Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.EuropeDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.EnglandSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.ScotlandMental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Great BritainCause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.BrazilPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.WalesMarital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.FinlandChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.United StatesWomen's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.IranMental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Social Mobility: The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.IndiaNational Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.NorwayPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
... and socioeconomic positions. A major concern is health inequalities. The critical health psychologist is an agent of change, ... Impact of health on intelligence Nutrition psychology Occupational health psychology Occupational safety and health Outline of ... Consultant health psychologist: A consultant health psychologist will take a lead for health psychology within public health, ... Critical health psychologists explore how health policy can influence inequities, inequalities and social injustice. These ...
... social inequality, and China's socioeconomic and demographic transition. Yeung's publications appear in top scientific journals ... Her most cited work includes those that address the impact of economic stress on families and the fatherhood issues. She has ... This research is supported by funding from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development to support work in ... racial inequalities in students' school and neighborhoods, and 4) how racial inequalities in various contexts interact with one ...
Inequalities in health are also determined by these socioeconomic and cultural factors. Health care is inequitably distributed ... Health of poor women is impacted by gender inequalities through discriminating distribution of household goods, domestic ... health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, ... Social determinants of health in poverty reveal inequalities in health. Health is defined "as feeling sound, well, vigorous, ...
... "although frequent citation of negative statistics about inequality can have the unintentional impact of further perpetuating ... They go on to conclude that a failure to address the causes of New Zealand's socio-economic inequities is itself a form of ... It is an unfortunate reality that in New Zealand there is no equality in access to rights to health, education, and justice due ... Unfortunately in New Zealand it is easy to make connections between some of the continual ethnic inequalities in the education ...
... abuse history Physical health Mental health Financial circumstances Employment history Education history Victim-impact ... have seen this as suggestive of sentencing disparities or inequality in the treatment of offenders with a lower socioeconomic ... Additionally, the probation officer may request physical and mental health, educational, employment or financial records from a ... mental health, substance abuse, or some other aspect of the case. The probation officer may also consult a supervisor or, in a ...
Socioeconomic status and chronic stress: does stress account for SES effects on health?. Annals of the New York Academy of ... and high income inequality in an area and more crime in the area. A World Bank study said, "Crime rates and inequality are ... EVANS, T. DAVID (1995). "RELIGION AND CRIME REEXAMINED: THE IMPACT OF RELIGION, SECULAR CONTROLS, AND SOCIAL ECOLOGY ON ADULT ... Being from a lower socioeconomic status can also have some major effects on your mental health such as chronic stress which ...
Analysis of the impact of the one-child policy indicates that "population aging will impact society in multiple ways, and it is ... One of the primary issues is their generation of sector-biased income transfers and expenditures on health, housing and ... China still faces a number of development challenges and one of the most pressing socioeconomic issues is the increasing income ... Inland-coastal inequality. As is well documented in many studies, rural-urban inequality is a major contributing factor ...
... which negatively impacts health. Socioeconomic background is another source of inequality in healthcare. Poverty significantly ... The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group ... Race, Gender, and Health. London: Sage Publications, 1996. Print. Davis, Karen. "Inequality and Access to Health Care." The ... define access to healthcare as "the timely use of personal health services to achieve the best health outcomes". Health ...
Capps, R., Bachmeier, J. D., Fix, M., & Van Hook, J. (2013). A demographic, socioeconomic, and health coverage profile of ... Okonkowo, Ejike (Dec 2013). "Attitude towards Gender Equality in South-eastern Nigerian Culture: Impact of Gender and Level of ... Achievement, earnings, health status, and political participation also contribute to educational inequality within the United ... Educational inequality between white students and minority students continues to perpetuate social and economic inequality. ...
"Socioeconomic Status". apa.org. Retrieved 2017-04-24. "Health, Income, and Inequality". www.nber.org. Retrieved 2017-04-24. ... "Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution". American Lung Association. Retrieved 2017-04-24. "Wealth inequality has widened ... These health effects are not equally distributed in terms of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and more in the ... People of lower socioeconomic status may more frequently have poor health, thus the effects of air pollution can incur ...
... has been associated with negative impacts on human development such as increased poverty and inequality and with adverse health ... There is a need to improve the quality of nutrition programs to reduce the gaps between socioeconomic groups and a need to ... impact on health and economic burden". Public Health Nutrition. 17 (1): 233-239. doi:10.1017/S1368980013000086. ISSN 1368-9800 ... "The Impact of PROGRESA on Health in Mexico , The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab". www.povertyactionlab.org. Retrieved ...
Health dynamics, health inequalities and ageing population , Socio-economic inequalities in health: determinants and cross- ... The aim is to improve the understanding of causal relationships and to provide sound evidence for the impact of institutional ... This comprises topics like poverty, inequality, education, social inclusion, employment, unemployment, health, housing, ... employment structure and inequality , The measurement of discrimination and inequality: methods and evidence , Poverty ...
... and socioeconomic status, that positively impact the existing inequality. Studies have noted significant correlations between ... An identified inequality that negatively affects health and wellness among minority races is highly correlated with income, ... The structural inequality of tracking in the educational system is the foundation of the inequalities instituted in other ... Also see social inequality, racism, discrimination, and oppression. Social inequality occurs when certain groups in a society ...
Population health Community health Economic inequality Health disparities Health impact assessment Inequality in disease List ... Based on a population and its socioeconomic, geographic, ethnicity and other factors, policies and interventions may vary. ... health inequalities, defined as a "generic term used to designate differences, variations, and disparities in the health ... "A Glossary for Health Inequalities", Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (56): 647-652, PMC 1732240 CS1 maint: Uses ...
Socio-economic inequalities in health, nutrition and education in the era of globalisation and their determinants. Social, ... Impact of international capital flows. Non-tariff barriers in international trade and the national policy responses. ... Gender and Development Gender equality and development; gender analysis of public expenditure choices and the gender impact of ... Research at CDS is organised into six distinct themes: Agriculture and Natural Resource Gender, Migration, Population Health ...
