The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Sexual activities of animals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
The status of health in urban populations.
Housing, Animal refers to the physical structure and environment in which animals are kept, including factors such as temperature, lighting, ventilation, and space, that can affect their health and well-being.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Chicago is a term used in the medical field to refer to a type of cardiac arrhythmia characterized by rapid and irregular heartbeats.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The interactions between parent and child.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Educational institutions.
Involvement in community activities or programs.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Germany is a country in Europe known for its strong healthcare system and contributions to medical research and innovation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
A person's view of himself.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Living facilities for humans.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.

Urine release in freely moving catheterised lobsters (Homarus americanus) with reference to feeding and social activities. (1/3932)

Previous studies suggest that urine-borne pheromones play an important role in lobster agonistic and sexual behaviour. This paper investigates the pattern of urine release in catheterised, but otherwise freely moving, adult lobsters with respect to feeding, social and non-social activities. Lobsters on average released 4.1 ml (1 % of body mass) of urine over a 12 h period; this more than doubled to 10.6 ml over the 12 h period after feeding. Hourly monitoring revealed that most urine was released in the first hour after feeding (2.84 ml). With the exception of the first hours after feeding, urine release was intermittent, with pauses lasting up to 17 h. The probability of urine release per hour in unfed lobsters was 0.34 (median); this value increased during agonistic interactions elicited by the introduction of a conspecific (median 0. 63) and during activity initiated by non-social disturbance (median 0.56). Mean urine volume during output hours in unfed lobsters amounted to 1.09 ml h-1. This volume was significantly increased by the presence of a conspecific (1.88 ml h-1) and decreased during activity initiated by non-social disturbances (0.56 ml h-1). No sex-specific differences in urine release were found. The data demonstrate that lobsters control their urine release in a manner dependent on behavioural context. This supports recent findings suggesting the use of urine for chemical signalling in agonistic interactions.  (+info)

Characterization of socio-psychological stress-induced antinociception in the formalin test in mice. (2/3932)

The antinociceptive effect induced by exposure to socio-psychological (PSY) stress using a communication box was assessed by the formalin test in mice, compared with those by exposure to footshock (FS) stress and forced swimming (SW) stress. After the termination of stress exposure, whereas exposure to FS- and SW-stress resulted in the attenuation of the formalin-induced biphasic pain response over 15 min, no appreciable antinociceptive effect was found in the case of PSY stress. When exposure to PSY stress was started during the period of early or late phase of pain after the formalin injection, the antinociceptive effect was maintained for 5-15 min; however, further exposure to PSY stress was not effective for producing antinociception. In the tail-pinch test, likewise, exposure to PSY stress longer than 5 min rather decreased the intensity of antinociception. We conclude that PSY stress in this tonic pain paradigm produces antinociception, but further continuous exposure to the emotional stress caused mice to become recuperative even in such a fear-inducing situation.  (+info)

Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. (3/3932)

OBJECTIVE: To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking. DATA SOURCES: General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files. STUDY SELECTION: Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables. CONCLUSIONS: Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.  (+info)

The urban environment, poverty and health in developing countries. (4/3932)

The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major global environmental changes directly affecting human health today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the policy implications implied by research on health differential between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the contrary.  (+info)

Is long-term maintenance of health-related physical activity possible? An analysis of concepts and evidence. (5/3932)

The phenomenon of maintenance of health-related physical activity is explored through an analysis of the underlying concepts and of the existing empirical evidence. The following targets were used for the analysis: (1) the concept of health-related physical activity, (2) the concept of maintenance, (3) common manifestations of maintenance in everyday living, (4) the promotional and behavioral characteristics of health-related physical activity, (5) the known determinants of free-living physical activity, and (6) intervention trials on physical activity in free-living groups. The analyses revealed the inherent resistance to adoption and maintenance of physical activity, particularly that of high-intensity and program-centered activities, the persistence, however, of many simple everyday routines and habits, the multiple determinants discovered for free-living physical activity and a few empirical demonstrations of the successful promotion of the maintenance of physical activity over a year or two. The promotion of the maintenance of health-related physical activity seems thus a distinct possibility provided that (1) the promotional situation is analyzed thoroughly, (2) the activity is chosen carefully with an emphasis on moderation in intensity and integration into the participant's life-style, (3) multiple promotional contacts are used, and (4) support from the participant's social and physical environment is provided. There is a need for more research on the maintenance of health-related physical activity using the stages of change models, behavior modification principles, self-control concepts, the concept of intrinsic motivation and the Relapse model. The method of analysis used here could apply to other health-related behaviors as well.  (+info)

School and community influences on adolescent alcohol and drug use. (6/3932)

Social environment risk factors present in schools and communities have not been thoroughly investigated. This study cross-sectionally examined the social environments of schools and communities, and their influence on adolescent alcohol and drug use. Survey responses of eighth grade students (N = 2309), a random half of their parents (n = 943), community leaders (n = 118), school principals (n = 30), school counselors (n = 30) and chemical health providers (n = 14) were pooled to create indices of social environmental norms, role models, social support and opportunities for non-use of alcohol. Each index was examined for its association with prevalences from 30 schools of alcohol use onset, last-month alcohol use, heavy alcohol use and last-year marijuana use in univariate and stepwise regression analyses. Increases in the levels of norms, role models and opportunities for non-use predicted decreases in alcohol use prevalences. The explanatory power of the examined constructs in multivariate analyses was acceptably high (R2: 38-53%). These findings further support the notion that community-wide efforts need to be launched to affect changes in the normative, role model and opportunity structures of adolescents' social environments in order to curb adolescent alcohol and drug use.  (+info)

Psychosocial correlates of health compromising behaviors among adolescents. (7/3932)

The objective of the present study was to examine psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. The study population included 123,132 adolescents in sixth, ninth and 12th grades. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Risk-taking disposition was significantly associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. The results suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. The results emphasize the importance of focusing on positive 'risk-taking' experiences for youth in prevention programs; being sensitive to possible sexual abuse experiences among both female and male adolescents in health-care consultations; integrating strategies for improved family connectedness into health promotion efforts; and making school relevant for all adolescents.  (+info)

Prisoners of the proximate: loosening the constraints on epidemiology in an age of change. (8/3932)

