Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.HumanitiesSocial Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksGenetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.United StatesHierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Religion and ScienceCooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Great BritainCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.

Explicit guidelines for qualitative research: a step in the right direction, a defence of the 'soft' option, or a form of sociological imperialism? (1/130)

Within the context of health service research, qualitative research has sometimes been seen as a 'soft' approach, lacking scientific rigour. In order to promote the legitimacy of using qualitative methodology in this field, numerous social scientists have produced checklists, guidelines or manuals for researchers to follow when conducting and writing up qualitative work. However, those working in the health service should be aware that social scientists are not all in agreement about the way in which qualitative work should be conducted, and they should not be discouraged from conducting qualitative research simply because they do not possess certain technical skills or extensive training in sociology, anthropology or psychology. The proliferation of guidelines and checklists may be off-putting to people who want to undertake this sort of research, and they may also make it even more difficult for researchers to publish work in medical journals. Consequently, the very people who may be in a position to change medical practice may never read the results of important qualitative research.  (+info)

How can statistical mechanics contribute to social science? (2/130)

A model of interdependent decision making has been developed to understand group differences in socioeconomic behavior such as nonmarital fertility, school attendance, and drug use. The statistical mechanical structure of the model illustrates how the physical sciences contain useful tools for the study of socioeconomic phenomena.  (+info)

How will we know "good" qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research. (3/130)

OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitative research will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitative methods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitative research, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitative research results.  (+info)

Understanding life-style and food use: contributions from the social sciences. (4/130)

The contribution of social sciences to the study of life-style and food use in Britain is illustrated by drawing on recent evidence of purchasing patterns, reports of the organisation of meals, snacks, eating out and images of the origins of food. Work discussed underlines a considerable degree of empirical complexity, demonstrates that the supply side as well as demand should be taken into account, and illustrates the manner in which even supposedly highly voluntaristic spheres of consumption activity may none the less be circumscribed. The article is prefaced by briefly contrasting the approach to 'life-style' adopted by market researchers, public health professionals and social theorists. It concludes with the proposal that in order to understand the complexity surrounding human food use, we may be advised to consider ensuring that the descriptive and conceptual tools being used can capture that complexity.  (+info)

Toward an informatics research agenda: key people and organizational issues. (5/130)

As we have advanced in medical informatics and created many impressive innovations, we also have learned that technologic developments are not sufficient to bring the value of computer and information technologies to health care systems. This paper proposes a model for improving how we develop and deploy information technology. The authors focus on trends in people, organizational, and social issues (POI/OSI), which are becoming more complex as both health care institutions and information technologies are changing rapidly. They outline key issues and suggest high-priority research areas. One dimension of the model concerns different organizational levels at which informatics applications are used. The other dimension draws on social science disciplines for their approaches to studying implications of POI/OSI in informatics. By drawing on a wide variety of research approaches and asking questions based in social science disciplines, the authors propose a research agenda for high-priority issues, so that the challenges they see ahead for informatics may be met better.  (+info)

The utility of social capital in research on health determinants. (6/130)

Social capital has become a popular subject in the literature on determinants of health. The concept of social capital has been used in the sociological, political science, and economic development literatures, as well as in the health inequalities literature. Analysis of its use in the health inequalities literature suggests that each theoretical tradition has conceptualized social capital differently. Health researchers have employed a wide range of social capital measures, borrowing from several theoretical traditions. Given the wide variation in these measures and an apparent lack of consistent theoretical or empirical justification for their use, conclusions about the likely role of "social capital" on population health may be overstated or even misleading. Elements of a research agenda are proposed to further elucidate the potential role of factors currently subsumed under the rubric of "social capital."  (+info)

Occupational health and social resources. (7/130)

There is a relationship between the changes in work-related diseases and the following factors: the transformation of the organization of work, organizational development, as well as human and social changes in the work environment. These factors also influence the maintenance of industrial health and safety standards at work. Safety technology will continue to be important, but will be reduced in significance compared to the so-called soft factors, that is, all dimensions and parameters affecting people's health and social environment at the work place. It seems that in the future the relationship between the social resource development and work protection will become more relevant. Social resource development influences the quality of work performance and motivation, the quality of work and work protection, the likelihood of accidents and breakdowns, and the level of self-control and capacity of change. The consequences of work protection research will be discussed in this article with a focus on the contribution of social sciences.  (+info)

Attitudes of Hungarian students and nurses to physician assisted suicide. (8/130)

