Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
A person's view of himself.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Involvement in community activities or programs.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
The interrelationship of psychology and religion.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Female parents, human or animal.
Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The interactions between parent and child.
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Individuals connecting by family, work or other interests. It also includes connectivity facilitated by computer-based communications.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
Interaction between a mother and child.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The status of health in urban populations.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Comparative PSYCHOLOGY of different ethnic and cultural groups.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Size and composition of the family.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.
Productive or purposeful activities.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.

Awareness of and attitude of elderly subjects regarding health care and welfare in rapidly ageing population in Japan. (1/5627)

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain information on the degree of knowledge and understanding about the current systems of health care and welfare held by the elderly, in order to achieve comprehensiveness in family practice. METHOD: We conducted a study on the awareness of healthy elderly persons by direct interview. The study was carried out in Kuni Village in a remote mountainous region in Japan, where the elderly population accounts for 24.8% of the total population. The subjects were self-dependent in their daily living activities and were aged 65 years and older. RESULTS: The subjects' knowledge of health care and welfare systems was generally good, and the degree of their utilization of these systems was also good. But 83.3% of those who did not want to utilize the welfare system indicated their preference to depend on their family for support. CONCLUSION: Family physicians must endeavour to offer comprehensive care to their patients by including these systems for rapidly ageing communities.  (+info)

Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. (2/5627)

PURPOSE: To examine whether ethnic differences in low birth weight babies of low-income women may be explained in part by group differences in prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial factors. METHODS: A prospective, survey of 1,071 low-income, primiparous African-American and Mexican-origin women was conducted in Los Angeles County, California. In face-to-face interviews, data were obtained on substance use, prenatal stress, social support, attitudes toward pregnancy, initiation of prenatal care, and medical risk. Medical chart data were abstracted regarding medical risk factors and labor, delivery, and neonatal data. Interview data were linked with birth outcome data retrieved from maternal medical records. Structural equation modeling was used to test a hypothesized model in which differences in birth weight were expected to be mediated by ethnic differences in substance use, psychosocial factors, and medical risk. RESULTS: As expected, African-American women delivered babies of earlier gestational age and lower birth weight than did women of Mexican origin. Direct predictors of low birth weight were use of drugs and cigarettes, prenatal stress, and positive attitudes toward pregnancy; together, these factors accounted for the observed ethnic differences in birth weight. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to our understanding of the factors that may account for ethnic-associated differences in low birth weight.  (+info)

Developing communality: family-centered programs to improve children's health and well-being. (3/5627)

Despite decades of enormous investment in research and public programs, the United States continues to face pandemics of preventable health problems such as low birth weight, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and interpersonal violence. With some justification, these problems have been blamed on the failings of families. The reasons why families may function poorly in their child-rearing roles have not been coherently or vigorously addressed by our social policies; sometimes these policies have aggravated the problems. This paper provides background to allow a better understanding of families' role in the social determination of children's health, and argues for programs and policies that assist families through the creation of social supports embedded in communities that are characterized by trust and mutual obligation.  (+info)

Health of the elderly in a community in transition: a survey in Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala, India. (4/5627)

Results of a survey to assess the health and functional status of the elderly (defined as those who are 60 years or older) in Thiruvananthapuram city, the capital of Kerala state, India, are discussed. As the process of development results in longevity without concomitant economic success, traditional support systems break down. The differences in status of the elderly dependent on gender and socioeconomic class are highlighted. Women are poorer and generally suffer more morbidity than men in old age, even though their death rates are lower. The better-off among the elderly enjoy a quality of life much superior to their poor brethren. Thus, in transitional societies such as Kerala, socioeconomic status and gender play a significant role in determining the quality of life of the elderly, a finding which may have some policy implications.  (+info)

Impact of litigation on senior clinicians: implications for risk management. (5/5627)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of litigation on consultants and senior registrars and to establish their views on methods of reducing adverse events and litigation. DESIGN: Postal survey. SETTING: Acute hospitals in the North Thames (West) Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS: 1011 consultants and senior registrars in acute hospitals. MAIN MEASURES: Perceived causes and effects of adverse events; views on methods of reducing litigation and adverse events. RESULTS: 769 (76%) doctors responded. 288 (37%) had been involved in litigation at some point during their career; 213 surgeons (49%) and 75 (23%) doctors in the medical specialties. Anger, distress, and feeling personally attacked were common responses to litigation. Clinicians' views on reducing litigation emphasised the need for change at the clinical level. Supervision of junior staff, workload, and training in communication skills were to the fore. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of doctors who have experienced litigation and the emotional responses described indicate that clinicians require support at several levels. At a personal level, support can be offered to clinicians going through the litigation process or after an adverse event. Also, managerial support is needed by offering financial and practical help in correcting the factors that have been consistently identified as producing high risk situations to minimise the possibility of a reoccurrence. Accidents in medicine are, by their very nature, costly in human and financial terms and the root causes must be tackled. Recommendations are made for clinicians and risk management teams.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease in the United Kingdom: developing patient and carer support strategies to encourage care in the community. (6/5627)

Alzheimer's disease is a growing challenge for care providers and purchasers. With the shift away from the provision of long term institutional care in most developed countries, there is a growing tendency for patients with Alzheimer's disease to be cared for at home. In the United Kingdom, this change of direction contrasts with the policies of the 1980s and 90s which focused more attention on controlling costs than on assessment of the needs of the patient and carer and patient management. In recent years, the resources available for management of Alzheimer's disease have focused on institutional care, coupled with drug treatment to control difficult behaviour as the disease progresses. For these reasons, the current system has led to crisis management rather than preventive support--that is, long term care for a few rather than assistance in the home before the crises occur and institutional care is needed. Despite recent innovations in the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, the nature of the support that patients and carers receive is poorly defined and sometimes inadequate. As a result of the shift towards care in the community, the informal carer occupies an increasingly central role in the care of these patients and the issue of how the best quality of care may be defined and delivered is an issue which is now ripe for review. The objective of this paper is to redefine the type of support that patients and carers should receive so that the disease can be managed more effectively in the community. The needs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and their carers are many and this should be taken into account in defining the quality and structure of healthcare support. This paper shows how new initiatives, combined with recently available symptomatic drug treatment, can allow patients with Alzheimer's disease to be maintained at home for longer. This will have the dual impact of raising the quality of care for patients and improving the quality of life for their carers. Moreover, maintaining patients in a home environment will tend to limit public and private expenditure on institutional care due to a possible delay in the need for it.  (+info)

Chronic ambulatory outpatients and four-vector management. (7/5627)

Many psychiatrist and other mental healthcare professionals consider the availability of atypical antipsychotic drugs a welcome advance in the treatment of schizophrenia. Atypical agents have show to be effective against both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and in general, their efficacy makes patients more responsive to rehabilitation efforts. Although drugs are a cornerstone of treatment, optimal management of chronic ambulatory outpatients with schizophrenia also depends of psychosocial and other approaches. Still, noncompliance needs to be addressed as schizophrenia patients often fail to take their medications for a variety of reasons, including undesirable side effects and lack of insight or denial of having a mental disorder. A four-vector model for optimal management of chronic ambulatory outpatients includes the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual domains. Although the resources for providing comprehensive, forward-looking management are not universally available in many areas of the United States, clinicians should always strive for the ideal.  (+info)

Massachusetts Medicaid and the Community Medical Alliance: a new approach to contracting and care delivery for Medicaid-eligible populations with AIDS and severe physical disability. (8/5627)

This paper discusses the origins and experiences of the Community Medical Alliance (CMA), a Boston-based clinical care system that contracts with the Massachusetts Medicaid program on a fully capitated basis to pay for and deliver a comprehensive set of benefits to individuals with advanced AIDS and individuals with severe disability. Since 1992, the program has enrolled 818 individuals with either severe disability, AIDS, mental retardation, or general SSI-qualifying disability. Under a fee-for-service system, these two groups had received fragmented care. The capitated CMA program emphasizes patient education and self-management strategies, social support and mental health services, and a team approach to healthcare delivery that has reoriented care to primary care physicians, homes, and communities.  (+info)

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

The symptoms of PTSD can vary widely and may include:

1. Flashbacks or intrusive memories of the traumatic event
2. Nightmares or disturbed sleep
3. Avoidance of people, places, or activities that remind them of the event
4. Hypervigilance or an exaggerated startle response
5. Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
6. Irritability, anger, or other mood changes
7. Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or muscle tension

The exact cause of PTSD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the brain's response to stress and the release of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that help regulate emotions and memory.