"Modern epidemiology" has a primary orientation to the study of multiple risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases. If epidemiologists are to understand the determinants of population health in terms that extend beyond proximate, individual-level risk factors (and their biological mediators), they must learn to apply a social-ecologic systems perspective. The mind-set and methods of modern epidemiology entail the following four main constraints that limit engagement in issues of wider context: 1) a preoccupation with proximate risk factors; 2) a focus on individual-level versus population-level influences on health; 3) a typically modular (time-windowed) view of how individuals undergo changes in risk status (i.e., a life-stage vs. a life-course model of risk acquisition); and 4) the, as yet, unfamiliar challenge of scenario-based forecasting of health consequences of future, large-scale social and environmental changes. The evolution of the content and methods of epidemiology continues. Epidemiologists are gaining insights into the complex social and environmental systems that are the context for health and disease; thinking about population health in increasingly ecologic terms; developing dynamic, interactive, life-course models of disease risk acquisition; and extending their spatial-temporal frame of reference as they perceive the health risks posed by escalating human pressures on the wider environment. The constraints of "the proximate" upon epidemiology are thus loosening as the end of the century approaches.  (+info)

In the medical field, competitive behavior refers to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to attract and retain patients, gain market share, and increase revenue. This can include offering discounts or promotions, advertising services or specialties, or competing on the basis of price or quality. Competitive behavior can also refer to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to compete with other healthcare providers for resources, such as funding, equipment, or personnel. This can include lobbying for government funding or advocating for policies that benefit their organization. While competitive behavior can be beneficial in promoting innovation and improving the quality of care, it can also lead to negative consequences, such as over-treatment, medical errors, and a focus on profit over patient well-being. As such, healthcare providers must balance the need to compete with the ethical and moral obligations to provide high-quality, patient-centered care.

In the medical field, agonistic behavior refers to aggressive or confrontational behavior that is exhibited by an individual, typically in response to a perceived threat or challenge. This behavior can take many forms, including physical aggression, verbal aggression, and posturing or other forms of intimidation. Agonistic behavior is often seen in animals, where it is a natural part of their social behavior and can be used to establish dominance or defend territory. However, it can also occur in humans, particularly in situations where there is a power imbalance or a perceived threat to one's status or resources. In medical settings, agonistic behavior may be observed in patients with certain mental health conditions, such as personality disorders or substance abuse disorders. It may also be seen in patients who are experiencing stress or anxiety, or who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Managing agonistic behavior in medical settings can be challenging, as it may require specialized training and intervention techniques. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying causes of the behavior, such as underlying mental health issues or substance abuse, as well as providing support and guidance to help the individual learn more appropriate ways of interacting with others.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These animals are found in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, and wetlands, and they play important roles in their ecosystems as herbivores and prey. In the medical field, Arvicolinae are sometimes studied as models for human diseases, particularly those related to infectious diseases and immunology. For example, some species of voles have been used to study the transmission and pathogenesis of diseases such as influenza and hantavirus, while others have been used to study the immune response to vaccines and other treatments. In addition, some species of Arvicolinae are also used in laboratory research to study the effects of environmental factors such as diet, stress, and exposure to toxins on animal health and behavior. Overall, the Arvicolinae subfamily is an important group of animals for medical research, as they provide valuable insights into the biology and ecology of rodents and the ways in which they interact with their environments.

In the medical field, "Behavior, Animal" refers to the study of the actions, responses, and interactions of animals, including humans, with their environment. This field encompasses a wide range of topics, including animal behavior in the wild, animal behavior in captivity, animal behavior in domestic settings, and animal behavior in laboratory settings. Animal behaviorists study a variety of behaviors, including social behavior, mating behavior, feeding behavior, communication behavior, and aggression. They use a variety of research methods, including observational studies, experiments, and surveys, to understand the underlying mechanisms that drive animal behavior. Animal behavior research has important applications in fields such as conservation biology, animal welfare, and veterinary medicine. For example, understanding animal behavior can help conservationists develop effective strategies for protecting endangered species, and it can help veterinarians develop more effective treatments for behavioral disorders in animals.

In the medical field, animal communication refers to the ability of animals to communicate with each other and with humans using various forms of communication, such as vocalizations, body language, and chemical signals. This communication can be used for a variety of purposes, including social interactions, mating, warning signals, and navigation. Animal communication is an important aspect of veterinary medicine, as it can help veterinarians understand the behavior and needs of animals, diagnose and treat various medical conditions, and develop effective treatment plans. For example, veterinarians may use animal communication to assess a pet's pain level, determine the cause of a behavioral issue, or monitor the progress of a medical treatment. In addition to veterinary medicine, animal communication is also studied in fields such as ethology, biology, and psychology, where researchers seek to understand the underlying mechanisms of animal communication and its role in animal behavior and evolution.

Cross-sectional studies are a type of observational research design used in the medical field to examine the prevalence or distribution of a particular health outcome or risk factor in a population at a specific point in time. In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of individuals who are all measured at the same time, rather than following them over time. Cross-sectional studies are useful for identifying associations between health outcomes and risk factors, but they cannot establish causality. For example, a cross-sectional study may find that people who smoke are more likely to have lung cancer than non-smokers, but it cannot determine whether smoking causes lung cancer or if people with lung cancer are more likely to smoke. Cross-sectional studies are often used in public health research to estimate the prevalence of diseases or conditions in a population, to identify risk factors for certain health outcomes, and to compare the health status of different groups of people. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or to identify potential risk factors for disease outbreaks.

In the medical field, copulation refers to the sexual act of penetration between a male and female reproductive organ, typically involving intercourse. It is a common form of sexual activity and is often associated with reproduction, although it can also occur for pleasure or other reasons. Copulation typically involves the penis penetrating the vagina, although other forms of sexual activity, such as anal or oral sex, can also occur. It is important to note that copulation can carry risks, including the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, and it is important to practice safe sex to minimize these risks.

In the medical field, "Cichlids" typically refers to a group of freshwater fish that are commonly kept as aquarium pets. Cichlids are known for their diverse range of colors, shapes, and behaviors, and they are native to various regions around the world, including Africa, Central and South America, and North America. While cichlids are not typically used in medical treatments, they can be used as a model organism for studying various aspects of biology and medicine. For example, some species of cichlids have been used to study the effects of environmental stressors on behavior and physiology, while others have been used to study the genetics of coloration and other traits. In addition, some species of cichlids have been found to have medicinal properties. For example, extracts from the skin of certain cichlids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and some species of cichlids are used in traditional medicine in their native regions for a variety of purposes.

