Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Acanthocephala: A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.MuseumsWyomingLipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Pacific OceanMustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Animal DiseasesSocial Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.AlaskaSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.CaliforniaSocial Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.United StatesAgonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Great BritainLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Anomie: A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
  • Since the 1970's reintroduction programs have been successful in restoring River Otters and expanding populations in 21 states as well as in Alberta, Canada. (paws.org)
  • In the western U.S. areas with high beaver populations, permanent pools and good vegetation cover are important for good otter habitat. (paws.org)
  • As well as a successful record with breeding exotic otter species, Chester Zoo has also helped fund research and conservation projects in Cheshire to monitor and safeguard native otter populations which are distant relations of the Asian short-clawed species. (itv.com)
  • Giant otter populations have declined due to illegal hunting for their fur and because of loss or degradation of their natural habitats due to mining, deforestation and pollution. (heart.co.uk)
  • North American river otter populations span the North American continent from east to west, extending across 45 states from southern Florida to northern Alaska and all Canadian provinces except Prince Edward Island. (outdooralabama.com)
  • Populations of seals, sea lions, and sea otters have sequentially collapsed over large areas of the northern North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea during the last several decades. (pnas.org)
  • Northern fur seal ( Callorhinus ursinus ), harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ), and sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ) populations have also fallen precipitously. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the role of kinship in the formation of male social bonds also varies within and among populations. (springer.com)
  • Sea otters have coexisted with coastal Indigenous peoples for millennia, until the maritime fur trade in the 19th century wiped out their populations in BC and along most of the Pacific coast. (sfu.ca)
  • In areas where the sea otters have returned, sea urchins, clams and abalone populations have been or are being decimated. (sfu.ca)
  • I'm standing in the shade near the GT Bicycles booth at the 2017 Sea Otter Classic when I turn around and see an old guy performing crazy flatland tricks on a 90s GT Zasker mountain bike with 3 spoke nylon wheels. (cyclelicio.us)
  • I arrived early for the 2017 Sea Otter Classic with vendors still setting up at Laguna Seca Raceway. (cyclelicio.us)
  • Bosch eBike Systems invites racers to participate in the 2017 Haibike eMTB Race epowered by Bosch, which will take place at 4:30 p.m. on Friday, April 21st at the Sea Otter Classic. (cyclelicio.us)
  • A pair of otters that were nursed back to health from near death will serve as the ambassadors for a new tracking technology that will record their biological information over the course of their lives. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Remember when we watched a pair of otters? (12160.info)
  • Homer volunteers have been so diligent in studying dead otters and monitoring live otters that last week the Alaska SeaLife Center awarded its Planet Blue Partnership Award for 2015 to the Homer volunteers and to the Homer Veterinary Clinic. (juneauempire.com)
  • The new tags, known as a Life History Transmitters developed by Markus Horning, were surgically inserted in female otters Langley and Sprout during a recent procedure at Sausalito's Marine Mammal Center, where the animals were paired up. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • Female otters reach sexual maturity at approximately two years of age and males at approximately three years. (eol.org)
  • Dane Phillips went 3-for-5 and fell a double short of the cycle, helping the Evansville Otters beat the Traverse City Beach Bums 11-7 Thursday at Bosse Field in front of 3,524. (courierpress.com)
  • The Evansville Otters scored all three runs in the first inning Friday, but it was enough in a 3-2 victory over the Southern Illinois Miners in front of 3,908 at Bosse Field. (courierpress.com)
  • 2018. Edge weight variance: population genetic metrics for social network analysis. (uwyo.edu)
  • Two rare young giant otters - among the first to be bred in captivity in the UK - have a new home in the New Forest and are on call to be whisked away anytime, anywhere in the world, to breed. (heart.co.uk)
  • Roger and Carol have been involved in otter conservation for over 30 years and were the first people in the UK to look after giant otters in captivity. (heart.co.uk)
  • Our previous work on captive zebra finches suggests that early-life stress can switch social learning as well as song learning strategies in captivity. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • An adult North American river otter can weigh between 5.0 and 14 kg (11.0 and 30.9 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • The new litter of Asian short-clawed otters, which currently weigh between 450g and 612g, is made up of two boys and three girls - all yet to be named by their keepers. (itv.com)
  • They are the heaviest of the Old World otters, as they weigh between 7 kg (15.4 lbs) and 11 kg (24.2 lbs). (seapics.com)
  • Fish is a favored food among the otters, but they also consume various amphibians (such as salamanders and frogs ), freshwater clams , mussels , snails , small turtles and crayfish . (wikipedia.org)
  • The adult male otter was found on the shoreline in Tofino, B.C., in obvious distress and with significant injuries to his flippers, and was delivered to the aquarium's Marine Mammal Rescue Centre on Oct. 18 in critical condition. (cbc.ca)
  • River Otters are a medium sized semi-aquatic mammal with a cylindrical body, big nose, small ears and webbed feet. (paws.org)
  • Sprout the sea otter undergoes a procedure at Sausalito's Marine Mammal Center to install a new Life History Transmitter which will track her biological information during the course of her life. (nbcbayarea.com)
  • BOISE, Idaho (AP) - Gov. C.L. "Butch" Otter says Idaho lawmakers should not repeal the state's grocery tax, adding that he sees no reason to change the current system. (washingtontimes.com)
  • After the Exxon spill about 250,000 seabirds, 2800 sea otters, 300 harbour seals, 250 bald eagles and 22 killer whales were estimated to have died. (smh.com.au)
  • Although they are not particularly social, they do have razor sharp wit (and claws), and are often surprised to learn that people do enjoy their company. (buzzfeed.com)
