Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Societies, Nursing: Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.United StatesSocieties, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.EuropeMedical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Awards and PrizesEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Great BritainQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.GermanyExpeditions: Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Taboo: Any negative tradition or behavior that is generally regarded as harmful to social welfare and forbidden within a cultural or social group.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Famous PersonsPolynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Religion and ScienceArchaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Western World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Philosophy, MedicalWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Literature, ModernDecision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.History of DentistryCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ethicists: Persons trained in philosophical or theological ethics who work in clinical, research, public policy, or other settings where they bring their expertise to bear on the analysis of ethical dilemmas in policies or cases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)ItalyPhysician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.BrazilModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)

Outbreak of histoplasmosis among cavers attending the National Speleological Society Annual Convention, Texas, 1994. (1/180)

In June 1994, 18 people developed serologically confirmed histoplasmosis following cave exploration associated with the annual National Speleological Society Convention in Bracketville, Texas. Six others had an undiagnosed illness suspected to be histoplasmosis. Two persons were hospitalized. We conducted a survey of convention attendees and a nested case-control study of those entering caves. We also conducted a histoplasmin skin test survey of a subgroup of the society, the Texas Cavers Association, who were attending a reunion in October 1994. Among the national convention attendees, exposure to two caves was identified as responsible for 22 (92%) of the 24 cases; 12 (75%) of 16 people exploring one cave (Cave A) and 10 (77%) of 13 exploring a separate cave (Cave B) developed acute histoplasmosis. Additional risk-factors included fewer years of caving experience, longer time spent in the caves, and entering a confined crawl space in Cave A. Of 113 participants in the separate skin test survey, 68 (60%) were found to be skin test positive, indicating previous exposure to Histoplasma capsulatum. A positive skin test was significantly associated with male sex and more years of caving experience. Those less experienced in caving associations should be taught about histoplasmosis, and health care providers should pursue histories of cave exposure for patients with bronchitis or pneumonia that does not respond to initial antibiotic therapy.  (+info)

Enabling, empowering, inspiring: research and mentorship through the years. (2/180)

The interrelationship between research and mentorship in an association such as the Medical Library Association (MLA) is revealed through the contributions of individuals and significant association activities in support of research. Research is vital to the well-being and ultimate survival of health sciences librarianship and is not an ivory tower academic activity. Mentorship plays a critical role in setting a standard and model for those individuals who want to be involved in research and, ultimately, for the preparation of the next generation of health sciences librarians. Research and mentorship are discussed in the context of personal experiences, scholarship, and problem solving in a practice environment. Through research and mentorship, we are enabled to enhance our services and programs, empowered to look beyond our own operations for information puzzles to be solved, and inspired to serve society by improving health.  (+info)

American College of Cardiology/ European Society of Cardiology international study of angiographic data compression phase II. The effects of varying JPEG data compression levels on the quantitative assessment of the degree of stenosis in digital coronary angiography. (3/180)

OBJECTIVES: This report describes whether lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) image compression/decompression has an effect on the quantitative assessment of vessel sizes by state-of-the-art quantitative coronary arteriography (QCA). BACKGROUND: The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) digital exchange standard for angiocardiography prescribes that images must be stored loss free, thereby limiting JPEG compression to a maximum ratio of 2:1. For practical purposes it would be desirable to increase the compression ratio (CR), which would lead to lossy image compression. METHODS: A series of 48 obstructed coronary segments were compressed/decompressed at CR 1:1 (uncompressed), 6:1, 10:1 and 16:1 and analyzed blindly and in random order using the QCA-CMS analytical software. Similar catheter and vessel start- and end-points were used within each image quartet, respectively. All measurements were repeated after several weeks using newly selected start- and end-points. Three different sub-analyses were carried out: the intra-observer, fixed inter-compression and variable inter-compression analyses, with increasing potential error sources, respectively. RESULTS: The intra-observer analysis showed significant systematic and random errors in the calibration factor at JPEG CR 10:1. The fixed inter-compression analysis demonstrated systematic errors in the calibration factor and recalculated vessel parameter results at CR 16:1 and for the random errors at CR 10:1 and 16:1. The variable inter-compression analysis presented systematic and random errors in the calibration factor and recalculated parameter results at CR 10:1 and 16:1. Any negative effect at CR 6:1 was found only for the calibration factor of the variable inter-compression analysis, which did not show up in the final vessel measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Compression ratios of 10:1 and 16:1 affected the QCA results negatively and therefore should not be used in clinical research studies.  (+info)

