloride and sodium chloride crystals in its electrical conductivity?. Solid sodium chloride is not an electrolyte. ...
... recently yanked from the shelves of Whole Foods markets for purportedly having a non-natural preservative thought to be sodium ... Sodium benzoate is produced by a reaction of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide, which makes it disolve in water. ... Natural alternatives to sodium benzoate do exist, Worobo says. One product on the market is called Natamax and is used in foods ... What is sodium benzoate, and should you be worried about ingesting it? The chemical is a preservative commonly found in foods ...
Fun Sodium Facts Sodium is a soft, malleable and shiny solid at room temperature. Sodium is less dense than water. Sodium is ... Sodium ions are found in the ocean. It is also found as sodium chloride in the earths crust, where it is mined. Sodium is ... Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of sodium salts and ... He made it by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. It is named after soda, a name for sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. ...
This resource is part of the Sodium carbonate - a versatile material resources collection, which presents learning material ... based on the manufacture and uses of sodium carbonate made by the Solvay (ammonia-soda) process. ... Manufacturing sodium carbonate Handout Sodium carbonate - introduction and teachers notes Handout Buy Sodium Carbonate booklet ... The thermodynamics and equilibria involved in the Solvay process for the production of sodium carbonate Manufacturing sodium ...
Sodium is a metallic element designated by the symbol Na, from Latin natrium. It is a soft whitish alkali metal that is ... Foods labelled "sodium-free" contain less than 5 mg of sodium per serving; "very low-sodium", less than 35 mg; "low-sodium" no ... Sodium bicarbonate, above and Trona. Sodium chloride, common, or table, salt, NaCl. -- Sodium hydroxide, a white opaque brittle ... Called also cooking soda, saleratus, and technically, acid sodium carbonate, primary sodium carbonate, sodium dicarbonate, etc ...
  • Learn the health effects of consuming too much salt, the recommended amount of sodium for adults, and what you can do to limit your intake. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Learn how you can reduce the amount of sodium you consume to help lower your risk for high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. (healthfinder.gov)
  • The American Heart Association recommends that for every 1000 calorie s of food eaten, the amount of sodium should be under 1000 mg, certainly no more than 3000 mg. (everything2.com)
  • The body requires a small amount of sodium in the diet to control blood pressure and blood volume. (uptodate.com)
  • However, most people consume many times the amount of sodium needed. (uptodate.com)
  • A healthy level of sodium in the diet contains fewer than 2.3 grams (2300 milligrams, or about the amount of sodium in one teaspoon) of sodium each day. (uptodate.com)
  • eating more or less than the listed serving size changes the amount of sodium consumed. (uptodate.com)
  • Most Americans get nearly double the daily recommended amount of sodium. (cnn.com)
  • Reading the Nutrition Facts Panel is an easy way to gauge the amount of sodium present in a food. (cnn.com)
  • For example, Kuwait recently put a limit the allowable amount of sodium in bread to lower blood pressure. (dictionary.com)
  • When in doubt about a food's sodium content, check the amount of sodium per serving on the nutrition label. (cbn.com)
  • Use these tips to help lower the amount of sodium in your diet. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Use the Nutrition Facts label to check the amount of sodium in foods and compare different options. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Pick frozen vegetables without sauce, and canned vegetables with the least amount of sodium. (healthfinder.gov)
  • It also reinforces the need to lower the amount of sodium in the food supply," said Brown. (medscape.com)
  • That's more than 2 times the amount of sodium than you need every day! (massgeneral.org)
  • Reduce the amount of sodium in your diet with these tips: 1. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The body needs only a small amount of sodium. (clemson.edu)
  • It is important to keep the amount of sodium in your diet at a healthy level. (clemson.edu)
  • Nutrition information is given in a table called Nutrition Facts , which gives the amount of sodium in milligrams per serving and as a percent of the Daily Value. (clemson.edu)
  • This information allows you to compare the amount of sodium in different brands of the same food. (clemson.edu)
  • Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often used in place of sodium hydroxide. (google.com)
  • sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, chemical compound, NaHCO 3 , a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly known as bicarbonate of soda or baking soda . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although it is an intermediate product in the Solvay process for making sodium carbonate , it is more economical to prepare it from purified sodium carbonate than to purify the intermediate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Baking Soda Baking soda is a white crystalline powder (NaHCO3) better known to chemists as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. (bookrags.com)
  • Appropriate mineral sources for soda are soda ash (sodium carbonate) and sodium hydroxide. (britannica.com)
  • This is because it reacts with air to form sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. (yahoo.com)
  • It is named after soda, a name for sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. (yahoo.com)