In the medical field, "Adaptation, Psychological" refers to the process by which individuals adjust to and cope with stressors, trauma, and other challenging life events. This can involve a range of psychological mechanisms, such as cognitive restructuring, emotional regulation, and social support seeking. Psychological adaptation can be influenced by a variety of factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, social support network, and access to resources. It is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as individuals who are able to effectively adapt to stressors are more likely to experience positive outcomes and maintain good mental health over time. Psychological adaptation can also be studied in the context of specific populations, such as refugees, military personnel, and individuals with chronic illnesses, to better understand the unique challenges they face and develop effective interventions to support their adaptation.

In the medical field, adolescent behavior refers to the patterns of behavior and attitudes exhibited by individuals during the adolescent stage of development, typically between the ages of 10 and 19 years. This stage is characterized by significant physical, cognitive, and emotional changes, and as a result, adolescents may exhibit a range of behaviors that are different from those of children or adults. Adolescent behavior can include a variety of behaviors, such as risk-taking, experimenting with substances, seeking independence, and forming romantic relationships. These behaviors can be influenced by a variety of factors, including peer pressure, family dynamics, cultural norms, and individual personality traits. In the medical field, understanding adolescent behavior is important for healthcare providers who work with adolescents, as it can help them to identify potential health risks and provide appropriate interventions. For example, healthcare providers may need to educate adolescents about the risks associated with substance use or encourage them to make healthy lifestyle choices. Additionally, healthcare providers may need to provide support and guidance to adolescents who are struggling with emotional or behavioral issues, such as depression or anxiety.

Biological evolution refers to the process by which species of living organisms change over time through the mechanisms of natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow. In the medical field, biological evolution is important because it helps us understand how diseases and pathogens have evolved and adapted to survive in different environments and populations. This knowledge is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for infectious diseases, as well as for understanding the genetic basis of inherited diseases and disorders. Additionally, understanding the evolutionary history of organisms can provide insights into their biology, ecology, and behavior, which can inform conservation efforts and the management of natural resources.

In the medical field, "Chicago" typically refers to the Chicago School of Anesthesia, which was founded in the late 19th century and is considered one of the most influential schools of anesthesia in the world. The Chicago School emphasized the use of ether as an anesthetic and the importance of aseptic technique in surgery. The school's founders and faculty, including William M. Halsted and John H. Kellogg, made significant contributions to the development of modern anesthesia and surgical techniques.

In the medical field, aggression refers to a behavior characterized by hostile or threatening actions or words directed towards others. Aggression can be physical or verbal and can range from mild irritability to extreme violence. Aggression can be a symptom of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders. It can also be a response to stress, frustration, or other negative emotions. In some cases, aggression may be a sign of a neurological disorder or a side effect of certain medications. It is important for healthcare professionals to identify and address the underlying cause of aggression in order to provide appropriate treatment and prevent harm to others.

In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.

Child development refers to the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that occur in children from birth to adolescence. It is a complex process that involves the interaction of genetic, environmental, and social factors. In the medical field, child development is studied by pediatricians, developmental psychologists, and other healthcare professionals to understand how children grow and develop, and to identify any potential problems or delays that may require intervention or treatment. This knowledge is used to promote healthy development and to provide appropriate care and support for children with developmental issues.

In the medical field, "Canada" typically refers to the country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the south and the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean to the north, east, and west, respectively. Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area and has a diverse population of over 38 million people. In the context of healthcare, Canada has a publicly funded healthcare system known as Medicare, which provides universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services to all Canadian citizens and permanent residents. However, there are also private healthcare options available in Canada, and some Canadians may choose to seek medical treatment outside of the country. Canada is also home to a number of world-renowned medical research institutions and universities, including the University of Toronto, McGill University, and the University of British Columbia, which conduct cutting-edge research in fields such as genetics, immunology, and neuroscience.

Child behavior refers to the actions, thoughts, and emotions of children and adolescents, typically ranging in age from birth to 18 years old. In the medical field, child behavior is studied and evaluated by healthcare professionals, such as pediatricians, child psychologists, and psychiatrists, to identify any potential behavioral issues or disorders that may affect a child's development and well-being. Child behavior can encompass a wide range of behaviors, including social interactions, academic performance, emotional regulation, and physical activity. It can also be influenced by various factors, such as genetics, environment, and life experiences. In the medical field, child behavior is often assessed through standardized tests, interviews with parents or caregivers, and observations of the child's behavior in different settings. This information can help healthcare professionals identify any potential behavioral problems or disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or conduct disorder, and develop appropriate treatment plans to address these issues.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.

In the medical field, "attitude to health" refers to an individual's beliefs, values, and behaviors related to their health and well-being. It encompasses their perceptions of their own health status, their motivation to engage in healthy behaviors, their willingness to seek medical care, and their attitudes towards illness and disease. An individual's attitude to health can have a significant impact on their health outcomes. For example, a positive attitude towards health can motivate individuals to adopt healthy behaviors, such as regular exercise and a healthy diet, and to seek medical care when needed. On the other hand, a negative attitude towards health can lead to unhealthy behaviors and a reluctance to seek medical care, which can contribute to poor health outcomes. In medical practice, healthcare providers often assess an individual's attitude to health as part of their overall assessment of their health status. This can help healthcare providers to identify any barriers to healthy behaviors or medical care and to develop tailored interventions to support positive health behaviors and outcomes.

In the medical field, "African Americans" refers to individuals who are of African descent and live in the United States. This term is often used to describe the unique health challenges and disparities that this population faces, such as higher rates of certain diseases, lower access to healthcare, and poorer health outcomes compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Medical professionals may use this term to identify and address these disparities, and to develop targeted interventions and treatments to improve the health of African Americans.

Phobic disorders are a type of anxiety disorder characterized by excessive and persistent fear or anxiety in response to specific objects, situations, or activities. People with phobic disorders often experience intense and overwhelming fear that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the feared object or situation. This fear can lead to avoidance behaviors, which can significantly impact a person's daily life and functioning. Phobic disorders are classified into several categories, including specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, and agoraphobia. Specific phobias involve an intense fear of a specific object or situation, such as heights, spiders, or flying. Social anxiety disorder involves an intense fear of social or performance situations, such as public speaking or being evaluated by others. Agoraphobia involves an intense fear of being in situations or places where escape may be difficult or embarrassing if an anxiety attack were to occur. Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves a combination of therapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of therapy used to treat phobic disorders. CBT helps people identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs about the feared object or situation, and gradually expose themselves to it in a safe and controlled environment. Medications such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines may also be used to help manage symptoms of anxiety and panic.