Monetary measures of non-market impacts, e.g., impacts on human health and ecosystems, are more difficult to calculate. Other ... The socio-economic impacts of climate change are likely to be greatest in communities that face other stresses. For example, ... 2001:957-958) concluded, with medium confidence, that: climate change would increase income inequalities between and within ... 2007:415) found that in the studies that had included health impacts, those impacts contributed substantially to the total ...
Gortmaker SL, Wise PH (1997). "The first injustice: socioeconomic disparities, health services technology, and infant mortality ... the Best Babies Zone's ultimate goal is to achieve health equity in communities that are disproportionately impacted by infant ... Haines MR (2011). "Inequality and infant and childhood mortality in the United States in the twentieth century". Explorations ... "Maternal and Infant Health , Reproductive Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2017-03-07.. ...
"Environmental and socio-economic determinants of infant mortality in Poland: an ecological study". Environmental Health. 14: 61 ... the Best Babies Zone's ultimate goal is to achieve health equity in communities that are disproportionately impacted by infant ... The dependency of developing nations can lead to a reduce rate of economic growth, increase income inequality inter- and intra- ... "Infant Mortality: What Is CDC Doing? , Infant Mortality , Maternal and Infant Health , Reproductive Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov ...
... the negative impacts of structural violence on health can be reduced and that improvements to both healthcare access and health ... Such groups include females and those belonging to lower socioeconomic classes Being one of the world's poorest countries, ... Studies have suggested by addressing unfavorable biosocial phenomena, such as poverty and social inequality, ... Only one-fourth of births are attended by a skilled health professional. Most rural areas have no access to health care, making ...
Monetary measures of non-market impacts, e.g., impacts on human health and ecosystems, are more difficult to calculate. Other ... Socioeconomic trends: Future predictions of development affect estimates of future climate change impacts, and in some ... Some people will benefit more from the public good than others, thus creating inequalities in the absence of benefit taxes. A ... Also, some impacts, such as those on human health and biodiversity, are difficult to value. On the second point, it has been ...
This process will undoubtedly impact health inequalities between and within EU countries. EuroHealthNet seeks to address the ... programmes and initiatives which affect the socio-economic determinants of health. The Health programmes, the latest being 2014 ... Health inequalities can be defined as "systematic differences in health between social groups" and populations. Health ... Ministry of Health Slovakia: Ministry of Health of the Slovak republic, Section of Health United Kingdom: Department of Health ...
Children often face malnutrition during the age of rapid development, which can have long-lasting impacts on health. Inadequate ... Adam Wagstaff; Naoke Watanabe (November 1999). "Socioeconomic Inequalities in Child Malnutrition in the Developing World". ... better health - Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization ( ... social inequality and perhaps genetics contribute to childhood malnutrition. The World Health Organisation estimated in 2008 ...
She specializes in the sociology of mental health, focusing especially on how social inequalities lead to corresponding ... socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and age lead to differences in mental health along those differentiators. She has worked ... She was funded by the California Department of Health Services, Alzheimer's Disease to research the long-term impact of family ... She is currently professor and vice chair for the Department of Community Health Sciences in the School of Public Health at ...
Experience of intimate partner violence was found to exert serious adverse impact on women's physical and mental health. Multi- ... 228-245, ISBN 9781844078066 Yu, Mei-yu; Sarri, Rosemary (1997). "Women's health status and gender inequality in China". Social ... The study showed that duration of the relationship and low socioeconomic status both have a positive correlation with the ... Health in China Health in India Women's health Ariana, Proochista; Naveed, Arif (2009), "Health", in Deneulin, Séverine; ...
Health and Wealth: How Geography Influences Socioeconomic Development. In: DRCLAS News, Fall 1999, pp. 7-10. Revision of Outreg ... The Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam in the 1990s. In: Paul Glewwe, David Dollar and Nisha Agrawal (editors). ... Far-Flung Europe: What is the Economic Impact of Geography? European Union Committee of Regions for The Macroeconomic Situation ... Geography and Socioeconomic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Chapter 3 of Economic and Social Progress in Latin ...
Eron, Carol (1979). "Women in Medicine and Health Care". In O'Neill, Lois Decker. The Women's Book of World Records and ... Deckard, Barbara (1983). The Women's Movement: Political, Socioeconomic. and Psychological Issues (Third ed.). New York: Harper ... the Seneca Falls Convention was held in New York to gain support for education and suffrage but it had little immediate impact ... Educational Inequality. *Education in the United States. *Coeducation. *Timeline of women's colleges in the United States ...
Women and men from different socio-economic or ethnic groups can have vastly different experiences of the health system, which ... Recognise power if you want to tackle inequalities in health systems.. Marginalized people (ethnic minorities, inhabitants of ... Gender influences how women, men, and people of other genders perceive, behave, interact and this impacts the social experience ... Health Care Women Int,. 29(4): 349-65.. Raj A. (2011) Gender equity and universal health coverage in India, The Lancet, January ...
Correction: Evaluating the impact of the english health inequalities strategy on socioeconomic inequalities in the regional ... Evaluating the impact of the english health inequalities strategy on socioeconomic inequalities in the regional infant ... Correction: Evaluating the impact of the english health inequalities strategy on socioeconomic inequalities in the regional ... J Epidemiol Community Health 2018;72(Suppl 1):A88- A89. doi: 10.1136/jech-2018-SSMabstracts.187. ...
We undertook a systematic review of interventions to promote healthy eating to identify whether impacts differ by socioeconomic ... nor whether they narrow or widen the health gap between rich and poor. ... Impact on socioeconomic inequalities by "P" category. The impact of interventions categorised by "P" is displayed in the ... A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:590-5. ...