  • This resource is part of the 'Sodium carbonate - a versatile material' resources collection, which presents learning material based on the manufacture and uses of sodium carbonate made by the Solvay (ammonia-soda) process. (rsc.org)
  • The reaction strips dissolved calcium hydroxide out of the water, where the calcium hydroxyl group bonds to the two carbon atoms in sodium bicarbonate, making calcium carbonate and a free sodium ion. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate (PH: Ph. (drugs.com)
  • Other antacids such as calcium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide are generally preferred over sodium carbonate due to their wider safety margin. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. (dbpedia.org)
  • It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). (dbpedia.org)
  • In the UK sodium intake is too high, so deficiency here is unlikely. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Moderate sodium intake helps increase resistance to heat cramps and heat stroke, especially during times of excessive sweat ing and hence increased fluid loss. (everything2.com)
  • High sodium intake increases the risk of liver , heart , and kidney disease and causes edema and dizziness . (everything2.com)
  • 1/2 teaspoon (2-1/2 ml) of salt contains about 1000 mg of sodium, so cutting down on salt is one way to control sodium intake. (everything2.com)
  • Increased intake of chloride in the form of salt can cause fluid retention, but this is primarily because of the sodium in the salt, not the chloride. (google.com)
  • Reducing sodium intake lowers blood pressure in people with high and borderline high blood pressure. (uptodate.com)
  • People with chronic kidney disease must control sodium intake to prevent volume overload, which increases blood pressure and causes swelling. (uptodate.com)
  • When the sodium intake is lowered from 4000 mg to 2000 mg per day, blood pressure falls by 2 to 3 mmHg. (uptodate.com)
  • Benefits - In addition to directly reducing blood pressure, a lower sodium intake may also enhance the effectiveness of high blood pressure medications and other non-drug treatments, such as weight loss. (uptodate.com)
  • A lower sodium intake has also been associated with other health benefits, including a reduced risk of dying from a stroke, reversal of heart enlargement, and a reduced risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis. (uptodate.com)
  • Sodium found in processed food accounts for about 80 percent of a person's daily sodium intake in a typical Western diet, and can quickly add up, even without the use of the salt shaker. (uptodate.com)
  • Guidelines - Several professional organizations have issued evidence-based guidelines for reducing sodium intake. (uptodate.com)
  • Once the doctors cleared the arterial problem, it was up to me to keep it that way, but I was so busy cutting saturated fat from my diet that I did not pay attention to sodium intake, which was also important to my heart health. (cnn.com)
  • Only a quarter of sodium intake actually comes from salting our food,' says AHA President Dan Jones, MD. 'More than 75 percent of sodium in our diets comes from processed foods. (cnn.com)
  • The most effective overall strategy to control sodium intake is to cook food at home as often as possible using fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, fresh meat, poultry, and fish. (cnn.com)
  • Under normal conditions, plasma sodium concentrations are finely maintained within the narrow range of 135-145 mmol/l despite great variations in water and salt intake. (bmj.com)
  • The main determinant of the plasma sodium concentration is the plasma water content, itself determined by water intake (thirst or habit), "insensible" losses (such as metabolic water, sweat), and urinary dilution. (bmj.com)
  • For many people, greater sodium intake is directly linked to higher blood pressure. (cbn.com)
  • According to the American Heart Association, more than 75% of our sodium intake comes from salt added during manufacturing, such as processed foods and mass-produced restaurant meals. (cbn.com)
  • So the best way to cut your sodium intake is to make changes before the food comes to the table - what you buy and how you prepare it. (cbn.com)
  • Remember, eating two servings will double your sodium intake. (cbn.com)
  • Healthy adults and teens age 14 and older need to limit their sodium intake to no more than 2,300 mg a day. (healthfinder.gov)
  • The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS) has released updated recommendations on sodium intake and for the first time ties lower daily sodium limits to a reduction in risk for chronic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Notably, the report says that adults can lower their risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease by limiting sodium intake to 2300 mg daily (the same upper limit as in 2005) and can further reduce risk by targeting an intake of 1500 mg daily - the chronic disease risk reduction (CDRR) target. (medscape.com)
  • There is sufficient evidence to characterize the relationship between sodium intake and risk of chronic disease," the report states. (medscape.com)
  • The committee established a CDRR intake for sodium using evidence of the beneficial effect of reducing sodium intake on risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • The report notes that the effect of cutting back on sodium is greater for adults with hypertension than for normotensive adults, but the benefits of reducing sodium intake toward the CDRR target holds for both groups. (medscape.com)
  • The AHA also recommends limiting sodium intake to 2300 mg daily, but also says that for most adults, the ideal limit is no more than 1500 mg. (medscape.com)