In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

In the medical field, "alcohol drinking" refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and spirits. The term is often used to describe the frequency, amount, and duration of alcohol consumption, as well as any potential negative health effects that may result from it. Alcohol drinking is a common social activity and is legal in many countries, but excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, high blood pressure, heart disease, certain types of cancer, and mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. In medical settings, alcohol drinking is often assessed as part of a patient's medical history and can be used to inform treatment decisions and recommendations for lifestyle changes.

In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.

In the medical field, cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and using information. It encompasses a wide range of mental functions, including perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive abilities are essential for daily functioning and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as brain injuries, neurological disorders, and mental illnesses. In medical settings, cognitive assessments are often used to evaluate a patient's cognitive abilities and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting them. Cognitive therapy is also a type of psychotherapy that focuses on improving cognitive processes to alleviate symptoms of mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Substance-related disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are caused by the use of drugs or alcohol. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's life. Substance-related disorders are diagnosed when a person's use of drugs or alcohol causes problems in their daily life, such as problems at work or school, problems with relationships, or legal problems. Substance-related disorders can also lead to physical health problems, such as liver damage or heart disease. Treatment for substance-related disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy and medication.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that can help reduce inflammation, swelling, and redness in the body. Hydrocortisone is also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, eczema, and psoriasis, as well as to reduce the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, and injections.

Cohort studies are a type of observational study in the medical field that involves following a group of individuals (a cohort) over time to identify the incidence of a particular disease or health outcome. The individuals in the cohort are typically selected based on a common characteristic, such as age, gender, or exposure to a particular risk factor. During the study, researchers collect data on the health and lifestyle of the cohort members, and then compare the incidence of the disease or health outcome between different subgroups within the cohort. This can help researchers identify risk factors or protective factors associated with the disease or outcome. Cohort studies are useful for studying the long-term effects of exposure to a particular risk factor, such as smoking or air pollution, on the development of a disease. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or treatments for a particular disease. One of the main advantages of cohort studies is that they can provide strong evidence of causality, as the exposure and outcome are measured over a long period of time and in the same group of individuals. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and may be subject to biases if the cohort is not representative of the general population.

Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on a person's weight and height. It is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. The resulting number is then compared to a standard chart to determine if a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. BMI is commonly used in the medical field as a screening tool to assess a person's risk for health problems associated with obesity, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that BMI is not always an accurate measure of body fat, as it does not take into account factors such as muscle mass or body composition.

In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.

Anxiety is a common mental health condition characterized by excessive and persistent worry, fear, and unease about everyday situations or events. It can also manifest as physical symptoms such as restlessness, irritability, muscle tension, and difficulty sleeping. In the medical field, anxiety is typically diagnosed and treated by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and therapists. Treatment options for anxiety may include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. It is important to note that anxiety can be a symptom of other medical conditions, so it is important to consult a healthcare provider if you are experiencing symptoms of anxiety.

In the medical field, cooperative behavior refers to the willingness and ability of healthcare providers, patients, and other stakeholders to work together towards a common goal of providing high-quality healthcare. This includes communication, collaboration, and teamwork among healthcare professionals, as well as patients' active participation in their own care. Cooperative behavior is essential in healthcare because it can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs. For example, when healthcare providers work together to coordinate care, they can avoid duplication of services and ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment. When patients are actively involved in their care, they are more likely to adhere to treatment plans and have better health outcomes. In addition, cooperative behavior is important in promoting a culture of safety in healthcare. When healthcare providers work together to identify and address safety risks, they can prevent errors and adverse events, which can harm patients and lead to legal and financial consequences. Overall, cooperative behavior is a critical component of high-quality healthcare, and healthcare providers should strive to foster a culture of collaboration and teamwork in their practice.

In the medical field, culture refers to the collection of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) that grow on a specific culture medium. The culture medium provides the nutrients and conditions necessary for the microorganisms to thrive and multiply. The process of growing a culture involves taking a sample of a patient's body fluid, tissue, or other bodily substance and placing it on a culture medium. The culture medium is then incubated in a controlled environment to allow the microorganisms to grow and multiply. The resulting colonies of microorganisms can be identified and analyzed to determine the type and number of microorganisms present. Cultures are an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. They can help identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection, which can guide the selection of appropriate antibiotics or other treatments. Cultures can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and detect the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior. It is characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, repetitive patterns of behavior, and restricted interests or activities. Individuals with ASD may have difficulty understanding and interpreting social cues, such as facial expressions and body language, and may struggle to initiate and maintain conversations. They may also engage in repetitive behaviors, such as hand-flapping or rocking, and have a restricted range of interests or activities. The diagnosis of ASD is typically made by a team of healthcare professionals, including pediatricians, psychologists, and speech therapists, based on a combination of clinical observation, standardized assessments, and medical history. There is currently no cure for ASD, but early intervention and ongoing support can help individuals with ASD develop skills and strategies to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Blogging in the medical field refers to the practice of creating and publishing content on a regular basis on a blog or website related to medical topics. Medical bloggers typically write about a variety of topics related to healthcare, including medical research, patient experiences, health news, and medical treatments. Medical blogging can be a useful tool for healthcare professionals, patients, and the general public to stay informed about the latest medical developments and to share information and experiences. Medical bloggers may also use their blogs to provide educational resources, offer advice and support to patients, and engage with their audience through comments and social media. However, it is important to note that medical blogging should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice. Medical bloggers should always disclose their qualifications and any conflicts of interest, and readers should seek medical advice from a qualified healthcare professional for any medical concerns.

In the medical field, ants typically refer to the medical condition known as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). APS is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies that bind to phospholipids, which are lipids that are important components of cell membranes. These antibodies can cause blood clots to form in the blood vessels, leading to a variety of medical problems such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. APS can also cause pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature birth. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood. Treatment for APS may include anticoagulant medications to prevent blood clots, as well as corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs to reduce the activity of the autoimmune response.

