Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Size and composition of the family.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Living facilities for humans.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
The status of health in urban populations.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A person's view of himself.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. (1/19736)

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience. (2/19736)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period. (3/19736)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (4/19736)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (5/19736)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics. (6/19736)

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (7/19736)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland. (8/19736)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 129:305-310 (2006) Effect of the Interaction Between High Altitude and Socioeconomic Factors on Birth Weight in a Large Sample From South America Jorge S. López Camelo,1,2* Hebe Campaña,1 Rita Santos,1 and Fernando A. Poletta1,2 1 Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), 1900 La Plata, Argentina 2 Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), Dirección de Investigación, Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clı́nica (CEMIC), 1431 Buenos Aires, Argentina KEY WORDS altitude; birth weight; interaction risk; socioeconomic level ABSTRACT Several studies of South American populations showed that altitude is associated with low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation. Although some of them analyzed the altitude-birth weight association, only a few assessed the effect of the interaction between altitude and ...
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The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Technological Change: The Case of High-Tech States in the U.S.: 10.4018/978-1-93177-743-8.ch010: This paper examines the technological level of 74 counties in technologically advanced states in the United States at the end of the 1990s. The conceptual
Although sociodemographic differences in dietary intake have been widely studied, the up-to-date evidence on the corresponding variations in motives for food selection is limited. We investigated how sociodemographic characteristics and special diets in households are associated with the relative importance of various food motives. Participants were members of the S Group loyalty card program across Finland who consented to release their grocery purchase data to be used for research purposes and responded to a web-based questionnaire in 2018 (LoCard study). Self-reported information on sociodemographic factors (age, gender, marital status, living situation, education, household income), special diets in household and food motives (Food Choice Questionnaire) were utilized in the present analyses (N = 10,795). Age- and gender-adjusted linear models were performed separately for each sociodemographic predictor and motive dimension (derived by factor analysis) outcome. The importance of each
Prevalence, patterns and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco use in Davangere taluka, Karnataka: a community-based, cross-sectional study
Few data exist on the psychosocial factors associated with attrition in longitudinal surveys. This study was undertaken to determine psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors of attrition from a longitudinal study of the onset and persistence of episodes of major depression in primary care. A systematic random sample of general practice attendees was recruited in seven Spanish provinces between October 2005 and February 2006. Major depression was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a set of 39 individual and environmental risk factors for depression were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of follow-up.. ...
Abstract. In this paper we present a model to evaluate the effect of certain majors socioeconomic factors (such as alcohol and fat consumption, cigarettes smoking, unemployment rate as a proxy for uncertainty which results frustration, number of passenger cars as a proxy for physical exercise and per capita GDP as a proxy for nutrition quality), to the ischemic mortality rate. Since the existing research works on this field, suffer from the proper model testing, we analytically present all the tests necessary to justify the reliability of the result obtained. For this purpose, after specifying and estimating the model, we applied the specification error test, the linearity, multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity tests, the autocorrelation and stability tests and the ARCH effect test. Finally, we present the aggregate efect of the above socioeconomic factors. In brief, we found that an increase of cigarettes smoked, of fat and alcohol consumption and the number of passenger cars will result to ...
Background : Although health-related quality of life HRQL in asthma is strongly influenced by disease severity, demographic and socioeconomic variables may also be important factors. Objective : We related demographics, asthma severity, and socioeconomic factors to HRQL. Methods : We interviewed 50 patients with moderate or severe asthma...
This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB) at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates. ...
ISSUE ADDRESSED:Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. METHODS:Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. RESULTS:Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse ...
[IMG] A new entry has been added to Drugs Archive Description: 2 mins 30 May 2008 TV3 News (NZ) While some smokers are giving up, others are making the most of every cigarette. Research has...
In some ways, the coverage rate itself captures inequality. For example, if 80% of a countrys children have access to clean water, then you can infer that the remaining 20% do not have access to that opportunity. However, the likelihood of having or (not having) access to an opportunity is far from random. In this dashboard, go beyond country-level averages and see how a childs characteristics can affect his or her access to basic opportunities. Does access differ between urban and rural areas, for boys and girls, or among children of different socio-economic conditions? In an equal opportunity society, circumstances determined by the lottery of birth should have no bearing on access to opportunities.. For details on the underlying data, definitions of opportunities and circumstances, consult the documentation and FAQ sections. ...
It is clear from the results of this study that the relevance between area characteristic by social class and distribution characteristics of existing branches of five major banks in Tokyo 23 wards. A lot of branches of five major banks are located in Group5 (high class). And, although the order is different, most of branches in five major banks are located in Group1 (the elderly & life style stability), Group8 (spending power), and Group6(instability of life ). The result also shows that the five major banks in Tokyo 23 wards have a about the same branch location tendency. Therefore, it can be inferred that there are active competitions in Tokyo 23 wards. Overall, the methodology used in this study using GIS is regarded as a process that is necessary for identifying the relevance of market characteristics and bank branch location for making efficient bank branch marketing strategies; however, the second stage of this study may have some problems of overlay analysis to get an more accurate ...
Trinity sets out its commitment to an inclusive university community with equality of access for all in Section A1.1 (p20) of the Strategic Plan 2014-2019. In this section on Access and Participation, the university states its objective to increase the percentage of under-represented groups enrolled on undergraduate courses to 25% in 2019 - under-represented groups includes mature students, students with disabilities and students who have been socio-economically disadvantaged.. The Higher Education Authority (HEA) has also published a National Plan for Equity of Access to Higher Education, which targets socio-economic groups who have been under-represented in higher education in Ireland to date. ...
Too much sitting (extended sedentary time) is recognized as a public health concern in Europe and beyond. Time spent sedentary is influenced and conditioned by clusters of individual-level and contextual (upstream) factors. Identifying population subgroups that sit too much could help to develop tar …
Socioeconomic determinants of haemoglobin levels of African women are less important in areas with more health facilities: a multilevel analysis ...
A socioeconomic gradient in type 2 diabetes prevalence among developed countries has been extensively documented (24-29). To reduce the dramatic diabetes disparities borne by socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, prevention strategies that can be implemented effectively among those populations are urgently needed. Although lifestyle intervention has proven to be highly efficacious in preventing diabetes in multiple clinical trials, this study suggests its effectiveness may not be optimal for participants of low SES. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that SDPI-DP participants with lower SES, especially those reporting lower annual household income, had significantly less weight loss, less improvement in physical activity, and less reduction in unhealthy food consumption than those with higher incomes. These results resonate with our previous findings of low retention rates among SDPI-DP participants with low household income (30), highlighting the important role of income for an ...
Describe the economic characteristics of the global motor vehicle industry. The characteristics of the global motor vehicle industry are a boom in certain...
What can I say about financial difficulties? Financial difficulties happen to me from time to time. Sometimes they happen often, while sometimes they do not happen at all for a few months in a row. From what I hear around me, many other people experience them as well. As a matter of fact, it is normal for some of my friends to experience financial difficulties on a regular basis. It is not surprising to me to hear that some of my friends and family have financial problems from time to time. I think that it is great that nowadays many lenders offer us the possibility to apply for payday loans and get them almost the same working day. Personally, I do not know what I would do if such loans did not exist. I would probably not know what to do at all. I would not want to visit my bank and ask for a loan every time I need it. Even thinking about it already gives me a chill. Instead, I prefer to head straight to Tide u over and ask them for help.. As life can be very surprising, you never know what ...
We set and solved the problem of identifying socio-economic determinants of Parkinsons disease (PD) by comparing the characteristics of different countries. &nb..
Disease incidence is usually connected to biological factors such as genetics, eating habits, exercise and so on. But are there are other socioeconomic factors that influence disease incidence as well? This TED talk from Bill Davenhall inspired us to explore socioeconomic factors that may influence disease incidence. To explore the connections of socioeconomic factors such as…
Methods For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed childrens consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. ...
The aim of this research is to provide an indication of the extent of the cost of Government inaction in developing policies and implementing strategies that would reduce socio-economic differences within the Australian population of working age (25-64 years) that give rise to health inequities. The cost of inaction is measured in terms of the loss of potential social and economic outcomes that might otherwise have accrued to socio-economically disadvantaged individuals if they had had the same health profile of more socio-economically advantaged Australians. For the purposes of this report, the contrast is made between those who are most socio-economically disadvantaged and those who are least disadvantaged defined in terms of household income, level of education, housing tenure and degree of social connectedness. Four types of key outcomes are considered:- the number of disadvantaged Australians of working age experiencing health inequity, - satisfaction with life, - economic outcomes ...
The research by Professor Gianni De Fraja and Tania Oliveira of the Economics Department at the University of Leicester and Luisa Zanchi of Leeds University Business School is published in the latest issue of the MIT based Review of Economics and Statistics.. The researchers found that parents effort is more important for a childs educational attainment than the schools effort, which in turn is more important than the childs own effort.. The study showed that the socio-economic background of a family not only affected the childs educational attainment - it also affected the schools effort.. Professor De Fraja, Head of Economics at the University of Leicester, said: The main channel through which parental socio-economic background affects achievement is via effort.. Parents from a more advantaged environment exert more effort, and this influences positively the educational attainment of their children.. By the same token, the parents background also increases the schools effort, which ...
Are socio-economically disadvantaged students condemned to perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of poor academic achievement, poor job prospects and poverty?
This thesis is about statistics contributions to industry. It is an article compendium comprising four articles divided in two blocks: (i) two contributions for a water supply company, and (ii) significance of the effects in Design of Experiments. In the first block, great emphasis is placed on how the research design and statistics can be applied to various real problems that a water company raises and it aims to convince water management companies that statistics can be very useful to improve their services. The article A methodology to model water demand based on the identification of homogeneous client segments. Application to the city of Barcelona, makes a comprehensive review of all the steps carried out for developing a mathematical model to forecast future water demand. It pays attention on how to know more about the influence of socioeconomic factors on customers consumption in order to detect segments of customers with homogenous habits to objectively explain the behavior of the ...
Overweight and obesity are a significant public health challenge globally, and disproportionately affect those with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries. Despite an increasing commitment at national and international levels, reducing these inequalities has proved challenging, even in settings considered as egalitarian such as Norway. Such inequalities are particularly problematic among children because of both short and long-term consequences, contributing to a vicious circle of inequalities in health. To address this challenge, there is a need to understand when, how and why these inequalities occur and develop throughout childhood. It is also of utmost importance to explore the understudied modifiable factors that contribute to unfavorable health behaviors leading to overweight and obesity and associated inequalities.. ...
221 Pickett, K. E. and M. Pearl. 2001. Multilevel analyses o f neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: a critical review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55:111 122. Poirier, Paul, Thomas D. Giles, George A. Bray, Yuling Hong, Judith S. Stern, F. Xavier Pi Sunyer, and Robert H. Eckel. 2006. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Effect of Weight Loss. Circulation 113:898 918. Pollitt, Ricardo, Kathryn Rose, and Jay Kaufman. 2005. Evaluating the Evidence for Models o f Lif e Course Socioeconomic Factors a nd Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review . BMC Public Health 5:7. Power, C., O. Manor, and S. Matthews. 1999 Child t o Adult Socioeconomic Conditions and Obesity I n A National Cohort . In ternational J ournal of Obes ity Relat ed Metab olic Disord ers 27:1081 1086. Power, Chris and Sharon Matthews. 1997. Origins of Health Inequa lities in a National Population Sample . The Lancet 350:1584 1589. RAND HRS Data, Version ...
In their early 30s, people born in the early 1980s have average (median) net household wealth of £27,000 per adult - about half the median wealth that those born in the 1970s had at around the same age (£53,000 ...
The report of the Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health (chaired by Sir Donald Acheson) made recommendations on health, environmental and social factors.
Dr. John Bruchhaus at St. Francis Medical Center said pre-existing medical conditions and other socioeconomic factors are contributing to the racial disparities of COVID-19 patients.
Dr. John Bruchhaus at St. Francis Medical Center said pre-existing medical conditions and other socioeconomic factors are contributing to the racial disparities of COVID-19 patients.