  • The report says research on the interrelationship between potassium and sodium intake is needed. (medscape.com)
  • The new dietary reference intake for sodium and the additional category focused specifically on chronic disease prevention will give people a better picture of how much - or how little - sodium they should consume for ideal health. (medscape.com)
  • An Adequate Intake of 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day has been established for adults, but most people consume more than that amount. (eatright.org)
  • If you are 14 years of age or older and eat more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day, the current health recommendation is to cut back on your daily intake of sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Does my daily sodium intake matter? (heart.org)
  • Learn how to track your sodium intake. (heart.org)
  • Food labels can help you keep your sodium intake to one teaspoon per day. (clemson.edu)
  • The daily sodium intake guidelines offered by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are "excessively and unrealistically low," according to a new study from researchers at the University of Copenhagen Hospital in Denmark and published in the American Journal of Hypertension . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest a sodium intake of less than 2,300 mg per day for people under 50 years old, and less than 1,500 mg per day for people over 50 years old. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • That report, however, was unable to offer its own recommendations for sodium intake. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The new analysis combines the results of 25 individual studies on health risks associated with sodium intake, assessing 274,683 people in total. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study recorded "a U-shaped correlation between sodium intake and health outcomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In their conclusion, Dr. Graudal and colleagues assert that in none of the studies covered by the analysis was a low-sodium intake associated with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease or improved mortality. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medical News Today asked Dr. Graudal for his opinion on why the CDC's sodium intake recommendations are at odds with his findings. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These new studies support previous findings that reducing sodium from very high intake levels to moderate levels improves health," committee chair Brian Strom and University of Pennsylvania professor George S. Pepper said in press release. (businessinsider.com)
  • But they also suggest that lowering sodium intake too much may actually increase a person's risk of some health problems. (businessinsider.com)
  • Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite , and rock salt (NaCl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride (chemical formula NaCl), known as table salt, rock salt, sea salt, and the mineral halite, is an ionic compound consisting of cube-shaped crystals composed of the elements sodium and chlorine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. (answers.com)
  • Sodium chloride / ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd /, commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salts ), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. (yahoo.com)
  • The potential diagram above is for gaseous NaCl, and the environment is different in the normal solid state where sodium chloride (common table salt) forms cubical crystals. (gsu.edu)
  • Sodium occurs naturally in most foods, mainly as sodium chloride (NaCl), but also in other forms such as sodium nitrate, sodium phosphate, or sodium glutamate. (greenfacts.org)
  • Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium ions are found in the ocean. (yahoo.com)
  • UCSF Mission Bay: Spotlighting Science http://pub.ucsf.edu/missionbay/science/jan.php 'Cells also have channels that control the flow of the positively charged ions sodium and calcium, and channels for negatively charged chloride. (google.com)
  • The classic case of ionic bonding , the sodium chloride molecule forms by the ionization of sodium and chlorine atoms and the attraction of the resulting ions. (gsu.edu)
  • In water and soil, sodium and calcium hypochlorite separate into sodium, calcium and hypochlorite ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium ions are essential to numerous biological processes in animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sodium and potassium ions maintain the essential electrolytic balance in living cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sodium azide solutions react with metallic ions to precipitate metal azides, which can be shock sensitive and explosive. (wikipedia.org)
  • At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a white crystalline powder commonly known to as baking soda. (bookrags.com)
  • Sodium Chloride Overview Sodium chloride (SO-dee-um KLOR-ide) is a colorless to white powder or crystalline solid with no odor and a characteristic salty taste. (bookrags.com)
  • Pure sodium hydroxide is a colorless crystalline solid that melts at 318 °C without decomposition, and with a boiling point of 1,388 °C. It is highly soluble in water, with a lower solubility in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol. (yahoo.com)
  • sodium benzoate or benzoate of soda, chemical compound, C 6 H 5 CO 2 Na, colorless or white crystalline, aromatic compound the sodium salt of benzoic acid . (factmonster.com)
  • Rarely, sodium urate occurs in crystalline form-slender prisms, arranged in fan- or sheaf-like structures (Fig. 32). (dictionary.com)