Health & Place, Health and Place 2016; 42:11-18.. 4] BOGDAN C, MINHAS T, TUGGEY J, CRAWFORD M, MILTON R. Impact of surgical ... Impact of national.... *Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England ... Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population ... Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population ...
Impact varies across socioeconomic groups. *What we already know. *Underlying causes of socioeconomic inequalities in health ... Australias health 2018 Australias health 2018 is the AIHWs 16th biennial report on the health of Australians. It… ... Indicators of socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. * Publication ... Indicators of socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease ...
This study quantified the current and potential future impact of the introduction of 20 mph zones on socioeconomic inequalities ... The impact of 20 mph traffic speed zones on inequalities in road casualties in London ... The impact of 20 mph traffic speed zones on inequalities in road casualties in London ... socioeconomic inequalities in road injuries in London have widened over time. Extending 20 mph schemes has only limited the ...
... and health domains. However, variation in the size and pattern of health inequalities appears to relate to the measure... ... Socioeconomic differences in health are ubiquitous across age groups, cultures, ... Singh, G. K., & Ghandour, R. M. (2012). Impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status on ... Patterns of Socioeconomic Inequality in Adolescent Health Differ According to the Measure of Socioeconomic Position. ...
Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is ... Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. ... The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. ... Publication: Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: How to apply commonly ...
In S. Dworkin, M. Gandhi, & P. Passano (Eds.), In justice and in health: A new era in womens health and empowerment. Berkeley ... 1999). Gender inequality in wage earnings and female self-employment selection. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 28, 351-364. ... Resilience Among Women with HIV: Impact of Silencing the Self and Socioeconomic Factors. ... Journal of Rural Health, 25, 415-419. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2009.00253.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. JCR impact factor. 2.223 (2009). JCR rank. 44/121 (2009). JCR quartile. 2 (2009). ... Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project ... "Preventing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Behaviour in Adolescents in Europe: Background, Design and Methods of Project ... "Preventing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Behaviour in Adolescents in Europe: Background, Design and Methods of Project ...
Impact of business cycles on US suicide rates, 1928-2007. Am J Public Health 2011;101:1139-46. CrossRefexternal icon PubMed ... The impact of socioeconomic factors on state suicide rates: a methodological note. Urban Stud 2002;39:155-62. CrossRefexternal ... CDC health disparities and inequalities report-United States, 2013. MMWR Suppl 2013;62(No. Suppl 3). ... Margerison-Zilko C, Goldman-Mellor S, Falconi A, Downing J. Health impacts of the Great Recession: a critical review. Curr ...
Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact. BMC Public Health. , 15(1). ... Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact. BMC Public Health. , 15(1). ... I consider myself a demographer with an interest in ageing, public health modelling, epidemiology, inequality, health economics ... Angus C, Brown J, Beard E, Gillespie D, Buykx P, Kaner E, Michie S & Meier P (2019) Socioeconomic inequalities in the delivery ...
... what this earlier work failed to address is the impact of poor circumstances in childhood and early adulthood on later health ... Environmental Health*Health Informatics*Legal and Regulatory*Life style and Fitness*Medical Breakthroughs*Public Health and ... shows that inequalities in childhood and early adult life directly impact on social inequalities in mortality in later life. ... or the independent role played by these causes in social inequalities in health." David Buck, Senior Fellow at health think- ...
The impact of race as a risk factor for symptom severity and age at diagnosis of uterine leiomyomata among affected sisters. Am ... Introduction: life-course approaches to health inequalities. In: Smith GD, editor. Health inequalities: life-course approaches ... Introduction: life-course approaches to health inequalities. In: Smith GD, editor. Health inequalities: life-course approaches ... Introduction: life-course approaches to health inequalities. In: Smith GD, editor. Health inequalities: life-course approaches ...
Improving the health and wellbeing of disabled men should be a priority for public health researchers and policy-makers. ... We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men - an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi ... Men with disabilities had lower levels of social support and community participation and poorer mental and physical health and ... Linear regression adjusted for age was used to assess the association between disability status and health and wellbeing, which ...
Recent health care payment reforms aim to improve the alignment of ... ... Read chapter 3 Applying Selection Criteria to Social Risk Factors and Health Literacy: ... Disentangling race and socioeconomic status: A key to understanding health inequalities. Journal of Urban Health 82(2 Suppl 3): ... The impact of social isolation on the health status and health-related quality of life of older people. Quality of Life ...
... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ...
Health (JTH) is devoted to publishing research that advances our knowledge on the many interactions between transport... ... socio-economic inequalities;. * rurality;. * leisure travel;. * synergies between sustainability and health impacts of ... Interactions between transport and health include, for instance:. * the impacts on public health and inequalities of: * active ... 5-Year Impact Factor: 2.774 ℹ Five-Year Impact Factor: 2018: 2.774. To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are ...
... the impact of socioeconomic factors is likely to be greater.. The "treatment gap" (that is, the absolute difference between ... "Health inequalities and the health needs of people with mental illness," NSW Public Health Bulletin 13/7 (2002), pp. 155-158. ... "Disparities in adolescent health and health care: Does socioeconomic status matter?" Health Services Research 38/5 (2003), pp. ... For a discussion of socioeconomic factors such as poverty and inequality and their effects on mental health, especially in ...
Statistics show a graded relationship, meaning the higher your social position the greater your level of health ... For years there has been significant evidence linking socio-economic status and health. ... In conclusion, the economic downturn has several impacts on the health of the UK, both directly and indirectly. These impacts ... Health And Social Care. Health Inequalities And Socioeconomic Status Health And Social Care Essay. 3006 words (12 pages) Essay ...
... which negatively impacts health. Socioeconomic background is another source of inequality in healthcare. Poverty significantly ... The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group ... Race, Gender, and Health. London: Sage Publications, 1996. Print. Davis, Karen. "Inequality and Access to Health Care." The ... define access to healthcare as "the timely use of personal health services to achieve the best health outcomes". Health ...