American College of Cardiology/ European Society of Cardiology international study of angiographic data compression phase III. Measurement Of image quality differences at varying levels of data compression. (4/180)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate up to which level of Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) data compression the perceived image quality and the detection of diagnostic features remain equivalent to the quality and detectability found in uncompressed coronary angiograms. BACKGROUND: Digital coronary angiograms represent an enormous amount of data and therefore require costly computerized communication and archiving systems. Earlier studies on the viability of medical image compression were not fully conclusive. METHODS: Twenty-one raters evaluated sets of 91 cine runs. Uncompressed and compressed versions of the images were presented side by side on one monitor, and image quality differences were assessed on a scale featuring six scores. In addition, the raters had to detect pre-defined clinical features. Compression ratios (CR) were 6:1, 10:1 and 16:1. Statistical evaluation was based on descriptive statistics and on the equivalence t -test. Results At the lowest CR (CR 6:1), there was already a small (15%) increase in assigning the aesthetic quality score indicating "quality difference is barely discernible-the images are equivalent.' At CR 10:1 and CR 16:1, close to 10% and 55%, respectively, of the compressed images were rated to be "clearly degraded, but still adequate for clinical use' or worse. Concerning diagnostic features, at CR 10:1 and CR 16:1 the error rate was 9.6% and 13.1%, respectively, compared with 9% for the baseline error rate in uncompressed images. CONCLUSIONS: Compression at CR 6:1 provides equivalence with the original cine runs. If CR 16:1 were used, one would have to tolerate a significant increase in the diagnostic error rate over the baseline error rate. At CR 10:1, intermediate results were obtained.  (+info)

Past presidents I have known. (5/180)

This paper is an account of the accomplishments of some of the early past presidents of the Medical Library Association known personally to the author in his career as a medical librarian. It demonstrates the qualities that made these librarians leaders of our profession and also indicates their personal attributes that contributed to the advancement of medical librarianship. It is hoped that the historical presentation of some of the giants of our profession will inspire present and future presidents and other medical librarians with an understanding of some of the qualities necessary to the continuing success of our profession.  (+info)

Why some Jehovah's Witnesses accept blood and conscientiously reject official Watchtower Society blood policy. (6/180)

In their responses to Dr Osamu Muramoto (hereafter Muramoto) Watchtower Society (hereafter WTS) spokesmen David Malyon and Donald Ridley (hereafter Malyon and Ridley), deny many of the criticisms levelled against the WTS by Muramoto. In this paper I argue as a Jehovah's Witness (hereafter JW) and on behalf of the members of AJWRB that there is no biblical basis for the WTS's partial ban on blood and that this dissenting theological view should be made clear to all JW patients who reject blood on religious grounds. Such patients should be guaranteed confidentiality should they accept whole blood or components that are banned by the WTS. I argue against Malyon's and Ridley's claim that WTS policy allows freedom of conscience to individual JWs and that it is non-coercive and non-punitive in dealing with conscientious dissent and I challenge the notion that there is monolithic support of the WTS blood policy among those who identify themselves as JWs and carry the WTS "advance directive".  (+info)

Medical confidentiality and the protection of Jehovah's Witnesses' autonomous refusal of blood. (7/180)

Mr Ridley of the Watch Tower Society (WTS), the controlling religious organisation of Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs), mischaracterises the issue of freedom and confidentiality in JWs' refusal of blood by confusing inconsistent organisational policies with actual Biblical proscriptions. Besides exaggeration and distortion of my writings, Ridley failed to present substantive evidence to support his assertion that no pressure exists to conform to organisational policy nor systematic monitoring which compromises medical confidentiality. In this refutation, I present proof from the WTS's literature, supported by personal testimonies of JWs, that the WTS enforces its policy of blood refusal by coercive pressure to conform and through systematic violation of medical confidentiality. Ridley's lack of candour in dealing with the plea of dissident JWs for freedom to make personal and conscientious decisions regarding blood indicates that a serious breach of ethics in the medical care of JWs continues. The medical community should be seriously concerned.  (+info)

