Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Size and composition of the family.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Living facilities for humans.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
The status of health in urban populations.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A person's view of himself.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/19736)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience. (2/19736)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period. (3/19736)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (4/19736)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (5/19736)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics. (6/19736)

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (7/19736)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland. (8/19736)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a measurement of social standing based on income, education, and other factors. Socioeconomic ... Low socioeconomic status environments with a high stress factor can increase the memory processing for a particular unpleasant ... "Mapping the Trajectory of Socioeconomic Disparity in Working Memory: Parental and Neighborhood Factors". Child Development. 85 ... "Childhood socioeconomic status and adult brain size: Childhood socioeconomic status influences adult hippocampal size". Annals ...
"Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors". Developmental Science. 9 (6): 642- ... from the top to the bottom of the socio-economic ladder, relating status to health. Parents with a low socioeconomic status ... Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three levels (high, middle, and low) to describe the three places a family or an ... Socioeconomic status plays a role in the involvement of certain parents over others. It affects parenting practices and as a ...
Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor. For example, in New York City, Cantonese still predominates in the city's older, ... Knodel, John; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Hermalin, Albert I (2002). "The Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Context of the Four ...
I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study". Eur Heart J. 10 (10): 910-16. doi:10.1093/ ... Although personality and social factors may make people likely to smoke, the actual habit is a function of operant conditioning ... Smoking is a risk factor strongly associated with periodontitis and tooth loss. The effects of smoking on periodontal tissues ... Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in ...
... it can also include socioeconomic factors. However, there is a cultural difference with this term, as it can be perceived ... and additional testing of its factors was published in 1995. It postulates six factors which are key for well-being, namely ... Quantitative methods in positive psychology include p-technique factor analysis, dynamic factor analysis, interindividual ... So too the work of Csikszentmihalyi and older models of well-being, such as Carol Ryff's Six-factor Model of Psychological Well ...
I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study". Eur Heart J. 10 (10): 910-16. doi:10.1093/ ... Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in ... Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors". BMJ. 332 (7550): 1142-44. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7550.1142. PMC 1459603. PMID ...
Territorialism often occurs due to socioeconomic factors. Many surfers originally came from a lower economic class and resented ...
The state ranks third in socioeconomic factors. As of 2010, there were 1,801,306 housing units in the state. 94.2% have running ... One important factor in population growth is migration into the state. Since 1995, over 22% of the state population was born ... It is ranked third in socioeconomic indicators behind Nuevo León and the Federal District of Mexico City. The main sectors of ...
Socioeconomic factors also have a direct impact. Lower-class domestic workers who are often employed by those in a higher ... Genetic factors and immune function play a role in how easily a person catches the disease. Leprosy does not spread during ... The greatest risk factor for developing leprosy is contact with another person infected by leprosy. People who are exposed to a ... Not all people who are infected or exposed to M. leprae develop leprosy, and genetic factors are suspected to play a role in ...
They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... 1979 The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ...
They include a large number of "default emission factors". These are factors to estimate the amount of emissions for an ... This draws on scientific, technical and socioeconomic information. IPCC reports must be neutral regarding policy ... However, they may address the objective factors relevant to enacting policies. The IPCC has the following structure: IPCC Panel ...
... socioeconomic and environmental factors pg 49-73" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-12-10. (All articles with ... Several factors are contributing to a rise in obesity within Australia, with a large factor being advancing technology. In 2012 ... "Why do women of low socioeconomic status have poorer dietary behaviours than women of higher socioeconomic status? A ... Low socio economic groups are revealed to be more susceptible to poor nutritional patterns. This is due to lower levels of ...
Some constraints are informed by socio-economic factors. There are some gay, lesbian and queer people who cannot afford a ... One very important factor driving the social change in contemporary China is the great changes in and reorganization of social ... From the sociological perspective, there have been several main factors that have created the current turning point in the ... is an influential factor in making changes in Chinese society. During the Cultural Revolution, individual sexual preferences ...
However socioeconomic factors cannot explain all the differences. The Spanish, for example, also arrived as Gastarbeiter, but ... Other factors contributing to the success of immigrant children were the fact that Eastern German immigrant children were more ... However, academic grades were not the only factors influencing Realschule attendance. Even if grades were controlled, ethnic ...
Several factors contribute to the prevalence and incidences[spelling?] including socio-economic factors, geographical region, ... "Chhattisgarh CM: OBC factor tipped scale in favour of Bhupesh Baghel over TS Singhdeo and Tamradhwaj Sahu". Financial Express. ...
... how early are socioeconomic disparities in cognition and the brain detected?), what the underlying mediating factors are that ... Brain-behavior relationships in reading acquisition are modulated by socioeconomic factors. Developmental Science, 9(6), 642- ... Noble, K. G., Houston, S. M., Kan, E., & Sowell, E. R. (2012). Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing ... She and her colleagues examine environmental factors that may influence cognitive development with the aim of informing public ...
Sakani, O; Zohry, AG (1994). "Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Affecting School Enrollment in Egypt". The Egyptian ... Zohry, A. G.; Hosam-el-Din, T. M. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Female Circumcision in the Sudan. Paper ... "The Impact of Socioeconomic Setting and Program Effort on Contraceptive Prevalence in the Egyptian Governorates". The Egyptian ...