Downloadable! While finance has been shown to influence the distribution of income, little research has been devoted to the potential impact of financial sector policies on inequality. This study analyzes the relationship between financial repression and inequality across countries and across Chinas provinces. Using several alternative estimation procedures including fixed effect, dynamic panel and instrumental variable regressions, we find that financial repression is positively associated with inequality across countries. Moreover, we find that this relationship is stronger in less developed economies and that interest rate controls, capital account controls, poor banking supervision and a concentrated banking sector are the most important financial policies influencing inequality. Furthermore, financial repression is associated with a higher fraction of the population living in poverty. Focusing on China, financial repression again acts as a driver for inequality and its effect is stronger in less
BIG ISSUE INVEST and Sport England have joined forces to improve the lives of young people affected by Covid 19 and here at MFC Foundation we are delighted to be a part of that programme.. The social investment arm of The Big Issue, Big Issue Invest (BII), is investing £1.25 million from its Outcomes Investment Fund, set up with investment from Big Society Capital, into a programme that will support over 6,000 young people across 21 local areas in the UK to improve their lives, through sports and activity.. The Chances Programme, co-developed by Substance in partnership with the Life Chances Fund, Sport England and BII, is committed to harnessing the power of sport to enhance the life-chances of disadvantaged young people aged 8-17 years, for the next three years.. The investment will be used to create new opportunities to empower young people to get active and re-engage with education and skills provision; targeting those who are from low socio-economic backgrounds, have an offending record ...
Despite years of efforts and advances, full gender equality has yet to be realized. There is not one country in the world free of gender-based violence or discrimination. And in too many places, the burdens of inequality fall hardest on the youngest.
09 Associated Institutions , Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) , Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (EPH) , Environmental Exposures and Health , Physical Hazards and Health (Röösli ...
OECD Data. LandScan Home. Data. The DHS Program. GPOPDB Home Page. Map & Geospatial Information Round Table (MAGIRT) Demographics. Socioeconomic Data and. U.S.
My research interests fall into three broad categories: 1) the association between attitudes, economic circumstances, and health and family formation and family planning; 2) the social construction of family, gender, and sexuality, and 3) gender inequality as it relates to the intersection of family and work.
By Taryn Galloway and Torbjørn Skardhamar; Abstract: Although several established theories of crime often suggest an association between socio-economic background and
My counselling is underpinned by person centred theory. ​This means drawing on your existing strengths, being attuned to your needs and experiences, and ultimately, trusting your capacity to change, adapt and grow. The therapy process is collaborative and respectful of diversity of culture, sexual orientation, gender orientation and socio-economic background. ​​I incorporate processes and interventions from other therapeutic modalities such as: ...
Strong academic performance is important so we know that youre ready to take your professional exams. However, we understand things dont always go to plan - so if you dont meet our minimum requirements, please let us know if you have any exceptional achievements or extenuating circumstances which affected your results. We also consider your achievements in the context of your socio-economic background, so encourage you to submit your contextual information ...
Understanding Society is an academic study capturing information every year about the social and economic circumstances and attitudes of people living in the UK
A longitudinal study of length, weight and head circumference from birth to 2 years among children of high socio-economic urban community in Delhi 395 ...
Our mission is to create and deliver high quality hearing solutions that allow people to rediscover the power of connection, regardless of their geographic location or economic circumstance ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of PA among users of an urban, paved rail trail segment.
It is essential to know how to use a credit card to avoid unpleasant surprises. It is vital to select the best one within our reach, based on our personal and economic characteristics.
This public health intelligence profile describes the patterns in demographics, risk factors and burden of ill health due to long term conditions for people registered with a GP in the North locality. GP localities are clusters of practices working together to share experiences and knowledge, as well as local monitoring of service provision. This profile, and the profile for the South and West localities, have been produced to support this work by identifying needs, patterns, and inequalities at a more local level ...
This study investigates whether socioeconomic development and the HIV/AIDS pandemic are associated with living arrangement patterns in older persons in 23 sub‐Saharan African countries. Country‐level aggregate data were taken from previous household surveys and information provided by the United Nations, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Results showed that 13.5% of older persons (aged 60 years or over) were living with grandchildren but not adult children (i.e., skipped generation households). Countries higher in HIV/AIDS prevalence had more skipped generation households, and also more older persons living with spouse only and fewer older persons living with other relatives. Countries with higher socioeconomic development had fewer older persons living with children younger than 25 years old and more living with spouse only or with other relatives and unrelated persons. The pandemic and socioeconomic development combine to accelerate the breakdown of the extended family ...
Random blood glucose analysis by the use of the Trinders method was carried out to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Nigerians in Port Harcourt. The study population were randomly selected and classified into two socio-economic status as high or low based on affluent diet, occupation, income and access to medical care. The mean blood glucose concentration for the high socio-economic group - staff of the oil industries was 7.42 ±0.25mmol/L and significantly higher (P , 0.001) than that for the low socio-economic class - the non- oil industrial workers, 5.33±0.45mmol/L. The prevalence of diabetes was found to be as high as 23.4% among the high socio-economic group and 16% among the low socio-economic group. Undiagonised diabetes occurred in 18.9% of the population studied and were not aware of their diabetic problem. Diabetic - awareness programmes are to be promoted with acion to identify people with diabetes early enough with the arm of providing appropriate medical treatment ...
How is Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors abbreviated? CDSRF stands for Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors. CDSRF is defined as Chronic Disease and Sociodemographic Risk Factors very rarely.
Information on socioeconomic determinants in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce in lower middle income countries. The aim of this study is to describe the socioeconomic determinants of management and complications of diabetes mellitus in a lower middle income setting. Cross sectional descriptive study on a stratified random sample of 1300 individuals was conducted by an interviewer administered questionnaire, clinical examinations and blood investigations. A single fasting venous blood sugar of ≥126 mg/dl was considered diagnostic of new diabetics and poor control of diabetes mellitus as HbA1C | 6.5 %. There were 202 (14.7 %) with diabetes mellitus. Poor control was seen in 130 (90.7 %) while 71 (49.6 %) were not on regular treatment. Highest proportions of poor control and not on regular medication were observed in estate sector, poorest social status category and poorest geographical area. The annual HbA1C, microalbuminuria, retinal and neuropathy examination were performed in less than 6
While I believe there that there is no simple cause-effect explanation for life expectancy, there are striking correlations (as income levels) that need to be addressed to promote justice for all of us... From the 11 April 2011 article at Medical News Today Differences in factors such as income, education and marital status could contribute…
This study of young people from 30 European and North American countries over 8 recent years identified a decline in physical fighting in most countries. This pattern was observed in both genders and across age groups. Exceptions were found in three countries (Greece, Latvia, Ukraine). Our modeling of socioeconomic correlates of frequent physical fighting suggested that income inequality and individual family affluence were not risk factors, while increased absolute wealth negatively correlated with fighting. Other identified risk factors were younger age, male gender, multiple risk-taking, victimization from bullying, and national homicide rates.. Our analysis of trends in frequent physical fighting is unique. Existing studies focus on adolescent bullying47 or have summarized the experiences of a single country.14,48,49 We observed declines in most countries, in both genders and different age groups, using the frequent fighting measure that is indicative of habitual negative behaviors. ...
(HealthDay) -- Childhood socioeconomic status affects hippocampal volume in older adults, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic status, gender, education, and other factors, according to a study published in the May issue ...
Geographical inequalities in overweight and obesity prevalence among children are well established in cross-sectional research. We aimed to examine how environmental area characteristics at birth are related to these outcomes in childhood. Anonymised antenatal and birth data recorded by University Hospital Southampton linked to school-measured weight and height data for children within Southampton, UK, were utilised (14,084 children at ages 4-5 and 5637 at ages 10-11). Childrens home address at birth was analysed at the Lower and Middle layer Super Output Area (LSOA/MSOA) levels (areas with average populations of 1500 and 7000, respectively). Area-level indices (walkability, relative density of unhealthy food outlets, spaces for social interaction), natural greenspace coverage, supermarket density and measures of air pollution (PM2.5, PM10 and NOx) were constructed using ArcGIS Network Analyst. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) greater than the 85th centile for sex and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Declining stroke rates in southern Brazil: A positive result of socioeconomic development?. AU - Anderson, Craig. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article. VL - 80. SP - 705. JO - Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. JF - Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. SN - 1468-330X. IS - 7. ER - ...
Abstract: Purpose: This research aims to identify and assess the socio-economic determinants of Central Pomerania household indebtedness (at the household level) using non-parametric statistical tests and multiple correspondence analysis. Design/Methodology/Approach: The source of data was a survey conducted among 1,000 households of Central Pomerania (Poland). First, it was determined whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between having debt and the socio-economic characteristics of the households analyzed (using the chi-square test or the Fisher test). Next, a multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify and assess relationships between the categories of features that characterize the surveyed households indebtedness. Findings: Using non-parametric statistical tests, it was established that there is a statistically significant relationship between debt and the following household characteristics: development phase, size and composition of the household, ...
PubMed journal article [Sociodemographic profiles, addictive and mental comorbidity in cannabis users in an outpatient specific setting were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The purpose of this study was to determine the socioeconomic correlates of body mass index of primary and secondary school children in Ebonyi state, which is s...
article{9d0cd19b-d500-436d-819e-08e9e6611891, abstract = {Aims: Tobacco-smoking behaviours of young people between the age of 18 and 25 years are less understood than those of middle-aged people. The aim of this study is to contribute to improved knowledge of some of the factors that are associated with smoking and cessation among young people. Methods: We use the most recently available public health survey data from the southern region of Skåne in Sweden to analyze these factors. The survey is a cross-sectional study with a total sample size of 28,198 individuals with 2801 in the age category of interest. We apply statistical measures of association between smoking and gender and also model the relationship between smoking and smoking cessation and the role of a set of sociodemographic determinants by means of logistic regression to estimate odds ratios. Results: The findings include significant differences between the younger age group and the older group with respect to the odds of smoking ...
Results A total of 421 students were recruited. Overall 41% were physically inactive. Females (47%) were more inactive than males (34%). The total mean weekly metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes was 1468.2±1873. Males (1676.2±1629) had a higher mean weekly MET minutes than females (1319±20102), p=0.05. 88% owned a portable internet device such as a smartphone or tablet. Students using health-related apps on their devices had significantly higherPA (p=0.01) and lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.04), than those who did not. Binary logistic regression revealed physical inactivity to be significantly associated with gender (p=0.01), not using a health-promoting app on their portable device (p=0.01) and the year of study (p=0.03). ...
© 2011 The Economic Society of Australia We estimate differences in mortality and life expectancy by levels of income, education and area-based socio-economic status using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The study involved 16,905 respondents aged over twenty years interviewed between 2001 and 2007. Mortality estimates were based on proportional hazard regression models. The relative risk of mortality between the poorest and richest income quintile was 1.88 (1.45, 2.44) times higher and this translated into a life expectancy gap (at age twenty) of six years. Having more than twelve years of education was also associated with a significantly lower risk of death. Area-based measures of socio-economic disadvantage were not significant after controlling for individual-level factors.
Data and research on labour markets, human capital, inequality, income inequality, social capital and knowledge based capital., France: Indicators on inequality outcomes and policies affecting them
Protocol for a systematic review on inequalities in postnatal care services utilization in low- and middle-income countries. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Social and economic transformations in Poland had as one of the consequences the fact that rural areas faced a number of difficulties and challenges. In connection with the political system transformation and Polands accession to the European Union, problems appeared, concerning mainly the issues of employment and the populations income sources. The issues become yet more significant in the areas of agricultural and farming traditions, i.e. in Lublin Province (Voivod-ship), where the percentages of rural population and of population employed in agriculture are high and exceed 50%. The backwardness of this region calls for profound reforms, in which well-educated inhabitants, aid funds or local leaders may become the stimulating factors. The paper presents the current condition and the directions of development of the key industry of the commune (gmina) of Uscimow. The paper deals with a number of problems which, in particular, include a difficult demographic situation, investments in agriculture and
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Food and family practices. T2 - teenagers, eating and domestic life in differing socio-economic circumstances. AU - Backett-Milburn, Kathryn. AU - Wills, Wendy. AU - Roberts, Mei-Li. AU - Lawton, Julia. N1 - Original article can be found at: Copyright Informa / Taylor and Francis. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - This paper draws on accounts from young teenagers and their parents in two linked qualitative studies of families living in Scotland in differing socio-economic circumstances. We compare and contrast teenager experiences of eating practices and food choice in these families. We show the range of meanings attached to how, where and what these teenagers and their parents described as everyday eating behaviours at home and locate these in the wider constraints, opportunities and aspirations affecting their lives.. AB - This paper draws on accounts from young teenagers and their parents in two linked qualitative studies of families living in Scotland ...