Use of a reference material proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine to evaluate analytical methods for the determination of plasma lipoprotein(a). (8/180)

BACKGROUND: As part of the NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Contract for the Standardization of Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] Measurements, a study was performed in collaboration with the IFCC Working Group for the Standardization of Lp(a) Assays. The aims of the study, performed with the participation of 16 manufacturers and 6 research laboratories, were to evaluate the IFCC proposed reference material (PRM) for its ability to transfer an accuracy-based value to the immunoassay calibrators and to assess concordance in results among different methods. METHODS: Two different purified Lp(a) preparations with protein mass concentrations determined by amino acid analysis were used to calibrate the reference method. A Lp(a) value of 107 nmol/L was assigned to PRM. After uniformity of calibration was demonstrated in the 22 evaluated systems, Lp(a) was measured on 30 fresh-frozen sera covering a wide range of Lp(a) values and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] sizes. RESULTS: The among-laboratory CVs for these samples (6-31%) were, in general, higher than those obtained for PRM (2.8%) and the quality-control samples (14%, 12%, and 9%, respectively), reflecting the broad range of apo(a) sizes in the 30 samples and the sensitivity of most methods to apo(a) size heterogeneity. Thus, although all of the assays were uniformly calibrated through the use of PRM, no uniformity in results was achieved for the isoform-sensitive methods. CONCLUSIONS: Linear regression analyses indicated that to various degrees, apo(a) size heterogeneity affects the outcome of the immunochemical methods used to measure Lp(a). We have also shown that the inaccuracy of Lp(a) values determined by methods sensitive to apo(a) size significantly affects the assessment of individual risk status for coronary artery disease.  (+info)