The social environment is a broader concept than that of social class or social circle. The physical and social environment is ... The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in ... and the objective social environment on which we draw to create the former, noting that the social environment can either ... "public crises of social structure". Emile Durkheim took a wider view of the social environment (milieu social), arguing that it ...
... is a non-fiction book published in 2020 by French economist and ... "Book Review: Unsustainable Inequalities: Social Justice and the Environment by Lucas Chancel". LSE Review of Books. 2021-03-05 ... O'Reilly, Kate (9 May 2022). "Unsustainable inequalities: social justice and the environment". International Affairs. 98 (3): ... Chancel argues for the necessity of addressing social justice and environmental sustainability in tandem in order to achieve ...
The Ministry of Health, Wellness, and, the Environment is responsible for the Sir Lester Bird Mount St. John's Medical Centre, ... "Medical Divisions". Ministry of Health, Wellness, and Environment. 20 October 2020. "Antigua and Barbuda Country Profile". Pan ... "Health Disaster Management Unit". Ministry of Health, Wellness, and Environment. 15 October 2020. " ...
Social Sciences; Environment; Language; Natural Sciences & Mathematics; Technology (Applied Science); The Arts - Fine and ...
Their topics are economic affairs; road links, transport and communications; environment; social affairs; culture; higher ... A Centre for Social Information, still to be created, shall inform the public about the provisions and social institutions in ... Part of the plan calls for the provision of uniform social welfare standards over the whole territory with new kinds of social ... A cross-border Academy for the Social Professions is visualised, providing the social institutions with first class staff. ...
milieu social environment; setting (has also the meaning of "middle", and organized crime community in French). milieu ... parvenu a social upstart. pas de deux lit. "step for two"; in ballet, a dance or figure for two performers, a duet; also a ... Belle Époque a period in European social history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. belles- ... j'accuse "I accuse"; used generally in reference to a political or social indictment (alluding to J'Accuse…!, Émile Zola's ...
... eco-social' environment". Halliday's early grammatical descriptions of English, called "Notes on Transitivity and Theme in ... Because it stands as a metaphor for society, language has the property of not only transmitting the social order but also ... This is undoubtedly the explanation of the violent attitudes that under certain social conditions come to be held by one group ... Halliday argues that language does not exist merely to reflect social structure. For instance, he writes: ... if we say that ...
... eco-social' environment". Halliday draws on the work of Bühler and Malinowski. The link between Firthian linguistics and Alfred ... and not in respect with its environment, to avoid the false conclusions made by August Schleicher and other social Darwinists. ... It is, then, the same mode of explanation as in biology and social sciences; but it became emphasised that the word 'adaptation ... The post-Saussurean functionalist movement sought ways to account for the 'adaptation' of language to its environment while ...
"Social Environment." pp 4-11 in Hurricane Ike Impact Report. Retrieved October 21, 2012. ( Ruggiero, KJ, Gros K, ... CRIACC and Environment Canada (September 25, 2008). "Remnants of Tropical Storm "Ike" - September 14-15, 2008". Centre des ... Damages from the homes and the environment helped create these issues amongst the public. Following the disaster, communities ... There was an increase of impairments, interference with social activities and health behaviors such as eating poorly, smoking ...
Weeber, Stan (2016-10-31). "Nodes of resistance to green grabbing: a political ecology". Environment and Social Psychology. 1 ( ... Moreover, it resulted in violence and social upheaval for the local and Indigenous people of the area. This case study ... Social anthropologist Melissa Leach notes that it "builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource ... alienation in the name of the environment". Green grabbing is a more specific form of land grabbing, in which the motive of the ...
"Heroes of the Environment". Social Justice Books. 2017-09-18. Retrieved 2020-10-23. "13 books for climate-conscious children ... ISBN 9780892392803 Heroes of the Environment, 2009 "Lee & Low Acquires Children's Book Press". ...
Environment and Social Psychology. 3 (2). doi:10.18063/esp.v3.i2.619. Kyba, C. C. M.; Hänel, A.; Hölker, F. (2014). "Redefining ... Rebound effect at the Encyclopedia of Earth Portals: Economy Environment Energy 5 (Articles with short description, Short ...
When comparing different social statuses of families, the environment of a neighborhood turns out to be a major factor in ... Society portal Economic mobility Intelligence and socio-economic status NRS social grade Social class Social status Status ... "Social Environment Notebook contents". Archived from the original on 29 April 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. Shapiro, Thomas. ( ... Other effects are related to social development. Educating girls leads to a number of social benefits, including many related ...
... environment and energy; and social sciences. Science advisers generally have a postgraduate qualification and science policy ... Biological Sciences and Health Physical Sciences and ICT Environment and Energy Social Sciences POST is a member of the ... especially on the environment) became more apparent, it was felt that UK Parliament needed its own resources on such issues. ... Head of Science and Environment Section, House of Commons Library Lynn Gardner, Principal Clerk, Committee Office, House of ...
Social security. Protection of the environment. A federated republic. Truth in reconciliation. The opening paragraph of the ... "All kinds of social conflicts have constantly accumulated and feelings of discontent have risen consistently," it reads. "The ...
Bateson, G. (1973). Vic Gioscia (ed.). "Mind/Environment". Social Change (1): 6-21. Bateson, G.; von Foerster, Heinz (1974). ... Social Science Research Council; Pacific Coast Committee on Old Age Research. Social Science Research Council. pp. 49-54. ... "Environment vs. Race-Environment as an Etiological Factor in Psychiatric Disturbances in Infancy," by Renfe A. Spitz and Kathe ... Bateson, G. (1932). "Social Structure of the Iatmül People of the Sepik River, Parts I-II". Oceania. 2 (3): 245-291. doi: ...
"Social Environment Design & Development Projects". Outso. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Locust_Star (October ... a revamped and optimized version of the original engine that has allowed the game to have real-time moving environments, more ... the game has more realistic environments and animations. Uncharted 2 has 564 in-game cinematic animations in comparison to 80 ...
Veeresh, G.K.; Mallik, B.; Viraktamath, C.A. (1990). Social insects and the environment. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 314. ISBN 978- ...
"Social Environment Design & Development Projects". Outso. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. "SOCOM: Confrontation ...
"Social Environment Design & Development Projects". Outso. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. "Not This week but next ... Amon Tobin was among the artists that helped to compile its soundtrack, which aimed to reflect the environment. The game was ... Infamous is an action-adventure game set in an open world environment and played from a third-person perspective where the ... the team sought to use sounds that results from objects that would be found in an urban environment and using such objects in ...
... social development and the environment; human rights and state reform, and foreign policy. The results were anonymous unless ... "Social networks, digital media revolutionize Mexican electoral coverage". Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. ... Health Education Science and Technology Culture Human rights Economic Development Sustainable Development Social Improvement ...