Although health inequalities have most often been documented in wealthy countries, recent studies have made it evident that inequality in health and health care is also a prominent problem in developing countries [28, 34-36]. In particular, analysis of the effect of health care is especially important in those countries, where resource limitations require that the effective use of all health interventions be made.. The results of the present study show the existence of significant socioeconomic inequalities in health services utilization. The rate of outpatient services utilization is higher among individuals who have private health insurance and higher level of education. Furthermore, the analysis shows social gradients in opposite directions: the less educated have the largest proportion of poor self-rated health but are the ones with lower utilization rate. Following the inverse care law [37], use of care varies inversely with the needs of the population served.. In Brazil, the association ...
The American Community Survey (ACS) is a part of the Decennial Census Program and is designed to produce critical information about the characteristics of local communities. The ACS publishes social, housing, and economic characteristics for demographic groups covering a broad spectrum of geographic areas in the United States. Every year the ACS supports the release of single-year estimates for geographic areas with populations of 65,000 or more. Demographic variables include sex, age, relationship, households by type, race, and Hispanic origin. Social characteristics variables include school enrollment, educational attainment, marital status, fertility, grandparents caring for children, veteran status, disability status, residence one year ago, place of birth, United States citizenship status, year of entry, world region of birth of foreign born, language spoken at home, and ancestry. Variables focusing on economic characteristics include employment status, commuting to work, occupation, ...
The American Community Survey (ACS) is a part of the Decennial Census Program and is designed to produce critical information about the characteristics of local communities. The ACS publishes social, housing, and economic characteristics for demographic groups covering a broad spectrum of geographic areas in the United States. Every year the ACS supports the release of single-year estimates for geographic areas with populations of 65,000 or more. Demographic variables include sex, age, relationship, households by type, race, and Hispanic origin. Social characteristics variables include school enrollment, educational attainment, marital status, fertility, grandparents caring for children, veteran status, disability status, residence one year ago, place of birth, United States citizenship status, year of entry, world region of birth of foreign born, language spoken at home, and ancestry. Variables focusing on economic characteristics include employment status, commuting to work, occupation, ...
There is strong evidence based on previous studies that ethnicity and socioeconomic status are important determinants of diversity in the occurrence of diabetes. However, the independent roles of socioeconomic status, country of birth and lifestyle factors in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes have not been clearly identified. This study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes in a large diverse sample of residents of New South Wales, Australia, and aged 45 years and over. The analysis used self-reported baseline questionnaire data from 266,848 participants in the 45 and Up Study. Educational attainment, work status and income were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Logistic regression models were built to investigate associations between socioeconomic status, country of birth and type 2 diabetes. The adjusted odds of type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for people born in many overseas countries, compared to Australian-born
Information and communication technology (ICT) innovations provide significant implications for business and socioeconomic development due to the role it plays in the diffusion of knowledge sharing, community development, and equality.. E-Strategies for Technological Diffusion and Adoption: National ICT Approaches for Socioeconomic Development provides comprehensive coverage and definitions of the most important issues, concepts, trends, and technologies related to the adoption, diffusion, and adaptation of national electronic strategies for ICTs in socioeconomic development. This book addresses the importance of such strategies as setting national agendas to complement efforts and resources allocated, as well as includes model strategies, implications, and case studies to work as models for future implementations.. ...
Having poor socioeconomic conditions - such as a lower occupational position - can take away 2.1 years of life on average from a person. This is the conclusion of a study published by LIFEPATH, a project funded by the European Commission, which investigates the biological pathways underlying social differences in healthy ageing.. Low socioeconomic conditions are almost as deadly as smoking, having diabetes, or being physically inactive. Smoking is associated with the loss of 4.8 years of life; diabetes, 3.9; and physical inactivity, 2.4. High alcohol intake can take away one year of life.. This is the first study ever to compare life expectancy among people of different socioeconomic status, and cross-correlate it with six other major known risk factors like smoking and diabetes. These other six factors are already included in World Health Organization global mortality reduction strategy. Socioeconomic status is not.. We were surprised to find that poor social and economic circumstances seem to ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper extends the analysis of the relative impacts of socioeconomic factors on households decision to subscribe to dialup Internet access [Chaudhuri, A., Flamm, K., & Horrigan, J. (2005). An analysis of the determinants of Internet access, presented at the Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Washington, DC, October 1-3] to the decision to subscribe to broadband. A simple cumulative utility (ordered logit) model is rejected in favor of a partial proportional odds model, and the authors found that the decision to purchase any access at all, and the decision to upgrade to broadband, may be affected differently by various socioeconomic factors. The own-price elasticity of broadband demand is statistically significant and has a substantial coefficient value. The cross-price sensitivity of broadband demand with respect to dialup price is also statistically significant, and supports the notion of the two services being substitutes.
Abstract: We examine how an education policy intervention - the introduction of a comprehensive school in Sweden that increased the number of compulsory years of schooling, affected cognitive and non-cognitive skills and long-term health. We use administrative and survey data including background information, child ability and long-term adult outcomes. We show that education reform increased skills among children, but the effects on long-term health are overall negligible. We demonstrate that effects vary across socio-economic backgrounds and initial skill endowments, with significant improvements in cognition and skills for lower Socio-economic status individuals and lower ability people. Keywords: Mortality; cognitive skills; non-cognitive skills; education reform JEL-codes: I12; I14; I18; I21 42 pages, April 23, 2013 Full text files ...
We know that lifestyle diseases are on the rise. There are several reports published daily, bringing to light various causes, symptoms, preventive measures and other facts to spread more awareness about the consequences of our lifestyle choices, and how major diseases like diabetes, obesity, cancer, etc are killing thousands every year. We also read how in our chase for making money we are neglecting are health, which then contributes to stress and other ailments. All that money you earn cant really buy you life, but it perhaps helps in more ways than we realise. Our socio-economic status plays a huge role on our health and well-being, believe it or not. Contrary to earlier reports, a new study reveals that people living in poverty are at a higher death risk than obese people and alcoholics.. According to the study, people from lower socio-economic status are may be 1.5 times or 46 per cent more at risk of an early death. The findings showed that low socio-economic status - determined in a big ...
Cohort profile: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study of 4.65 million people exploring ethnic variations in disease in Scotland [2010 ...
This article addresses the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), family processes, and human development. The topic is framed as part of the general issue of health disparities, which involves the oft-observed positive relationship between SES and the cognitive, social, emotional, and phy …
For all the three measures of the health status, the probability of reporting poor health is affected by socio-economic determinants, as it is suggested by the empirical literature. The odds of reporting poor health increase with age, and decrease with education, income, employment status, and widow, separated, divorced or single status. Working individuals, either as employee or self-employed, report better health as compared to non-working individuals. In order to focus on the main variables of interest, the coefficients of individual demographic and SES characteristics are not reported in the tables. All these variables are statistically significant at 1 % level in all models.. Looking at the results for SAH, Model 1 shows that being a non-EU citizen or born outside the EU affects positively the probability of reporting poor health (Table 4). Model 2 adds the country level characteristics: healthy years life expectancy and the proportion of total health care expenditure over the GDP. Both ...
In view of the socio-economic conditions under which women in India were constrained to lead their lives from time immemorial, they were often labeled as abla, which means without power. The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) also called SABLA, is meant for empowering the adolescent girls on various knowledge and skills that would help them in leading a better life. Admittedly, women are making outstanding contribution in several areas, but on a limited level and there is urgent need to strengthen the existing infrastructure and creating new facilities for their development. In the more liberal twenty-first century with more opportunities opening to women, they have forayed into all spheres. It has been established by now that they can excel in equal measure provided they are given opportunity. Yet most of them continue to suffer from gender discrimination, violence and unfair treatment due to stereotyped mindsets. Adolescents (10-19 years) compose about 21% of ...
This study was conducted using data from the KNCSS 2015, an annual cross-sectional study employing a nationally representative random sampling method. The average smoking pack-years of eligible screenees for lung cancer screening in this study (mean, 43.1 pack years; 95% CI, 40.5 to 45.9) was lower than that for individuals who participated in the NLST (NLST: 55.5 pack years in CT arm [2]). Previous studies have reported that current smokers in the United States tend to be from minority racial groups, of lower socioeconomic status, and be less educated [14,15]. In this study, we also found that high-risk individuals had significantly lower education levels, as well as lower household income, lower health status, and more chronic diseases than average-risk individuals. These would pose significant barriers to participating in lung cancer screening. Thus, invitation strategies need to be carefully devised to achieve equitable participation in lung cancer screening.. In the average-risk group, ...
Introduction of Pre Primary Education Dec 28 • General • 31707 Views • 27 Comments on Introduction of Pre Primary Education Pre Primary Education can be defined as a set of knowledge along with skills and experience as well as behavioral rules which provides the essential for coping successfully in everyday life and at school. Gender differences. Pre-Primary Education Over recent years, Tanzania successfully reached the MDG for 100% enrolment in Primary School - a great achievement. The actual mean of kindergarten is the garden of children. Resources The chief aim of the degree is to train teachers of Primary School Education to be able to carry out their profession in different contexts (rural and urban, multi-culticultural and mono-cultural, regional, national and international, etc. Government expenditure. Enrolment numbers and rates. The data is reported according to the situation on the 20th of September of the statistical year. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites ...
This case study outlines the attempt of Credit Union Empowerment and Strengthening (CUES), Philippines, to transform cooperatives into responsible financial institutions providing financial services and education to the poor. CUES adopted two initiatives: * Model Credit Union Building (MCUB) - to provide financial sustainability planning through the P.E.A.R.L.S. monitoring system; * Savings and Credit with Education (SCWE) - to promote capacity building of women. The author observes that the project has improved the socio-economic conditions of member households. Institutionalization of training has led to supervisory and regulatory efforts. A long-term impact has been the increase in access to financial intermediation and other services. The future direction is to institutionalize financial and monitoring mechanisms and to spread them to other areas. As per the study, some of the major impacts of MCUB are: * Improvement in financial ratios; * Decrease in the dependence on external credit; * ...
Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cohort profile. T2 - the Gateshead Millennium Study. AU - Parkinson, Kathryn N. AU - Pearce, Mark S. AU - Dale, Anne. AU - Reilly, John J. AU - Drewett, Robert F. AU - Wright, Charlotte M. AU - Relton, Caroline L. AU - McArdle, Paul. AU - Le Couteur, Ann S. AU - Adamson, Ashley J. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. KW - Anemia, Iron-Deficiency. KW - Child. KW - Child, Preschool. KW - England. KW - Failure to Thrive. KW - Feeding Behavior. KW - Follow-Up Studies. KW - Humans. KW - Infant. KW - Infant, Newborn. KW - Obesity. KW - Prospective Studies. KW - Weight Gain. KW - Weight Loss. U2 - 10.1093/ije/dyq015. DO - 10.1093/ije/dyq015. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). C2 - 20332146. VL - 40. SP - 308. EP - 317. JO - International Journal of Epidemiology. JF - International Journal of Epidemiology. SN - 0300-5771. IS - 2. ER - ...
People with lower socioeconomic status are much more likely to develop heart disease than those who are wealthier or better educated, according to a recent UC Davis study. Published online in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, the outcomes also show that this risk persists even with long-term progress in addressing traditional risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol.
After the machine revolution of 19thcentury, AI is the next big phenomenon in human civilization which will affect the global socio-economic condition.