  • Since that time, many local and state societies have followed in our footsteps to represent radiologists and radiation oncologists in their respective localities. (constantcontact.com)
  • The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology is a diverse organization of scientists, students, artists, preparators, advocates, writers and scholars across the globe, who are dedicated to the study, discovery, interpretation and preservation of vertebrate fossils. (vertpaleo.org)
  • The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada is an organization founded by volunteers and continually fueled by the initiative and dedication of thousands of volunteers across the country. (mssociety.ca)
  • The Canadian Methodist Historical Society is a national organization established in 1899 and reorganized 1975 fundamentally for the advancement of historical information relative to the Methodist Church in Canada. (cyndislist.com)
  • The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists is an international organization of over 6,000 cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesiologists that promotes excellence in clinical care, education, and research in the subspecialty. (lww.com)
  • The International Society for Anaesthetic Pharmacology (formerly the Society for Intravenous Anesthesia) is a nonprofit organization with an international membership, which is dedicated to teaching and research about clinical pharmacology in anesthesia, with particular reference to anesthetic drugs. (lww.com)
  • The Society for Technology in Anesthesia (STA) is an international organization of physicians, engineers, students and others with an interest in anesthesia-related technologies. (lww.com)
  • The Dartmouth Society of Investment and Economics (DSIE) is an undergraduate organization committed to promoting understanding of finance, economics, investment, and related areas on campus. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The London Missionary Society was founded in 1795 as a nondenominational organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith in the non-European world. (britannica.com)
  • Edward G. Jones, a neuroscientist at UC Irvine, has been elected president of the Society of Neuroscience, a worldwide organization of more than 26,000 scientists and physicians. (latimes.com)
  • While the Society is discouraged by the announcement of the conditional support, Lapierre says the organization is more committed than ever to continue its work on this issue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The records include correspondence of the Society's secretaries regarding annual meetings and the re-organization of the Society in 1940 (1915 - 1941). (in.gov)
  • Rule-governed artificial agent societies consisting of autonomous members are susceptible to rule violations, which can be seen as the acts of agents exercising their autonomy. (springer.com)
  • Societies construct patterns of behavior by deeming certain actions or speech as acceptable or unacceptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citing incidents of rape of young Muslim women who wore Western-style clothing in immigrant housing projects outside Paris, Dalrymple surmises that 'it is impossible to know whether the adoption of Islamic dress by women in Western society is ever truly voluntary, and so long as such behavior persists, the presumption must be against it being so. (rferl.org)
  • The Biophysical Society, founded in 1958, is a professional, scientific Society established to lead development and dissemination of knowledge in biophysics. (newswise.com)
  • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology helps you excel at all stages of your scientific career through networking, professional development, meetings, journals and leadership opportunities. (asbmb.org)
  • The American Society for Engineering Education has offered the National Effective Teaching Institute (NETI) since 1991, and the American Society of Civil Engineers has offered the Excellence in Civil Engineering Education Teaching Workshop (ExCEEd) since 1999. (carleton.edu)
  • The Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists (SOCCA) formerly American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, was founded in 1986 to address the unique concerns of intensivists before the American Society of Anesthesiologists. (lww.com)
  • The American Cancer Society (ACS) was originally established as the American Society for the Control of Cancer in 1913, and became the ACS in 1945. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Asia Society Korea hosted an online discussion with Marc Knapper and John Delury to look into the U.S.-Korea relations amid the time of the pandemic crisis. (asiasociety.org)
  • The libraries of several learned societies have been deposited in UCL Library Services, and in most cases are integrated into the same sequence as UCL books. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 28/06/2016 - Poor skills severely reduce a person's chance of a better-paying and more-rewarding job, and have a major impact on how the benefits of economic growth are shared within societies. (oecd.org)
  • In January 2016, Funding Societies launched Modalku, which means "My Capital" in Bahasa to reach out to SMEs in the Indonesian Market. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2016, Funding Societies was also named the Asia's top 7 Peer-To-Peer Lending Platform by FinTech News. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funding Societies secured a Partnership with DBS Bank in April 2016, one of the biggest banks in Asia to cross-refer borrowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions suggest that recognizing diversity in successful aging futures is important in shaping responses to the challenges of aging societies, and presents an opportunity for critical cultural gerontology to join with its theoretical allies in imagining more inclusive alternatives. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemical Society Seminar: Davit Potoyan - Multi-scale computational studies of assembly, regulation, and phase separation in the cell nucleus. (mcgill.ca)
  • The focuses of this Society are on the theory and application of electronics, controls, communications, instrumentation, and computational intelligence to industrial and manufacturing systems and processes. (ieee.org)
  • The course is taught in the heart of London, with immediate access to King's hospitals and laboratories, and close to government, health policy think-tanks, patient advocacy groups, medical and scientific societies, and the private health sector. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe speaks at the start of a conference of parties and civic society groups reviewing a draft constitution that, if adopted, will lead to Zimbabwe's next election, at a hotel in Harare, October 22, 2012. (voanews.com)
  • The societies originated in the time of slavery as co-operative work groups created for mutual support, and assistance in time of trouble. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BSHS is the main organisation in the British Isles working to bring together people with an interest in the histories of science, technology and medicine and their changing relationship with society. (bshs.org.uk)
  • The London Society is a British membership organisation established to encourage public interest and participation in urban planning and transport matters in London as well as to study and celebrate the capital's unique history and character. (wikipedia.org)