ISBN 978-0-82-407015-1. Veeresh, G.K.; Mallik, B.; Viraktamath, C.A. (1990). Social insects and the environment. Leiden: E.J. ... Nests of the social spider Delena cancerides are often invaded by M. pyriformis ants, and nests once housing these spiders are ... Department of the Environment. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014. "Jack Jumper Ant ... Haskins, C. P.; Haskins, E. F. (1 December 1950). "Notes on the Biology and Social Behavior of the Archaic Ponerine Ants of the ...
Strehlow, T. G. H. (1965). "Culture, social structure, and environment". In Berndt, R. M.; Berndt, C. H. (eds.). Aboriginal Man ...
"Social Environment Design & Development Projects". Outso. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. "Resistance 2 for ...
... and Environment; Social; and Development. The Council holds regular plenary sessions once a month, but can hold extraordinary ... The putschists were met by the resistance of the political and social representatives who had gathered in the civil government ... Michell, George (2011) [1978]. Architecture of the Islamic world its history and social meaning; with a complete survey of key ... Ian Morris (2014). The Measure of Civilization: How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations. Princeton University Press ...
Environment and Social Consideration (PDF). FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE NORTH SOUTH RAILWAY PROJECT-SOUTH LINE (COMMUTER)(NORTH- ... Environmental Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources. January 31, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2021 ...
"Theme: Health, Environment & Social Campaigns!". TED (conference). 2012-04-05. Retrieved 28 January 2015. "TEDxNewportCoast ... "E-waste recycler puts environment first". Orange County Register. 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2015-01-16. Biggs, John (2012-08-14). " ... TEDxChange2012 - Arman Sadeghi - Electronics Recycling & The Environment". 2012-04-16. Retrieved 28 January 2015. ...
"Social Environment Design & Development Projects". Outso. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Locust_Star (2010-02-10). " ...
Veeresh, G.K.; Mallik, B.; Viraktamath, C.A. (1990). Social Insects and the Environment. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 315. ISBN 978- ... Environment Protection Authority. Retrieved 23 November 2015. New, T.R. (2011). Lowland Insects and Their Environments: Non- ... Adelaide: Department for Environment and Heritage. p. 24. Narendra, A. "The ant town - Poochera". Ant Visions. Retrieved 18 May ... p. 6. ISBN 978-0-644-03922-2. Choe, J.C.; Crespi, B.J. (1997). The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids (1st ...
ISBN 978-0-8240-7015-1. Veeresh, G.K.; Mallik, B.; Viraktamath, C.A. (1990). Social insects and the environment. Leiden: E.J. ... This environment also produces the ant's food, which includes nectar and invertebrate prey. In suburban areas, this ant is ... Haskins, Caryl P.; Haskins, Edna F. (December 1950). "Notes on the biology and social behavior of the archaic Ponerine ants of ... Department of the Environment (8 April 2014). "Species Myrmecia pilosula Smith, 1858". Australian Biological Resources Study: ...
The social environment is a broader concept than that of social class or social circle. The physical and social environment is ... The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in ... and the objective social environment on which we draw to create the former, noting that the social environment can either ... "public crises of social structure". Emile Durkheim took a wider view of the social environment (milieu social), arguing that it ...
Social and Governance Ratings to help you in your stock buying decisions. ...
Social and Governance Ratings to help you in your stock buying decisions. ...
Todays Research on Aging, Issue 27: The Interaction of Genes, Behavior, and Social Environment. ... and the environment. It provides an overview of current findings on the role of inflammation, memory loss, social interaction, ... and the social environment.. This newsletter highlights recent results from research that assesses the effects of interactions ... The Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National Institute on Aging supports research on the interaction of genes ...
Social Responsibility. Our mission statement is a good starting point for SavATrees social contract: we are "people with ...
Social and Governance (ESG) debt instruments for financing sustainable investments. Accede a toda la información aquí. ...
... social media, surgical education, treatment, U.S., United States, webinars ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
Commitment to the environment Our programs connect with the natural and social environments in which they operate. They ... Commitment to the environment Our programs connect with the natural and social environments in which they operate. They ... Search Jesuit Social Services. Search website Toggle mobile navigation * About us Toggle submenu links for About us * Annual ... The environment can seem too big to think about, and the world too difficult to imagine. In this context, we can be forgiven ...
Positive social environment at UCT Prague. The University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, is dedicated, over the long-term ... Details: General information about the new Guideline for fostering and ensuring a positive social environment at UCT Prague ... We thank all of you for helping us to foster and ensure a positive, safe social environment on campus. ... UCT Pragues Rector has announced a contact person for social environment-related issues, ThDr Klára Muzikářová PhD. ...
Tag: built environment. New York Times and Huffington Post broadcast BJSMs focus area of urban planning/ built environment ... Behavior changes, General, SmokadiabesityTagged built environment, Catharine Ward-Thompson, Fiona Bull, James Sallis, urban ...
According to the World Bank, damage to the environment has an economic cost of 3.9 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and ... For example, Chapter XII of the National Code for the Environment and Natural Resources, enacted in 1990, contains standards ... 2017 - History of crimes against people and the environment. 2016 - Mining, Oil and Logging Concessions Challenge ... for the management of natural resources and the National Environment Council (CONAM) was established in 1994 as a coordinating ...
7 Tips to Minimize the Negative Impact Businesses Have on the Environment ...
... and relatively low-cost tools for stakeholders and rights-holders of a protected or conserved area to assess their social ... 2023 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). AccessibilityPrivacy policy Terms and conditions ... Social assessment for protected and conserved areas (SAPA): this focuses on the impacts of PCAs on the wellbeing of local ... Assessing the social impacts, governance and equity of conservation: SAPA, GAPA or SAGE?. IIED has developed three practical ...
... social and governance ratings to help you with your stock-buying decisions. ...
Coalition For A Safe Environment. Mission. To protect, promote, preserve and restore our Mother Earths delicate ecology, ... CFASE believes that we must plan and invest in a future sustainable community environment and balance the need for economic ... The Coalition For A Safe Environment (CFASE) is a non-profit community based Environmental Justice, Public Health, Public ... environment, natural resources and wildlife. To attain Environmental Justice in international trade marine ports, goods ...
... social and governance ratings to help you with your stock-buying decisions. ...
... social and governance ratings to help you with your stock-buying decisions. ...
Pacific Environment Portal (PEP) (Opens in a new tab/window) * Invasive Species Battler Resource Base (Opens in a new tab/ ... Mr Ross Butler, also a Senior Social Development Specialist at the World Bank, echoed Marburgs sentiments on the power of ... A resilient Pacific environment sustaining our livelihoods and natural heritage in harmony with our cultures. ... The event focused on strengthening Environmental and Social Risk Management (ESRM) in the Pacific region, and featured a panel ...