The U.S. obesity prevalence increased from 13 percent to 32 percent between the 1960s and 2004, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Human Nutrition. The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased at an average rate of 0.3 - 0.8 percentage points across different sociodemographic groups over the past three decades. Some minority and low socioeconomic status groups - such as non-Hispanic black women and children, Mexican-American women and children, low socioeconomic status black men and white women and children, Native Americans and Pacific Islanders - are disproportionately affected. The meta-analysis was published online on May 17, 2007, in advance of the 2007 issue of the journal Epidemiologic Reviews ...
The sociodemographic profiles of different segments of the Brazilian population have been the object of multiple inter-census comparisons. This study compared the age distribution, number of household residents, formal schooling, and income of indigenous persons according to the population censuses of 2000 and 2010. There was an important decrease in the number of residents per occupied household, and slight aging of the indigenous population, except in the urban North. Meanwhile, there was a proportional increase in individuals with per capita household income up to one minimum wage, along with a reduction in the income bracket of more than two minimum wages in the countrys five major geographic regions, in both urban and rural areas ...
There are conflicting reports on the relationship between hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) with socioeconomic status. This study explores this relationship individually and jointly. This is a cross sectional comparative study. Adults that participated in medical outreach organized for high and low socioeconomic status (SES) were tested for hypertension and DM. Mean age in years for high and low SES was 58.69 (± 10.26) and 57.77 (± 15.54), respectively. Widows were significantly more than widowers (P < 0.001). Frequency of hypertension in middle age (45 to 64 years in high and low SES) was 58.0 and 71.9%, respectively (P = 0.009). Frequency of DM was 19.2 and 7.3% in high and low SES respectively (P < 0.001). Combined frequency of hypertension and DM was 14.0 and 6.0% in high and low SES respectively (P = 0.002) and 13.8 and 5.9% in the middle age group in high and low SES respectively (P = 0.034). Severity of hypertension was more in low than high SES (P = 0.001). The
An analysis of nearly 25 years of data for about 10,000 civil servants in London finds an association between socioeconomic position and risk of death, with much of this relation accounted for by health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity, according to a study in the March 24/31 issue of JAMA.. The higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviors in lower socioeconomic positions is seen to be one of the mechanisms linking lower socioeconomic position to worse health. However, major changes have occurred in population lifestyles. These include the decreasing prevalence of smoking and a remarkable increase in obesity since the 1990s. Given that changes in health behaviors may be socially patterned, previous studies with a single assessment of behaviors may have provided an inaccurate estimation of their contribution to the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality, the authors write. Silvia Stringhini, M.Sc., of the Centre for Research in Epidemiology ...
Percentage of teachers in primary education who are trained, gender parity index (GPI) in Jamaica was reported at 1.0454 GPI in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Jamaica - Percentage of teachers in primary education who are trained, gender parity index - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href= target=blank>World Bank|/a> on April of 2020.
Socioeconomic factors[edit]. A young poverty-stricken girl clutches her child. Frontispiece illustration from Street Arabs and ... age in itself is not a risk factor, and poor outcomes are associated more with socioeconomic factors rather than with biology.[ ... risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age.[6] Risks of low birth weight, ... Risk factors[edit]. Culture[edit]. Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher in societies where it is traditional for girls to ...
Socioeconomic factorsEdit. Initial assumptions on co-sleeping may place it in a context of income and socioeconomic status. ... families of low socioeconomic status will be unable to afford a separate room for a child while those of high socioeconomic ... Cultural factorsEdit. Several studies show that the prevalence of co-sleeping is a result of cultural preference. In a study of ... Montgomery-Downs, H. E.; Gozal, D (2006). "Sleep habits and risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in infants and young ...
Socio-economic factorsEdit. Social class is a major factor in infant mortality, both historically and today. Between 1912 and ... Many theories have been explored as to why these racial differences exist with socio economic factors usually coming out as a ... Disparities due to socioeconomic factors have been exacerbated by advances in medical technology. Developed countries, most ... The determinants of low birth weight include socio-economic, psychological, behavioral and environmental factors.[15] ...
They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ... Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish riots in Frankfurt, rioters attacked ...
Socioeconomic factors also have a direct impact. Lower-class domestic workers who are often employed by those in a higher ... Risk factors[edit]. The greatest risk factor for developing leprosy is contact with another person infected by leprosy.[4] ... Not all people who are infected or exposed to M. leprae develop leprosy, and genetic factors are suspected to play a role in ... Risk factors. Close contact with a case of leprosy, living in poverty[3][6]. ...
It is difficult to quantify the relative impact of socio-economic factors and climate change on the observed trend.[217] The ... Global losses reveal rapidly rising costs due to extreme weather events since the 1970s.[215] Socio-economic factors have ... this is based on how socioeconomic factors such as population, economic growth, education, urbanisation and the rate of ... These factors include intergroup inequality and low socio-economic development.[210] Despite these issues, military planners ...
I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study". Eur Heart J. 10 (10): 910-16. doi:10.1093/ ... Although personality and social factors may make people likely to smoke, the actual habit is a function of operant conditioning ... Smoking is a risk factor strongly associated with periodontitis and tooth loss. The effects of smoking on periodontal tissues ... Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in ...
I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study". Eur Heart J. 10 (10): 910-16. doi:10.1093/ ... Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P; Jensen; Appleyard; Schnohr (1989). "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in ... Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors". BMJ. 332 (7550): 1142-44. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7550.1142. PMC 1459603. PMID ...
Vàzquez-Salat, Núria (2013). "Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO ...
The state ranks third in socioeconomic factors. As of 2010, there were 1,801,306 housing units in the state. 94.2% have running ... One important factor in population growth is migration into the state. Since 1995, over 22% of the state population was born ... It is ranked third in socioeconomic indicators behind Nuevo León and the Federal District of Mexico City. The main sectors of ...
The low socioeconomic status may be risk factors for ectopic pregnancy.[23] ... There are a number of risk factors for ectopic pregnancies. However, in as many as one third[9] to one half[10] no risk factors ... Risk factors. Pelvic inflammatory disease, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, history of infertility, use of assisted ... Risk factors include: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, use of an intrauterine device (IUD), previous exposure to DES, ...
They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... 1979 The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ...
Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. For example, in New York City, Cantonese still predominates in the city's ... Knodel, John; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Hermalin, Albert I (2002). "2 The Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Context of the ...
Other factors can influence the prevalence of the disorder. One of these factors is the socioeconomic status. Youths living in ... Another factor is based on the criteria used to diagnose an individual. When the disorder was first included in the DSM-III, ... Factors such as a family history of mental illnesses and/or substance abuse as well as a dysfunctional family and inconsistent ... Other social factors such as neglect, abuse, parents that are not involved, and lack of supervision can also contribute to ODD ...
... socioeconomic and environmental factors pg 49-73" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-12-10.. ... Several factors are contributing to a rise in obesity within Australia, with a large factor being advancing technology. In 2012 ... "Why do women of low socioeconomic status have poorer dietary behaviours than women of higher socioeconomic status? A ... Low socio economic groups are revealed to be more susceptible to poor nutritional patterns. This is due to lower levels of ...
Some constraints are informed by socio-economic factors. There are some gay, lesbian and queer people who cannot afford a ... One very important factor driving the social change in contemporary China is the great changes in and reorganization of social ... From the sociological perspective, there have been several main factors that have created the current turning point in the ... is an influential factor in making changes in Chinese society. During the Cultural Revolution, individual sexual preferences ...
Oral health promotion focuses on individual behaviour, the Socioeconomic status and environmental factors. Underlying ... Risk factors for tooth decay include physical, biological, environmental, behavioural, and lifestyle-related factors such as ... Dental public health is a broad subject that seeks to expand the range of factors that influences peoples oral health and the ... Similar to public health, an understanding of the many factors that influence health will assist the implementation of ...
Socioeconomic factors that limit a vitamin D rich diet also plays a role. In the United States, vitamin D insufficiency varies ... Other factors may include not enough calcium or phosphorus. The underlying mechanism involves insufficient calcification of the ...
Sakani, O; Zohry, AG (1994). "Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Affecting School Enrollment in Egypt". The Egyptian ... Zohry, A. G.; Hosam-el-Din, T. M. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Female Circumcision in the Sudan. Paper ... "The Impact of Socioeconomic Setting and Program Effort on Contraceptive Prevalence in the Egyptian Governorates". The Egyptian ...
Different socioeconomic groups are likely to have different tastes. Social class is one of the prominent factors structuring ... He took his thesis of taste as an economic factor and merged it with the neoclassical hypothesis of nonsatiety, which states ... There is likely to be variation between groups of different socioeconomic status in preferences for cultural practices and ...
Among socio-economic factors were restrictions by the authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed the doors for many ... This was also the chief motivating factor behind the massacres of Jews in Granada in 1066, when nearly 3,000 Jews were killed, ... George Gruen attributes the increased animosity towards Jews in the Arab world to several factors, including the breakdown of ... Some scholars have argued that modern antisemitism is primarily based on nonreligious factors, John Higham being emblematic of ...
These factors further contribute to their low socio-economic status, which impacts the ability for young Indigenous people to ... "Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on rural health". Australian Journal of Rural Health. 17 (1): 10-15. doi: ... These factors consist of the reduced access to education and health care professionals with alcohol treatment services, leading ... This is as a result of numerous factors such as the "disconnection to culture, traditions and country, social exclusion, ...
However, the socio-economic factor needs to be considered. While no arrest data broken down by income, BJS survey provided ... A contributing factor to domestic violence among football players may be that they are desensitized to physical conduct because ... Those three factors are the main predictors of a male's inclination toward gender violence. More recent studies have ...
This factor determines the most of their socioeconomic characteristics. Its average altitude is between 400 and 500 meters. In ...
E Verbeek, E Kanis, R C Bett, and I S Kosgey (2007). "Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya". ... All of these factors mean the Red Maasai is suited to meat production instead of fiber.[citation needed] Red Maasai sheep are ...
Environmental factors relate both to the environment of the patient and to the physical environment of the clinician's office. ... Further, socioeconomic status has been linked to client dropout, where poorer patients drop out more frequently. ... Also included as an environmental factor is the patient's access to care. In the United States, many insurance companies do not ... However, there are different factors associated with patient dropout that are worth identifying. There are several meta- ...
Among socio-economic factors were restrictions by the authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to ...
Localism often exists due to socioeconomic factors as well. Until relatively recently, surfers were looked down upon as lazy ...
Psychological factors are an important factor in occupational accidents that can lead to injury and death of employees. An ... Link, B.G., Dohrenwend, B.P., & Skodol, A.E. (1986). Socio-economic status and schizophrenia: Noisome occupational ... Research has found that psychosocial workplace factors are among the risk factors for a number of categories of mental disorder ... Research has identified health-behavioral and biological factors that are related to increased risk for CVD. These risk factors ...
In such a setting, information problems are not serious, and engineers rather than economists can resolve the issue of factor ... "Socialism and Capitalism: Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems?" (PDF). University of Massachusetts. Diakses ... p. 13: "Under socialism, by definition, it (private property and factor markets) would be eliminated. There would then be ... to organize production and to allocate factor inputs. On the other hand, the economic surplus accrues to society at large ...
... has been described as a disease of the 'poor and hungry'; it may be that slowly improving socioeconomic ... conditions and nutrition account for its decline[citation needed]. Urbanization of populations could be another factor, as ...
However, FEE analyses do not consider shortage the main factor,[321] while FAD-oriented scholars such as Bowbrick (1986) hold ... The famine's aftermath greatly accelerated pre-existing socioeconomic processes leading to poverty and income inequality,[297] ... All of these factors are closely associated with the increased spread of infectious disease.[205] ... More recent analyses often stress political factors.[BA] Discussions of the government's role split into two broad camps: those ...
"Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative ... His works have shown that sex inequality and education for women and girls are strongly associated factors for HIV infection, ...