Different socioeconomic groups are likely to have different tastes. Social class is one of the prominent factors structuring ... He took his thesis of taste as an economic factor and merged it with the neoclassical hypothesis of nonsatiety, which states ... There is likely to be variation between groups of different socioeconomic status in preferences for cultural practices and ...
Among socio-economic factors were restrictions by the authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed the doors for many ... This was also the chief motivating factor behind the massacres of Jews in Granada in 1066, when nearly 3,000 Jews were killed, ... George Gruen attributes the increased animosity towards Jews in the Arab world to several factors, including the breakdown of ... Some scholars have argued that modern antisemitism is primarily based on nonreligious factors, John Higham being emblematic of ...
These factors further contribute to their low socio-economic status, which impacts the ability for young Indigenous people to ... "Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on rural health". Australian Journal of Rural Health. 17 (1): 10-15. doi: ... These factors consist of the reduced access to education and health care professionals with alcohol treatment services, leading ... This is as a result of numerous factors such as the "disconnection to culture, traditions and country, social exclusion, ...
This factor determines the most of their socioeconomic characteristics. Its average altitude is between 400 and 500 meters. In ...
Even when education, occupation and socioeconomic background are held constant, the correlation does not vanish. The g factor ... second-order factors (or group factors); and at the apex, there is a single third-order factor, g, the general factor common to ... factor analysis will yield a general factor common to all tests. The general factor of IQ tests is referred to as the g factor ... The total common factor variance consists of the variance due to the g factor and the group factors considered together. The ...
E Verbeek, E Kanis, R C Bett, and I S Kosgey (2007). "Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya". ... All of these factors mean the Red Maasai is suited to meat production instead of fiber.[citation needed] Red Maasai sheep are ...
Environmental factors relate both to the environment of the patient and to the physical environment of the clinician's office. ... Further, socioeconomic status has been linked to client dropout, where poorer patients drop out more frequently. ... Also included as an environmental factor is the patient's access to care. In the United States, many insurance companies do not ... However, there are different factors associated with patient dropout that are worth identifying. There are several meta- ...
Among socio-economic factors were restrictions by the authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to ...
However, the socio-economic factor needs to be considered. While no arrest data broken down by income, BJS survey provided ... A contributing factor to domestic violence among football players may be that they are desensitized to physical conduct because ... Those three factors are the main predictors of a male's inclination toward gender violence. More recent studies have ...
Localism often exists due to socioeconomic factors as well. Until relatively recently, surfers were looked down upon as lazy ...
In particular, researchers seek to determine what factors explain differences in rates of development. Women's education is one ... The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development. ... There are many social factors that have prevented women from education throughout India, including traditional conservative ... of states can also illustrate the complexity in education being both a cause and effect of social and economic factors. The ...
Socioeconomic factors contribute to willingness to choose walking over driving. Income, age, race, ethnicity, education, ... These factors cannot be taken singularly. Rather than an ideal functional mix, there is a mix of mixes and interdependencies ... Walking will primarily be chosen for up to 10 minutes if it is the fastest mode and other factors are equal. Walking has the ... Combinations of these factors influence an individual's decision to walk. Before cars and bicycles were mass-produced, walking ...
Socio-economic and regional factors additionally gave rise to revulsion. The shifting landscape of East Los Angeles during the ... Asco's work throughout 1970s and 1980s responded specifically to socioeconomic and political problems surrounding the Chicano ...
While multitasking and its effects influence all socioeconomic classes, the lower, working classes tend to bear the burden of ... Women complete over sixty percent of unpaid household work, which is almost never factored into any productive measure and ... Although each index takes different factors into account, neither addresses time poverty or work intensity. Better economic ...
... and other socio-economic factors. A further factor currently being researched is the role of the media in the social ... According to this study the factors that lead to crime should be collected into different clusters: personality of the ... Rather than unemployment being the sole or a primary contributing factor towards crime rates, there is evidence pointing ... towards a greater set of factors that can even contribute towards unemployment itself. ...
... to be transmitted sexually in a way compatible with known risk factors, such as promiscuity and low socioeconomic status. ... Other risk factors include smoking, a weak immune system, birth control pills, starting sex at a young age, and having many ... Infection with some types of HPV is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking. HIV infection is also a ... There are several factors that may limit indigenous women from engaging in regular cervical screening practices, including ...
District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local ... From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. For ninth through twelfth grades ... New Jersey District Factor Group DE, School districts in Sussex County, New Jersey, Public K-8 schools in New Jersey). ... The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "DE", the fifth-highest ...
District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local ... From highest socioeconomic status to lowest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. Public school students in ... The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "B", the second-lowest ... New Jersey District Factor Group B, School districts in Ocean County, New Jersey, Public elementary schools in New Jersey). ...
... but also the result of more complex socio-economic, socio-political and geographical factors, its existence, and the manner in ... "chill factor" and thus harms community relationships. Efforts by members of the Northern Ireland Assembly to legislate for some ... which nationalist anger at it was handled, were a major contributing factor to the Troubles. The political unrest went through ...
District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local ... From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. Schools in the district (with ... New Jersey District Factor Group DE, School districts in Gloucester County, New Jersey, West Deptford Township, New Jersey). ... The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "DE", the fifth-highest ...