Share information on policies that address gender, racial, and socioeconomic inequalities. Use sexual violence prevention data ... Encourage policies that have the potential to impact multiple forms of violence ... Strengthen social support and programs that address the social conditions and determinants of health ... North Dakota Department of Health Sexual Violence & Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Toolkit ...
... and socio-economic influences on the burden of disease and ill-health in populations; and, on inequalities in health status ... NM). Measuring impact: approaches to evaluation including inequality measures. (ZM). Global health comparisons and the effects ... Asking questions about health and well-being. Measurement scales for health. Summary measures of population health: HALE and ... The socio-economic determinants of health: pathways and the Marmot report. (ZM). Costs, benefits and priority-setting COMPUTER ...
... by socioeconomic group or geographic location - can provide useful information for designing poverty-focus ... Empirical studies on health at a disaggregate level - ... Is the Impact of Health Shocks Cushioned by Socioeconomic ... First is the negative association between the level and inequality in child mortality. Second is the significant gap in child ... Empirical studies on health at a disaggregate level - by socioeconomic group or geographic location - can provide useful ...
2016Interventions2018DisparitiesVarious socioeconomicEpidemiologyFindingsRelative inequalitiesIndicatorsReduce inequalitiesHigher socioeconomic groupsGender inequalityAdolescent healthLower socioeconomic groupsEthnicMagnitudeDifferentialsPovertyDifferent socioeconomicMaternalPoorerPreventionCardiovascularGradientAlarming-economic crisisSocioeconomicallyIncrease inequalitiesEducational inequalitiesRacialDeprivationBehavioursPopulation healthTackleEducationRecessionGroupsSurvivalExposureInvestigateQuintilesEconomic impactsDeveloped countriesMarmotIndex of inequality
- Allen K, Gillespie DOS, Guzman-Castillo M, Diggle PJ, Capewell S & O'Flaherty M (2016) Future trends and inequalities in premature coronary deaths in England: Modelling study . (sheffield.ac.uk)
- Disparities in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Sources of Added Sugars and High Glycemic Index Foods in 2011 to 2016. (cdc.gov)
- He has been awarded several grants including a European Research Council grant (ERC, 2011-2016), as well as several grants from the European Commission, the Dutch Scientific Council, the UK Economic and Social Research Council, the National Institute on Ageing, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), and the McArthur Foundation. (harvard.edu)
- Agu J, Lobo R, Crawford G, Chigwada B (2016) Migrant sexual health help-seeking and experiences of stigmatization and discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: exploring barriers and enablers. (springermedizin.de)
- It is not known whether healthy eating interventions are equally effective among all sections of the population, nor whether they narrow or widen the health gap between rich and poor. (biomedcentral.com)
- We undertook a systematic review of interventions to promote healthy eating to identify whether impacts differ by socioeconomic position (SEP). (biomedcentral.com)
- Price" interventions were most effective in groups with lower SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- All interventions that combined taxes and subsidies consistently decreased inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conversely, interventions categorised as "Person" had a greater impact with increasing SEP, and may therefore appear likely to reduce inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- All four dietary counselling interventions appear likely to widen inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- We did not find any "Prescriptive" interventions and only one "Product" intervention that presented differential results and had no impact by SEP. (biomedcentral.com)
- More "Place" interventions were identified and none of these interventions were judged as likely to widen inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Upstream" interventions categorised as "Price" appeared to decrease inequalities, and "downstream" "Person" interventions, especially dietary counselling seemed to increase inequalities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interventions aimed at improving population health should be routinely evaluated for differential socioeconomic impact. (biomedcentral.com)
- Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). (ugent.be)
- Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent socioeconomic inequalities in health early in life. (ugent.be)
- Angus C, Brown J, Beard E, Gillespie D, Buykx P, Kaner E, Michie S & Meier P (2019) Socioeconomic inequalities in the delivery of Brief Interventions for smoking and excessive drinking: Findings from a cross-sectional household survey in England . (sheffield.ac.uk)
- In general, we will prioritise papers that evaluate or inform the development of interventions and policies to improve population health, or that make a genuinely original contribution, rather than being basic descriptive studies. (elsevier.com)
- The health impacts of these sectors can be influenced by interventions, whether or not these are primarily motivated by health considerations. (bmj.com)
- Such interventions have the potential to increase or decrease inequalities. (bmj.com)
- Objective A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. (bmj.com)
- There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. (bmj.com)
- This was done by examining the impact of secondary and tertiary preventive interventions for type 2 diabetes by socio-economic status (SES). (bl.uk)
- The work highlighted the complexity of the social, economic and psychosocial factors influencing oral health inequalities and demonstrated the limitations of dental health education and clinical preventive interventions that fail to address the underlying social determinants. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Findings from the UCL team's work on the link between oral health and diet and nutrition have supported efforts to improve infant feeding practices and promote preventive dietary interventions - including those delivered in the primary dental care setting - to reduce obesity in young people. (ucl.ac.uk)
- As a health board, we have an impressive history of innovation and implementation of evidence based interventions to achieve this. (nhsggc.org.uk)
- Empirical studies on health at a disaggregate level - by socioeconomic group or geographic location - can provide useful information for designing poverty-focused interventions. (ssrn.com)
- Given that the poor are mainly concentrated in rural areas, the evidence suggests that health interventions implemented in the past decade may not have been as effective as intended in reaching the poor. (ssrn.com)
- Intervention-generated inequalities have been described as unintended variations in outcome that result from the way that health interventions are organised and delivered. (bmj.com)
- We encourage submission of papers that evaluate or inform the development of interventions and policies to improve population health or that make a genuinely original contribution, rather than being basic, descriptive studies, even if from countries without previous published papers on the topic. (topsexywomen.com)
- J Epidemiol Community Health 2018;72(Suppl 1):A88- A89. (bmj.com)
- To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2018 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. (elsevier.com)
- BMC Public Health (2018) 18:665 Page 2 of 8 that result in communicable diseases. (deepdyve.com)