Socio-Economic Background of the Hoa People (PDF) (Thesis). Shodhganga. p. 50.. *^ "Vietnam - Effects of French colonial rule" ... Geoff Wade; Laichen Sun (2010). Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: The China Factor. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978 ... Li, Tana (2010). "3 The Ming Factor and the Emergency of the Viet in the 15th Century". In Wade, Geoff; Sun, Laichen (eds.). ... Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: The China Factor. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 95-96. ISBN 978-988-8028-48-1. .. ...
Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the formation, structure and history of the population in Brazil, ... In the second half of the 1980s, Brazilians from various socioeconomic levels started to emigrate to other countries in search ... the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the '' ...
Unless evidence of bone healing or other factors are present, researchers may choose to regard all weathered fractures as post- ... sex and age with investigations of demography and epidemiology in order to verify or critique socioeconomic conditions ... and is constantly being made and re-made by both biological and cultural factors. Buikstra considers her work to be aligned ...
McLaren L. Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiol Rev (Review). 2007, 29: 29-48. PMID 17478442. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxm001. ... Lund Elizabeth M. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Obesity in Adult Dogs from Private US Veterinary Practices (PDF). Intern J ... Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Psychol Bull (Review). 1989-03, 105 (2): 260-75. PMID 2648443. ... Bei-Fan Z. Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference for risk factors of certain related diseases in Chinese ...
She claims that an unfavourable socio-economic background is a determining factor for the majority of women who have had an ... She has said that a French-Russian partnership is necessitated by "obvious civilization and geostrategic factors" as well as ...
Climatologists study both the nature of climates - local, regional or global - and the natural or human-induced factors that ... New capabilities to predict the onset of ENSO events in the three oceans can have global socio-economic impacts. While ENSO is ... and each index typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. By their very nature, indices ... overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate ...
Jolivétte, Andrew (2012). Obama and the Biracial Factor: The Battle for a New American Majority. Policy Press. p. xiii. ISBN ... But, they had limited rights and overall had slightly better socioeconomic conditions than those classed as "Black". The ... Other social factors, such as illiteracy and education levels, show the same patterns of disadvantage for people of color.[171] ... and other factors resulted in a population in which 6.2% of the population identified as black, 40% as pardo, and 55% as white ...
Kropotkin, Peter, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902). *. Oord, Thomas (2004). Science of Love. Philadelphia: Templeton ... Knox, T. (1999). "The volunteer's folly and socio-economic man: some thoughts on altruism, rationality, and community". Journal ... A Factor of Evolution and Peter Singer in his book A Darwinian Left. ... leading to the conclusion that there are other factors in cause in charity, such as a person's environment and values.[22] ...
"The two determining factors underlying the crisis are well known. One is the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the socialist ... "Renaissance and decay: A comparison of socioeconomic indicators in pre-Castro and current-day Cuba" (PDF). Archived from the ... There are other factors beside the embargo explaining the lack of imports, in particular Cuba's lack of hard currency. Those ... Here, students are exposed to medicine and the social, economical, and political factors that influence health.[52] At primary ...
Beginning in 1960, the population decreased[120][121] due to factors such as the cycles of oil production and tourism, and as ... The negative effects of these socioeconomic conditions aligned poorly with the changes in the late-20th century to the economy ...
All of these factors had a profound effect on Indigenous people, particularly those from the plains who had relied heavily on ... services and reduction in the universality of health care produces negative repercussions for those of lower socioeconomic ... These factors combine to create a world where First Nations individuals feel they cannot identify completely as Aboriginal, nor ... 11, 2007 The Mystery of the missing boys; Chemical pollutants flagged in new study as possible factor in skewed sex ratio By ...
... socioeconomic status, their ability (measured by an IQ-style test), prior achievement (11+ or Sats results) and GCSE results. ... but when all the selection factors are included, the difference is less than 1%. The results are dependent on the intake rather ...
April 2004). "Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 103 (4 ... and women with lower socio-economic status.[92] ... A number of other factors likely played a role in the rise of ... The cost of an abortion varies depending on factors such as location, facility, timing, and type of procedure. In 2005, a non- ... "that the medical judgement may be exercised in the light of all factors - physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the ...
It's not related to socioeconomic class".[18] The focus for kindergarten students is to "learn how to learn", Ms. Penttilä said ... The selection process is fully transparent, merit-based, and objective; there are no application essays, no human factor in ... but this can be put down to many factors such as the choice of the field of work into which each gender goes.[8] The ... ", "putting greater emphasis on educational quality as a competitive factor."[43] ...
A big factor for Aboriginal employment is education. Those with a degree have an employment probability of 85% (for males) and ... offence criminalisation and poor socioeconomic situation as a result of high poverty and unemployment rates, amongst others.[ ... In addition, the following factors have been at least partially implicated in the inequality in life expectancy:[220] ... Remoteness does appear to be a factor, as students in remote areas do not perform or attend as well as students in urban areas. ...
... technical and socio-economic factors relevant to the application of particular policies." [6] ... This involves publishing default emission factors, which are factors used to derive emissions estimates based on the levels of ... "Projected climate change will have beneficial and adverse effects on both environmental and socio-economic systems, but the ... IPCC reports cover the "scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of ...
Leaders of sectarian movements (i.e., the formation of a new sect) tend to come from a lower socio-economic class than the ... An often seen result of such factors is the incorporation into the theology of the new sect a distaste for the adornments of ...
Taylor, R.A. (2012). "Socioeconomic impacts of heat transfer research". International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer ...
Poor hygiene is a risk factor for HFMD. Outbreaks have relatively recently in China, Japan, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, ... HFMD is more common in rural areas than urban areas, however, socioeconomic status and hygiene levels need to considered. ...
... which divides and unifies people along a series of horizontal axes on the basis of socioeconomic factors, ethnic identities ... Thus, ethnic groups, at least theoretically, cut across socioeconomic class differences, drawing members from all strata of the ...
The rotation rate o the Yird is changed an aw bi factors sic as post-glacial reboond an sea level rise. ... coz o the biological an socio-economic importance o the saisons, the tropical year is the basis o maist calendars. The tropical ...
Here are four factors that distinguish entity resolution from data matching, according to John Talburt, director of the UALR ... For example, fetal and infant mortality is a general indicator of a country's socioeconomic development, public health, and ... Linkages can help in follow-up studies of cohorts or other groups to determine factors such as vital status, residential status ...
In addition, sibling warmth is not a protective factor for the negative effects of anxiety, depression, lack of self-worth and ... For example, large families are generally lower in socioeconomic status than small families, so third-born children are more ... The emotional bond between siblings is often complicated and is influenced by factors such as parental treatment, birth order, ... It is very difficult to control solely for factors related to birth order, and therefore most studies produce ambiguous results ...
Increased travel due to the Northern Hemisphere winter holiday season may also play a role.[163] Another factor is that cold ... data suggest that all countries experienced some time-limited and/or geographically isolated socio/economic effects and a ... Kark JD, Lebiush M, Rannon L (October 1982). "Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for epidemic a(h1n1) influenza in young men". ... such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells.[24][97] In contrast to the rhinovirus that ...
... an empirical analysis of the socio-economic factors that influence the sensitivity and resilience to drought of three major ... A famine is a widespread scarcity of food,[1] caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population ... Numerous factors make the food security situation in Africa tenuous, including political instability, armed conflict and civil ... change may cause famines in the future requires combining both an assessment of local socio-economic and environmental factors ...
Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and ... All of these socioeconomic characteristics are more common among people with cognitive impairment, as shown in Figure 4 ( ... FIGURE 4. Socioeconomic Characteristics by Cognitive Impairment and Race/Ethnicity, 2006 Health and Retirement Study ... Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and ...
In these conditions, the chance for the Romanian rural youth to become a factor for building the socio-economic resilience at ... "Romanian Rural Youth - Socio-Economic Resilience Factor," Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Institute of ... In these conditions, the chance for the Romanian rural youth to become a factor for building the socio-economic resilience at ...
Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Behavioral Factors Affecting Hispanic Health Outcomes Leo S. Morales, Marielena Lara, Raynard S. ... Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic ... Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, ...
The socioeconomic factors in North America from the early 1600s to the 1770s that lead to their ultimate rebellion against the ... More about Socio Economic Factors In North America Essay. *. Revolutionary War Dbq Analysis. 685 Words , 3 Pages ... One major factor that separated the two regions were the settlers that came to the New World. This affected the colonies in ... There were many factors that laid the foundation of the revolution, one being high taxation. In approach to the revolution the ...
This forum brings together professionals from academia, public health, and community development to shed light on the social determinants of health and explore community based models and strategies that are addressing both the social and physical conditions of at-risk populations. ...
... Vojnosanit Pregl. 2009 Sep;66(9):705-10. doi: 10.2298/ ... and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. ... sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits--having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. ...
American College of Surgeons Media Press Releases Journal (JACS) Press Releases Socioeconomic Factors Affect Odds of Death ... Fernandez and his colleagues sought to determine the specific clinical and socioeconomic factors that lead to disparities in 30 ... For the analysis, the researchers factored in community socioeconomic data, including education and household income level. ... However, after accounting for these characteristics, the researchers found that specific socioeconomic factors-including living ...
Projected European trends for key-socio-economic factors This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please ...
From the above factor analysis result, four interpretable factors remained for the overall index construction. These factors ... Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Low TB Knowledge. 3.4.1. Bivariate Analysis Results. At the bivariate analysis stage, the ... The following different socioeconomic factors are taken as independent variables in the analysis in this study: gender ... Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia. Sifrash Meseret Gelaw1,2 ...
Our analyses included intrinsic biological, life history and ecological attributes, external anthropogenic threats, and socio-economic ... Ewers RM, Didham RK (2006) Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation. Biol Rev 81:117- ... Fisher DO, Blomberg SP, Owens IPF (2003) Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors in the decline and extinction of Australian ... Our results promote understanding of global and regional factors associated with endangerment in this highly threatened ...
Socioeconomic convergence is of utmost importance for the EU. Upward convergence in the economic dimension has always been seen ... Socioeconomic convergence is of utmost importance for the EU. Upward convergence in the economic dimension has always been seen ...
... - CityTownInfos career and education news covering topics ... A new book, entitled "Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low-Income Students Succeed in College," relates that socioeconomic factors, ... Even though the research concentrates on the effect of socioeconomic status, race wasnt entirely discounted: Inside Higher Ed ... "Colleges Urged to Use Socioeconomic Affirmative Action," USA Today, June 17, 2010, Mary Beth Marklein ...
Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.04 Literacy and numeracy. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.05 Education outcomes for young ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.06 Educational participation and attainment of adults. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.07 ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.09 Index of disadvantage. The HPF was designed to measure the impact of the National Strategic ... Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.02 Access to functional housing with utilities. *Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.03 Environmental ...
Ethnic differences in access to transplant are associated with socioeconomic status and factors that can disqualify patients ( ... Socioeconomic Factors Affect Disparities in Access to Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Cancer,. Journal of Transplantation, ... Socioeconomic Factors Affect Disparities in Access to Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Cancer. ... Ethnic differences in access to transplant are associated with socioeconomic status and factors that can disqualify patients ( ...
Neighborhood socioeconomic context and adult health; the mediating role of individual health behaviors and psychosocial factors ... Article Title: State Socioeconomic Indicators and Self-Reported Hypertension Among US Adults, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor ... The association of macro-level (area) socioeconomic factors and hypertension prevalence rates in the population has not been ... We used the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine whether state socioeconomic status (SES) indicators ...
Socioeconomic disparities in pain may be attributable to both greater frequency in stressful financial events as well as ... greater vulnerability to economic hardship for those at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum. A study published in a ...
Relationships among Socioeconomic Factors and Self-rated Health in Japanese Adults: NIPPON DATA2010.. Ota A1, Yatsuya H1, Nishi ... The distributions of socioeconomic status (SES) factors have been changing in Japan. We examined the relationships among SES ... Japan; NIPPON DATA2010; cross-sectional study; self-rated health (SRH); socioeconomic status (SES) ...
Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress. British Medical Journal ... Only four of the socioeconomic and stress factors significantly reduced birth weight and these effects became non-significant ... Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress.. British Medical Journal ... OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial ...
