Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.United StatesPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Spouses: Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.FloridaHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Social Networking: Individuals connecting by family, work or other interests. It also includes connectivity facilitated by computer-based communications.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Ethnopsychology: Comparative PSYCHOLOGY of different ethnic and cultural groups.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.ChicagoAttitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.BrazilBereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Maternal-Child Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.SwedenPatient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Dependency (Psychology): The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Morale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Awareness of and attitude of elderly subjects regarding health care and welfare in rapidly ageing population in Japan. (1/5627)

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain information on the degree of knowledge and understanding about the current systems of health care and welfare held by the elderly, in order to achieve comprehensiveness in family practice. METHOD: We conducted a study on the awareness of healthy elderly persons by direct interview. The study was carried out in Kuni Village in a remote mountainous region in Japan, where the elderly population accounts for 24.8% of the total population. The subjects were self-dependent in their daily living activities and were aged 65 years and older. RESULTS: The subjects' knowledge of health care and welfare systems was generally good, and the degree of their utilization of these systems was also good. But 83.3% of those who did not want to utilize the welfare system indicated their preference to depend on their family for support. CONCLUSION: Family physicians must endeavour to offer comprehensive care to their patients by including these systems for rapidly ageing communities.  (+info)

Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. (2/5627)

PURPOSE: To examine whether ethnic differences in low birth weight babies of low-income women may be explained in part by group differences in prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial factors. METHODS: A prospective, survey of 1,071 low-income, primiparous African-American and Mexican-origin women was conducted in Los Angeles County, California. In face-to-face interviews, data were obtained on substance use, prenatal stress, social support, attitudes toward pregnancy, initiation of prenatal care, and medical risk. Medical chart data were abstracted regarding medical risk factors and labor, delivery, and neonatal data. Interview data were linked with birth outcome data retrieved from maternal medical records. Structural equation modeling was used to test a hypothesized model in which differences in birth weight were expected to be mediated by ethnic differences in substance use, psychosocial factors, and medical risk. RESULTS: As expected, African-American women delivered babies of earlier gestational age and lower birth weight than did women of Mexican origin. Direct predictors of low birth weight were use of drugs and cigarettes, prenatal stress, and positive attitudes toward pregnancy; together, these factors accounted for the observed ethnic differences in birth weight. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to our understanding of the factors that may account for ethnic-associated differences in low birth weight.  (+info)

Developing communality: family-centered programs to improve children's health and well-being. (3/5627)

Despite decades of enormous investment in research and public programs, the United States continues to face pandemics of preventable health problems such as low birth weight, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and interpersonal violence. With some justification, these problems have been blamed on the failings of families. The reasons why families may function poorly in their child-rearing roles have not been coherently or vigorously addressed by our social policies; sometimes these policies have aggravated the problems. This paper provides background to allow a better understanding of families' role in the social determination of children's health, and argues for programs and policies that assist families through the creation of social supports embedded in communities that are characterized by trust and mutual obligation.  (+info)

Health of the elderly in a community in transition: a survey in Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala, India. (4/5627)

Results of a survey to assess the health and functional status of the elderly (defined as those who are 60 years or older) in Thiruvananthapuram city, the capital of Kerala state, India, are discussed. As the process of development results in longevity without concomitant economic success, traditional support systems break down. The differences in status of the elderly dependent on gender and socioeconomic class are highlighted. Women are poorer and generally suffer more morbidity than men in old age, even though their death rates are lower. The better-off among the elderly enjoy a quality of life much superior to their poor brethren. Thus, in transitional societies such as Kerala, socioeconomic status and gender play a significant role in determining the quality of life of the elderly, a finding which may have some policy implications.  (+info)

Impact of litigation on senior clinicians: implications for risk management. (5/5627)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of litigation on consultants and senior registrars and to establish their views on methods of reducing adverse events and litigation. DESIGN: Postal survey. SETTING: Acute hospitals in the North Thames (West) Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS: 1011 consultants and senior registrars in acute hospitals. MAIN MEASURES: Perceived causes and effects of adverse events; views on methods of reducing litigation and adverse events. RESULTS: 769 (76%) doctors responded. 288 (37%) had been involved in litigation at some point during their career; 213 surgeons (49%) and 75 (23%) doctors in the medical specialties. Anger, distress, and feeling personally attacked were common responses to litigation. Clinicians' views on reducing litigation emphasised the need for change at the clinical level. Supervision of junior staff, workload, and training in communication skills were to the fore. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of doctors who have experienced litigation and the emotional responses described indicate that clinicians require support at several levels. At a personal level, support can be offered to clinicians going through the litigation process or after an adverse event. Also, managerial support is needed by offering financial and practical help in correcting the factors that have been consistently identified as producing high risk situations to minimise the possibility of a reoccurrence. Accidents in medicine are, by their very nature, costly in human and financial terms and the root causes must be tackled. Recommendations are made for clinicians and risk management teams.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease in the United Kingdom: developing patient and carer support strategies to encourage care in the community. (6/5627)