PTSD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using a combination of psychological evaluation and medical history. Treatment for PTSD typically involves therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Therapy may include exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or other forms of talk therapy. Medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants may be used to help manage symptoms.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing PTSD, and this includes seeking support from friends, family, or mental health professionals soon after the traumatic event. Self-care practices such as exercise, meditation, or relaxation techniques can also be helpful in reducing stress and promoting emotional well-being.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

Some common examples of phobic disorders include:

1. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders)
2. Acrophobia (fear of heights)
3. Agoraphobia (fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be difficult)
4. Claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces)
5. Cynophobia (fear of dogs)
6. Glossophobia (fear of speaking in public)
7. Mysophobia (fear of germs or dirt)
8. Necrophobia (fear of death or dead things)
9. Ophidiophobia (fear of snakes)
10. Social phobia (fear of social situations or being judged by others)

Phobic disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual's daily life, and can lead to avoidance behaviors that limit their ability to function in various contexts. Treatment for phobic disorders often involves exposure therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

Postpartum depression is estimated to affect up to 15% of new mothers, although the actual number may be higher due to underreporting. It usually develops within the first few months after delivery, but can sometimes last longer.

The exact cause of postpartum depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to changes in hormone levels and other physical and emotional factors associated with childbirth. Risk factors include a history of depression or anxiety, lack of support, and stressful life events.

Symptoms of postpartum depression can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and helplessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite and sleep patterns
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of harming oneself or the baby

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical help as soon as possible. Postpartum depression can be treated with therapy, medication, or a combination of both. With proper treatment, most women with postpartum depression can recover and go on to lead healthy and fulfilling lives.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Some common types of anxiety disorders include:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Excessive and persistent worry about everyday things, even when there is no apparent reason to be concerned.
2. Panic Disorder: Recurring panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time, even when there is no obvious trigger.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Excessive and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
4. Specific Phobias: Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Recurring, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that are distressing and disruptive to daily life.
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Persistent symptoms of anxiety, fear, and avoidance after experiencing a traumatic event.

Anxiety disorders can be treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, or both, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many people with anxiety disorders are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

The exact cause of MDD is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some risk factors for developing MDD include:

* Family history of depression or other mental health conditions
* History of trauma or stressful life events
* Chronic illness or chronic pain
* Substance abuse or addiction
* Personality traits such as low self-esteem or perfectionism

Symptoms of MDD can vary from person to person, but typically include:

* Persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness
* Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed
* Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
* Fatigue or loss of energy
* Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
* Thoughts of death or suicide

MDD can be diagnosed by a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, based on the symptoms and their duration. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may include:

* Antidepressant medications to relieve symptoms of depression
* Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), to help identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors
* Interpersonal therapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others
* Other forms of therapy, such as mindfulness-based therapies or relaxation techniques

It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression are severe or persistent, as MDD can have a significant impact on daily life and can increase the risk of suicide. With appropriate treatment, however, many people with MDD are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

The features of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX include:

1. Short stature: Individuals with this condition are typically shorter than their peers and may have a slowed growth rate.
2. Infertility: Women with Turner syndrome are usually infertile due to the absence or defect of ovarian tissue.
3. Cardiovascular abnormalities: Some individuals with Turner syndrome may have heart defects, such as narrowing of the aorta or bicuspid aortic valve.
4. Thyroid problems: Turner syndrome is associated with an increased risk of thyroid problems, including hypothyroidism.
5. Craniofacial abnormalities: Some individuals with Turner syndrome may have distinctive facial features, such as a narrow forehead, wide-set eyes, and a small jaw.
6. Learning disabilities: Children with Turner syndrome may experience learning delays and learning disabilities.
7. Hearing loss: Some individuals with Turner syndrome may have hearing loss or ear abnormalities.
8. Other health problems: Turner syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of other health problems, such as osteoporosis, joint pain, and gastrointestinal issues.

The term "gonadal dysgenesis" refers to the abnormal development of the gonads (ovaries or testes), which can result in infertility or other reproductive problems. In the case of Turner syndrome, the ovaries are affected, leading to female infertility and other characteristic features.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines Autistic Disorder as a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the following criteria:

A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:

1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., abnormal or absent eye contact, impaired understanding of facial expressions, delayed or lack of response to social overtures).
2. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (e.g., difficulty initiating or sustaining conversations, impairment in understanding social norms, rules, and expectations).
3. Deficits in using nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction (e.g., difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language, gestures).

B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., hand flapping, head banging, repeating words or phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexibility, and adherence to routines or rituals.
3. Preoccupation with specific interests or activities that are repeated in a rigid and restricted manner (e.g., preoccupation with a particular topic, excessive focus on a specific activity).

C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period and significantly impact social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

D. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during a medical or neurological condition (e.g., intellectual disability, hearing loss).

It is important to note that Autistic Disorder is a spectrum disorder and individuals with this diagnosis may have varying degrees of severity in their symptoms. Additionally, there are several other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) that have similar diagnostic criteria but may differ in severity and presentation. These include:

A. Asperger's Disorder: Characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but without the presence of significant delay or retardation in language development.

B. Rett Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.

C. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Characterized by a loss of language and social skills that occurs after a period of normal development.

It is important to consult with a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.

Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:

1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.

Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:

1. Anemia
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
6. Fibromyalgia
7. Vasculitis
8. Cancer
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.

It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.

Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.

Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:

1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.

It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.

These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.

BDD can affect any aspect of a person's appearance, but the most common areas of concern are the face, skin, and body shape. The prevalence of BDD varies widely depending on the population and gender, with an estimated 1-2% of the general population meeting criteria for BDD at some point in their lives.

There are several subtypes of BDD, including:

1. Body dysmorphic disorder-focused (BDD-F): Characterized by a preoccupation with a specific body part or feature, such as acne, scars, or nose shape.
2. Body dysmorphic disorder-multiplicity (BDD-M): Involves multiple areas of the body that are perceived as flawed.
3. Body dysmorphic disorder-somatic (BDD-S): Features somatic symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, in addition to the preoccupation with appearance.

The exact cause of BDD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy.

In addition to the diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-5, there are several clinical features that may be present in individuals with BDD, including:

1. Distress: The preoccupation with one's appearance causes significant distress or impairment in daily functioning.
2. Impairment: The preoccupation with one's appearance interferes with social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.
3. Duration: The preoccupation with one's appearance has been present for at least 1 month (although some individuals may experience symptoms for longer periods of time).
4. Functional impairment: Individuals with BDD may experience significant impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning as a result of their preoccupation with their appearance.
5. Avoidance: Individuals with BDD may avoid social situations or activities due to feelings of shame or embarrassment about their perceived flaws.
6. Rituals: Individuals with BDD may engage in ritualistic behaviors, such as excessive grooming or skin picking, in an attempt to correct or hide their perceived flaws.
7. Secrecy: Individuals with BDD may keep their preoccupation and behaviors secret, as they may be ashamed of their appearance or fear judgment from others.
8. Avoidance of mirrors: Some individuals with BDD may avoid looking in mirrors or other reflective surfaces due to the distress caused by their perceived flaws.
9. Camouflaging: Individuals with BDD may use makeup, clothing, or other items to cover up or hide their perceived flaws.
10. Seeking reassurance: Individuals with BDD may seek constant reassurance from others about their appearance, as they may feel that their perceived flaws are a reflection of their worth as a person.

It is important to note that individuals with BDD may experience significant distress and impairment in their daily lives, and may benefit from seeking professional treatment. Treatment for BDD typically includes a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), gender incongruence, which is the distress that can occur when a person's gender identity does not align with the sex they were assigned at birth, should be treated with gender-affirming care rather than pathologized as a mental disorder.

Therefore, instead of transsexualism, individuals who experience gender dysphoria are now diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria according to the ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision). This diagnosis is intended to help clinicians provide appropriate care and support for individuals struggling with gender incongruence.