Socio-economic factors, lifestyle, and headache disorders - a population-based study in Sweden.. Molarius A1, Tegelberg A, ... To study the association between socio-economic factors, lifestyle habits, and self-reported recurrent headache/migraine (RH/M ... The relationship was particularly evident for economic hardship and psychosocial factors. Of lifestyle factors, physical ... Underweight and obesity were not associated with headache disorders when adjusted for socio-economic factors. Subjects with ...
... with socioeconomic and other risk factors accounting for virtually all of the difference, according to a study published online ... Study: Socioeconomic, other risk factors explain racial disparity in asthma readmissions May 16, 2016 - 03:37 PM ... with socioeconomic and other risk factors accounting for virtually all of the difference, according to a study published online ... and socioeconomic hardship variable," the authors said. "Socioeconomic hardship variables explained 53% of the observed ...
Skowron M., Lemmerich F., Ferwerda B., Schedl M. (2017) Predicting Genre Preferences from Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors ... Predicting Genre Preferences from Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors for Music Retrieval. ...
... factor status was defined as having two or more of the six risk factors. Differences in the prevalence of multiple risk factors ... Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Multiple Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Stroke --- United States, 2003. ... Overall, 29.8% (CI = +0.4) reported having no risk factors, 33.1% (CI = +0.4) reported one risk factor, and 37.2% (CI = +0.3) ... Changes in self-reported risk-factor status might also be attributable either to an increasing prevalence of risk factors ...
The analysis explores the role and interplay of macroeconomic factors, governance variables, and the presence of Free Trade ... This study provides an in-depth exploration of a series of factors that can explain a countrys propensity to export fake goods ... The Role of Governance Frameworks, Enforcement and Socio-economic Factors. In series:Illicit Tradeview more titles ... Enforcement and Socio-economic Factors - en Risk governance. ... study provides an in-depth exploration of a series of factors ...
Crime: International Perspectives, Socioeconomic Factors and Psychological Implications. Michael Harry Pearson (Editor) ... In this book, the authors discuss crime issues from an international perspective, with a focus on socioeconomic factors and ... Home / Shop / Books / Social Sciences / Politics / Crime: International Perspectives, Socioeconomic Factors and Psychological ... ORIGINAL RESEARCH Factors associated with maternal drug use and the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome Pratibha Agarwal, ...
Socioeconomic factors are believed to play an important role in this disparity, and likely influence African Americans ... Socioeconomic factors and racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes Semin Nephrol. 2013 Sep;33(5):468-75. doi: 10.1016/j. ... African Americans suffer disproportionately from advanced and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Socioeconomic factors ... Low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in CKD because of the greater prevalence of poverty, for ...
Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood BMJ 1996; ... Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood. BMJ 1996 ... Our intention was to estimate the strength of the associations between these risk factors and adult socioeconomic circumstances ... CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS. For our analysis, we selected six cardiovascular risk factors that were of greatest concern to ...
Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.04 Literacy and numeracy. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.05 Education outcomes for young ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.06 Educational participation and attainment of adults. *Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.07 ... Tier 2-Socio-economic factors-2.05 Education outcomes for young people. The HPF was designed to measure the impact of the ... Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.02 Access to functional housing with utilities. *Tier 2-Environmental factors-2.03 Environmental ...
... ... 2000)‎. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China.. Bulletin of ...
... readmissions penalties have long argued the program unfairly punishes hospitals for factors outside their control, and new ... However, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, two hospitals were no longer penalized for 15-day readmissions and three ... The results indicate that methodologies for financial penalties do not take external factors into consideration, Sill said in a ... as well as broader environmental factors like lead exposure or local crime rates. Research published in January, however, ...
... health insurance status and other social factors, according to scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. ... Breast cancer studies ignore race, socioeconomic factors. June 27, 2018. The Bloomberg School scientists, in a commentary that ... fewer than five percent of studies reported findings stratified by race or other socioeconomic factors.. As Dean and colleagues ... "Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship" was written by Lorraine T. Dean, Sarah Gehlert, Marian L. Neuhouser, ...
  • For the study, Dr. Fernandez and his colleagues sought to determine the specific clinical and socioeconomic factors that lead to disparities in 30-day survival for patients undergoing operations for lung cancer. (
  • In particular we wanted to determine if there were certain factors that were important in these disparities, including educational background, occupation, insurance status, and proximity to the transplant center. (
  • Socioeconomic disparities in pain may be attributable to both greater frequency in stressful financial events as well as greater vulnerability to economic hardship for those at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum. (
  • To assess the prevalence of multiple risk factors for heart disease and stroke and to identify disparities in risk status among population subgroups, CDC analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. (
  • This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that approximately 37% of the survey population had two or more risk factors for heart disease and stroke and that considerable disparities in risk factors existed among socioeconomic groups and racial/ethnic populations. (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - The increased risk to ethnic minorities from COVID-19 is largely driven by factors such as living circumstances and profession and not the genetics of different groups or structural racism, a report into racial disparities from the pandemic has found. (
  • Low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in CKD because of the greater prevalence of poverty, for example, among African Americans as compared with whites. (
  • In a follow-up analysis of 57 breast cancer observational and randomized controlled trials that were published in 2016, the researchers found that, after excluding those in which the primary focus was disparities, fewer than five percent of studies reported findings stratified by race or other socioeconomic factors. (
  • If adopted, these measures would enable more effective design and implementation of interventions," Dean says, "and would help eliminate breast cancer racial and socioeconomic disparities by accounting for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated. (
  • Doctors could, for instance, moderately increase the dosage of cholesterol-lowering drugs to reflect the higher risk imposed by socioeconomic status," said Franks, whose research focuses on addressing health-care disparities. (
  • MONROE, La. (KNOE) -Dr. John Bruchhaus at St. Francis Medical Center said pre-existing medical conditions and other socioeconomic factors are contributing to the racial disparities of COVID-19 patients. (
  • Racial Disparities in Stroke Risk Factors. (
  • VIDEO: Racial, Ethnic and Socioeconomic Sleep Disparities: A Key Factor in Health Disparities? (
  • There are enormous disparities with respect to race and socioeconomic status. (
  • There are a lost of reasons or risk factors that may lead to these disparities. (
  • Resources available to parents are also very important to a child's cognitive development, and differences in parental socioeconomic status predict dementia. (
  • Consequently, the book proposes that colleges and universities should adopt affirmative-action policies based on socioeconomic status. (
  • Even though the research concentrates on the effect of socioeconomic status, race wasn't entirely discounted: Inside Higher Ed notes that Carnevale said that while he and Strohl "tried mightily to find a way to replace race with various measures of income class," being black still amounted to an SAT penalty of 56 points. (
  • The ABS has developed the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) to allow measurement of relative socioeconomic status at a small geographic area level (Adhikari 2006). (
  • Indigenous Australians often represent a small proportion of each Statistical Local Area (SLA) and therefore the socioeconomic status of the area will not always reflect the socioeconomic status of Indigenous Australians who live in the area. (
  • 2004), shows that Indigenous Australians in Qld have a high level of socioeconomic disadvantage regardless of whether they live in SLAs classified at area-level as having high or low socioeconomic status. (
  • Ethnic differences in access to transplant are associated with socioeconomic status and factors that can disqualify patients (advanced disease/morbid obesity). (
  • We used the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine whether state socioeconomic status (SES) indicators predict the prevalence of self-reported hypertension. (
  • The distributions of socioeconomic status (SES) factors have been changing in Japan. (
  • Marital status and country of origin were not associated with headache disorders after adjustment for other socio-economic factors. (
  • Multiple-risk--factor status was defined as having two or more of the six risk factors. (
  • socioeconomic status. (
  • Cross sectional analysis of status of cardiovascular risk factors and past and present social circumstances. (
  • Subjects' status for behavioural risk factors (exercise and smoking) was associated primarily with current socioeconomic circumstances, while status for physiological risk factors (serum cholesterol, blood pressure, body mass index, and FEV1) was associated to varying extents with both past and present socioeconomic circumstances. (
  • Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China. (
  • For example, a recent high-profile study sorting mortality rates by race and socioeconomic status revealed that midlife mortality is increasing among blue collar whites in the U.S. even though it is declining for the population overall. (
  • Socio-economic factors had relatively little direct influence on urban birds, but neighbourhood socio-economics may influence bird communities indirectly through the positive relationship between socio-economic status and vegetation cover recorded in our study area. (
  • People with lower socioeconomic status are much more likely to develop heart disease than those who are wealthier or better educated, according to a recent UC Davis study. (
  • People with low socioeconomic status need to have their heart-disease indicators managed more aggressively. (
  • The results indicated that people with lower socioeconomic status had a 50 percent greater risk of developing heart disease than other study participants. (
  • According to Franks, although it is known that people with low socioeconomic status have a greater risk for developing heart disease and other health problems, the reason is often attributed to reduced health-care access or poor adherence to treatments such as smoking cessation or medication. (
  • Low socioeconomic status is a heart-disease risk factor on its own and needs to be regarded as such by the medical community," Franks said. (
  • According to Franks, previous studies could help explain the link between low socioeconomic status and increased heart-disease risk. (
  • Franks advocates for including socioeconomic status in the Framingham risk assessment, a tool based on outcomes from the Framingham Heart Study, which is commonly used to determine treatments for heart-disease prevention. (
  • He points out that health-care providers in the United Kingdom already consider socioeconomic status in determining care plans. (
  • The study "Do Changes in Traditional Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors Over Time Explain the Association between Socio-Economic Status and Coronary Heart Disease? (
  • Among these factors, the impact of socio economic status has seldom been studied, although it might be an important determinant on quality of life. (
  • However, there was no association between the socio economic status and the 1-year mortality rate, or any of the other investigated factors: hospital length of stay, in-hospital mortality or 28-day mortality. (
  • This project seeks to develop a set of recommendations on the inclusion of socioeconomic status (SES) and other factors such as race and ethnicity in risk adjustment for outcome and resource use performance measures. (
  • How do social factors such as socioeconomic status and gender contribute in language variation? (
  • This being established, factors such as socioeconomic status and gender can impact the way in which an individual chooses to use the language registers and choices because language is the strongest and most common unifier, mainly used to convey communication, connect and interact with other members of that same social status, or gender. (
  • In the case of socioeconomic status (SES), for example, the American Association of Pediatrics released an article, as far back as the year 2000, which exposed a continuous argument on what exactly SES entails and what people expect from it. (
  • Can gender differences in psychosocial factors be explained by socioeconomic status? (
  • however, our synthesis showed that having low socioeconomic status (SES) and/or living in low and middle income countries (LMIC) increased the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), lung and gastric cancer, type 2 diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Socioeconomic indicators can be categorized into those related to economic status, education, local infrastructure, and health care facilities. (
  • Conducted by IIASA researcher and senior lecturer at the University of East Anglia, Raya Muttarak, the study aimed to investigate how demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with self-perception of weight status, particularly weight underassessment and attempts to lose weight. (
  • Socioeconomic status, hostility, and risk factor clustering in the Normative Aging Study: any help from the concept of allostatic load? (
  • Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 1990 to 1999 / 1999 / Socioeconomic status, hostility, and risk factor clustering in the Normative Aging. (
  • Early in economic development there are positive associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and in the most developed market economy societies there are negative associations. (
  • This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. (
  • In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of >15 000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. (
  • Identifying modifiable mechanisms that link socioeconomic status to SBP using data from a large representative sample may improve risk stratification and guide the development of effective interventions. (
  • Functional neuroimaging may provide insights into the achievement gap in reading skill commonly observed across socioeconomic status (SES). (
  • The research team also examined links between toddler diets and key maternal socio-demographic factors such as age, marital status, employment, education, income, country of origin, weight status and duration of breast feeding. (
  • The results of a multi-factor analysis of variance demonstrate significant differences in the FEV1/FVC ratio depending on the general socioeconomic status. (
  • Cornman JC, Glei DA, Goldman N, Ryff CD, Weinstein M (2015) Socioeconomic status and biological markers of health: an examination of adults in the United States and Taiwan. (
  • Methods A total of 5711 six-year-old children participating in the prospective population-based birth cohort study Generation R underwent a stepwise ophthalmic examination, which included visual acuity and objective cycloplegic refraction to identify children with myopia (≤−0.5D). Daily activities, ethnicity, factors representing family socioeconomic status and housing were ascertained by questionnaire. (
  • The relationship between three socioeconomic dimensions-current socioeconomic status, childhood socioeconomic status, and neighborhood education status-and psycho-social profiles was assessed through binomial logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, depression, living alone, and weight status. (