  • The sodium bromide is a white, crystalline inorganic chemical available in the solid and liquid form. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, often found naturally as the compound sodium chloride in crystalline rock salt formations. (reference.com)
  • Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white or slightly yellow, crystalline powder. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. (dbpedia.org)
  • just one teaspoon of table salt contains about 2300 milligrams of sodium, which is more than many people need for the entire day. (uptodate.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate eating less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium (about one teaspoon of salt) per day. (cbn.com)
  • But the average American consumes 1/2 teaspoon more that that - about 3,400 milligrams of sodium per day. (cbn.com)
  • So for most of us, the typical 3,400 milligrams of sodium is more than double what we should be consuming. (cbn.com)
  • The typical American diet contains over 3,400 milligrams of sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Adding more salt at the table also adds to high intakes of sodium - one teaspoon of salt has 2,300 milligrams of sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Choose foods with less than 120 milligrams of sodium per serving. (eatright.org)
  • City Councilman Leroy Comrie introduced a bill this week that would prohibit restaurants from giving away toys with children's meals unless those meals meet specified nutritional requirements: fewer than 500 calories or fewer than 600 milligrams of sodium. (crainsnewyork.com)
  • For the treatment of mushrooms the maximum concentration must not exceed 315 mg sodium hypochlorite per litre of water (equivalent to 150 mg available chlorine per litre of water). (hse.gov.uk)
  • For the treatment of tomato seeds the maximum concentration must not exceed 38.85g sodium hypochlorite per litre of water (equivalent to 18.5g available chlorine per litre of water) ie a concentration of 1.85% available chlorine. (hse.gov.uk)
  • This means that it takes only 1.52 eV of energy to donate one of the sodium electrons to chlorine when they are far apart. (gsu.edu)
  • This means that if neutral sodium and chlorine atoms found themselves closer than 0.94 nm, it would be energetically favorable to transfer an electron from Na to Cl and form the ionic bond. (gsu.edu)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solutions are clear, greenish to yellow liquids with an odor of chlorine. (cdc.gov)
  • The chief complaints are that the end result of the sodium bicarbonate process is a lot of dissolved sodium, which leaches chlorine atoms from PVC pipes and creates a salt-water waste flow that increases municipal water costs. (ehow.com)
  • Salt is a chemical compound made up of sodium and chlorine. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Very small amounts of sodium chloride are found in many foods. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Small amounts of sodium hydroxide are sometimes used in drain and oven cleaners. (cdc.gov)
  • The general public can be exposed to small amounts of sodium and calcium hypochlorite by using household products that contain these chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Others have added salt - and foods with added salt usually contain higher amounts of sodium, so check the Nutrition Facts label and look for options that are lowest in sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Small amounts of sodium are needed to maintain the right balance of body fluids. (clemson.edu)
  • sodium bicarbonate Also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda (chemically NaHCO 3 ), liberates carbon dioxide when in contact with acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium ion in the form of sodium chloride is needed in the human body, but large amounts of it cause problems, which is why one should not eat too much salt and other food items with huge sodium amount (such as biscuits with baking soda). (yahoo.com)
  • Skin contact with sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns with deep ulcerations. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating or drinking sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns and immediate vomiting, nausea, diarrhea or chest and stomach pain, as well as swallowing difficulties. (tn.gov)
  • Contact with very high concentrations of sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns to the eyes, skin, digestive system or lungs, resulting in permanent damage or death. (tn.gov)
  • Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide ( lye ) is used in soap manufacture , and sodium chloride ( edible salt ) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • dioxide), 15 percent soda (sodium oxide), and 9 percent lime (calcium oxide), with much smaller amounts of various other compounds. (britannica.com)
  • When released to air, sodium and calcium hypochlorite are broken down by sunlight and compounds commonly found in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium is very easily shaped, and its compounds have many important uses in industry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na+ cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium compounds are of immense commercial importance, being particularly central to industries producing glass, paper, soap, and textiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide is a versatile precursor to other inorganic azide compounds, e.g., lead azide and silver azide, which are used in explosives. (wikipedia.org)
  • comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to having low atomic mass and large atomic radius, sodium is third-least dense of all elemental metals and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being lithium and potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The melting (98 °C) and boiling (883 °C) points of sodium are lower than those of lithium but higher than those of the heavier alkali metals potassium, rubidium, and caesium, following periodic trends down the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with other alkali metals (metals in the first column of the periodic table), sodium is usually less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium. (yahoo.com)
  • The potassium-sodium pump also helps to maintain the electrical charge within the cell, which is particularly important to muscle and nerve cells. (everything2.com)
  • During muscle contraction, potassium exits and sodium enters, reversing the electrical charge and causing muscle contractions or nerve impulses. (everything2.com)
  • That's because getting enough potassium may help counterbalance dietary sodium and lower blood pressure. (cbn.com)
  • Replace high-sodium foods with high-potassium foods. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Harding MM (2002) Metal-ligand geometry relevant to proteins and in proteins: sodium and potassium. (springer.com)
  • Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the standard reduction potential for the Na+/Na couple being −2.71 volts, though potassium and lithium have even more negative potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electronic controller detonates this mixture during an automobile crash: 2 NaN3 → 2 Na + 3 N2 The same reaction occurs upon heating the salt to approximately 300 °C. The sodium that is formed is a potential hazard alone and, in automobile airbags, it is converted by reaction with other ingredients, such as potassium nitrate and silica. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure, kidney disease, and heart problems can benefit from a diet that is lower in sodium. (uptodate.com)
  • This topic will review how to read food labels, how to choose foods that are lower in sodium, and how to live with less salt. (uptodate.com)
  • Sometimes organic versions of packaged foods are lower in sodium than regular and reduced-sodium versions, but not always. (cnn.com)
  • Use condiments and spreads that are unsalted or lower in sodium. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Ask for nutrition information and look for dishes that are lower in sodium. (healthfinder.gov)
  • On the label, look for foods that are lower in sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Reductions in intakes that exceed the sodium CDRR are expected to reduce chronic disease risk within the apparently healthy population," the report says. (medscape.com)
  • Because most US and Canadian populations consume sodium at levels above the CDRR targets, "opportunities exist to find solutions to reduce population sodium intakes," it states. (medscape.com)
  • What are the recommended sodium intakes? (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • This means that both excessively high and excessively low intakes of sodium were linked to an increased risk of death. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sodium chloride is colorless in its pure form. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Liquid sodium hydroxide is colorless and has no odor. (tn.gov)
  • Together with the related barium and zinc selenites , sodium selenite is mainly used in the manufacture of colorless glass . (rug.nl)
  • Accidental ingestion of sodium azide is potentially life threatening. (hazard.com)
  • Sodium azide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. (cdc.gov)
  • When it is mixed with water or an acid, sodium azide changes rapidly to a toxic gas with a pungent (sharp) odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is best known as the chemical found in automobile airbags. (cdc.gov)
  • An electrical charge triggered by automobile impact causes sodium azide to explode and convert to nitrogen gas inside the airbag. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is used as a chemical preservative in hospitals and laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • In one case, sodium azide was poured into a drain, where it exploded and the toxic gas was inhaled (breathed in). (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is used in agriculture (farming) for pest control. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is also used in detonators and other explosives. (cdc.gov)
  • Following release of sodium azide into water, you could be exposed to sodium azide by drinking the contaminated water. (cdc.gov)
  • Following contamination of food with sodium azide, you could be exposed to sodium azide by eating the contaminated food. (cdc.gov)
  • Following release of sodium azide into the air, you could be exposed by breathing in the dust or the gas that is formed. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide can also enter the body and cause symptoms through skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • An explosion involving sodium azide may cause burn injury as well as expose people to the toxic gas, hydrozoic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by sodium azide depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the person exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing the gas that is formed from sodium azide causes the most harm, but ingesting (swallowing) sodium azide can be toxic as well. (cdc.gov)
  • The gas formed from sodium azide is most dangerous in enclosed places where the gas will be trapped. (cdc.gov)
  • The gas formed from sodium azide is less dense (lighter) than air, so it will rise. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is more harmful to the heart and the brain than to other organs, because the heart and the brain use a lot of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to sodium azide. (cdc.gov)