In conclusion, transsexualism is an outdated term that is no longer used in modern medicine to describe individuals who experience gender dysphoria. Instead, the more accurate and respectful term is Gender Dysphoria, which acknowledges the distress caused by gender incongruence without pathologizing the individual.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The term "somatoform" refers to the fact that these disorders involve somatic (physical) symptoms, rather than psychotic or mood-related symptoms. Somatoform disorders can include conditions such as:

* Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that are not easily explained by a medical condition, and which cause significant distress or impairment in daily life.
* Hypochondriasis: excessive preoccupation with the fear of having or acquiring a serious illness, despite medical reassurance that no such illness exists.
* Conversion disorder: characterized by physical symptoms that are thought to be related to an unconscious psychological conflict or stress.
* Factitious disorder: characterized by intentionally producing or feigning physical symptoms in order to gain attention, sympathy, or other benefits.

Somatoform disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex interplay between psychological and physical factors. Treatment may involve a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and may require a multidisciplinary approach involving mental health professionals and medical specialists.

People with dysthymic disorder may experience a range of symptoms, including:

1. Persistent low mood or sadness
2. Lack of interest in activities they once enjoyed
3. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns
4. Fatigue or loss of energy
5. Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
6. Feelings of hopelessness or helplessness
7. Recurring thoughts of death or suicide

Dysthymic disorder can be challenging to diagnose because the symptoms are often mild and may not be as obvious as those experienced in major depressive disorder. Additionally, people with dysthymic disorder may have a hard time recognizing their symptoms or may attribute them to other factors, such as stress or personality traits.

Treatment for dysthymic disorder typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or interpersonal therapy (IPT). Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), can help relieve symptoms of depression, while psychotherapy can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their depression.

It's important to note that dysthymic disorder is a chronic condition, meaning it can be ongoing and require long-term treatment. However, with the right treatment and support, it is possible for individuals with dysthymic disorder to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

HIV seropositivity is typically diagnosed through a blood test called an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test detects the presence of antibodies against HIV in the blood by using specific proteins on the surface of the virus. If the test is positive, it means that the individual has been infected with HIV.

HIV seropositivity is an important diagnostic criterion for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which is a condition that develops when the immune system is severely damaged by HIV infection. AIDS is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and laboratory tests, including HIV seropositivity.

HIV seropositivity can be either primary (acute) or chronic. Primary HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual is first infected with HIV and their immune system produces antibodies against the virus. Chronic HIV seropositivity occurs when an individual has been living with HIV for a long time and their immune system has produced antibodies that remain in their bloodstream.

HIV seropositivity can have significant implications for an individual's health and quality of life, as well as their social and economic well-being. It is important for individuals who are HIV seropositive to receive appropriate medical care and support to manage their condition and prevent the transmission of HIV to others.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