- In this study, drawing on the structural influence model of health communication, the hypothesis that differences in concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS-related media use, and perceived salience of HIV/AIDS-related information, characterized as communication inequality, can at least partially mediate the impacts of socioecological (urban vs. rural) and socioeconomic (education) disparities on inequalities in HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception was tested. (biomedcentral.com)
- Featuring insights from the biological and social sciences, Biological Consequences of Socioeconomic Inequalities will be an essential resource for scholars interested in socioeconomic disparities and the biological imprint that material deprivation leaves on the human body. (russellsage.org)
- Health disparities in Spain before and after the economic crisis. (eur.nl)
- In our interview, Stephen Thomas [pdf] , the director of the Center for Minority Health at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and founding co-chair of the new Academy for Health Equity, describes the ways corporate decisions contribute to health disparities and assesses various strategies for putting this issue on the agenda in Black, Latino and other low income communities. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- The third contribution is a selected bibliography and abstracts of recent scientific publications on the role of corporate practices on health disparities. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- 1, 2 Let's examine how each contributes to disparities in health. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- These groups are at higher risk of infection as a result of various socioeconomic inequalities - homelessness, lack of employment, the criminalisation of same-sex practices and high levels of stigma and violence. (aidsmap.com)
- Various socioeconomic indicators-education, financial resources, employment or occupation-determine HI, operating through different pathways. (deepdyve.com)
- The simultaneous analysis of various socioeconomic determinants of HI can provide clues as to which processes are more important in the creation of HI (5). (deepdyve.com)
- So say researchers from UCL in a study published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health . (healthcanal.com)
- Professor Eric Brunner (UCL Department of Epidemiology and Public Health), senior author of the research, says: "We set out to understand whether the risk of early death is passed from one generation to the next by social and economic disadvantage. (healthcanal.com)
- Increased use of the methods in social epidemiology will help to build an evidence base to support policy making in the area of health inequalities. (wordpress.com)
- TERESA E. SEEMAN is professor of medicine and epidemiology in the school of public health at the University of California, Los Angeles. (russellsage.org)
- Many of these analyses are conducted by researchers outside of Government in the fields of epidemiology, health economics, and clinical practice, who have been able to access the data. (ands.org.au)
- Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 53 , 731-736. (springer.com)
- Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63 (5), 351-358. (springer.com)
- Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Vol. 54, No. 4 (2000), pgs. (precaution.org)
- Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 74 (3), 232-239. (eur.nl)
- Moreover, the findings demonstrate that high visibility and awareness of the screening programme, as was more the case in Flanders than it was in Wallonia, are required in order to reduce or eliminate educational inequalities in cancer screening participation over time. (springer.com)
- Health policies refer extensively to findings of survey data to support changes and new programs. (ands.org.au)
- Our findings show that if the socioeconomic inequalities in health between the most and least disadvantaged groups were overcome, as many as 120,000 Australians of working age and who live in the poorest 20% of households would no longer be dissatisfied with their lives. (theconversation.com)
- The findings of this study can be used to inform health policy to guide proper allocation of resources and target services for the benefit of the community especially those residing in rural and remote areas in a vast country like Australia. (rrh.org.au)
- For Thayer, who studies how social inequalities result in health inequalities, the findings indicate that discrimination may produce far-reaching physiological changes. (psychcentral.com)
- Presenting key findings from studies on the subject, it makes the case that socio-economic determinants can have a substantial impact on infectious disease control in Europe. (europa.eu)
- Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. (nih.gov)
- Although material assets yielded similar health inequalities as household income, the results suggest that subjective and objective SEP relate differently to adolescent health and are not equivalent indicators of the same construct. (springer.com)
- Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. (ugent.be)
- and reproductive health indicators. (scielosp.org)
- Objective Reduction of socioeconomic inequality in health requires appropriate evidence on health and its distribution based on socioeconomic indicators. (bmj.com)
- The study design is cross-sectional, hence can only describe associations between socioeconomic indicators and health domains. (bmj.com)
- Inequality in health is multidimensional, and the magnitude of inequalities may change depending on the socioeconomic indicators used. (bmj.com)
- The present study measured socioeconomic inequality by various indicators. (bmj.com)
- Little attention has been paid, however, to relationships between Internet use and actual indicators of health among older people. (jmir.org)
- Monitoring the progress made towards achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) depends on the availability of data on the associated indicators and on the quality of that data. (who.int)
- and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. (springer.com)
- Association of the DMFT index with socioeconomic and dental services indicators in the state of Parana, Brazil. (precaution.org)
- I aim to support decision-making to improve population health and reduce inequalities. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- This has influenced both local and national policies and the development of clinical practice guidelines to reduce inequalities and allow dental professionals to prevent oral and systemic disease. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Discussion: Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. (ugent.be)
- It has also been reported in the literature that hospitalisations for removal of impacted teeth were more common in the higher socioeconomic groups of the society who could afford private health insurance, while the lower socioeconomic groups, including Indigenous Australians residing in rural and remote areas, had fewer admissions for removal of these impacted teeth in Western Australia 8 . (rrh.org.au)
- Gender inequality in wage earnings and female self-employment selection. (springer.com)
- This study has investigated the impact of gender inequality and environmental degradation on human well-being in the case of Pakistan from 1980 to 2014. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The results show that gender inequality has a negative and significant impact on human well-being in Pakistan, while gender equality encourages human well-being. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Therefore, in order to improve human well-being, government must reduce gender inequality and economic misery while enhancing in parallel the economic growth. (uni-muenchen.de)