  • Experiences shape the way memories form, so major stressors on socioeconomic status can impact memory development. (
  • Socioeconomic status (SES) is a measurement of social standing based on income, education, and other factors. (
  • Socioeconomic status can differ cross-culturally, but is also commonly seen within cultures themselves. (
  • In Canada, most children grow up in agreeable circumstances, however an unfortunate 8.1% are raised in households that fall into the category of low socioeconomic status. (
  • 2012), socioeconomic status measured early in childhood reared a significant difference in hippocampal size in adulthood, suggesting that there is in fact an impact on brain and cognitive development. (
  • Lower socioeconomic status generally increases tension and negative emotions within a household, which may impact the emotional memory development of the children via the amygdala. (
  • Child development and socioeconomic status (SES) are positively correlated, especially with regards to the child's working memory. (
  • Low socioeconomic status environments with a high stress factor can increase the memory processing for a particular unpleasant event. (
  • Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others. (
  • Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three levels (high, middle, and low) to describe the three places a family or an individual may fall into. (
  • These socioeconomic influences may produce new or potentiate existing racial differences in biology. (
  • This study showed for the first time that the increased risk endured despite long-term improvements in other risk factors, indicating that access and adherence could not account for the differences. (
  • There were socioeconomic differences in a number of the cardiovascular risk factors (apolipoprotein B, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, CRP, leptin and IL-6). (
  • Differences between contemporary children and previous generations in the socioeconomic patterning of cardiovascular risk factors suggest future adults may have greater inequalities in diabetes and CHD than current adults. (
  • Moroccan lymphocyte subsets reference ranges: age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic factors dependent differences. (
  • Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. (
  • We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae) at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Choc of northwestern South America. (
  • Specifically, at lower socioeconomic levels, individual differences in skill result in large differences in brain activation. (
  • We examined whether differences in myopia prevalences in socioeconomic risk groups could be explained by differences in lifestyle factors. (
  • The myopia prevalence differences in socioeconomic groups were greatly determined by differences in distribution of these environmental risk factors, highlighting the importance of lifestyle adjustments in young children developing myopia. (
  • Results: Small differences were found in traditional risk factors between cities. (
  • The results suggest that a common set of risk factors may help to explain health differences both between and within countries. (
  • Socioeconomic differences were controlled for an examination of longitudinal data on established critical factors in career salience of female college graduates. (
  • Not surprisingly, the analysis showed that demographic and clinical factors such as older age, male gender, multiple co-morbidities, late-stage cancer and larger tumor size were associated with greater 30-day mortality following a lung cancer operation. (
  • Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between state SES and hypertension with adjustment for individual covariates (demographic and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors). (
  • We describe the association between a population's demographic, socioeconomic, and medical resources and hospital use related to gastrointestinal and liver diseases. (
  • We employ ordered logit models to test for changes in risk tolerance, after controlling for changing respondent household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and macroeconomic conditions. (
  • In fact, socioeconomic factors result in minorities being more heavily affected by drug addiction than other demographic groups. (
  • This effect was especially pronounced for individuals with no degree qualification and in lower-income groups, evidence that socioeconomic and demographic factors play a key role. (
  • The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. (
  • Parental or early life socioeconomic position, childhood IQ, measures of early growth (such as infant head circumference and childhood height), educational attainment, occupational characteristics, and various measures of social integration have all been linked to cognitive function and neurocognitive disorders in adulthood and old age (Glymour & Manley, 2008). (
  • All of these socioeconomic characteristics are more common among people with cognitive impairment, as shown in Figure 4 (Alzheimer's Association, 2011). (
  • However, after accounting for these characteristics, the researchers found that specific socioeconomic factors-including living in lower income households and residing in less-educated communities-were also independently associated with increased short-term postoperative mortality. (
  • A lot of scientists don't want to deal with race or socioeconomic position in their studies because they think those characteristics aren't modifiable," Dean says. (
  • Understanding the underlying epidemiology of disease and how it interacts with a community's socioeconomic and medical resources or medical supply characteristics will be necessary to meet the community's health needs and to ensure the financial viability of providers. (
  • The findings suggest that interventions on non-communicable diseases in the Samoas must be devised based on the level of economic development, the socio-economic context of risk factor exposures, and individual characteristics such as age, sex and education level. (
  • On the other hand, an alternative explanation is that our findings of lower mortality did not reflect the health attributes of the examined sports but, instead, they were related to socioeconomic characteristics of the participants of certain sports. (
  • Multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess independent associations between behavioral risk factors during pregnancy and maternal socio-economic characteristics. (
  • We aimed to describe the main psycho-social factors related to obesity in an adult population and to develop a unified construct (psycho-social profiles), to explore the associations between socioeconomic characteristics and these psycho-social profiles. (
  • Contrary to hypotheses, there were no associations between socioeconomic characteristics and obesity-related psycho-social profiles after adjustment for body mass index. (
  • Extraction of the results: The following data were extracted: (a) relevant study characteristics and assessment of physical activity level, (b) instruments used to assess psychosocial and socioeconomic factors, (c) association between physical activity level and these factors, (d) construction and validation of instruments, and (e) psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity participation. (
  • In order to address these shortcomings, Biddle (2009) constructed an Indigenous-specific index of relative socioeconomic outcomes, employing nine socioeconomic measures across employment, education, income and housing from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses. (
  • However, low SES has a stronger relation with CKD among African Americans than among whites, underscoring that the context and magnitude of socioeconomic influences on CKD outcomes varies between these populations. (
  • As Dean and colleagues note in their commentary, it should be obvious that in general, neglecting race/ethnicity and other social factors in medical research can mask important drivers of bad outcomes. (
  • With the recent emphasis on comparative effectiveness in oncology, it also becomes crucial that all variables affecting outcomes-including sociodemographic factors-are accounted for when comparisons between different therapeutic approaches and health care systems are made. (
  • Published online in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, the outcomes also show that this risk persists even with long-term progress in addressing traditional risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol. (
  • Our results show that, although there are some similarities, it is possible to find some important divergences with regard to some socioeconomic variables that have been traditionally considered as the most influential determinants of academic achievement, which do not seem to have a significant impact on the non-cognitive outcomes or even have the opposite effect. (
  • In both the models using specific SES measures and CVD risk factor outcomes, and the models using the ordinal SES index and predicted probabilities of CVD risk factors, we detected a pattern of high SES associated with: (1) elevated odds of CVD risk factors in less developed Samoa, and (2) decreased odds of CVD risk factors in more developed American Samoa. (
  • Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have dramatically infiltrated populations living in abject poverty in Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMICs), and poor maternal and child health outcomes have been frequently reported for those with CVD risk factors. (
  • There are also other criteria for liver transplant that relate to the presence of other medical comorbidities, psychosocial factors, and the ability to finance the transplant procedure. (
  • The relationship was particularly evident for economic hardship and psychosocial factors. (
  • Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity was strongly associated with headache disorders independent of economic and psychosocial factors. (
  • Costa and colleagues then stratified patients by the number of adverse socioeconomic factors identified in the main analysis. (
  • Ali said that although being in an ethnic minority was a reasonable proxy for being in a higher-risk group at the start of the pandemic, public health measures should be targeted along more specific socioeconomic lines moving forward. (
  • But we can explain different drug-use trends in different socioeconomic demographics. (
  • This study showed important socioeconomic inequalities in adiposity and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a contemporary UK population of 10-year-old children. (
  • Finally, the most important socioeconomic variable was education. (
  • Education in higher socioeconomic families is typically stressed as much more important, both within the household as well as the local community. (
  • Are there socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, and are they mediated by adiposity? (
  • It is unknown whether this translates to socioeconomic gradients in associated cardiovascular risk factors in children, with consequent implications for inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes when these children reach adulthood. (
  • Inequalities in other cardiovascular risk factors were partially mediated by adiposity. (
  • 7 However, it is unknown whether this association is due to tracking of BMI from childhood to adulthood or whether permanent changes in cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipid and blood pressure levels, occur in childhood as a result of greater adiposity. (
  • Background: We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. (
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in a Venezuelan Population by ATPIII vs IDF Criteria Which Were Compared and Associated to Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors. (
  • Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. (
  • The first quarterly report on COVID-19 health inequalities found that there was increased risk for Black and South Asian ethnic groups, adding that factors such as profession, deprivation and where people lived explained most of the increased risk, rather than genetics. (
  • Socioeconomic inequalities contribute to a disparity in the burden of NCDs among disadvantaged and advantaged populations in low (LIC), middle (MIC), and high income countries (HIC). (
  • We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to systematically and objectively assess the available evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in relation to morbidity and mortality of NCDs and their risk factors. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence supports an association between socioeconomic inequalities and NCDs and risk factors for NCDs. (
  • Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. (
  • Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different patterns and varying degrees of socioeconomic inequalities across low- and middle-income settings. (
  • Socioeconomic factors related to living and working conditions, health literacy, and access to healthcare services may contribute to normalization of obesity in lower education and lower income environments, therefore it is vital to prioritize inequalities in overweight- and obesity-related risks. (
  • To decrease morbidity and mortality from heart disease and stroke, public health programs should improve identification of persons with multiple risk factors and focus interventions on those populations disproportionately affected. (
  • A systematic review of studies in contemporary populations of children from high-income countries found that most studies show socioeconomic differentials in adiposity, with those from more deprived socioeconomic backgrounds being more adipose. (
  • Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance, and gives readers a better understanding of the factors that affect the health of populations and the performance of health systems in these countries and territories. (
  • This two-day course will develop ideas and plans to address the high fire incidence among populations based on socioeconomic factors. (
  • You will learn to focus on the socioeconomic factors that contribute to high fire incidence among populations in rural and urban areas. (
  • In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. (
  • Methods: The LiVicordia study compared both traditional and new possible risk factors for CHD among 150 50-year-old men in Link÷ping, Sweden and Vilnius, Lithuania. (
  • To investigate strength of associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic position during childhood and adulthood. (
  • Strength of association between each risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol concentration, level of recreational physical exercise, cigarette smoking, body mass index, and FEV1 score (forced expiratory volume in one second as percentage of expected value) and social class during childhood (based on father's main occupation) and adulthood (based on own occupation at time of screening). (
  • We addressed these issues in an industrial population and compared the influence of childhood and adult social circumstances on six widely accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Socioeconomic gradients in adiposity were not present during childhood for previous generations, but have emerged in contemporary children. (
  • These findings highlight the importance of interventions aimed at preventing obesity in childhood, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic position. (
  • If the latter is true these adiposity-related risk factors changes might mediate the association of childhood SEP with adult CHD. (
  • Longitudinal research is needed to further explore individual and social factors associated with FV consumption in childhood and their development over time. (
  • Socioeconomic hardship variables explained 53% of the observed disparity. (
  • Socioeconomic factors are believed to play an important role in this disparity, and likely influence African Americans' increased risk of CKD through multiple pathways. (
  • It's not a race issue, it's a socioeconomic disparity which creates the appearance of a race issue. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. (
  • Smoking was only moderately associated with RH/M. There was an inverse relationship between heavy alcohol use and RH/M. Underweight and obesity were not associated with headache disorders when adjusted for socio-economic factors. (
  • Certain modifiable risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, tobacco use, obesity, and lack of exercise, are the main targets for primary and secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke. (
  • This analysis examined six risk factors for heart disease and stroke: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity. (
  • Reviews included here indicated that lower SES is a risk factor for obesity in HIC, but this association varied by SES measure. (
  • The CVD risk factors, obesity, type-2 diabetes and hypertension were measured at baseline and 4-year follow-up, and an index of any incident CVD risk factor at follow-up was calculated. (
  • Factor analyses followed by cluster analysis were applied to identify psycho-social profiles related to obesity. (
  • Conclusion: Higher prevalence of behavioral risk factors for CVDs and their socio-economic factors prevailing among pregnant women living in rural Nepal call for immediate health promotion interventions such as community awareness and appropriate antenatal counseling. (