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Social support Peer support Psychological stress Occupational stress Perceived organizational support "Social Support ... A low level of social support is an important risk factor in women for dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps. Low Social Support is ... "Concomitants of Social Support: Social Skills, Physical Attractiveness and Gender". Journal of Personality and Social ... psychometrically sound survey questionnaire intended to measure social support and satisfaction with said social support from ...
... is an internet-based form of social support. The more people are engaging to express and discuss with ... 2014) said that social media tools may allow for social support to be obtained from non-close as well as close relationships, ... the more online community getting similar with the social community and have the similar relation between social support and ... Exploring social network site use and perceptions of social support, stress, and well-being". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and ...
Moais (模合, Mo-ai) are social support groups that form in order to provide varying support from social, financial, health, or ... Moai means "meeting for a common purpose" in Japanese and originated from the social support groups in Okinawa, Japan. The ...
The Social Support Act 2015 (WMO 2015) is a Dutch law that was introduced on January 1, 2015, and is the successor of the ... Social Support Act, which was introduced on January 1, 2007. The law is the basis of the system of care and welfare. This ...
Social Support and Tourism. Tanzania Social Support Foundation has been a base for empowering the Civil Societies in the ... is known as Consortium of Social Support Foundations with the main objective of advocating for the doctrine of social support ... social, and cultural dimensions of life. In 2017, the Tanzania Social Support Foundation launched its Higher Education Fund ... In 2015 Tanzania Social Support Foundation managed to invite civil societies across Africa and establish the Pan African Forum ...
... social adjustment; social support; self-esteem; and childhood abuse and neglect". They found that "More than 80% of the sample ... Sizeable numbers also reported suicide thoughts or attempts." Eating Disorders Coalition Families Empowered and Supporting ... social factors" all play a role in the development of an eating disorder. In their Introduction, they note that, "In addition ... "supports individuals and families affected by eating disorders, and serves as a catalyst for prevention, cures and access to ...
Social support. A study from West Germany found that both men receiving no support at all and receiving support from many ... Social support from the extended family and friends can help a couple decide to have a child, or another one. Studies mainly in ... maternal and social support, rural residence, pro family government programs, low IQ and increased food production. Factors ... Research in the U.S. shows that the extended family willing to provide support becomes a "safety net". This is particularly ...
Social support. However, a study from West Germany came to the result that both men receiving no support at all and men ... Natalism in public policy typically seeks to create financial and social incentives for populations to reproduce, such as ... Social pressure from kin and friends to have another child. ... receiving support from many different people have a lower ... Natalism promotes child-bearing and parenthood as desirable for social reasons and to ensure the continuance of humanity. ...
... social services; community support; education and social policies and programs; and opportunities for young people to develop ... Some social protection and education programs, curricula, policies, and resources have been revised and made more suitable for ... Although primary school construction has received significant support from donors, many of these newly constructed schools lack ... resources and support. Years of conflict have left many students, including former child soldiers, severely traumatized and ...
This theory is supported by evidence that people form social bonds relatively easily, are reluctant to break social bonds, and ... Cohen, Sheldon; Underwood, Lynn G; Gottlieb, Benjamin H (2000). "Social Relationships and Health". Social support measurement ... Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, Maria M (2014). "Social Capital, Social Cohesion, and Health". Social Epidemiology. ... ties Interpersonal emotion regulation Intimate relationships Human bonding Love Social isolation Social robot Social support ...
Medical Social Work • Physiotherapist Support: • Dietetic & Food • Supervision & Transportation • CSSD • Revenue • Quality • ... Gynaecology Clinical Support: • Patology • Imaging & Diagnostic • Pharmacy • Health Education • Rehabilition & • ...
Social and Cultural Support. During the summer of 2008, Whole Travel Foundation was formed in order to actively improve ...
... perceived absence of social support; high perceived demands (e.g., on academic, vocational or sports performance); great ... perceptions of social support; low perceived demands (e.g., on academic or vocational performance); short perceived distance ... An equally important coping factor is social connection, which for many people is the antidote to homesickness. As the results ... Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D., & Aune, R.K., (2010). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness and ...
Ethnographies of Social Support. p. 180. ISBN 978-1137330963. Phillips, Stephen (26 June 2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A ... including financial support. Sikhism stresses kirat karō (Gurmukhi: ਕਿਰਤ ਕਰੋ), "honest work", and vaṇḍ chakkō (Gurmukhi: ਵੰਡ ...
... and for social support. Bar-Tal has published twenty books and over two hundreds articles and chapters in major social and ... In 2013 he received an honorary membership of the Polish Society of Social Psychology. In 2014 he received the Morton Deutsch ... Bar-Tal has pursued his graduate training in social psychology at the University of Pittsburgh, where he completed his doctoral ... Bar-Tal, D. (2000). Shared beliefs in a society: Social psychological analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Bar-Tal, D., & ...
... humanitarian and social support; emergency and disaster response. Provisional first aid stations (dispositifs prévisionnels de ... The French Civil Protection is entitled to carry a broad scope of humanitarian and support missions including assistance to the ... In 1933, the first voluntary organization to protect civilians during war time was founded with the support of Gaston Doumergue ... In 1999, the Federation contributed to an international humanitarian operation to support refugees from the Kosovo war by ...
Run for Social Support. Run for Flood affected people. Run for martyrs who fought for Nation. The Kuchaman Biker's Rally is a ... There are many social societies active in the town, such as Kuchaman Vikas Samiti, the Lions Club, the Rotary Club, Narayan ... it is not only about sports but has a social message with a Green Kuchaman-Clean Kuchaman. Kuchaman Marathon is sequenced to ...
Brudenell Social Club (12 September 2016). "Sex Pistols plus support". Brudenell Social Club. Retrieved 5 September 2020. Set ...
... social media sharing support; multiple blogger environment and RSS subscriptions. Some distinct features include: Remote ... Users have also commended EasyBlog for having good customer support. Rogers, Andrew (2010-05-19). "EasyBlog - Blogging ...
"Center for American Politics and Public Policy (CAPPP) - Social Sciences Grant Support". Social Sciences Grant Support. ... She continues her work in media, law and social policy. The Florida Bar President-Elect appointed Nguyen to the Florida Bar ...
Scottish Executive Social Research. "Scots support wind farms". Sustainable Scotland. 22 October 2010. Archived from the ... A number of other schemes supported by Community Energy Scotland are in the pipeline. The siting of turbines is often an issue ... The 2010 study suggests that the majority of people in Scotland are in support of clean energy. However this survey has been ... 82% wanted an increase in electricity generated from wind power, whilst more than 50% supported an increase in the number of ...
Support of Israel. Stricter social welfare policies. Withdrawal from the European Union. Combatting the "Islamisation of ... Freedom received support from Dutch politician Geert Wilders, leader and founder of the Party for Freedom, who announced his ... but fought to stay in his Social Democratic Party and stated that the immigration and integration issues had to be discussed ...
"Gavin James Plus Guest Support". Brudenell Social Club. Retrieved 4 February 2016. "Gavin James signs to Sony Music in Europe ... He has been supporting act for Kodaline, Tori Kelly, Sam Smith and Ed Sheeran on their tours. Spotify selected Gavin James to ... James travelled back to America to support Ben Rector on his US tour in March 2016. James' cover of David Bowie's "Changes" ...
... designed a Peer Recovery Facilitator Development e-Course in an effort to support the ongoing efforts of social ... ann.lynsen (2014-09-03). "Peer Support and Social Inclusion". Archived from the original on 2018-09-11. Retrieved ... In self-help and mutual support, people offer this support, strength, and hope to their peers, which allows for personal growth ... Peer support Peer support specialist Recovery coaching Professional certification PARfessionals. "About Us - Our Founder". ...
In this way, culture's of organizations have an interplay with raced organizations in that it supports or contradicts social ... Ashcraft, K. L., & Kedrowicz, A. (2002). Self-direction or social support?: Nonprofit empowerment and the tacit employment ... Ashcraft argues that the idea of cautiously pairing members with the "enemy" may be a better way to permit social change. ... Her area of research is in social justice and organizational studies. She looks at identity in the workplace and organizational ...
The six strategic objectives are the following: Safeguard and protect health and life; Encourage support and social inclusion; ...
... psychological support to clients and their families, housing, vocational rehabilitation and employment, social support and ... including supported housing/housing and support, recreation, employment and support, culture/gender and class, families and ... Chronister, Julie A.; Johnson, Erica K.; Berven, Norman L. (2006). "Measuring social support in rehabilitation". Disability and ... social workers, psychologists, occupational therapists) and community support or allied health workers represented in the new ...
Research shows the three aspects of social support, available attachments, perceived social support, and frequency of social ... In rodent models, social disruption and social defeat are two common social stress paradigms. In the social disruption paradigm ... Social support, especially in terms of support for socioeconomic stressors, is inversely related to physical morbidity. A study ... Research shows the HIV-positive males who have more negative life events, social stress, and lack of social support progress to ...
Social Support Outcomes and Empowerment. In the Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of the International Association for the ... "Social Support Outcomes and Empowerment", in Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of the International Association for the ... "The Good City", in Social Ethics, edited by G. Winter. New York: Harper and Row, 1968, pp. 165¬1965. "A Dual Perspective Theory ... "Utility and Rights", in Concepts in Social and Political Philosophy, edited by R. E. Flathmann. New York: Macmillan, 1973, pp. ...
H Booth founded the Hamodava Tea Company in 1897 along with Bundaberg native Ashley Lamb as a means to provide funds to support ... "The social cup". 3 November 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2017. Army, Salvation. "Hamodava Cafe". The ... It is a community centre providing breakfast and lunch, as well as support to people from all walks of life, especially those ...