- If we fall short of improving daily conditions for families in poverty, do not address gender inequality, and fail to recognize the impact that poor urban environments have on the spread of disease, then public health will increasingly be at risk and social and economic progress for all will remain precarious. (kff.org)
- These results indicate that SEP differences in adolescent health are relate more closely to psychosocial processes than to material inequality. (springer.com)
- St. Andrews: Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit, St. Andrews University. (springer.com)
- Objectives Despite some progress, Brazil is still one of the most unequal countries, and the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health is unclear. (bmj.com)
- We assessed the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health and how it has changed over time in a middle-income country. (bmj.com)
- The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 2020;66:S21-S28. (uni-halle.de)
- The results partially support our hypothesis and highlight that policy initiatives in terms of an increase in family benefits might partially benefit adolescent health, but tend to widen social inequalities in adolescent health during the recent recession. (nih.gov)
- Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. (ugent.be)
- Dental health services in Australia are largely privately financed with almost 80% of the total expenditure met through out-of-pocket payments or private health insurance, with approximately $4 billion spent annually directly by patients 2 .The direct costs have led to differential access to dental care with the lower socioeconomic groups being least likely to access care 3 , 4 . (rrh.org.au)
- The analyses presented in Table 1 show the enormous challenge it will be for New Zealand to reach by 2025 where Australia is now and to reduce or at least not increase inequalities across ethnic groups at the same time. (nzma.org.nz)
- In 1999 the UCL research team produced the first review synthesising evidence for widening inequalities in oral health between social classes, across regions of England, and among certain minority ethnic groups in pre-school children. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The study, published in the journal Social Science & Medicine , may be the first to detect a direct link between ethnic discrimination and its impact on stress hormones in pregnant women and infants. (psychcentral.com)
- Many people think that ethnic discrimination only has psychological impacts," said the study's lead author, Zaneta Thayer, Ph.D., assistant professor of anthropology at University of Colorado, Denver. (psychcentral.com)
- But in fact, ethnic discrimination can impact physical health as well, possibly through changes in stress physiology functioning. (psychcentral.com)
- Because of this, added Thayer, reducing ethnic discrimination may not only improve the health of those directly impacted but also that of future generations. (psychcentral.com)
- Balkwell, J.W. "Ethnic inequality and the rate of homicide. (precaution.org)
- This month, Corporations and Health Watch focuses on the role of corporate practices in producing or maintaining socioeconomic, racial/ethnic or other inequities in health. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. (nih.gov)
- Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Duration of Children's Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and Affluence. (umich.edu)
- Race, Poverty and Punishment: The Impact Of Criminal Sanctions On Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Inequality. (umich.edu)
- The existence and magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in health-seeking behaviours for child curative care in Egypt and mechanisms underlying these associations have not been comprehensively assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, the magnitude of these inequalities did not change during the period 1991-2002. (diva-portal.org)
- Associations between average level (2009/2010) and change rate (%) of public spending on family benefits* (2005/2006-2009/2010) in relation to the magnitude and change rate in two or more psychological health complaints (in %) across 27 European countries (HBSC 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, EUROSTAT, OECD SOCX). (nih.gov)
- We find that the estimated effects of father's social class, financial difficulty, and material hardship in childhood on midlife health to be significant and similar in magnitude, before and after controlling for partnership experiences. (sochealth.co.uk)
- Combating structural inequality therefore often requires the broad, policy based structural change on behalf of government organizations, and is often a critical component of poverty reduction. (wikipedia.org)
- County-level data on income inequality and children in poverty were obtained from the American Community Survey. (aappublications.org)
- Generalized additive models were estimated to explore linear and nonlinear relations among income inequality, poverty, and child maltreatment. (aappublications.org)
- Income inequality, as well as child poverty rate, was positively and significantly correlated with child maltreatment rates at the county level. (aappublications.org)
- A growing literature suggests an effect of income inequality, in addition to poverty, on health and well-being. (aappublications.org)
- Negative health shocks can also drag a large proportion of the world population down toward the poverty line. (ideas4development.org)
- The Biological Consequences of Socioeconomic Inequalities incorporates insights from the social and biological sciences to quantify the biology of disadvantage and to assess how poverty gets under the skin to impact health. (russellsage.org)
- The volume then turns to cognitive neuroscience, using biomarkers in a new way to examine the impact of poverty on brain development. (russellsage.org)
- One of the biggest determinants on mental health is the effects of poverty. (nhsggc.org.uk)
- However, one of the biggest challenges we face is improving the health of people suffering the effects of disadvantage due to poverty and the resultant social exclusion and discrimination. (nhsggc.org.uk)
- Working with our partners we're determined to tackle issues such as poverty, unemployment, poor employment prospects and housing in order to improve the health of people across the board area. (nhsggc.org.uk)
- Bailey, W.C. "Poverty, inequality and city homicide rates. (precaution.org)
- A] report by the U.N. Development Programme and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, shows that Zika is a disease of poverty and inequality. (kff.org)
- The Incidence Of Poverty Across Three Generations Of Black And White Immigrants In The Post Civil Rights Era: Assessing The Impacts Of Race And Ancestry. (umich.edu)
- Poverty, Migration and Health. (umich.edu)
- Socioeconomic circumstances were measured during childhood (based on the father's social class when the participant was aged 4, and the level of maternal education when the participant was aged 6) and at the age of 26 (based on the participant's educational attainment, home ownership and the social class of their head of household). (healthcanal.com)
- He works on district health system strengthening to improve the delivery of maternal and child health services, with a particular focus in South and East Asia, and including links to universal health coverage. (ntnu.edu)
- Tanja's research focuses on socioeconomic inequalities in maternal, newborn and child health and early child development. (ntnu.edu)
- Prior to joining Ogilvy, Rich's career melded business and health through multiple roles at Sabin Vaccine Institute, APCO Worldwide, the Discovery Channel Global Education Partnership, and as Project Director for Maternal and Child Health at Population Services International in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (grinnell.edu)