  • Survivors of serious sodium azide poisoning may have heart and brain damage. (cdc.gov)
  • First, get fresh air by leaving the area where the sodium azide was released. (cdc.gov)
  • Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure to sodium azide. (cdc.gov)
  • If the sodium azide release was outside, move away from the area where the sodium azide was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If the sodium azide release was indoors, get out of the building. (cdc.gov)
  • If leaving the area that was exposed to sodium azide is not an option, stay as low to the ground as possible, because sodium azide fumes rise. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are near a release of sodium azide, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to " shelter in place " inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • If you think you may have been exposed to sodium azide, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • The majority of exposures to sodium azide occur by inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • Signs and symptoms of sodium azide poisoning include lethargy or coma (possibly sudden collapse), dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypotension. (cdc.gov)
  • A case in which sodium azide in serum is detected, as determined by a commercial laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of sodium azide in environmental samples, as determined by FDA. (cdc.gov)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for sodium azide exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide is an ionic solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curtius and Thiele developed another production process, where a nitrite ester is converted to sodium azide using hydrazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide is also used in airplane escape chutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its explosion hazard, sodium azide is of only limited value in industrial-scale organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide is a useful probe reagent and a preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide has caused deaths for decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide increases cyclic GMP levels in brain and liver by activation of guanylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-sodium diets are linked to increased blood pressure and a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Eating high-sodium foods regularly can cause your body to retain excess water. (eatright.org)
  • If you eat a high sodium food, balance it with low sodium foods. (clemson.edu)
  • For every study that seems to show that high-sodium leads to poor health, another one disputes it. (aarp.org)
  • In fact, most Americans already get more daily sodium than recommended before they ever pick up a salt shaker. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sodium Reduction in Communities Program (SRCP) aims to increase the availability of lower sodium foods while engaging the food sector to reduce sodium levels in packaged and restaurant foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Some food companies have already been working to reduce sodium in many of their products. (heart.org)
  • Michael Alderman, M.D., of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York and former president of the International Society of Hypertension, also has repeatedly argued for caution in the nation's push to reduce sodium. (aarp.org)
  • In Food Prep: Food uses of sodium hydroxide include wGreat ashing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream. (google.com)
  • What are some uses of sodium hydroxide? (tn.gov)
  • There have been reports of cancer of the esophagus 15 to 40 years after the formation of narrow points caused by corrosion induced by sodium hydroxide. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to sodium hydroxide? (cdc.gov)
  • Is sodium benzoate safe? (latimes.com)
  • Reality TV star Bethenny Frankel's Skinnygirl Margarita was recently yanked from the shelves of Whole Foods markets for purportedly having a non-natural preservative thought to be sodium benzoate. (latimes.com)
  • What is sodium benzoate, and should you be worried about ingesting it? (latimes.com)
  • Sodium benzoate is produced by a reaction of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide, which makes it disolve in water. (latimes.com)
  • Under acidic conditions, sodium benzoate inhibits growth of bacteria, mold and yeast, extending a product's shelf life, says Randy Worobo, associate professor of food microbiology at Cornell University in New York. (latimes.com)
  • While benzoic acid is found naturally in low levels in cranberries and other foods, the sodium benzoate listed on a product's nutrition label is typically synthesized in a lab. (latimes.com)
  • Sodium benzoate is still actively being studied, but in a comprehensive review [researchers] concluded that at levels being used in foods it doesn't pose a risk. (latimes.com)
  • When sodium benzoate combines with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) benzene can form, which is a known carcinogen. (latimes.com)
  • Natural alternatives to sodium benzoate do exist, Worobo says. (latimes.com)
  • The cost is significantly higher than that of sodium benzoate," he adds, which is probably why most food manufacturers go with the non-natural stuff. (latimes.com)
  • Sodium comes from 2 places: the salt shaker and processed or prepared foods. (massgeneral.org)