... and social obligation. That morality is the fulfillment of one's duty to one's neighbour. That the present social system is ... The female members of Branch 14 were instrumental in the financial support of the school, which over the next two years ... They worked in close harmony with the Labour Movement and were concerned with the spiritual and social needs of the human race ... The institution was popularized by Mary Gray in 1892, a member of the Social Democratic Federation, who ran a soup kitchen for ...
With inspirational support from the late Herr Klaus Schindler (then Director) and Herr Franz Xaver Augustin (then Language Dept ... In a city where English theatre happened originally among a few high-in-the-social ladder aficionado of theatre art then, ... The group has branched off into supporting the growth of teen and tween theatre activity in the city, with its Masquerade Youth ... Students were provided professional support by the Masquerade team in areas of light and sound design and execution, as well as ...
Social Sustainability and Social Impact Management Doctor of Nursing Practice Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Doctor of Psychology ... Fishery including seaweed farming is considered as constrained performer which can best perform if supported. The province's ... Social Science, and Technology & Livelihood Education •Master of Education (M.Ed.) (non-thesis) major in Educational Management ... and Social Studies •Diploma in Teaching •Special Education/Alternative Learning Education •Technology and Livelihood Education ...
Steel supports for signage and other structures were bent and broken by the strong wind. Dot produced a peak rainfall total of ... Pui-yin, Ho (2003). "A Review of Natural Disasters of the Past". Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong Observatory and Social ...
Retirement in 2003, although a bit confusing, didn't stop her scientific and social activity. Prof. Pleszczyńska is known for ... Elżbieta Pleszczyńska has cofounded Foundation Supporting Physically Disabled Mathematicians and Computer Specialists in Warsaw ...
The culture supported MDMA use and some LSD use. The art had a generally psychedelic emotion reminiscent of the 1960s. During ... The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people, mostly ... along with maintaining coordination with local churches and other social groups. Psychedelic poster artist Bob Schnepf was ...
KGR had replaced its Nissan Altima Supercars with Ford Mustangs, with minor support from Ford Australia. Reynolds's race number ... The initiative looks to help the community overcome issues associated with road rage by increasing awareness and social issues ... Ford Performance Racing were renamed Prodrive Racing Australia after Ford Australia chose to not renew their factory support ...
To support them and to pay his tuition fees, he wrote daily short, humorous sketches and vignettes of contemporary Russian life ... His findings were published in 1893 and 1894 as Ostrov Sakhalin (The Island of Sakhalin), a work of social science, not ... Laurence Olivier's final effort as a film director was a 1970 adaption of Three Sisters in which he also played a supporting ... and transformed his dramatic style into Nagai's style of satirical realism while emphasising the social issues depicted on the ...
However, despite the support of influential people, he was unable to get enough work to afford living in Moscow and returned to ... Social realist artists, Peredvizhniki, 19th-century male artists from the Russian Empire, 20th-century Russian male artists, ... who joined with Von Meck to provide financial support so Ivan could attend the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and ...
The historian Ira Berlin credits Jackson for supporting a transformation in United States historical thought, writing, a new ... social and African American topics. She became one of the most knowledgeable historians and archivists of American life. In the ...
... health support and social systems, home care nursing theory, maternity, mental health, nursing integration, psychiatric nursing ... They monitor nurses who are unemployed and support those who may wish to re-enter the work force. The most common reason for ... Socio-cultural custom giving doctors higher perceived social status and nurses the role of caretaker, led to nurses' lack of ... the low social status of nurses, and the cultural idea that married women quit their jobs for family responsibilities. On ...
Frank Hanby fell to his death when the ropes supporting him broke. The ropes were found possibly to have been cut by acid, ... with its ballroom frequently the center of social and political gatherings. Its guests and tenants have included F. Scott ...
... and social supports. In 1996, he worked in the planning department of the advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy in Portland, Oregon ... Hall advocates the recovery approach to mental illness and is involved in the treatment and social response to psychosis. In ... Hearing Voices Movement Psychiatric survivors movement Biopsychiatry controversy Trauma model of mental disorders Social model ... a support, advocacy, and human rights activism community run by people with psychiatric diagnoses. In 2002, Hall joined ...
Moral dialogues are social processes which allow societies or communities to form new shared moral understandings. Moral ... of a sufficient number of people to generate widespread approval for actions and policies that previously had little support or ... Sorenson, R. L. (2011). Family Business and Social Capital. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1849807388. Laouris, Yiannis (16 November 2014). " ... and social effects. This group consists of ten to thirty people who meet for a few hours regularly or a few continuous days. In ...
Cyneheard is executed and succeeded by Beorhtric, through the support of King Offa of Mercia. His rival claimant to the Wessex ... Wales, Katie (2006). Northern English: A Social and Cultural History. Cambridge UP. p. 53. ISBN 9781139457057. "Introduction to ... Prince (or duke) Višeslav, with the support of Pope Adrian I and the Byzantine Empire, becomes ruler of Dalmatian Croatia ( ... A Frisian uprising against Carolingian rule is supported by Duke Widukind. Saxon Wars: King Charlemagne begins a campaign in ...
"Doja Cat Rips Shots & Spills Tea On Her Social Media and A Song Release Regret on Thirst Trap , ELLE". YouTube. Elle. May 24, ... "almost no support" before its release. "Roll With Us" was released as the album's sole promotional single on February 1, 2018, ...
With the support of other unions and various organisations, the strike was successful. Following the strike, Mann was elected ... In 1884, he joined the Social Democratic Federation (SDF) in Battersea. Here he met John Burns and Henry Hyde Champion, who ... On 10 June 1913 he spoke at Wednesbury Market Place in support of strikers in the Great Black Country Trades Dispute, which ... He was an Anglican and organised support from Christian organisations like the Salvation Army during a number of strikes. In ...
The front portico consists of a wooden hood with a denticulated cornice supported by four square wooden pillars topped with ... in the face of rising totalitarianism in their home countries that was often animated by a hostility to the social movements ... He researched the history of the house, finding little material but enough to support its successful nomination to the National ...
They helped support Augustus Wattles' teachers in schools, enlisted the cooperation of local black ministers, and kept Weld, ... and social reformers across the country. 24 of the 40 members of Lane's first theological class were from the Oneida Institute ... "They [the enslaved] have to take care of, and support themselves now, and their master, and his family into the bargain; and ... At Lane there was a "colonization society", supporting the efforts of the American Colonization Society to send free blacks to ...
"Social Content and the Health of Sex Workers in San Francisco" Collaborative study project between the University of California ... Support Groups, Food and Clothing, Syringe Access & Disposal, Condoms & Lube, Information & Service linkages, Apprenticeship & ... "RenegadeCast: Evaluating Podcast Social Media as a Health Promotion Tool for Sex Workers & Adult Entertainers with Internet ... The goals of the Infirmary are: To increase access to primary healthcare and social services for Sex Workers within the San ...
... one of the most widely supported clubs in the country as well as one of the most followed sports team from Asia in the social ... So to support the city's passion towards hockey, Government of Kerala have built a most modern state of the type astro turf ... Whereas Gokulam Kerala FC a club which plays in the I-league derives most of its support from the Malabar region. However, ... Kerala Blasters are the most supported football club in the whole state and participates in the Indian super league the top ...
Technopark has other support facilities such as a satellite earth station, a 200-seater convention centre, a club, a guest ... Besides, Technopark provides business incubation facilities for start-up firms as well as some social infrastructure for the ... The Club supports tour operators in organising recreational travel of employees and their families; it also has a massage ... Technopark's aim was to create infrastructure to support the development of high-technology companies. On 31 March 1991, the ...
Sheykh Mahmud called for a jihad against the British in 1919 and thus acquired the support of many Kurds indifferent to the ... "an improvement in their social standing". Tribal fighters from both Iran and Iraq quickly allied themselves with Sheykh Mahmud ...
The apogee of another dispute was a request for the adoption of no-confidence motion against the Minister of Labour and Social ... Such a system churned mainly the Polish Socialist Party, which supported the May Coup. On 16 May 1926, Prime Minister Bartel ... During this period, Bartel wrote his first textbook on descriptive geometry and befriended and later supported Poland's future ... Bartel believed that the motion of no confidence towards one member of the Senate is the lack of support of the entire ...
With the support of socialists and concerned middle-class Dutch, he campaigned against what he saw as the unjustness of the ... Supporters of the Policy were concerned about the social and cultural conditions holding back the native population. They tried ... Development and Social Welfare: Indonesia's Experiences under the New Order (Leiden: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en ... Development and social welfare: Indonesia's experiences under the New Order (Leiden: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en ...
The game was supported by downloadable content (DLC) between 2016 and 2019. Final Fantasy XIII and its sequels have a strong ... Agito was an episodic game featuring single-player and multi-player modes, and a social system where the player's standing with ... Agito received another Change the World novel adaptation focusing on two of the game's supporting characters. Ultimania guides ... Parish, Jeremy (2013-09-17). "TGS: Agito, Type 0, Fan Support, and the Intimacy of Portables". USGamer. Archived from the ...
Political activist Ze'ev Jabotinsky, leader of Betar, and Chief Rabbi Kook, also expressed their support for the reform of ... However, there are many Israeli groups with differing pronunciations of Hebrew and differing social priorities. An attempt to ... Some Hebrew speakers use romanization to communicate when using internet systems that have poor support for the Hebrew alphabet ... or right-most glyph if your browser doesn't support right-to-left text layout). The conventions here are ISO 259, the UNGEGN ...
"Ed Gainey announces $130K in fundraising as incumbent Peduto gains support from teachers union". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. ... citing its endorsement of a Democratic candidate for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives who had made social media posts ...