Alzheimer's disease is a growing challenge for care providers and purchasers. With the shift away from the provision of long term institutional care in most developed countries, there is a growing tendency for patients with Alzheimer's disease to be cared for at home. In the United Kingdom, this change of direction contrasts with the policies of the 1980s and 90s which focused more attention on controlling costs than on assessment of the needs of the patient and carer and patient management. In recent years, the resources available for management of Alzheimer's disease have focused on institutional care, coupled with drug treatment to control difficult behaviour as the disease progresses. For these reasons, the current system has led to crisis management rather than preventive support--that is, long term care for a few rather than assistance in the home before the crises occur and institutional care is needed. Despite recent innovations in the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, the nature of the support that patients and carers receive is poorly defined and sometimes inadequate. As a result of the shift towards care in the community, the informal carer occupies an increasingly central role in the care of these patients and the issue of how the best quality of care may be defined and delivered is an issue which is now ripe for review. The objective of this paper is to redefine the type of support that patients and carers should receive so that the disease can be managed more effectively in the community. The needs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and their carers are many and this should be taken into account in defining the quality and structure of healthcare support. This paper shows how new initiatives, combined with recently available symptomatic drug treatment, can allow patients with Alzheimer's disease to be maintained at home for longer. This will have the dual impact of raising the quality of care for patients and improving the quality of life for their carers. Moreover, maintaining patients in a home environment will tend to limit public and private expenditure on institutional care due to a possible delay in the need for it.  (+info)

Chronic ambulatory outpatients and four-vector management. (7/5627)

Many psychiatrist and other mental healthcare professionals consider the availability of atypical antipsychotic drugs a welcome advance in the treatment of schizophrenia. Atypical agents have show to be effective against both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and in general, their efficacy makes patients more responsive to rehabilitation efforts. Although drugs are a cornerstone of treatment, optimal management of chronic ambulatory outpatients with schizophrenia also depends of psychosocial and other approaches. Still, noncompliance needs to be addressed as schizophrenia patients often fail to take their medications for a variety of reasons, including undesirable side effects and lack of insight or denial of having a mental disorder. A four-vector model for optimal management of chronic ambulatory outpatients includes the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual domains. Although the resources for providing comprehensive, forward-looking management are not universally available in many areas of the United States, clinicians should always strive for the ideal.  (+info)

Massachusetts Medicaid and the Community Medical Alliance: a new approach to contracting and care delivery for Medicaid-eligible populations with AIDS and severe physical disability. (8/5627)

This paper discusses the origins and experiences of the Community Medical Alliance (CMA), a Boston-based clinical care system that contracts with the Massachusetts Medicaid program on a fully capitated basis to pay for and deliver a comprehensive set of benefits to individuals with advanced AIDS and individuals with severe disability. Since 1992, the program has enrolled 818 individuals with either severe disability, AIDS, mental retardation, or general SSI-qualifying disability. Under a fee-for-service system, these two groups had received fragmented care. The capitated CMA program emphasizes patient education and self-management strategies, social support and mental health services, and a team approach to healthcare delivery that has reoriented care to primary care physicians, homes, and communities.  (+info)