Business Environment Wins Social Communication Award for Intranet Service. Posted on October 15, 2012. Reading Time: 2 minutes ... The award for “Outstanding Social Intranet 2012” was presented to Business Environment earlier this month at the ... Congratulations to serviced office operator Business Environment which scooped a “Social Communication” award at ... Home , Blog , Business advice and news , Business Environment Wins Social Communication Award for Intranet Service ...
... and increased social cohesion and social capital [140,141,142,143,144,145,146]. Where parks are scarce as in East Portland [147 ... increased social interaction with adults and other children, and improved social skills." East Portland has particularly poor ... This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Built Environment). Download Download PDF Download PDF with Cover Download XML ... These health and social impacts can be so prevalent and obvious to the people impacted that they create yet another barrier to ...
Part 3: Environment and resource management. The case for mineral resources management and development in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Economic, Social, and Environmental Change in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNU, 1996, 365 p.). ...
... the Environment and Social Services. by Richard Wright December 7, 2021. ... Social Services Award: Assistance League of Diablo Valley. Founded in 1967, Assistance League of Diablo Valleys mission is to ... Environment Award: Amazon Watch. Improving the lives of indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin is the mission of Amazon Watch, ... while growing a network of well-informed engaged philanthropists and social entrepreneurs and sponsors," she said. ...
Social environment and asthma: associations with crime and No Child Left Behind programmes ... Social environment and asthma: associations with crime and No Child Left Behind programmes ...
Protecting the environment and social justice: you cant have one without the other ... If we are serious about change, social justice and protecting the environment need to go together. ... I think we are reaching a social consensus that something needs to be done about the environment. If we are not in a crisis now ... Cheap oil and cheap energy, he told the audience, go hand in hand and are bad for both the environment and for working people. ...
How Social Difference Affects the Urban Environment, and Vice Versa. New York City ...
job sector, mental health, occupational therapist, organisational and social work environment. in International Journal of ... The aim of this study was to compare occupational therapists self-perceived organisational and social work environments in ... The aim of this study was to compare occupational therapists self-perceived organisational and social work environments in ... The aim of this study was to compare occupational therapists self-perceived organisational and social work environments in ...
Atkores Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) efforts aim to promote growth that takes into account the well-being of our ... Environment, Social & Governance at Atkore. Sustainability has always been an important part of Atkores culture, and we are ... stakeholders and the environment. We believe that our values, the Atkore Business System (ABS), and sustainable business ...
To address this problem, in this work we propose an approach for automated coding of social behaviours and environments based ... To address this problem, in this work we propose an approach for automated coding of social behaviours and environments based ... Automatic Detection of Everyday Social Behaviours and Environments from Verbatim Transcripts of Daily Conversations ... The results show that it is possible to automatically code the social behaviours and environments based on verbatim transcripts ...
  • Assessing the social impacts, governance and equity of conservation: SAPA, GAPA or SAGE? (
  • IIED has developed three practical and relatively low-cost tools for stakeholders and rights-holders of a protected or conserved area to assess their social impact, the quality of governance and the equity of conservation. (
  • The importance of governance and the need to improve social impacts of conservation were highlighted at the IUCN World Parks Congress in 2003 and elaborated on in the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) Programme of Work on Protected Areas in 2004. (
  • The challenges were highlighted during a side event hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) through the Environmental Monitoring and Governance (EMG) Programme in the collaboration with the World Bank on Tuesday. (
  • In his closing remarks the Director for Environmental Monitoring and Governance Program, Mr Jope Davetanivalu, thanked the World Bank for the relationship established with SPREP to address environmental and social issues in the region. (
  • Atkore's Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) efforts aim to promote growth that takes into account the well-being of our stakeholders and the environment. (
  • The Public Health Law Program's (PHLP's) Health Equity portfolio includes research on antidiscrimination laws, as well as research on public health law's impact on the social determinants of health. (
  • He highlighted the inauguration by the Director-General of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (
  • In addition, this year the WHO Regional Office for Africa hosted a regional consultation on social determinants of health in Brazzaville. (
  • Signed in 2019 between the World Bank, SPREP, the Asian Development Bank and the University of the South Pacific (USP), the PLP-ESS bolstered the delivery of infrastructure projects in the Pacific region by ensuring the effective administration of environmental and social safeguards (ESS). (
  • Through the partnership which ran from 2019-2022, over 25 capacity building modules addressing various Environmental and Social Risk Management (ESRM) topics and challenges unique to the Pacific Island context were delivered to ESS practitioners across the region. (
  • These changes may occur because of genes, behavior, the environment, or interactions among these factors. (
  • The Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National Institute on Aging supports research on the interaction of genes, behavior, and the social environment. (
  • This newsletter highlights recent results from research that assesses the effects of interactions among genes, behavior, and the environment. (
  • The extent to which the environment impacts behavior and hormones on the individual level, however, is rather unexplored. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess differences in perceptions of neighborhood walkability across demographic characteristics and social environment factors among rural residents. (
  • The Coalition For A Safe Environment (CFASE) is a non-profit community based Environmental Justice, Public Health, Public Safety and Community Sustainability advocacy organization. (
  • The discussion highlighted the successful Pacific Leadership Program-Environmental and Social Sustainability (PLP-ESS). (
  • The interaction may be in person or through communication media, even anonymous or one-way, and may not imply equality of social status. (
  • Peoples of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions live in social and physical environments that differ substantially from those of their more southern-dwelling counterparts. (
  • Peoples of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions live in social and physical environments that differ substantially from those of their more southern-dwelling counterparts ( 17 ). (
  • Hormonal phenotypes of guinea pigs can be shaped by the social environment on the group level pair-housed and colony-housed males differ systematically in average testosterone and stressor-induced cortisol levels (i.e. cortisol responsiveness). (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeatability and individual variance components (i.e. between- and within-individual variation) of hormonal phenotypes also differ in different social environments . (