Cerf said the social culture (group dynamics) that first evolved during the work on the ARPANET was as important as the ... Within eight months the IP traffic had exceeded the levels of X.25 traffic, and the IP support became official in November. ... The X.25 standard gained political support in European countries and from the European Economic Community (EEC). For example, ... ISBN 978-1-317-47729-7. Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity ...
CDC partners improve social connectedness and achieve health equity. ... Social connectedness is an SDOH that NCCDPHP has identified related to the Healthy People 2030 SDOH goals. ... Craig Thomas, CDC Director, Division of Population Health is featured in this podcast, "Social Isolation and Loneliness Among ... Visit CDCs toolkit for schools to engage parents in supporting school connectedness and student well-being. Visit CDCs What ...
CENTER SUPPORT. SOCIAL GROUPS. Center Support Social Groups empower community members to lead healthy and successful lives, ... This peer-support group allows community members, who are seeking community and social support, to openly discuss their ... Support The Center. Your contributions make our work possible! Thank you for being our partner in serving and supporting the ... Support The Center. Your generosity helps The Center provide vital programs and services to support our evolving LGBT community ...
This site includes information on various work incentive programs through the Social Security Administration. ... Organization: Social Security Employment Support Programs. About:. This site includes information on various work incentive ...
Social relationship, intrinsic to human nature and existence, is a multidimensional concept. The social support section ( ... Social Support (SSQ_C) Data File: SSQ_C.xpt First Published: January 2007. Last Revised: NA ... SSQ031 - Needed more support in past year. Variable Name: SSQ031. SAS Label: Needed more support in past year. English Text: [ ... All participants 60 year of age and older are asked about social support. In year 2001 the age of participants asked these ...
Here are some ways social connections can help you feel better. ... Social support can be a great help with depression. ... How to get social support Its common for people with depression to underestimate the amount of social support they already ... Social support and depression. Social support plays an important role in recovery for a range of physical and mental health ... s no surprise social support can have many positive effects on depression. Here are ways to incorporate social support into ...
... and Julia Ruiz examine the relationship between income inequality and certain social dimensions in metropolitan statistical ... SOCIAL SUPPORT AND INEQUALITY. Social support acts as a protective shield against stress and worry: friends, family, and other ... and more social support-reinforce each other, while in less equal ones, more stress and worry co-exist with less social support ... Stress, worry, and social support: Inequality in Americas cities. Carol Graham, Sergio Pinto, and Julia Ruiz Thursday, ...
School social workers have the expertise to help children, help families, and help our communities address these needs. This ... legislation, S. 7526-A, would secure better learning outcomes by bringing school social workers experience to bear. Through ... School social workers have the expertise to help children, help families, and help our communities address these needs. This ... Thanks to the New York State School Social Workers Association, the New York City and New York State chapters of the National ...
Support is building through a social media campaign for a Ballarat cyclist left in a critical condition after a hit-and-run ... Support is building through a social media campaign for a Ballarat cyclist left in a critical condition after a hit-and-run ... Social media support for Ballarat cyclist hurt in hit-run crash. By Charlotte King ... ...
This page provides information about social security and taxes for international students at the University of South Carolina. ... Social Security and Taxes. Income is taxable in the United States. If you were present in the United States at any point during ...
It sets out WFPs priorities in social protection - supporting the ability of social protection to help people meet their food ... This strategy explains how WFP will contribute to the development of high quality national social protection systems and ... Social protection plays a vital role in the pursuit of a world with Zero Hunger. ... It sets out WFPs priorities in social protection - supporting the ability of social protection to help people meet their food ...
Les assistants de service social de votre Crous et de votre établissement sont là pour vous aider. ... Listening and support. *They will listen to you and support you in any kind of problems you may have (personal, medical, family ... The social service assistants at your CROUS (Regional Centre for School and University Life) and your university are there to ... They will inform you about the formalities you need to deal with as a student (budget, grant, housing, social legislation, ...
... ... 2022)‎. Enhancing social participation in support of primary health care and universal health coverage. World Health ...
Role of social dialogue in supporting employment and advancing towards .... Role of social dialogue in supporting employment ... by con-ducting the fifth webinar dedicated to the role of social dialogue in supporting employment and advancing towards ... Advancing social justice, promoting decent work. ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations. Русский ... Olga Koulaeva, ILO Moscow Director, in her webinar opening speech stressed the im-portance of social dialogue as part of ...
Imagine a personal AI agent that you can converse with naturally about your friends and family, helping you remember previous topics you
... Carework Network: The Importance of Social Supports for Learning in ... Carework Network: The Importance of Social Supports for Learning in COVID-19 ...
... scared school self esteem self-expression sex shame sleep social social anixety social anxiety star wars stress suicide support ... When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission, which supports our community. ...
These are vertical and horizontal social networks of support in the broadest sense of the word social and for the interest of ... The whole society self-mobilized in a way never seen before, forming social networks of support. Some offer relief and support ... The social support networks stepping up in coronavirus-stricken China. Below the sweeping centralized measures, decentralized ... with social values and emerging social collaborative networks. These new relationships enable empowerment in multilateral ways ...
Support » Plugin: Social QR Code Scan Me Anywhere ...
Our social gatherings have what youre looking for.. Our goal is to provide a variety of options to meet your needs and to ... Our Social Activities offer you another way to spend time with other women whove also heard the words "You have cancer." ... To register, call Support Connection: 914-962-6402 or 800-532-4290. Must register before 5pm on Friday November 10th. Space is ... Some social activities meet monthly. Others meet at different intervals throughout the year. Please view this page often to ...
Hugs Help Protect Against Colds by Boosting Social Support. Hugs Help Protect Against Colds by Boosting Social Support. ... Hugs Help Protect Against Colds by Boosting Social Support. APS regularly opens certain online articles for discussion on our ... Cohen and his team chose to study hugging as an example of social support because hugs are typically a marker of having a more ... We also know that people who report having social support are partly protected from the effects of stress on psychological ...
Social Anxiety Support Forum. A forum community dedicated to people with social anxiety. Come join the discussion about ... Enjoy banner ad-free browsing with Social Anxiety Support Forum Plus. Learn more ... Youve got SNRIs like effexor, TCAs like elavil, and many drugs that arent approved for social anxiety but may help you ... When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission, which supports our community. ...
This is the third year the Social Services Fund has been able to offer support to the incredible charitable work happening in ... Supporting education, social development, the relief of poverty, health and environmental protection. ... The Social Services Fund contributes to many beneficial charitable projects as funds allow. You can learn more about these ... Lamp of the Path NGO, part of FPMT Mongolia, offers social services to some of the poor and homeless living in Ulaanbaatar, ...
Social Birds Chicago needs your support for Help Support Sheffields Beer & Wine Garden Staff ... This page has been set up by Social Birds LLC (Event Planner and Promoter for Sheffields), alongside Sheffields management. ...
Social worker on loan to NAWS China Lake provides mental health care to benefit the whole person. ... Clinical Social Worker Provides Mental-Health Support on Remote Base Licensed clinical social worker, Navy Lt. Carlos Lopez, in ... Lopez has served in the Navy for eight years, and earned his Masters degree in social work from California State University, ... When the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake in Ridgecrest, California, announced the arrival of a clinical social worker for ...
Browse Social support news, research and analysis from The Conversation ... Articles on Social support. Displaying 1 - 20 of 30 articles. The federal governments grocery rebate will provide one-time ... Social media gives support to LGBTQ youth when in-person communities are lacking. Linda Charmaraman, Wellesley College ... Pregnant womens brains show troubling signs of stress - but feeling strong social support can break those patterns. Rebecca ...
Home Thinking about a change Support for quitting Social support (friends and family) *Its up to you*Pros & cons ... Social support (friends and family). One potential challenge when people stop drinking is rebuilding a life without alcohol. It ... Support for quitting*Support strategies for quitting. *Peer support (mutual-support groups) ...
LVMH releases Social and Environmental Report, spotlighting initiatives to support sustainable growth. LVMH. · May 10, 2021. ... LVMH releases Social and Environmental Report, spotlighting initiatives to support sustainable growth. ... documents/news/lvmh-releases-first-comprehensive-social-and-environmental-reporting-spotlighting-initiatives-to-support- ... dedicated to the Groups social and environmental responsibility governance, social and environmental indicators, responsible ...
Social care support for your SEND child or young person, including needs assessments, occupational therapy, equipment at home ... Adult social care and support Where to get help if you (over 18) or someone you care for needs support due to illness, ... How to get social care support for your child How to get an assessment for your child and family to find out what care and ... Support for children and young people in care and looked after children in Kent, including Care Leavers and Virtual School Kent ...
Jesuit Social Services Student Support Fund. Jesuit Social Services is committed to working with people who experience ... Jesuit Social Services has established the Student Support Fund.. Applications for assistance through the Student Support Fund ... Just Places Partnering with communities across Australia, the Centre for Just Places supports place-based approaches to social ... Partnering with communities across Australia, the Centre for Just Places supports place-based approaches to social and ...
Colombia Support Network - Paz y Justicia / Peace and Justice ... SOCIAL LEADERS: THE STORIES WE OWE. Posted on June 9, 2020 by ... Every murder of a social leader impoverishes democracy, because without social leaders that can exercise without fear their ... And he is right: between 2017 and 2019, 339 social leaders were murdered, according to official figures confirmed by the United ... murders of social leaders. Bookmark the permalink. ... Colombia Support Network. Paz y Justicia / Peace and Justice. ...