A contributing factor is the growth of relatively less energy-intensive service industries. New Zealand will be potentially ... While the OECD report credited New Zealand's elimination strategy and macroeconomic stimuli such as wage and socio-economic ...
These factors form the Bishop score. The Bishop score can also be used as a means to predict the success of an induction of ... socioeconomic status, ethnicity, preparation, physical environment, pain, immobility, or medical interventions. According to a ... Risk factors for fetal birth injury include fetal macrosomia (big baby), maternal obesity, the need for instrumental delivery, ... The exact location in which childbirth takes place is an important factor in determining nationality, in particular for birth ...
Socio-economic data and other statistical data (often the "D" and the "R" of the DPSIR model) are not considered as ... ". "Five Factors Driving ESG Integration". Article 'The advantages of proper environmental data management' DPSIR-Model of the ...
Basic Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile (PDF) (Report). The United Republic of Tanzania. April 2014. Archived (PDF) from ... Ngowi, Honest (May 2009). "Economic development and change in Tanzania since independence: The political leadership factor". ... Hoornweg, Daniel; Pope, Kevin (January 2014). "Socioeconomic Pathways and Regional Distribution of the World's 101 Largest ...
Risk factors for dental caries includes living in poverty, poor education, low socioeconomic status, being part of an ethnic ... All these factors contribute to the high rate of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many of the factors seen in Africa are also present ... Eliminating Co-factors: Tackling the very diseases that increase risk of HIV infections can help slow down the rates of HIV ... Co-factors such as malaria and parasitic infections can be combated in an effective and cost-efficient manner. For example, ...
District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local ... From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. Public school students from ... The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "DE", the fifth-highest ... New Jersey District Factor Group DE, School districts in Burlington County, New Jersey, Public K-8 schools in New Jersey). ...
Using such factors make it difficult for the government not to be faced with lawsuits, the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. ... socioeconomic and health indicators such as Ozone concentrations in air PM2.5 concentrations in air Diesel particulate matter ... Also, this new factor can address the issue of the lack of clean drinking water within disadvantaged communities. In addition, ... As of September 16, 2013 OEHHA has decided that CalEnviroScreen will no longer use race and ethnicity as a factor when ...
Manoharan, Aroon (2011). E-Governance and Civic Engagement: Factors and Determinants of E-Democracy. IGI Global. ISBN 978-1- ... and realize socio-economic development by building a transparent government and providing value-added quality services through ... and political factors, vulnerability to cyber attacks, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas. The political nature ...
The environmental conditions and the socio-economic factors of the drought-stricken Ceará made the area perfect and the people ... Environmental conditions, socio-economic status, demographic and human behaviors are what pose major risks to humans as well as ... Leishmania braziliensis is usually referred to as a rural problem since the increased risk factors are common in rural areas of ... Oryan, A.; Akbari, M. (October 2016). "Worldwide risk factors in leishmaniasis". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 9 ...
... who were gaining socioeconomic influence due to their role in the transportation sector: 169-170 of the forestry industry.: 57 ... 264 has been identified by some scholars as an aggravating factor in the prevalence of environmental hazards (such as proximity ... it also became a source of resentment toward the socio-economic success of the Romani community.: 160 According to Ӧzateşler, " ...
De Nadai, Marco; Xu, Yayan; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Gonzáles, Marta C.; Lepri, Bruno (17 August 2020). "Socio-economic, built ... understanding centred on the quality of state-society relations and with greater attention to potential stress factors, ... "Socio-economic, built environment, and mobility conditions associated with crime: a study of multiple cities". Scientific ...
Research attributes the discrepancies to a variety of factors, including limitations in infrastructure, socioeconomic ... Different factors are excluded or included that affect the scale of distance. The USDA maintains an online interactive mapping ... Although personal factors do impact eating behavior for rural people, it is the physical and social environments that place ... The second and third standards adjust the scale of distance and factor income to define a food desert. In the US, a food desert ...
Shah, Shreya (11 August 2016). "Socio-economic factors, not religion, influence India's fertility rate and population growth". ... The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, ... Mistry, Malika B. (December 2005). "Muslims in India: A demographic and socio-economic profile". Journal of Muslim Minority ... However, other sociologists point out that religious factors can explain high Muslim birthrates. Surveys indicate that Muslims ...
Two factors adding to the complexity of the story is the fact that the murdered woman is also the ex-wife of the director's ... tackles the religious divide within Israeli society in much the same way that Bread tackled the socio-economic divide. It is ...
An estimation of Socioeconomic status (SES) was taken from the parents' occupation and family income, and scores were gathered ... It is suggested that, while genetic factors are not as significant in determining aptitude in lower SES groups of either race, ... David C. Rowe's work looks at the influence of genetic and environmental factors specifically on the variation of verbal IQ, ... It is acknowledged that the level of parental education is likely to be influenced by genetic factors, with higher-educated ...
While geography, climate, and other "natural" factors largely determined the parameters of social conditions for most of human ... The first major elaboration of a technological determinist view of socioeconomic development came from the German philosopher ... and it has been the principal objective and determining factor. Soft determinism, as the name suggests, is a more passive view ... is mediated and controlled by society and societal factors which suppress the radical potential of a given technology. One ...