  • [ 1 ] This otter is distinctive for its forepaws, as the claws do not extend above the fleshy end pads of its toes and fingers. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Otters have sharp claws and webbing between toes on all four feet. (outdooralabama.com)
  • Most have sharp claws on their feet and all except the sea otter have long, muscular tails. (eol.org)
  • The giant otter shows a variety of adaptations suitable to an amphibious lifestyle, including exceptionally dense fur, a wing-like tail, and webbed feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • With paired scent glands at the base of the tail, otters emit an intensely musky smell that can delineate territory and communicates information concerning identity, sex, sexual receptivity and time elapsed between scenting visits. (si.edu)
  • Smooth-coated otters are relatively large for otters, from 7 to 11 kg (15 to 24 lb) in weight and 59 to 64 cm (23 to 25 in) in head-body length, with a tail 37 to 43 cm (15 to 17 in) long. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, they say, anatomical features of the tail and feet, including long, likely webbed appendages, similar to an otter, indicate that it was a good swimmer too. (dicyt.com)
  • For the past 10 years, the West Campus Sports Council has served as the primary sports care provider at the Sea Otter Classic, a four-day annual event that brings nearly 10,000 world-class competitors to Monterey, Calif., for what is regarded as the world's premier cycling festival. (palmer.edu)
  • Several of the world's largest deltas have recently been conceptualized as social-ecological delta systems. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • In some regions, though, their population is controlled to allow the trapping and harvesting of otters for their pelts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Otter pelts range from a rich dark brown (almost black) to a pale chestnut on the back and sides and light brown mixed with varying amounts of gray on the belly. (outdooralabama.com)
  • Eight otters had toxins from Alexandrium plankton, the same plankton that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning, or PSP. (juneauempire.com)
  • However, since otters eat 40 percent of their weight daily, Boege-Tobin cautioned that biotoxin levels in otters can't be compared to that in shellfish or translated into levels that would be toxic to people. (juneauempire.com)
  • In the wild the otters eat primarily crustaceans and mollusks but will also eat fish, insects, amphibians and reptiles. (si.edu)
  • The giant otter subsists almost exclusively on a diet of fish , particularly characins and catfish , but may also eat crabs , turtles , snakes and small caiman . (wikipedia.org)
  • The new provision is also problematic as recent research has unearthed the great roles sea otters play as climate warriors , reviving vital marine kelp forests and sea grass (both of which are carbon-fighting plants). (onegreenplanet.org)
  • Phys.org)-A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. has found via genetic analysis that tool use by sea otters appears to go back hundreds of thousands or even millions of years. (phys.org)
  • But, they found, this was not the case at all-otters that used tools were found to be no more related to other tool users than to groups that did not use tools. (phys.org)
  • Asian short-clawed otters, which are found in various parts of Asia from India to the Philippines and China, are listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as vulnerable to extinction. (itv.com)
  • Antonio Pineda, a graduate student at The Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution in Tarragona, Spain, was excavating an archaeological site primarily looking for stone tools and traces of humans when he found a pile of hyena coprolites. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • We found that highly sighted male dolphins formed 12 social clusters composed of two to five individuals. (springer.com)
  • Many ecological aspects of tool-use in sea otters are similar to those in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. (phys.org)
  • Our results highlight the important role that both social and economic factors (even stronger than ecological factors) play driving predator control, and therefore the need of incorporating these factors when making decisions to mitigate the human-predator conflict. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • However, the occurrence of these male cooperative groups has been predicted to occur only under certain social and ecological conditions, driven by factors such as differences in population density, operational sex ratio, and sexual size dimorphism. (springer.com)
  • Although such conceptualizations are valuable in emphasizing complex interaction between social actors and ecological processes in deltas, they do not go into specific dynamics that surround technological developments in the hydraulic domain. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • The delta trajectory concept is introduced as a way to understand the interplay between social, ecological, and technological systems in deltas. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Within the broader field of human-environment studies, social-ecological systems (SES) theory is frequently used to study interactions between human actors and environmental processes. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • Therefore, we were interested in further exploring how these dynamics, in particular the role of hydraulic engineering works, influencing and being influenced by social-ecological interactions in delta systems, affect the development pathway of the composite delta system. (ecologyandsociety.org)
  • With the return of sea otters to BC's West coast, Anne Salomon, a marine ecologist in the School of Resource and Environmental Management, saw a unique opportunity to conduct research with communities to better understand and prepare for the profound ecological, social, and cultural changes this key predator triggers. (sfu.ca)
  • The team is currently focused on identifying the factors that enable or constrain a community's ability to adapt to the profound social and ecological changes that sea otters bring. (sfu.ca)
  • Yet the visible ecological impact has been mirrored by a tangible deterioration in the social fabric of the worst-hit coastal fishing communities, according to experts and local officials. (smh.com.au)
  • Like other otters, they have very dense fur made up of a fine undercoat protected by thicker guard hairs. (seapics.com)
  • Many of the wetlands where Asian short-clawed otters live are being taken over by humans for agricultural and urban development, while some otters are hunted for their skins and organs which are used in traditional Chinese medicines. (itv.com)
  • These partially webbed paws give them an excellent sense of touch and coordination, providing them with more dexterity than other otters with full webbing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, they have only partially webbed paws, which distinguishes them from all other otters. (thefullwiki.org)