  • Sodium can be sneaky, showing up in a vast majority of the foods we eat every day even if we never pick up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • Most of us are eating much more sodium than we need, even if we never pick up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • The AHA created the "Salty Six" - to show you the top six foods that contribute the most sodium to our diets, without even picking up the salt shaker. (heart.org)
  • Sodium hydroxide separates in water to sodium cations (positively charged sodium atoms) and hydroxide anions (negatively charged oxygen and hydrogen atoms), which ultimately decrease the acidity of the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium atoms have 11 electrons, one more than the stable configuration of the noble gas neon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This salt can also be prepared chemically by reacting hydrochloric acid (chemical formula HCl) with sodium hydroxide (chemical formula NaOH) to form sodium chloride and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. (yahoo.com)
  • Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, with 25% of NaOH used in the paper industry. (tn.gov)
  • The sodium amide is subsequently combined with nitrous oxide: 2 NaNH2 + N2O → NaN3 + NaOH + NH3 These reactions are the basis of the industrial route, which produced about 250 tons per year in 2004, with production increasing owing to the popularization of airbags. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2O + NaOH → NaN3 + C2H5OH + 3 H 2O Alternatively the salt can be obtained by the reaction of sodium nitrate with sodium amide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin "natrium") and atomic number 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium is a metallic element designated by the symbol Na , from Latin natrium . (everything2.com)
  • Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy, an English scientist, back in 1807. (yahoo.com)
  • Because of its reactivity, sodium is never found uncombined in nature, and Humphry Davy is generally credited with having discovered it because he successfully separated it from its hydroxide in 1807. (everything2.com)
  • Your body only needs 1,500 mg of sodium every day. (massgeneral.org)
  • The following groups of people should consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day: African Americans, people over fifty years of age, and people with chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney disease). (clemson.edu)
  • 2 But the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans external icon recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium each day as part of a healthy eating pattern. (cdc.gov)
  • Just 1 teaspoon (small spoonful) of salt has 2,000 mg of sodium. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Australian and New Zealand governments recommend adults eat around 2,000 mg of sodium per day (equivalent to about 5,000 mg or 5 g of salt or 1 teaspoon). (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • An ionic compound such as sodium chloride is held together by an ionic bond . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The classic studies are the extremes of ionic bonding in sodium chloride and covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule . (gsu.edu)
  • In triple treatment systems, the sodium bicarbonate treatment is usually the middle treatment in the process, after charcoal and ionic filtering (typically combined into one step) and before placer filtration to remove the precipitate. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. (yahoo.com)
  • Sodium hydroxide is sometimes called caustic soda or lye. (tn.gov)
  • It is highly reactive with water, explosively creating a great deal of heat, flammable hydrogen gas and the caustic compound sodium hydroxide upon contact. (reference.com)
  • Americans consume an average of more than 3,400 milligrams (mg) of sodium each day. (cdc.gov)
  • Most people eat about 3,400 mg of sodium every day. (massgeneral.org)
  • I also did the following search on Google: 'chloride sodium pump human body site:.edu' As always, please let me know if you need more information! (google.com)
  • Most people in search of making sodium polyacrylate are actually looking for a way to make fake snow. (ehow.com)
  • We incorporated the latest consensus from systematic reviews and publications identified by a literature search through Medline and Web of Science with the search strategy terms "hyponatraemia," "hypernatraemia," and "sodium. (bmj.com)
  • Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and water in the food and drinks you consume and the amount in your urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most clinicians agree that people with high blood pressure should consume less than 2300 milligrams (2.3 grams) of sodium per day. (uptodate.com)
  • Most Americans consume almost double that amount, or an average of 4,000 mg of sodium a day. (clemson.edu)
  • The "vast majority" of Americans consume between 2,645 mg and 4,945 mg of sodium each day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sodium is the 11th element on the periodic table, and takes the form of a silvery soft metal at standard pressure and temperature. (reference.com)
  • Inhalation of low levels of sodium hydroxide as dusts, mists or aerosols may cause irritation of the nose, throat, and respiratory airways. (cdc.gov)
  • You can be exposed to low levels of sodium and calcium hypochlorite if you use disinfectants like household bleach. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to sodium hydroxide could affect reproduction in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact the Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222 for more information about exposure to sodium hydroxide. (tn.gov)