Many factors contributed to the cancellation: rising cost estimates (to $12bn); poor management by physicists and Department of ... places the cancellation of the SSC in the context of a bigger national and global socio-economic crisis, including a general ...
In recent years, with socio-economic policies such as the socialist harmonious society, sociology has been coming back to ... The development history of Chinese sociology should integrate Chinese social thoughts and cultural factors. As of 2008, Chinese ... In particular, sociological research in China focuses on issues related to socioeconomic developments, such as social ...
District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local ... From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. Students in public school for ... The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "I", the second-highest ... New Jersey District Factor Group I, School districts in Bergen County, New Jersey). ...
In books like The Identity of Man, Clark promoted what he saw as the benefits of social hierarchy, viewing socio-economic ... and of the factors governing their distribution", while in 1939 he referred to it as "the study of how men lived in the past". ...
Various suggestions of distinct periods of humanitarianism exist, drawing either on geopolitical or socioeconomic factors that ... and Steffen Werther are advocates of the socioeconomic and cultural approach, arguing that there have been ages of "ad hoc ...
These factors, combined with the destabilising invasion of miners, led the British to annex the Transvaal, which included the ... or socio-economic class. In 2018, the name of the Kingdom of Swaziland was officially changed to Eswatini. In 2021, the ...
However, as the colonies began printing their own money, location-based socio economic issues soon followed. Most of these ... prohibition created tension between the colonies and the mother country and has sometimes been seen as a contributing factor in ... widening the gaps between socioeconomic classes.[citation needed] The paper bills issued by the colonies were known as "bills ...
2016) Socioeconomic Factors at the Intersection of Race and Ethnicity Influencing Health Risks for People with Disabilities. J ... Socioeconomic Factors at the Intersection of Race and Ethnicity Influencing Health Risks for People with Disabilities. ... To conduct this study, CDC researchers used data from the 2007-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. In this survey ... To conduct this study, CDC researchers used information reported by respondents to the 2007-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor ...
Ethnicity, geography and socioeconomic factors determine likelihood of detecting serious congenital Significant disparities ... Ethnicity, geography and socioeconomic factors determine likelihood of detecting serious congenital. Childrens National ... Mothers who are Hispanic or who come from rural or low socioeconomic status neighborhoods are less likely to have their childs ... Even when infants heart defects were detected before birth, babies from neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status were ...
Addressing alcohol consumption and socioeconomic inequalities: how a health promotion approach can help  ... "the contribution of health programmes to socio-economic development" by Dr Esther Ammundsen  ...
... ... Impact of Individual and Neighborhood Factors on Socioeconomic Disparities in Localized and Advanced Prostate Cancer Risk. ... including specific social and built environment factors, to explore potential mediators of socio-economic status disparities in ... individual-level covariates and specific social and built environment factors to assess the extent to which these factors were ...
... but rather with increasing socioeconomic status. Risk of infection also varies with cultural background. Observed differences ... Socioeconomic risk factors for bacterial gastrointestinal infections Jacob Simonsen 1 , Morten Frisch, Steen Ethelberg ... Socioeconomic risk factors for bacterial gastrointestinal infections Jacob Simonsen et al. Epidemiology. 2008 Mar. ... but little is known about socioeconomic factors affecting the risk of infection. ...
... ... Proposals should address improved physical or mental health, or both, while considering the relevant socio-economic and/or ... These differences are caused by many factors such as living conditions, health-related behaviour, education, occupation and ...
Research should examine socioeconomic differences across populations to better understand racial disparities in health. ... Socioeconomic factors and persistent racial disparities in childhood vaccination Karen G Wooten 1 , Elizabeth T Luman, Lawrence ... Socioeconomic factors and persistent racial disparities in childhood vaccination Karen G Wooten et al. Am J Health Behav. 2007 ... Objective: To better understand the effects of socioeconomic factors on racial disparities in childhood vaccination. ...
Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019 Emily Rayens. , Mary Kay ... Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Fungal Infection Risk, United States, 2019. ...
Sex Factors. Socioeconomic Factors. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic--epidemiology. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic--therapy. ... Trauma spectrum disorders : the role of gender, race & other socioeconomic factors / Defense Centers of Excellence for ... Trauma Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Gender, Race & Other Socioeconomic Factors (Day 2). ... Trauma Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Gender, Race & Other Socioeconomic Factors (Day 1) ...
... as part of the Success Factors Study on reducing maternal and child mortality. ... Country progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: adjusting for socioeconomic factors reveals greater progress and new ... adjust for health and non-health sector factors known to affect maternal and child health. ... as part of the Success Factors Study on reducing maternal and child mortality. ...
Socio-economic factors enabling and/or constraining adoption of compost.. Key findings. In the case of the Cauca CSV adoption ... To better understand the socioeconomic factors that foster or slow down the adoption of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) ... A multiple-factor analysis (MFA) and a cluster analysis led to the identification of three different farmer types in the Cauca ... Working paper: Understanding socioeconomic aspects influencing CSA adoption. About the authors: Osana Bonilla-Findji is the ...
Socioeconomic factors associated with tobacco smoking in Turkey: a cross-sectional, population-based study ... Socioeconomic determinants of health include age, gender and socioeconomic status. The most common indicators of socioeconomic ... The socioeconomic factors of smoking behaviour have been assessed in studies in Balcova, Turkey which were based on individuals ... The relationship between socioeconomic factors and smoking habits showed differences between men and women. More population- ...