  • Building Resilient Inclusive Communities is a CDC program that provides funding to states to promote healthy living and reduce social isolation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • CDC addresses the connection between social isolation, loneliness, and dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, as well as supporting the emotional well-being of caregivers, and ways to identify and seek care for depression. (
  • Dr. Craig Thomas, CDC Director, Division of Population Health is featured in this podcast , "Social Isolation and Loneliness Among Older Adults and What You Can Do to Help. (
  • Healthcare systems in Canada, Denmark, and France provide reimbursement for assisted peritoneal dialysis (done at home with the assistance of a trained caregiver), which addresses social isolation, lack of caregiver support, and lack of transportation. (
  • Loneliness and social isolation may occur. (
  • She said that during the ILO Virtual Global Summit on COVID-19 and the World of Work, conducted on 1-9 July 2020, several governments reported that they have involved the social partners from the very outset in the design of measures to address the crisis and its consequences. (
  • CDC funds 36 Tribes and Urban Indian Health Centers through the Tribal Practices for Wellness in Indian Country Program, which encourages and supports tribal practices that build resiliency and connections to community, family, and culture for improved physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being within American Indian and Alaska Native communities. (
  • Visit CDC's Healthy Schools page to learn about strategies to improve student social and emotional well-being and school connectedness. (
  • The social support section (variable name prefix SSQ) provides personal interview data on emotional, material, and network (the number of members in a network) support. (
  • Can {you/SP} count on anyone to provide {you/him/her} with emotional support such as talking over problems or helping {you/him/her} make a difficult decision? (
  • In the last 12 months, who was most helpful in providing {you/SP} with emotional support? (
  • Emotional support includes care, compassion, and empathy that you receive from someone else. (
  • Emotional support benefits someone with depression so they do not feel alone," explains Fogelson. (
  • DBH addresses the psychological, emotional, cognitive, developmental, and social impacts that disasters have on survivors and responders as they respond and recover. (
  • However, quantitative findings failed to capture work ers' complex emotional, physical, and social experiences with job demands, resource limitations, and the intervention itself. (
  • CDC funds partners to improve community social connectedness as part of its work to achieve health equity . (
  • CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) aims to address five areas of social determinants of health (SDOH) that are strongly tied to chronic disease conditions and communities that are most affected. (
  • The program is a collaboration between CDC's Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, Division of Population Health, and the Center for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support. (
  • The questions were selected from the Yale Health and Aging Study (MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging) and the Social Network Index - Alameda County Study. (
  • Social support plays an important role in recovery for a range of physical and mental health conditions, including sobriety and depression, as stated by a 2009 study . (
  • Practical support can be very beneficial to someone with depression, as a depressed person is likely to struggle with motivation and concentration, resulting in the person neglecting day-to-day tasks or [neglecting] to even schedule and show up to their critical behavioral health appointments," explains Israel. (
  • Licensed clinical social worker, Navy Lt. Carlos Lopez, in the Branch Health Clinic aboard Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake in Ridgrecrest, California. (
  • Lopez is on three-month temporary duty, providing mental health support for Weapons Station personnel and their families (Photo by: Dave Marks, Naval Hospital Twentynine Palms, MCAGCC Twentynine Palms, California). (
  • Mental health resources are in short supply in the midst of a pandemic that has isolated families, increased unemployment and significantly reduced social and outside activities that usually alleviate stress. (
  • Frailty - the physical limitations of seniors living in the community - needs to be assessed before it can be addressed with social and health support. (
  • I have had the privilege to work with remarkable colleagues at Access: Supports for Living, amazing partners at Coordinated Behavioral Health Services (CBHS) and alongside health systems leaders in the Hudson Valley of New York State, the greater metropolitan area of NYC, our advocacy organizations, local and state government leaders, and elected officials. (
  • I look forward to CCBHCs being the policy of the country and for every person to have access to fully integrated behavioral health and physical health care, with the social supports needed to ensure health and wellness. (
  • The training gives you the skills you need to reach out and provide initial help and support to someone who may be developing a mental health or substance use problem or experiencing a crisis. (
  • The health care provider will look at your history of social anxiety and will get a description of the behavior from you, your family, and friends. (
  • In a randomized controlled trial, COMPASS significantly improved work ers' professional support networks and safety and health behaviors. (
  • These include organizational resources for preventing and reporting, community and family resources for support, and health effects attributed to sexual harassment. (
  • It can affect endurance, balance, cognition or social engagement. (
  • Association of Functional Status, Cognition, Social Support, and Geriatric Syndrome With Admission From the Emergency Department. (
  • After controlling for ED diagnosis and demographic characteristics, functional status , cognition status, and social supports all were associated with the likelihood of admission. (
  • The strategy articulates WFP's approach to social protection and offers a coordinating framework that outlines how the organization will contribute deliberately and systematically to collective efforts to achieve long-term national social protection goals. (
  • While these patterns might not differ from those reported by other groups, work organization factors overlap with individual and social characteristics of Hispanic women in low-income jobs revealing a complicated picture that requires a systems approach to achieve meaningful change for this vulnerable population. (
  • Social connectedness is an SDOH that NCCDPHP has identified related to the Healthy People 2030 SDOH goals. (
  • Lots of people feel like they don't receive as much support as they need. (
  • Social support acts as a protective shield against stress and worry: friends, family, and other social networks where people can turn in times of need. (
  • There is a variety of ways in which people can support WFP's mission to eliminate hunger, from making a donation to bringing your expertise to our work on the frontlines. (
  • It sets out WFP's priorities in social protection - supporting the ability of social protection to help people meet their food security, nutrition and other essential needs, and to manage risks and shocks - and outlines the actions WFP will undertake to assist the achievement of those objectives. (
  • They agreed that the main challenge is to en-hance social partners organizations' representativeness, reaching out enterprises and workers in the informal economy, and delivering the right support and protection schemes to the increasing share of own-account workers or self-employed people. (
  • A team of researchers, led by Sheldon Cohen, the Robert E. Doherty University Professor of Psychology in the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University, tested whether hugs act as a form of social support, protecting stressed people from getting sick. (
  • They found that greater social support and more frequent hugs protected people from the increased susceptibility to infection associated with being stressed and resulted in less severe illness symptoms. (
  • We also know that people who report having social support are partly protected from the effects of stress on psychological states, such as depression and anxiety," said Cohen. (
  • Research points to three broad reasons why people need social contact with strangers, or"Vitamin S. (
  • A forum community dedicated to people with social anxiety. (
  • Throughout this unprecedented year, LVMH once again demonstrated unfailing resolve, taking action with all the people of the Group to address a multitude of social and environmental challenges. (
  • Equally important, support continued for populations in need, such as children with sickle cell anemia or people seeking reskilling opportunities. (
  • Support for children and young people in care and looked after children in Kent, including Care Leavers and Virtual School Kent. (
  • Jesuit Social Services is committed to working with people who experience significant social and economic disadvantage, to engage in further education, training and employment. (
  • Many people in these circumstances need support to engage in learning, to succeed in their learning programs, and to continue on to further training and employment. (
  • To realize what we don't know and seek knowledge from those individuals who are leading research in science and clinical practice, and to seek this knowledge with partners to further advance solutions for the people we support and our communities. (
  • The World Bank plans to strengthen its social safety net to help the 60 percent of people in the developing world who lack adequate protection from the impact of global financial volatility and rising food and fuel prices," Bloomberg reports. (
  • People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. (
  • People with social phobia are at high risk for alcohol or other drug use . (
  • People with social anxiety become very anxious and self-conscious in everyday social situations. (
  • Shy people are able to participate in social functions. (
  • In 404 healthy adults, perceived support was assessed by a questionnaire, and frequencies of interpersonal conflicts and receiving hugs were derived from telephone interviews conducted on 14 consecutive evenings. (
  • Importance The role of patient -level factors that are unrelated to the specific clinical condition leading to an emergency department (ED) visit, such as functional status , cognitive status, social supports, and geriatric syndromes , in admission decisions is not well understood, partly because these data are not available in administrative databases. (
  • Information on functional status , cognitive status, social supports, and geriatric syndromes was obtained from the HRS data, whereas ED visits, subsequent hospital admission or ED discharge, and other claims-derived comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained from Medicare data. (
  • Conclusion and Relevance Results of this cohort study suggest that the key patient -level characteristics, including social supports, cognitive status, and functional status , were associated with the decision to admit older patients to the hospital from the ED. These factors are critical to consider when devising strategies to reduce low-value admissions among older adult patients from the ED. (
  • We tested whether perceptions of social support are equally effective in protecting us from stress-induced susceptibility to infection and also whether receiving hugs might partially account for those feelings of support and themselves protect a person against infection. (
  • Considering that the experience of motherhood is a transition period overloaded with many new and potentially stressful situations, the present article aims to review theoretical and empirical studies that relate social support and motherhood. (