  • Context: Depression and low perceived social support (LPSS) after myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with higher morbidity and mortality, but little is known about whether this excess risk can be reduced through treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Using Cohen's definition, social support was conceptualized as social networks, supportive behaviors, and perceived support. (gsu.edu)
  • Consistent with Cohen's hypothesis and previous empirical research, the combination of informal and formal social support, including supportive behaviors and perceived social support, significantly predicted drug court completion at 18-months. (gsu.edu)
  • Results suggest that a strong supportive relationship with a trusted other along with enhanced social support typically associated with group-based interventions may improve health outcomes by increasing self-efficacy in disease management in HIV-positive adults. (unt.edu)
  • Where substance use may create health risks, understanding the contribution of social networks to substance use may be valuable for the design and implementation of harm reduction or other interventions. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • A team of researchers, led by Sheldon Cohen, the Robert E. Doherty University Professor of Psychology in the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University, tested whether hugs act as a form of social support, protecting stressed people from getting sick. (healthcanal.com)
  • This study examines the extent to which locus of control and social support are linked to self-efficacy with regard to disease management in HIV-positive adults. (unt.edu)
  • Correlational analyses suggested significant positive relationships between self-efficacy, social support, and locus of control due to powerful others. (unt.edu)
  • Results suggest that social support and locus of control contribute to the belief that HIV can be managed. (unt.edu)
  • Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, and most popularly, that one is part of a supportive social network . (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called instrumental support, this form of social support encompasses the concrete, direct ways people assist others. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that greater social support and more frequent hugs protected people from the increased susceptibility to infection associated with being stressed and resulted in less severe illness symptoms. (healthcanal.com)
  • The kinds of support people give and receive depend on the type of sociality in which the support occurs. (lorentzcenter.nl)
  • Hence people experience CS social support as non-contingent: people simply give whatever is needed, so far as they are able, without expecting anything specific in return. (lorentzcenter.nl)
  • People perceive MP social support as a return for wages, or it or as structured by bureaucratic or economic standards of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. (lorentzcenter.nl)
  • We examined the social support network of people living in precarious housing in a socially marginalized neighborhood of Vancouver, and analysed associations between social network structure, personal substance use, and supporters' substance use. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • You may find that among people you hardly know, one or more can become trusted friends you can rely on-and support-in good times and bad. (mhanational.org)
  • But post with caution - a recent study suggests that using Facebook may cause a decline in life satisfaction, whereas direct social interactions led people to feel better over time. (mhanational.org)
  • People in older age groups identified more diverse but consistent support systems while people in younger age groups reported more fluctuations in the strength of relationships and declines in support as caregiving became more demanding. (edu.au)
  • Individuals with high (N = 105) and low (N = 194) social anxiety completed measures of perceived social support, perceived social support derived from Facebook, and subjective well-being. (edu.au)
  • For the high social anxiety group, Facebook social support explained a significant amount of additional variance in subjective well-being, with offline social support failing to contribute significantly to the model. (edu.au)
  • For the low social anxiety group, Facebook social support did not explain any variance in well-being over and above offline social support. (edu.au)
  • Among infected participants, greater perceived social support and more frequent hugs both resulted in less severe illness symptoms whether or not they experienced conflicts. (healthcanal.com)
  • The results showed that perceived social support reduced the risk of infection associated with experiencing conflicts. (healthcanal.com)
  • LPSS was determined by the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument (ESSI). (elsevier.com)
  • A longitudinal study from Bassuk & colleagues (1999) found that elderly persons who had no social ties were at increased risk for cognitive decline, compared with those who had five or six social ties [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between EIS and social support in adolescence. (edu.au)
  • We tested whether perceptions of social support are equally effective in protecting us from stress-induced susceptibility to infection and also whether receiving hugs might partially account for those feelings of support and themselves protect a person against infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • In fact, research indicates that perceived social support that is untapped can be more effective and beneficial than utilized social support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emotion identification skill (EIS) has been correlated with social support, but little research has examined the extent that EIS is a developmental precursor to supportive relationships. (edu.au)
  • Cohen and his team chose to study hugging as an example of social support because hugs are typically a marker of having a more intimate and close relationship with another person. (healthcanal.com)
  • The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life. (peerj.com)
  • To fill this gap, this study examined the utility of social support theory in explaining the differences between those who complete the drug court program and those who fail to do so. (gsu.edu)
  • The main findings of this study point to the importance of perceived social support in helping individuals cope with mental illness. (fordham.edu)
  • While it does not, and should not, replace face-to-face interactions, social media can be a useful tool for keeping in touch with others and staying up-to-date on current events and trends. (mhanational.org)
  • In 404 healthy adults, perceived support was assessed by a questionnaire, and frequencies of interpersonal conflicts and receiving hugs were derived from telephone interviews conducted on 14 consecutive evenings. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cross-lagged structural equation modeling supported a reciprocal influence model, with social support and EIS mutually influencing each other's development. (edu.au)
  • Informational support is the provision of advice, guidance, suggestions, or useful information to someone. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increasingly popular way of connecting with others is through social media. (mhanational.org)
  • Before setting up an account on a social media site, you should consider what you'd like to achieve by signing up, and decide how much information about yourself you would like to share so you can adjust privacy settings accordingly. (mhanational.org)