Are there national risk factors for epidemic cholera? The correlation between socioeconomic and demographic indices and cholera ... Are there national risk factors for epidemic cholera? The correlation between socioeconomic and demographic indices and cholera ... Interaction between climatic, environmental, and demographic factors on cholera outbreaks in Kenya. Stoltzfus JD, Carter JY, ... These data were used to assess correlations between socioeconomic and demographic indices that might serve as national risk ...
In 1998, 2003 and 2006 the HSfE focused on CHD risk factors. Socio-economic circumstance (SEC) was defined by grouped quintiles ... 033 Socio-economic trends in cardiovascular risk factors in England, 1994-2008 ... 033 Socio-economic trends in cardiovascular risk factors in England, 1994-2008 ... we therefore examined differentials in CHD risk factors across socio-economic groups over recent years. ...
Socioeconomic and therapy factor influence on self-reported fatigue, anxiety and depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients. ... Socioeconomic and therapy factor influence on self-reported fatigue, anxiety and depression in rheumatoid arthritis patients ...
Socioeconomic and Occupational Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Study Based on Hospitalizations in Sweden. ... Socioeconomic and Occupational Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Study Based on Hospitalizations in Sweden ... Socioeconomic and Occupational Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Study Based on Hospitalizations in Sweden ... Socioeconomic and Occupational Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Study Based on Hospitalizations in Sweden ...
Aims: To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering ( ... The influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive): ... The influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive): ...
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Woodlot Farming Adoption from Crop Farming in Tanzania: A Case of Mufindi District ... Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Woodlot Farming Adoption from Crop Farming in Tanzania: A Case of Mufindi District. * Yona ... The study stressed to examine socio - economic factors influencing woodlot farming adoption in Mufindi district, Tanzania. The ... Basing on the findings, the study concluded that socio-economic factors that influence woodlot farming positively and ...
And yet, very few breast cancer studies factor race or other socioeconomic indicators into their analysis, according to a ... Most Breast Cancer Studies Dont Address Race or Socioeconomic Factors. Jul 17, 2018. C. Gourarie ... But despite the recognition socioeconomic factors play a role in cancer risk and outcomes, the vast majority of research ... The authors argue that as the evidence in breast cancer research shows, race and socioeconomic factors affect risk and ...
Socio-Economic Factors and Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issues for Guidance and ... Keywords: Awareness Guidance and Counseling, Ebonyi State, HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, Rural Women, Socio-Economic Factors ... This study analyzed the socio-economic factors influencing rural women farmers awareness of HIV/AIDs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria ... This means that about 68.5 percent of the level of awareness of HIV/AIDs in the area was influenced by the socio-economic ...
"Socioeconomic Factors" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Socioeconomic Factors" was a major or minor topic of ... "Socioeconomic Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Socioeconomic Factors" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ... Healthcare Disparities in the Management of Acute Cholecystitis: Impact of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Factors on ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Socioeconomic Factors ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Socioeconomic Factors ... Socioeconomic Factors. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Middle Aged. Humans. United States 29. Health and retirement ... Socioeconomic Factors. Time Factors. Female. Humans. Male. United States. United States. Social Security Administration. 26. ... Socioeconomic Factors. Humans. California. United States 24. Will people be healthy enough to work longer? ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Socioeconomic Factors ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Socioeconomic Factors Publication Year ...
Importance of Socioeconomic Factors. The study analyzed 1,254,991 heart failure deaths across 3,048 counties between 1999 and ... This study highlights the importance of addressing socioeconomic factors to improve heart failure outcomes nationally. ... The study, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Heart Failure Mortality in the United States, was published online in Journal of ... Socioeconomic status may play an important role in heart failure because access to expensive medications and other therapies ...
Dismal performance of boys in kenya certificate of secondary education: diagnosis of effects of socio-economic factors in ... This study sought to establish the socio- economic factors that affect the academic performance of boys in national ... The study concluded that as boys progress within the school system their performance declines due to social economic factors ... should consider fully operational guidance and counseling departments to mitigate on the effects of social-economic factors ...
Is your source credible? Dont forget to consider these factors.. Purpose : Reason the source exists. *Is the point of the ...
... ... This study aimed at determining the socio-economic factors influencing yields as well as assessing the influence of coffee ...
... ... was analysed against available demographic and socioeconomic variables and compared with initiation rates from interstate ...
Race and socioeconomic factors. Syphilis has no racial predilection. However, its incidence appears to correlate with the ... Factors and the sociosexual network associated with a syphilis outbreak in rural North Carolina. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 May. 34(5 ... socioeconomic factors-often racially imbalanced-that contribute to disease prevalence among individuals with low incomes, who ... of a syphilis outbreak in North Carolina described an association between crack cocaine and sex for drugs as a causative factor ...