- Beatriz Padilla will talk about the impacts that the economic crisis and ongoing reforms to the Portuguese National Health are having on reproductive, maternal, and infant health care of immigrant women and their families. (grinnell.edu)
- The Effects of Welfare and Child Support Policies on Maternal Health and Wellbeing. (umich.edu)
- Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. (biomedcentral.com)
- Men with disabilities had lower levels of social support and community participation and poorer mental and physical health and overall wellbeing. (biomedcentral.com)
- Adult men with disabilities experience marked social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing. (biomedcentral.com)
- SingHealth Regional Health System, Singapore Health Services, Singapore, dency is linked with obesity and poorer health statuses of Singapore mothers . (deepdyve.com)
- Those with higher education levels and a good financial situation live longer and have fewer health problems than those who have lower education and poorer economy. (fhi.no)
- The results of the study showed a definite rural-urban divide and the estimated age-adjusted rates were almost three times greater in the higher socioeconomic areas when compared to their poorer counterparts. (rrh.org.au)
- Does unemployment contribute to poorer health-related quality of life among Swedish adults? (umu.se)
- It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. (ugent.be)
- Our work provides evidence that social inequalities in health will persist unless prevention strategies tackle the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage and risk. (healthcanal.com)
- More broadly, Professor Watt has advised on and authored a number of key oral health policies informing national oral health policy, as well as contributing to the development of the Department of Health toolkit Delivering Better Oral Health: An evidence-based toolkit for prevention . (ucl.ac.uk)
- Environment, cancer and inequalities-The urgent need for prevention. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Because of this high burden, MSD are among the most prominent occupational health issues, and primary prevention remains a key item on the MSD research agenda ( 6 , 7 ). (sjweh.fi)
- The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. (nih.gov)
- 1997). In conjunction with this it seems the most common impacts of unemployment on physical health are on the cardiovascular system with Gallo et al. (ukessays.com)
- If overproduced, cortisol can lead to a wide variety of chronic health problems including cardiovascular disease and mental illness. (psychcentral.com)
- This can be attributed to its vast geographic land mass and significant socioeconomic gradient within the population. (rrh.org.au)
- We also find a strong choice quality gradient with respect to key socioeconomic variables. (lse.ac.uk)
- His research focuses on understanding the socio-economic health gradient, with specific interest in impact evaluation, preventive care, mental health, perinatal health, measurement theory of health inequalities, and the elicitation of social preferences for income and health. (eur.nl)
- Those who are most socioeconomically disadvantaged are twice as likely to have a long-term health condition than those who are the least disadvantaged. (theconversation.com)
- The fact that so many disadvantaged Australians are in poor health or have long-term health conditions relative to individuals in the least socioeconomically disadvantaged groups is simply unfair. (theconversation.com)
- Background Lung cancer survival is socioeconomically patterned, and socioeconomic inequalities in receipt of treatment have been demonstrated. (bmj.com)
- We investigate whether the extent of educational inequalities in the use of Pap smears (cervical cancer screening) and mammograms (breast cancer screening) in Belgium has changed over time in accordance with the pattern predicted by diffusion of innovation theory, as well as how the regional cancer screening policies of Flanders and Wallonia influence this pattern. (springer.com)
- Educational inequalities in cervical-cancer screening have been largely persistent over time in both regions. (springer.com)
- In contrast, educational inequalities in breast cancer screening fluctuated more between 1997 and 2013. (springer.com)
- Does life-course socioeconomic position influence racial inequalities in the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma? (scielosp.org)
- In addition, rising income inequality between blacks and whites since the 1970s have created affluent neighborhoods that tend to be composed of a homogeneous racial background of families within the same income bracket. (wikipedia.org)
- Women who experience racial discrimination during pregnancy are likely to suffer significant health effects that will negatively impact their infants, according to new research from by the University of Colorado, Denver. (psychcentral.com)
- Lincoln describes the ethical, health and financial issues raised by "racial targeting" of a specific population with a specific drug. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- Results The effect of 20 mph zones was similar across quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation, being associated with a 41.8% (95% CI 21.0% to 62.6%) decline in casualties in areas in the least deprived quintile versus 38.3% (31.5% to 45.0%) in the most deprived quintile. (bmj.com)
- Because of the greater number of road casualties in deprived areas and the targeting of zones to such areas, the number of casualties prevented by zones was substantially larger in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. (bmj.com)
- To get to the root of the problem, childhood deprivation must be addressed because it promotes damaging health behaviours in adult life. (healthcanal.com)
- This pandemic will have the heaviest impact on the lives of people living in deprivation or facing difficult socio-economic circumstances. (eurohealthnet.eu)
- Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. (ugent.be)
- Policies focused only on adult health behaviours do not address the socially patterned causes of these behaviours, or the independent role played by these causes in social inequalities in health. (healthcanal.com)
- This strengthens the case for increased investment in narrowing inequalities in early childhood experience, as well as measures to support quitting smoking and other damaging health behaviours in adults. (healthcanal.com)
- However, what this earlier work failed to address is the impact of poor circumstances in childhood and early adulthood on later health behaviours. (healthcanal.com)
- However other research has indicated that the lack of income outweighs the stress related consumption of cigarettes and alcohol (Ruhm 2005) or that health damaging behaviours are influenced by feelings of control and expectation of future employment (Catalano 1997). (ukessays.com)
- We assessed trends in socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent's health-related behaviours in Brazil between 2009 and 2015. (bmj.com)
- Over the period, we found consistent evidence of decreasing health inequalities for lifestyle behaviours (fruit, bean and soft drink consumption) and alcohol use, set against increasing inequalities in violence (domestic violence, fights using guns and bullying victimisation). (bmj.com)
- BARBARA WOLFE is professor of public affairs, economics, and population health sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (russellsage.org)
- Summary measures of population health: HALE and PYLL. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Income inequality and population health: Correlation and causality. (uni-muenchen.de)
- There is a well-established connection between active travel, primarily walking and cycling, and population health. (topsexywomen.com)