  • The presence of this social support tends to increase maternal responsiveness, benefiting the infant, the mother-infant relationship, and the marital relationship, especially in stressful situations. (
  • Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, such as at parties and other social events. (
  • This is because they may come to rely on these substances to relax in social situations. (
  • This qualitative study examines the experiences of Hispanic women in low-income jobs to identify workplace sexual harassment situations, support seeking actions, barriers to report, and forms of retaliation. (
  • Two new studies highlight the importance of social connection in the workplace and illustrate why working from home may not be the optimal workplace arrangement. (
  • Second, a conceptual framework is proposed to integrate the reported organizational factors and social vulnerabilities that interact, eroding the individual's ability to cope effectively with workplace sexual harassment. (
  • We span a broad range of activities, bringing life-saving assistance in emergencies and supporting sustainable and resilient livelihoods to achieve a world with zero hunger. (
  • My life's work is typical for our field: Striving to do all one person can to pursue social justice and support innovation, continuous learning and quality improvement in sustainable business models. (
  • This isn't completely explained by geographic, demographic, and clinical differences, they note, but they do add that many members of ethnic minorities who have kidney failure face environmental, social, healthcare system, and healthcare policy barriers to receiving home dialysis. (
  • Social anxiety disorder is different from shyness. (
  • Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. (
  • You can ease the stress of having social anxiety by joining a support group. (
  • Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. (
  • The examined literature indicates the importance of support from the family, formal institutions and employees for the pregnant woman and the new mother. (
  • re feeling up to it, you can strengthen or maintain your existing support network by texting, calling, or hanging out with friends and family. (
  • The apparent protective effect of hugs may be attributable to the physical contact itself or to hugging being a behavioral indicator of support and intimacy. (
  • Social technologies perpetuate a single idea of what constitutes a pregnancy. (
  • This core indicator measures whether self-reported support is perceived to be available from relatives or friends. (
  • All participants 60 year of age and older are asked about social support. (
  • Among infected participants, greater perceived social support and more frequent hugs both resulted in less severe illness symptoms whether or not they experienced conflicts. (
  • He said that these bodies are diverse, ranging from formal institutions, such as economic and social councils, national councils for social dialogue, labour advisory councils to ad hoc initiatives. (
  • For example, suicide hotlines are a form of community-provided social support. (
  • I see firsthand the critical work socialworkers do in my district office, which serves as a field placement site permitting social work students and professionals to serve our community. (
  • When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission, which supports our community. (
  • When the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake in Ridgecrest, California, announced the arrival of a clinical social worker for a three-month working visit, the news rippled through the community like a harbinger of hope. (
  • In order to assist students of Jesuit Community College who due to financial or other forms of hardship might not be able to meet the cost of their Jesuit Community College Course tuition fees, Jesuit Social Services has established the Student Support Fund . (
  • Applications for assistance through the Student Support Fund are open to students who require financial support to meet the cost of their Jesuit Community College Course tuition fees. (
  • The Community of Practice and Safety Support (COMPASS) program is a peer-led group intervention for home care work ers. (
  • Visit CDC's toolkit for schools to engage parents in supporting school connectedness and student well-being. (
  • Recent work by Raj Chetty and his colleagues offers some support, however, showing a strong negative relationship between inequality in parental income in different cities and the probability that a child born at the 25th percentile of the income distribution will move up the income ladder. (
  • This page has been set up by Social Birds LLC (Event Planner and Promoter for Sheffield's), alongside Sheffield's management. (
  • Other frequent themes included ergonomics, rest breaks, job strain, predictability and flexibility in work scheduling practices, employer response to injury, social support, communication, and respect. (
  • All LVMH Maisons and teams joined this major effort in all the Group's host countries, spanning a vast array of initiatives to support healthcare personnel, suppliers and non-profits. (
  • On 13 July, the ILO Moscow concluded a series of five webinars "From the immediate crisis response to COVID pandemic towards economic recovery, with decent work in focus" by con-ducting the fifth webinar dedicated to the role of social dialogue in supporting employment and advancing towards economic recovery, including sharing of international experience of Scandi-navian countries and the Russian Federation. (
  • Mr. Leonid Andreev, international expert from Norway, presented the impact of social dialogue on economic growth. (
  • Supports that were crucial in helping Canadians with disabilities stay afloat during COVID-19 are no longer available, causing concern from many about their economic future. (
  • Social networks tend to be stronger in societies with higher average levels of well-being: the same is true of trust levels. (
  • She said that especially in times of heightened social tension and a lack of trust in institutions, strengthened respect for, and reliance on mechanisms of social dialogue created stronger basis for employers' and workers' organizations joint action with governments. (
  • Ms. Olga Koulaeva, ILO Moscow Director, in her webinar opening speech stressed the im-portance of social dialogue as part of countries' response to the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • This legislation, S. 7526-A, would secure better learning outcomes by bringing school social workers' experience to bear. (
  • They will inform you about the formalities you need to deal with as a student (budget, grant, housing, social legislation, access to rights, benefits, work). (
  • Ballarat businesses and cyclists have shared photos online of cycling helmets on display outside their front door in a show of support for Mr Ashby's family and to promote road sharing. (
  • They will listen to you and support you in any kind of problems you may have (personal, medical, family, financial, administrative, etc.) and seek appropriate solutions with you. (
  • How to get an assessment for your child and family to find out what care and support you may need. (
  • But what is the relationship, if any, between income inequality and inequality in these other social dimensions? (
  • Is there a relationship between levels of perceived social support and income inequality? (
  • Perhaps you're not interested in a support group but would still like to meet and interact with other women in a safe, comfortable environment. (
  • LVMH has for the first time published a consolidated report on its social and environmental commitments and initiatives. (
  • Keep up with the latest news and insights from Jesuit Social Services - being connected and informed is the best way to build a just society. (
  • You'll now receive all the latest updates, uplifiting stories and so much more from us here at Jesuit Social Services. (
  • Jesuit Social Services acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the land where we work and live. (
  • Social support is important along all the vital cycle, especially during changes and stress periods. (
  • Social support is any group or individual, whether in-person or virtual, who can provide some type of care, advice, or be a sounding board for a person in need," explains Dr. Lindsay Israel, a board certified psychiatrist. (
  • At the same time the Group maintained its business activities while scrupulously ensuring the safety and well-being of its employees, who supported ongoing operations and safeguarded the LVMH ecosystem. (
  • While protection of the environment has always been a priority for LVMH, the Group is now taking a major step forward with support from its Maisons to forge a new alliance between nature and creativity. (
  • Social skills training may involve social contact in a group therapy situation to practice social skills. (
  • Les données permettront de favoriser l'amélioration du recueil d'informations et de concentrer les efforts sur la mise en application du Plan d'action pour la santé mentale. (
  • Social protection plays a vital role in the pursuit of a world with Zero Hunger. (
  • Mr. Fedor Prokopov, expert from Russia, presented the Russian model of social partnership, including its legal framework, and how it is organized at different territorial levels, including federal, regional and local bodies. (
  • To learn more or to pre-register, call Support Connection: 914-962-6402 or 800-532-4290. (
  • Discussion leaders: Fran Contino and a Support Connection Peer Counselor. (
  • This workshop will be an interactive mix of relaxation experiences, playful creativity, and social connection. (
  • This entry was posted in News and tagged Gloria Isabel Ocampo , Luis Eduardo Dagua Conda , Maritza Isabel Quiroz Leiva , murders of social leaders . (
  • Before you apply for this financial support, you should consider alternative funding options. (
  • Many of my clients find their social support on Discord or other online messaging platforms," explains Julia Simone Fogelson , a licensed therapist from Oakland, California who works with teens and adults. (
  • For me, this is based on a belief that we can impact social injustice, and thus, we must strive to transform our work to do better. (
  • Having a good support network who knows your usual patterns and will notice when those patterns change can allow them to intervene and assist if you are having a depressive episode affecting your functioning," explains Israel. (
  • Cohen and his team chose to study hugging as an example of social support because hugs are typically a marker of having a more intimate and close relationship with another person. (
  • Sorry for the inconvenience, the support team is already notified about this issue. (
  • New experimental research also suggests that trust and social networks can be undermined by visible manifestations of inequality . (
  • Social relationship, intrinsic to human nature and existence, is a multidimensional concept. (
  • This suggests that being hugged by a trusted person may act as an effective means of conveying support and that increasing the frequency of hugs might be an effective means of reducing the deleterious effects of stress," Cohen said. (
  • The program aims to improve safe access to physical activity, promote healthy eating through improved nutrition security, and to improve social connectedness in communities. (
  • Here are some tips on how to harness the positive effects of social support on depression. (
  • s no surprise social support can have many positive effects on depression . (
  • Here are ways to incorporate social support into depression treatment and your everyday life. (
  • Online chat rooms or messaging platforms are also forms of social support that can have positive effects on depression symptoms. (
  • This site includes information on various work incentive programs through the Social Security Administration. (
  • Visitez le site de notre Editions Mahayana pour les traductions, conseils et nouvelles du Bureau international en français. (