  • This population-based case-control study combines interview and secondary data, including specific social and built environment factors, to explore potential mediators of socio-economic status disparities in prostate cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • To better understand the effects of socioeconomic factors on racial disparities in childhood vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Research should examine socioeconomic differences across populations to better understand racial disparities in health. (nih.gov)
  • They found that of 57 articles published in 2016 on breast cancer, fewer than 5 percent-of those that were not explicitly designed to study such disparities—reported findings stratified by race and other socioeconomic factors. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • McCarty TR, Chouairi F, Hathorn KE, Sharma P, Muniraj T, Thompson CC. Healthcare Disparities in the Management of Acute Cholecystitis: Impact of Race, Gender, and Socioeconomic Factors on Cholecystectomy vs Percutaneous Cholecystostomy. (uams.edu)
  • Even though many health care providers have seen these inequities firsthand in their own clinical experience, it was still surprising to see the strength of the association between socioeconomic position and the care available to mothers. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the association between socioeconomic factors and cigarette tobacco smoking in Balcova, Izmir, Turkey, with a focus on gender differences. (who.int)
  • Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic characteristics and smoking status. (who.int)
  • Furthermore, research is now crucial to quantify the extent to which these persistent inequalities in CHD risk factor levels might explain the substantial inequalities observed in CHD mortality. (bmj.com)
  • In a commentary titled, "Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship," the authors argue that in addition to race and ethnicity, social factors like income, access to healthcare, and socioeconomic position should be regularly incorporated in cancer research because they influence medical outcomes. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • They argue against their inclusion because race and ethnicity are not modifiable factors, and poverty or socioeconomic status are beyond the scope of healthcare practitioners to treat. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • These associations are further complicated by a variety of moderating factors, such as race, ethnicity, and gender. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) presentation at our institution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objectives: this research aims to study the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic factors, and dental caries and their outcomes in adult and elderly residents of a Northeastern community. (bvsalud.org)
  • The investigators used multiple indicators of employment, poverty, income, housing and education to determine a person's level of socioeconomic deprivation. (uhhospitals.org)
  • The study, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Heart Failure Mortality in the United States , was published online in Journal of Cardiac Failure . (uhhospitals.org)
  • Perinatally collected breastfeeding initiation data (breastfeeding at discharge from hospital) was analysed against available demographic and socioeconomic variables and compared with initiation rates from interstate Australian populations. (edu.au)
  • Mothers who are Hispanic or who come from rural or low socioeconomic status neighborhoods are less likely to have their child's critical heart condition diagnosed before birth, according to a new study in the journal Circulation . (eurekalert.org)
  • Even when infants' heart defects were detected before birth, babies from neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status were detected later in gestation than others. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using Poisson regression analyses, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated for the major groups of bacteria in different socioeconomic strata, focusing on income group, level of education, marital status, number of children in the household, and country of birth. (nih.gov)
  • Gender and lower socioeconomic status are associated with smoking. (who.int)
  • People of low socioeconomic status are more likely to be less healthy than those of higher socioeconomic status, thus increasing their risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) (1). (who.int)
  • To investigate possible associations between socioeconomic status, occupation, and hospitalization for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (jrheum.org)
  • Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by socioeconomic status (education level) and occupation for men and women aged 30 years and older. (jrheum.org)
  • Socioeconomic status and occupation sometimes carry a significantly increased risk of hospitalization for RA. (jrheum.org)
  • The study found that the variability in heart failure mortality in the United States is at least partially explained by measures of wealth and socioeconomic status. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Socioeconomic status may play an important role in heart failure because access to expensive medications and other therapies can be more available in affluent communities. (uhhospitals.org)
  • socioeconomic status. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with lower socioeconomic status , with symptoms, and needing emergency surgery were associated with advanced CRC stage at presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the many factors influencing a person's alcohol use and related outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • This article focuses on one particular aspect of this complex set of systems, namely the relationship between SES- including income/economic factors, educational level, employment status, and housing status-and alcohol-related outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • While socioeconomic status is not always a precise or consistent measure - particularly in married women, students and people with disabilities whose occupations and incomes tend to be variable - it is clear that socioeconomic status is associated with important health consequences, says Dr. Katz. (nih.gov)
  • But despite the recognition socioeconomic factors play a role in cancer risk and outcomes, the vast majority of research continues to ignore these factors, according to the authors. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • This study highlights the importance of addressing socioeconomic factors to improve heart failure outcomes nationally. (uhhospitals.org)
  • These factors, which operate within various systems and levels, interact and transact over time to determine alcohol-related outcomes, such as drinking patterns and negative alcohol- related consequences (Gruenewald et al. (nih.gov)
  • Do Climatic and Socioeconomic Factors Explain Population Vulnerability to Malaria? (who.int)
  • Poor climatic and socioeconomic factors are known to increase population vulnerability to malaria. (who.int)
  • Objectives: This study aims to study the role of climatic and socioeconomic factors in determining population vulnerability to malaria in India. (who.int)
  • Conclusion: Household's vulnerability to malaria differed according to state climatic vulnerability level and socioeconomic factors. (who.int)
  • Guin P, Kumar EL, Mukhopadhyay I.. Do Climatic and Socioeconomic Factors Explain Population Vulnerability to Malaria? (who.int)