- Life-course socioeconomic position was determined by parental education (early life socioeconomic position), participant education (socioeconomic position in early adulthood) and their combination (cumulative socioeconomic position). (scielosp.org)
- See: Structural inequality in education One particularly influential form of structural inequality can be found in education, since education affects many other opportunities. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, education is an indicator of socioeconomic position that can be measured in multiple ways (e.g., highest degree attained, years of education). (nap.edu)
- Over half of children who received a dental check were provided with oral health education (59.6 per cent) or treated for previously untreated caries (52.2 per cent). (health.gov.au)
- These operate through such socioeconomic sectors as employment, education, housing and transport, which structure the health risks and opportunities of individuals. (bmj.com)
- Social scientists have repeatedly uncovered a disturbing feature of economic inequality: people with larger incomes and better education tend to lead longer, healthier lives. (russellsage.org)
- Women and men with the highest education live 5-6 years longer and have better health than those with the lowest education. (fhi.no)
- A higher education is associated with better health. (fhi.no)
- The impact of development aid on education and health: Survey and new evidence from dynamic models ," MERIT Working Papers 057, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT). (repec.org)
- The effectiveness of government expenditure on education and health care in the Caribbean ," MPRA Paper 40935, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
- The relationship between education and health behavior: some empirical evidence. (springer.com)
- Household income, level of education, employment, housing tenure and social connectedness all matter when it comes to the health of working-aged Australians. (theconversation.com)
- Examples include "ambient assisted living" (health) or eLearning services (education). (youblisher.com)
- Teach the benefits of an active and healthy lifestyle through physical and health education. (ei-ie.org)
- In Mali, we found a reduction in education-related inequalities in access to C-sections after implementation of the policy (p-value = 0.043). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Hatzfeld is delighted to speak about opportunities in emerging market development and how some of the trends we are seeing in improved access to health and financial services, technology and education - particularly for women and girls - is helping to drive economic transformation in many markets. (grinnell.edu)
- Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence. (umich.edu)
- Recession does not uniformly impact the health of the nation, affecting different social-classes in different ways and by variable amounts, further accentuating health inequalities (Marmot and Bell 2009).This essay will examine how the behavioural, psycho-social, materialist and life-course aetiological pathways are involved in the health effects of the economic downturn on different socio-economic groups. (ukessays.com)
- The secondary impact of the recession involved decreased lending from the financial sector, forcing companies to close altogether or relocate abroad for a cheaper workforce, meaning mass unemployment and unlikely reemployment (Clancy and Jenkins 2009). (ukessays.com)
- The Great Recession and the Health of Young Children: A Fixed Effects Analysis in Ireland. (harvard.edu)
- Unravelling the evolution of income-related health inequalities before and after the Great recession in Europe. (eur.nl)
- the impact of recession or policy change? (biomedcentral.com)
- Increasing health inequalities between women in and out of work - the impact of recession or policy change? (biomedcentral.com)
- Air pollution and noise pollution have a negative impact on all of society - but some groups are more affected than others. (environmental-expert.com)
- There are substantial social inequalities in health in Norway, especially between educational groups. (fhi.no)
- For example, it provides data that show health service use for specific sub-groups of the population within small areas of Australia, such as people who participate in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. (ands.org.au)
- 11 Other forms of marketing such as product promotions and corporate sponsorships also often target vulnerable groups, 12, 13 contributing to the health burden these groups experience. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. (nih.gov)
- However, population-level statistics fail to capture large geographic and socio-economic inequalities in the survival of children under-five, and slower rates of improvement in children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. (biomedcentral.com)
- this is navigated in the context of heightened socioeconomic inequalities and daily survival challenges. (aidsmap.com)
- Cancer registry, Hospital Episode Statistics and lung cancer audit data were linked in order to investigate the contribution of these inequalities to socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer survival. (bmj.com)
- What role does receipt of, and time to, treatment play in socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer survival? (bmj.com)
- Although current clinical guidelines focus on target times for referral and treatment, our results suggest that a clinical focus on ensuring equity of treatment for lung cancer is likely to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in survival, and improve overall survival. (bmj.com)
- However some of this difference may be attributed to the theory of 'selection' that ill people are more likely to become or remain unemployed, rather than 'exposure' where unemployment causes health deterioration (Burgard et al. (ukessays.com)
- Using panel variation in exposure to peers we find strong within firm, location and family impacts on choice quality. (lse.ac.uk)
- Tobacco, alcohol, and food companies target advertising at Blacks, Hispanics and low-income communities, leading to greater exposure to health-damaging messages. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- 8, 9, 10 In some cases, differential media exposure further exacerbates the adverse impact. (corporationsandhealth.org)
- We aimed to investigate whether life-course socioeconomic position mediates the association between skin color/race and occurrence of uterine leiomyomas. (scielosp.org)
- The aim is to investigate whether health inequalities between employed women and those not in work (unemployed, on sick leave or with disability pension) has increased in 2010 compared to 2006, regarding limiting longstanding illness and mental distress. (biomedcentral.com)
- Au Brésil, le développement socioéconomique, couplé à des politiques en faveur de l'équité, s'est accompagné d'améliorations marquées des conditions de vie, d'une baisse substantielle de la dénutrition de l'enfant et d'une réduction de l'écart de statut nutritionnel entre les quintiles les plus riches et les plus pauvres. (scielosp.org)
- We produce evidence of the health and economic impacts of alternative approaches, through modelling and identification of best practices. (oecd.org)
- The report calls for a range of inter-related responses to the social and economic impacts of Zika. (kff.org)
- The health and economic impacts of achieving a TFA were evaluated against a predicted baseline scenario, where current smoking trends continue. (bmj.com)
- Absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. (scielosp.org)
- We calculated absolute and relative measures of inequality, more specifically, the slope index of inequality (SII) and the relative index of inequality (RII), and their development over time. (springer.com)