  • The KCL Smile Society is a non-profit charitable organisation run by dental students to improve knowledge of good dental health in the local community. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • That America's ownership society is thriving can be seen in the burgeoning holdings of assets such as houses and securities," George Melloan wrote on the Wall Street Journal editorial page last week. (slate.com)
  • Chemical Society Seminar: Kevin Stampelcoskie - What's Next for Ag/Au Metal Clusters? (mcgill.ca)
  • See Colonial Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Applications for Membership in Alphabetical Order by Member With a Complete Genealogy Back to Original Ancestor (Family History Library films 532056 -73). (familysearch.org)
  • Both societies have a formal hierarchic structure patterned upon the socio-economic structure of colonial society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bush's 'ownership society' goes bust. (slate.com)
  • So, it ought to be glory days for President Bush, who has made the " Ownership Society " a theme of his presidency, and who views investing in securities as the solution to everything from Social Security's long-term insolvency to the health-care crisis. (slate.com)
  • More significantly, the expansion of the ownership society has actually stalled during the Bush presidency. (slate.com)
  • In the Bush administration: Inaugural Message 2005 , Bush added: "To give every American a stake in the promise and future of our country, we will bring the highest standards to our schools and build an ownership society . (sourcewatch.org)
  • The oft-touted term, ownership society by President Bush refers to the theories of mass privatization his administration is in the midst of injecting into the American way of life. (sourcewatch.org)
  • In the ownership society, patients control their own health care, parents control their own children's education, and workers control their retirement savings. (sourcewatch.org)
  • An ownership society can also improve environmental quality. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The idea behind what the President has called the "Ownership Society" is far larger than any proposal to reform Social Security, or make homebuying easier, or boost the economy by cutting taxes on dividends. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The Republican "Ownership Society" is hokum. (sourcewatch.org)
  • An Ownership Society based on the stock market would be a casino. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The main objective of the Gita is to help people struggling in the darkness of ignorance cross the ocean of transmigration and reach the spiritual shore of liberation while living and working in the society. (sacred-texts.com)
  • With your support, the MS Society of Canada is committed to improving the lives of Canadians with multiple sclerosis and accelerating the high-quality research that could end MS. Please help us build a future that's free from MS. (mssociety.ca)
  • The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia is one of the fastest growing anesthesia organizations, responding to the education and research needs of perioperative physicians practicing ambulatory anesthesia. (lww.com)
  • The Econometric Society Monographs series is designed to promote the publication of original research contributions of high quality in economic theory and theoretical and applied econometrics. (cambridge.org)
  • History of the Crimean War Research Society. (lulu.com)
  • Creditor Protection and the Dynamics of the Distribution in Oligarchic Societies ," IEW - Working Papers 264, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich. (repec.org)
  • Creditor protection and the dynamics of the distribution in oligarchic societies ," Journal of Economic Growth , Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 313-344, December. (repec.org)
  • Creditor Protection and the Dynamics of the Distribution in Oligarchic Societies ," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_052, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade. (repec.org)
  • University officials said the society, founded in 1970, is the world's largest and most prestigious dedicated to understanding the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. (latimes.com)
  • I am a member of the ASBMB because of the community the society provides along with a wealth of knowledge and resources. (asbmb.org)
  • At its broadest, wealth (which some may conceptualize as modernization or economic development) 5 underlies economic, technological, scientific, educational, residential, and nutritional manifestations, as well as the urbanization and bureaucratization of societies. (hawaii.edu)
  • For further information about the wealth of Music and Arts societies that are on offer look through the listings. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • While earlier large-scale quantitative work focused on analysing an individual snapshot of laws enacted by national parliaments 20 , 21 , collections of snapshots offer a window into the dynamic interaction between law and society. (nature.com)
  • We deliver our mission through programmes that are implemented in partnership with National Societies of Anaesthesiology and other organisations that share our objectives. (lww.com)
  • A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction , or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do these expectations of a good society sound unreasonable, or utopian? (rense.com)
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About Mensa - American Mensa, Ltd. (us.mensa.org)
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Medical Library - REAL Medical Resources (medical-library.org)
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - YouTube
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - YouTube (youtube.com/user/LeukemiaLymphomaSoc/)
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Free Society, Free Speech.
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Pernicious Anaemia Society Fundraising | Easyfundraising (easyfundraising.org.uk)
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ATS In Season February 2013 by ATS Ashburton Trading Society - issuu (issuu.com)
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Getting Culture - The Society Pages (thesocietypages.org)
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You searched for Decadent Society - Free Speech TV (freespeech.org)
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Society of Chemical Industry - Eating fitness (soci.org)
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Brian Henry - Poetry Society of America (poetrysociety.org)
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National Brain Tumor Society (secure2.convio.net)
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Cornea & Contact Lens Society Conference 2019 - Cvent | Online Registration by Cvent (cvent.com)
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Dear Wild Abandon, - Poetry Society of America (poetrysociety.org)
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Society of Chemical Industry - Catalyst for success (soci.org)
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Ecology and Society: River Restoration and Meanders (ecologyandsociety.org)
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Flanders, Helen - Vermont Historical Society (vermonthistory.org)
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Ecology and Society: Pilot Projects in Water Management (ecologyandsociety.org)
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Society of Chemical Industry - Proteins identified repair hearing (soci.org)
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The Free Information Society - Lee, Brandon (freeinfosociety.com)
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The Free Information Society - Eastman, George (freeinfosociety.com)