  • This study analyzed the socio-economic factors influencing rural women farmers' awareness of HIV/AIDs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issue for Guidance and Counseling. (eajournals.org)
  • Basing on the findings, the study concluded that socio-economic factors that influence woodlot farming positively and significantly are income generation expectation, land size, and assets acquisitions meanwhile education level influence woodlot farming adoption negatively and significantly. (ccsenet.org)
  • Data from the survey and secondary sources was analyzed, and the following were identified as the main socio-economic factors that influence tea productivity, low labour allocated to tea production, low number of tea bushes owned and low proportion of land under tea. (journalcra.com)
  • Socioeconomic factors (including job dissatisfaction, physically strenuous work, psychologically stressful work, low educational attainment, and Workers' Compensation Insurance) are important risk factors for the onset of back pain and disability in general, as are smoking, obesity, older age and issues such as anxiety and depression. (nih.gov)
  • Fast-track targets, based on best-performing countries' progress within regional and income groups, adjust for health and non-health sector factors known to affect maternal and child health. (nih.gov)
  • Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health and the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, as part of the Success Factors Study on reducing maternal and child mortality. (nih.gov)
  • To study the influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive) in the first year of life. (bmj.com)
  • Some prenatal risk factors, including maternal smoking, have been firmly established, but diet and nutrition, stress, use of antibiotics and mode of delivery may also affect the early development of allergy and asthma. (cmaj.ca)
  • Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure. (uams.edu)
  • Methods: questionnaires were applied to characterize household and socioeconomic conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • To better understand the socioeconomic factors that foster or slow down the adoption of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices within smallholder farming communities, a new methodological framework has been developed and piloted by researchers in Colombia from the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture ( CIAT ). (cgiar.org)
  • Time-series dynamic regression was applied to test the correlation of incidence rates and accumulated deforestation, adjusted by climate and socioeconomic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trauma spectrum disorders : the role of gender, race & other socioeconomic factors / Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Institutes of Health, and Department of Veterans Affairs. (nih.gov)
  • Lumbar disc disorders and low-back pain: socioeconomic factors and consequences. (nih.gov)
  • At EU level, the Urban Agenda for the EU[[ https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/urban-agenda ]] focuses on improving the life of their citizens for example through the development of digital solutions, reducing urban poverty and better integration of migrants and refugees. (europa.eu)
  • To appropriately meet the challenges of closing the knowledge gaps, improving the identification and treatment of gender and race factors in traumatic stress and traumatic brain injury, the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury (DCoE), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA), is launching a two-day scientific conference. (nih.gov)
  • A series of regression models were used to analyse the influence of SEC and time on risk factor levels, separately for each gender. (bmj.com)
  • Later in childhood, putative risk factors include exposure to allergens, breastfeeding (which may initially protect and then increase the risk of sensitization), family size and structure, and sex and gender. (cmaj.ca)
  • Socio-economic factors enabling and/or constraining adoption of compost. (cgiar.org)
  • Using data from the Health Survey for England from 1994 to 2007, we therefore examined differentials in CHD risk factors across socio-economic groups over recent years. (bmj.com)
  • The study stressed to examine socio - economic factors influencing woodlot farming adoption in Mufindi district, Tanzania. (ccsenet.org)
  • This study sought to establish the socio- economic factors that affect the academic performance of boys in national examinations in Subukia District, Nakuru County, Kenya. (journalcra.com)
  • The study concluded that as boys progress within the school system their performance declines due to social economic factors such as lack of latent education levies thereby forcing them to enter casual employment and lapse into indiscipline. (journalcra.com)
  • Analysis of socio-economic factors affecting the Yields of smallholder coffee farmers In Kirinyaga County, Kenya. (ac.ke)
  • This study aimed at determining the socio-economic factors influencing yields as well as assessing the influence of coffee prices on re-investment and yields within the small holder sector of Kirinyaga County. (ac.ke)
  • Economic and geographical factors influencing child malnutrition : a study from the Southern Highlands, Tanzania / by Oddvar Jakobsen. (who.int)
  • Therefore, the current research aimed to understand the knowledge of breast cancer symptoms and risk factors among women in a low socio-economic area of Mumbai. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The low production in the sub sector has been attributed to several socio-economic and technological factors which include, poor labour utilization, low fertilizer application, low adoption of improved technologies, and low plant population among others. (journalcra.com)
  • A study was carried out to identify the socio-economic factors which influence tea productivity in the smallholder sub sector of Nandi district. (journalcra.com)
  • Full Text PA-92-101 RESEARCH ON ECONOMIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE NIH GUIDE, Volume 21, Number 30, August 21, 1992 P.T. 34 Keywords: Alcohol/Alcoholism Health Care Economics Epidemiology PA NUMBER: PA-92-101 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism PURPOSE Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are major problems in the United States, and costs related to alcohol misuse are a significant economic issue. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this Program Announcement (PA) is to make clear the continued interest of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) in supporting additional, high-quality research on economic and socioeconomic aspects of the prevention, treatment, and epidemiology of alcohol-related problems. (nih.gov)
  • This PA is a revised version of a 1988 announcement titled "Research on Economic and Socioeconomic Issues in the Prevention, Treatment, and Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (nih.gov)
  • This PA, Research on Economic and Socioeconomic Aspects of Alcohol Abuse, is related to the priority areas of decreasing morbidity and mortality that are associated with the drinking of alcohol. (nih.gov)
  • Logistic regressions indicated that higher educational and socioeconomic levels are associated with a lower likelihood of women being victims or perpetrators of violence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions Persistent SEC differentials in major risk factors (smoking and poor diet) highlight an important priority for more effective policies for healthy food and tobacco control. (bmj.com)