  • For the nutrient commonly called sodium, see salt . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory demonstrated that sodium-ion batteries can serve as a low-cost, high performance substitute for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries commonly used in robotics, power tools, and grid-scale energy storage. (ornl.gov)
  • Back in 2010-2011, sodium hydroxide was reported as one of the ten most commonly spilled or released chemicals in Tennessee. (tn.gov)
  • Under certain conditions sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, can conduct electricity. (reference.com)
  • Sodium is a commonly occurring element. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is generally used dissolved in water at various concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium methylparaben ( sodium methyl para -hydroxybenzoate ) is a compound with formula Na(CH 3 (C 6 H 4 COO)O). It is the sodium salt of methylparaben . (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers employed in industries where sodium hydroxide is produced or used may be exposed to this compound. (cdc.gov)
  • soluble glass , a compound containing sodium oxide (Na 2 O) and silica (silicon dioxide, SiO 2 ) that forms a glassy solid with the very useful property of being soluble in water. (britannica.com)
  • Sodium comprises one half of the compound sodium chloride, better known as common or table salt. (reference.com)
  • Sodium selenite is the inorganic compound with the formula Na 2 SeO 3 . (rug.nl)
  • Repeated inhalation of sodium hydroxide vapor can lead to permanent lung damage. (tn.gov)
  • Additionally, the ease of packaging and transportation of powder form sodium bromide and surging uses of powder in commercial and residential sector are also help in growth of powder segment. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Epilim products all contain sodium valproate, which is a medicine that is used mainly to treat epilepsy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In the home, some household items like soaps or cleaners contain sodium hydroxide. (tn.gov)
  • Some foods naturally contain sodium. (eatright.org)
  • Chloride and sodium work together to maintain water balance in animal (including human) cells. (google.com)
  • Previous studies have evaluated hydration treatment with both sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate fluids in animal models. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sodium is always kept under mineral oil. (ilo.org)
  • Sodium is a mineral required by the body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sodium is a mineral found in many foods. (eatright.org)
  • Though you need some sodium, when it comes to this mineral, too much may be bad for your health. (eatright.org)
  • Because selenium is an essential element , sodium selenite is an ingredient in dietary supplements such as multi-vitamin/mineral products, but supplements that provide only selenium use L-selenomethionine or a selenium-enriched yeast . (rug.nl)
  • Sodium is a mineral that the body needs in small amounts. (clemson.edu)
  • Ingestion of solid or liquid sodium hydroxide can cause spontaneous vomiting, chest and abdominal pain, and difficulty swallowing. (cdc.gov)
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate is used for the temporary relief of occasional episodes of acid ingestion, heartburn, and upset stomach. (medicinenet.com)
  • One teaspoon of salt contains approximately 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium. (clemson.edu)
  • A new harmonized standard for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate has been approved by the Pharmacopeial Discussion Group (PDG) as described in its PDG Stage 6 Sign-Off Cover Page . (usp.org)
  • Having reached Stage 6 of the PDG process, the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph has been formally approved by the USP Monographs-Excipients Expert Committee in accordance with the Rules and Procedures of the 2010-2015 Council of Experts. (usp.org)
  • The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph will be incorporated into and become official in USP 39-NF 34. (usp.org)
  • Should you have any questions about the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph, please contact Kevin Moore (301-816-8369 or [email protected] ). (usp.org)
  • The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph that was posted on April 24, 2015 had an incorrect official date of May 1, 2015, instead of May 1, 2016. (usp.org)
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a chemical used for its superior foaming quality in hundreds of commercial products including shampoo, bubble bath, mouthwash, and even candy. (nuskin.com)
  • A report from an expert panel of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review committee released by the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association concluded, " Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate appear to be safe in formulations designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by thorough rinsing from the surface of the skin. (nuskin.com)
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate can be an irritant if formulated incorrectly, and a shampoo containing 15 percent SLS is tolerable because it comes in contact with the scalp for just a few minutes and is diluted with water while in use. (nuskin.com)
  • Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does require that fluoride toothpastes shipped as of April 7, 1998, carry a warning label about the dangers of swallowing too much toothpaste, and sodium lauryl sulfate is identified as one of the three ingredients posing a health risk (along with sorbitol and fluoride), it is because it can cause diarrhea, not because it causes cancer. (nuskin.com)
  • Acetazolamide ( Diamox ) may increase the risk of toxicity or adverse effects associated with sodium bicarbonate treatment. (medicinenet.com)