  • With respect to non-adherence interventions, the health professionals considered that low socioeconomic patients would prefer to receive drug information from medical store personnel verbally for at least 20 minutes. (
  • This study aims to bridge this gap by determining the relationship between the 7 longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socioeconomic indicators in 109 selected counties and urban districts in Guangxi, China. (
  • The purpose of this report is to describe cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between indicators of SES and CVD risk factors in a genetically homogenous population of Samoans at different levels of economic development. (
  • Sex and location (Samoa and American Samoa) specific multivariable logistic regression models were used to test for relationships between SES and CVD risk factors at baseline after adjustment for age and the other SES indicators. (
  • In addition an ordinal SES index was constructed for each individual based on all three SES indicators, and used in a multivariable model to estimate the predicted probability of CVD risk factors across the SES index for the two locations. (
  • Socioeconomic factors affected the care and survival of younger patients with multiple myeloma, but race/ethnicity itself did not influence survival. (
  • In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socioeconomic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. (
  • Online learning: How socioeconomic factors influence? (
  • A research was conducted to find the influence of the socio-economic factors impacting the online education. (
  • The research of MIIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Harvard shows that there is the influence of socioeconomic on the online education. (
  • We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. (
  • Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Choc , although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. (
  • Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. (
  • In the last 15 years, a large number of studies have sought to understand how social, economic, cultural, environmental, and geographical factors influence the TK about plants at small scales. (
  • Do language fluency and other socioeconomic factors influence the use of PubMed and MedlinePlus? (
  • Sheets L, Gavino A, Callaghan F, Fontelo P Do language fluency and other socioeconomic factors influence the use of PubMed and MedlinePlus? (
  • We conclude that the pattern of inverse associations between SES and CVD risk factors in Samoa and direct associations in American Samoa is attributable to the heterogeneity across the Samoas in specific exposures to social processes of economic development and the natural history of individual CVD risk factors. (
  • Larger studies of pediatric surgical epidemiology are limited to either inpatient or outpatient database studies without assessment of patient racial or socioeconomic associations 4,5 . (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate lung function in healthy young female university students and to seek the relation of lung function to socioeconomic and anthropometric indices. (
  • The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. (
  • The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors (education, employment, and income) with resilience in a sample of women with HIV. (
  • Socio-economic factors, lifestyle, and headache disorders - a population-based study in Sweden. (
  • To study the association between socio-economic factors, lifestyle habits, and self-reported recurrent headache/migraine (RH/M) in a general population. (
  • African-American children were more than twice as likely as white children to be readmitted to an urban children's hospital for asthma between August 2010 and October 2011, with socioeconomic and other risk factors accounting for virtually all of the difference, according to a study published online today by JAMA Pediatrics. (
  • This study provides an in-depth exploration of a series of factors that can explain a country's propensity to export fake goods. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. (
  • Given the peculiarities of sickle cell anemia and its sequelae in the oral cavity, this study examined caries and socioeconomic factors in children with this disease. (
  • One study in Denmark ( n =933), Estonia ( n =1103) and Portugal ( n =1153) showed socioeconomic differentials in BMI, waist circumference, lipids (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides) and circulating insulin. (
  • the main objective of the FROG-ICU study was to assess long-term mortality rates of critically ill adults, but its design allowed the performance of a risk stratification of survivors in order to look for different risk factors that could have an impact on recovery after ICU discharge. (
  • Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of high-density planting on yield of saffron farms and determining the socio-economic factors affecting unsustainable system of high-density planting. (
  • Our study findings show that farmers' age, awareness towards factors that reduce yield of saffron farms, and attending training courses are three factors that have a negative and significant impact on planting density. (
  • Conclusion This study found environmental factors to be strong risk factors for myopia already at the age of 6 years. (
  • Therefore, this study was conducted with aim of identifying socioeconomic factors prompting farm households` participation in Omo Microfinance services and factors determining the utilization of loan money for proposed activities. (
  • This study explored the risk factors for higher BMI and overweight in 9- to 11-year-old children using the 2007 California Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise Practices Survey . (
  • OBJECTIVES This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. (
  • CONCLUSIONS After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. (
  • however, further study is required to compile and evaluate additional socio-economic factors and their contribution to predicting numbers of recruits or the number of recruits per recruiter. (
  • In three studies, the construct validity was assessed by factor analysis and construct reliability tests for the study population. (
  • These indexes summarise a range of socioeconomic variables associated with advantage and disadvantage such as the proportion of families with high incomes, people with a tertiary education, and employees in skilled occupations. (
  • Let's examine the cyclic effect of addiction and drug use in the demographics of those who are less privileged, those who are at a socioeconomic disadvantage. (
  • And yet these same minority groups also always happen to be at a serious socioeconomic disadvantage. (
  • African-American children significantly differed with respect to nearly every measured biologic, environmental, disease management, access, and socioeconomic hardship variable," the authors said. (
  • Research has shown that family engagement in a child's learning leads to significant social-emotional, behavioral and academic gains across all gender, racial and socioeconomic groups. (
  • International literature has also documented improvements in child mortality associated with increased levels of maternal education and attributed this to a variety of factors, including improved understanding of and greater willingness to access health services (Gakidou et al. (
  • He said factors like health insurance, transportation, and housing have hindered patients from getting preventative care and following up with their physicians about chronic conditions. (
  • You conclude mental health treatment and counseling services are disproportionately received according to racial and socioeconomic factors. (
  • At the community level, there's children and adolescents' families, especially those living in socioeconomic disadvantaged communities, they may have a lack of access to those appropriate health services. (
  • However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health. (
  • While the relationship between socio-economic conditions and health have been of interest and concern for centuries, recent studies have sought to identify the social factors most relevant to health [ 14 ]. (
  • The health professionals also considered that most low socioeconomic patients used an alternative therapy along with allopathic medication, whereas patients reported that they preferred allopathic treatment alone. (
  • Health professionals suggested that a low socioeconomic patient would least prefer information relating to medicines and their side effects, while information regarding the disease and cost of medicine, would be preferred the most. (
  • However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. (
  • Factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, birthplace, and level of education have been identified as important on an individual level (Luoga et al. (
  • We confirmed that parrots have a lower Red List Index (higher aggregate extinction risk) than other comparable bird groups, and modeled the factors associated with extinction risk. (
  • But the dynamics of whether certain groups are more likely to contract the virus to start with due to external factors, or are more susceptible to it once exposed, have been unclear. (
  • Although the report said most of the increased risk for ethnic minorities was readily explained by socioeconomic and geographical factors, it added that the factors did not fully explain the vulnerability of some ethnic groups, such as Black men. (
  • Whether the same risk factors that characterized Lithuanian men, compared with Swedish men, could be found in low socioeconomic groups within the cities was investigated. (
  • A comparison was made of the prevalence of these risk factors in high and low socioeconomic groups within the cities and, after controlling for the city, variations across socioeconomic groups in the total sample. (
  • Students coming from single-parent families score an average of 5 points lower than students coming from other family backgrounds, even once socioeconomic background is taken into account. (
  • By selecting children of equivalent phonological skill, yet diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that a child's experience, as operationalized by SES, can systematically modulate the relationship between phonological language skills and reading-related brain activity in left fusiform and perisylvian regions. (
  • While the spikes in some disease rates may be linked to cigarette smoking and occupational exposures, other findings shed light on genetic and socioeconomic factors. (
  • So how does all of this relate to addiction and one's socioeconomic condition? (
  • The association of macro-level (area) socioeconomic factors and hypertension prevalence rates in the population has not been studied extensively. (
  • The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. (
  • Diverse Communities throughout the United States continue to be disproportionately affected by specific lung diseases such as asthma, tuberculosis, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and/or have more risk factors such as genetic predisposition, poor living conditions, and unequal access to healthcare and medications, according to the American Lung Association State of Lung Disease in Diverse Communities 2007 report. (
  • But they can actually help identify factors that are modifiable. (
  • For many women in the developing world, however, economic, social and cultural factors make it difficult for them to obtain the necessary food and healthcare, which are closely interrelated [ 12 ]. (
  • For the analysis, the researchers factored in community socioeconomic data, including education and household income level. (
  • A new book, entitled "Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low-Income Students Succeed in College," relates that socioeconomic factors, such as parents' education and income, greatly affect SAT scores: The most disadvantaged students score an average of 784 points lower than those from more affluent and educated families. (
  • These could include familial aspects such as family income or parent education levels, as well as broader environmental factors like lead exposure or local crime rates. (
  • Participants reported their education and income levels in 1987, and then over the course of 10 years were periodically evaluated for heart-disease diagnoses and changes in their risk factors, including cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking. (
  • It's clear from the research that although online learning has the new techs and advanced education pattern & technique, but socio-economic factors do have the impact on the learner. (
  • Farmers' income and their level of education are two factors which are considered to have a positive and significant impact on planting density. (
  • Parent education was the strongest risk factor with a clear gradient towards reduced risk as parent education improved. (
  • Conclusion: While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. (
  • Results revealed that across all Employment Statuses and Unclassified spouses, the psychological factors were more significant contributors to Career Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction than the socioeconomic and background factors. (
  • or = 25 kg/m2), sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits--having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. (
  • Yet another possibility is that patients with unfavorable sociodemographic factors also have more serious comorbidities affecting their ability to fully benefit from therapy. (
  • Socioeconomic convergence is of utmost importance for the EU. (
  • The analysis explores the role and interplay of macroeconomic factors, governance variables, and the presence of Free Trade Zones, logistics facilities and trade facilitation. (
  • Only four of the socioeconomic and stress factors significantly reduced birth weight and these effects became non-significant after smoking was controlled for. (
  • The concept of sociocultural theory plays into addiction theory significantly, especially as pertains to addiction and socioeconomic condition. (
  • Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. (
  • and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. (
  • Objective: The main objective of this scoping review was to identify psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma in the literature. (
  • The specific objectives were to map the instruments used to measure these factors, report on the construction and validation of these instruments, map psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity level reported in qualitative studies, and identify gaps in knowledge about the relationship between psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma. (
  • Our results promote understanding of global and regional factors associated with endangerment in this highly threatened taxonomic group, and will enhance the prioritization of conservation actions. (
  • MAIN RESULTS--Smoking was the most important single factor (5% reduction in corrected birth weight). (
  • The results indicate that methodologies for financial penalties do not take external factors into consideration, Sill said in a statement . (
  • Our results confirm that economic factors, including income especially and unemployment, as well as population density-or rurality-are important," says Goetz. (
  • The results show that natural factors such as the difference in temperature and altitude, along with socioeconomic factors such as GDP, might be the most significant contributors to the longevity of people aged 60-90 years in Guangxi. (
  • Results: Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) but higher FBS. (
  • The participation decision of the households in the credit market and factors determining the level of credit utilization for proposed activity is analyzed using double hurdle model. (
  • Critics of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' readmissions penalties have long argued the program unfairly punishes hospitals for factors outside their control, and new research published in JAMA Pediatrics supports that claim. (
  • However, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, two hospitals were no longer penalized for 15-day readmissions and three were no longer penalized for 30-day readmissions. (
  • In these conditions, the chance for the Romanian rural youth to become a factor for building the socio-economic resilience at the level of rural areas is problematic. (
  • Romanian Rural Youth - Socio-Economic Resilience Factor ," Agricultural Economics and Rural Development , Institute of Agricultural Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 215-222. (
  • The Bloomberg School scientists, in a commentary that appears in the July issue of Cancer Causes & Control, point to evidence that social factors help determine people's vulnerability to cancer, and argue that these factors should be considered routinely in studies and risk assessments that bear on clinical care. (
  • Clinical trials and population studies should be powerful tools for uncovering links between social factors and cancer vulnerability, which in turn should lead to better risk reduction and/or treatment strategies. (