  • Associations with socioeconomic variables varied by type of bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a community sample, as well as identify associations between these behaviors and socioeconomic factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods The Health Survey for England (HSfE) is an annual, nationally representative health interview and examination survey containing a core element - which includes risk factors such as smoking and BMI as well as biomarkers like blood pressure and saliva cotinine - and a regularly repeated disease module. (bmj.com)
  • Bacterial gastrointestinal infections cause considerable morbidity in industrialized countries, but little is known about socioeconomic factors affecting the risk of infection. (nih.gov)
  • This paper evolved from the extensive literature review undertaken as part of a proposal for a longitudinal birth cohort study to examine risk factors for the development of allergy and asthma in early childhood. (cmaj.ca)
  • In new research supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), Jeffrey N. Katz, M.D., reviewed the scientific literature concerning low-back pain and examined the costs - both direct (medications, hospitalization, outpatient visits) and indirect (lost wages, decreased productivity, care-giving expenses) - of this common problem and the role that socioeconomic factors play in it. (nih.gov)
  • These differences are caused by many factors such as living conditions, health-related behaviour, education, occupation and income, health care. (europa.eu)
  • Factors that make the policymakers and public health system worried are rising incidence of breast cancer in India and more importantly high death rates among breast cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What are the socioeconomic factors that influence CSA adoption? (cgiar.org)
  • It was concluded that the factors that influence yield significantly include number of bushes owned by the farmer, amount of labour utilized and its efficiency. (journalcra.com)
  • Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine independent risk factors for presenting with advanced CRC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results SEC gradients in risk factors were most pronounced for current smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, BMI (women only) and diabetes (women aged 55-74). (bmj.com)
  • Not all researchers agree that social factors should be included in medical research. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • The authors argue that as the evidence in breast cancer research shows, race and socioeconomic factors affect risk and survivorship, and should therefore should be collected, documented and analyzed much more extensively. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Dean found that while the raw data show that there is a higher incidence of lymphedema among black women, some peer-reviewed papers found that race was not a statistically relevant factor. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • A 2009 paper that looked at risk factors for arm lymphedema by race concluded that, "While black women had higher prevalence of arm lymphedema than white women (28 percent vs. 21 percent), race was not associated with lymphedema risk in models adjusted for multiple factors. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Less than one-fifth of the women who were aware of breast cancer reported early menstruation (5.6%), late menopause (10%), hormone therapy (13%), late pregnancy (15%) and obesity (19%) as the risk factors for breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conclusion, knowledge of danger signs and risk factors of breast cancer were low among women in the community. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study, which will eventually recruit 5000 pregnant women, has the aim of determining the environmental, host, genetic and psychosocial risk factors for development of allergy and asthma in children. (cmaj.ca)
  • And yet, very few breast cancer studies factor race or other socioeconomic indicators into their analysis, according to a report published by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Lorraine Dean, ScD, a social epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins and one of the paper's authors, said that given the evidence from the Gail model, race shouldn't be the only factor considered. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Dean says controlling for race while assuming "all else being equal" misses the point because in real life, race can't be isolated from other social factors. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • It could be all types of other social factors that essentially race is coding for. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Dean acknowledged that in comparison with factor like income, race is extensively reported. (chiefhealthcareexecutive.com)
  • Objective Recent large falls in Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality rates have been attributed to reductions in behavioural and physiological risk factors, particularly smoking, cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure (SBP), and also to the increasingly widespread use of cardiological treatments. (bmj.com)
  • Using statistical analysis, the authors examinded individual-level covariates and specific social and built environment factors to assess the extent to which these factors were associated with odds of localized or advanced prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • A multiple-factor analysis (MFA) and a cluster analysis led to the identification of three different farmer types in the Cauca CSV, each one presenting a different level of CSA adoption. (cgiar.org)
  • Other factors such as off-farm income, number of clones, proportion of land under tea and tea as a main income were not significant in explaining tea productivity in the catchment. (journalcra.com)
  • Socioeconomic factors are not major risk factors for the development of radiographically apparent disc degeneration (that is, x-ray visible degeneration of the cartilage discs separating and cushioning the vertebrae). (nih.gov)
  • Environmental factors such as infections and exposure to endotoxins may be protective or may act as risk factors, depending in part on the timing of exposure in infancy and childhood. (cmaj.ca)
  • Despite favourable trends in major risk factors across all social groups, the inequality gap remained essentially unchanged between 1994 and 2007. (bmj.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Socioeconomic Factors" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Socioeconomic Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • The natural and built[[Man-made structures, features, and facilities viewed collectively as an environment in which people live and work ( https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/built_environment )]] environment as well as the social fabric are critical determinants of health and well-being. (europa.eu)
  • However, the effectiveness of such measures depends on a variety of factors such as the financial, educational, social and demographic circumstances of the society (2). (who.int)
  • According to the literature, these factors represent nonlinear influences on violence between partners, however, are important for developing intervention strategies for this problem. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conversely, health has important socioeconomic consequences. (nih.gov)
  • Although not a systematic review, the examination of epidemiologic risk factors in the development of asthma presented here began in 2004 with a search of MEDLINE, using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms "asthma," "longitudinal" and "cohort study. (cmaj.ca)