In Hungary, which has one of the highest rates of suicide in the world, physician assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia are punishable criminal acts. Attitudes towards self destruction and assisted suicide are, however, very controversial. We investigated the attitudes of medical students, nurses and social science students in Hungary towards PAS, using a twelve item scale: the total number of participants was 242. Our results indicate a particular and controversial relationship between attitudes towards assisted suicide in Hungary and experience with terminally ill people. The social science students, who had the fewest personal experiences with terminally ill patients, are characterised by the most permissive attitudes towards assisted suicide. Nurses, who had everyday contact and experience with these patients, were the most conservative, being least supportive of assisted suicide. The attitudes of medical students, the would be physicians, are somewhere between those of nurses and social science students.  (+info)

  • In psychology, the study of brainwashing, often referred to as thought reform, falls into the sphere of "social influence. (scoop.it)
  • Students who major in History , Political Science , Psychology , Human Services , and/or Criminal Justice will not only gain an incredible amount of knowledge, but will also learn to think critically, communicate effectively, understand the diversity of histories and cultures around the world, and engage their communities as responsible citizens. (shorter.edu)
  • If you believe to have any scholarly announcement concerning social sciences, please do not hesitate to share it within this e-community. (yahoo.com)
  • The purpose of the Pi Gamma Mu honor society is to recognize excellence and scholarly achievement in the study of the social sciences. (shorter.edu)
  • We also offer a sequence of courses that introduce students to the social sciences in an interdisciplinary manner. (ccc.edu)
  • This diversity offers scholars and students an unparalleled opportunity to range far and wide in their search for solutions to individual, social, and global problems. (berkeley.edu)
  • Publisher: Austin, Tex., University of Texas Press, in cooperation with the Southwestern Social Science Association. (worldcat.org)
  • For university jobs paying over £25,600, the required number of points will be gained, and a streamlined application process promised, as long as universities are all placed on an approved sponsor list - as we proposed in our paper An Immigration System Fit For The Science System . (acss.org.uk)
  • The Academy of Social Sciences is the national academy of academics, learned societies and practitioners in the social sciences. (acss.org.uk)
  • The e-NASS, outnumbering 4700 subscribers, aims to deepen interaction for further inter/intra/trans/multi-disciplinary communication within the academic community of scholars, professionals and students from all branches of social sciences. (yahoo.com)
  • The Social Sciences Department empowers students to become life-long learners and critical thinkers by developing their analytical skills, teaching from a global perspective and promoting creative problem-solving skills. (ccc.edu)
  • An ideal textbook for students across the social sciences, Doing Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences includes a wide range of examples and activities providing the student with a solid foundation in research design, measurement, and statistics. (sagepub.com)
  • Buzz on social network sites to promote leisure-time physical activity among college students: fad or fabulous? (strath.ac.uk)
  • Of particular concern is the position of skilled research assistants in the social sciences, affecting such national infrastructures as the longitudinal studies (where Britain is a world leader), and where skilled social science research assistants are needed. (acss.org.uk)
  • Contributors include UNESCO (Social and Human Sciences Sector, Education Sector, and the Bureau of Strategic Planning). (unesco.org)
  • The Academy will soon be producing a report on the ways in which social science knowledge, methodologies, data and skills are essential to business and industry across a wide range of business sectors. (acss.org.uk)
  • African countries attained independence in the 1960s on the basis of a broad social contract between the nationalists who inherited state power from the colonial authorities and the general populace whose support was instrumental to the success of the independence struggle. (codesria.org)
  • Brainwashing is a severe form of social influence that combine-s all of these approaches to cause changes in someone's way of thinking without that person's consent and often against his will.Brainwashing is the attempt to change the thoughts and beliefs of another person against their will. (scoop.it)
  • It has become obvious to all in the past months that the COVID crisis has strong and multiple ramifications in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), not only for tackling urgent issues, but for devising approaches for the long term. (eui.eu)
  • At lastùa lucid, comprehensive, and integrated approach to using quantitative methods in the social sciences. (sagepub.com)
  • Improving education (especially in math, science, engineering and technology) and finding ways to make educational opportunities more inclusive is another priority. (unh.edu)
  • The education method (which is called the "propaganda method" when you don't believe in what's being taught) goes for the social-influence gold, trying to affect a change in the person's beliefs, along the lines of "Do it because you know it's the right thing to do. (scoop.it)