  • Make It Better Foundation's mission is to identify and amplify the work of outstanding nonprofits, while growing a network of well-informed engaged philanthropists and social entrepreneurs and sponsors," she said. (
  • Max Scheler distinguishes between milieu as an experienced value-world, and the objective social environment on which we draw to create the former, noting that the social environment can either foster or restrain our creation of a personal milieu. (
  • We thank all of you for helping us to foster and ensure a positive, safe social environment on campus. (
  • CFASE believes that we must plan and invest in a future sustainable community environment and balance the need for economic growth and the public's best interests. (
  • Recalling Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, namely, "Human beings are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. (
  • Noting with concern that, despite much social and economic progress, health continues to be severely compromised in many countries by inadequacies in the implementation of required measures in all areas of sustainable development, 1. (
  • In particular, efforts have increased to involve many sectors of a community in pursuit of better health outcomes and the economic and social benefits thought to be associated with such outcomes. (
  • Organized by the Columbia Institute , the conference focused on jobs and justice as well as the environment. (
  • If we are serious about change, social justice and protecting the environment need to go together. (
  • The web survey included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics and self-perceived organisational and social work environment regarding workload, control, community in the workplace, reward, justice, and values. (
  • This study examined associations between trust, an important aspect of workplace social capital, with seven cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 (LS7)): smoking, obesity, low physical activity, poor diet, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. (
  • Among those workers whose supervisor created a mistrustful environment, the odds ratios were greatest (>20%) for having four or more of the LS7 CVD risk factors. (
  • ADHD probably results from a combination of factors, such as genetics and your environment. (
  • These factors include brain injuries, nutrition, and social environments. (
  • The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. (
  • people often tend to trust and help one another, and to congregate in social groups. (
  • In order to enrich their lives, people have used natural resources, and in the process have brought about many changes in the natural environment. (
  • There are still many people living in villages and this is their social environment. (
  • Our mission statement is a good starting point for SavATree's social contract: we are "people with passion, leading progress in nature and community. (
  • This year many people may find contemplating World Environment Day too big a stretch, as we are only beginning to adjust to the ravages of bushfires, the COVID-19 pandemic and the way these events have reduced our world to our immediate street and suburb. (
  • The virus of greed destroys the environment by producing gross inequality, in which some people amass enormous wealth while others live in poverty. (
  • It impoverishes people, who then further stress the environment by destroying vegetation for firewood and crowding together in cramped, unsewered housing. (
  • Cheap oil and cheap energy, he told the audience, go hand in hand and are bad for both the environment and for working people. (
  • But so far governments have paid little attention to involving the people who will pay the price either for a deteriorating environment, or for fixing the problem. (
  • Under this initiative, older people take on the role of active citizens in the building of a new society for all ages, a society that fosters the presence and participation of older people in all aspects of life and social dynamics. (
  • He underscored the critical role of multi-level partnerships in Environmental and Social Risk Management. (
  • Active ageing is unquestionably a factor that has a direct bearing on maintaining the functional capability of individuals, with all the advantages that involves both on a personal and family level or, on a higher plane, on a social level. (
  • Not only the students' skill level but also their social environment is key to succeeding at college (Tinto, 1975). (
  • The intranet is a primary resource that provides quality content on all group information as well as offering social updates and allowing for employee interaction. (
  • The work that has been done to create a social area with updated content has been very well received. (
  • This finding shows that the social environment plays a key role in the transition to college life. (
  • This study demonstrates that universities shall not disregard the social environment when trying to smooth the transition to college. (
  • It provides an overview of current findings on the role of inflammation, memory loss, social interaction, genetic buffers, and health disparities within these interactions. (
  • The event focused on strengthening Environmental and Social Risk Management (ESRM) in the Pacific region, and featured a panel of speakers from the Cook Islands and Samoa. (
  • Trust in the work environment and cardiovascular disease risk: findings from the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. (
  • Pierre Janet saw neurosis in part as the product of the identified patient's social environment - family, social network, work etc. - and considered that in some instances what he termed "social surgery" to create a healthier environment could be a beneficial measure. (
  • Twenty-one percent of workers reported that their supervisor did not create an open and trusting environment. (
  • As an avenue for further research, one may ask: how can universities create social environments that make students thrive? (
  • 07 September 2023, Apia Samoa - The pressing challenges faced by Pacific countries in managing environmental and social risks, especially in a time when climate change and other global issues are exacerbating these risks, have been spotlighted at the 31st SPREP Meeting of Officials, taking place in Samoa this week. (
  • Community organizing refers to the unit of analysis and action, shifting the focus from individuals to systems, rules, social norms, or laws to affect health behaviors and outcomes (2). (
  • The challenge lies in achieving a healthy and safe environment, an accessible city, a good range of cultural offerings and quality social and health services that are suited to all the needs. (
  • The physical and social environment is a determining factor in active and healthy aging in place, being a central factor in the study of environmental gerontology. (
  • Physical-social environments and aging population from environmental gerontology and geography. (
  • Ms Tekura Moeka'a, Manager for Environmental Policy and Planning at the National Environment Service in the Cook Islands, provided a detailed overview of her nation's environmental compliance processes. (
  • Our environmental compliance department is mandated under our Environment Act 2003," Moeka'a outlined. (
  • School health programs can help children and adolescents attain full educational potential and good health by providing them with the skills, social support, and environmental reinforcement they need to adopt long-term, healthy eating behaviors. (
  • All these man-made components are included in human cultural environment, Erving Goffman in particular emphasising the deeply social nature of the individual environment. (
  • The independent variable was the response to a work environment (WE) question as to whether their supervisor always creates an open and trusting environment. (
  • Mr Ross Butler, also a Senior Social Development Specialist at the World Bank, echoed Marburg's sentiments on the power of partnerships. (
  • Research on and evaluation of multisector partnerships also need to incorporate more standard measures of partnership contexts, characteristics, and strategies and adopt longitudinal and prospective designs to accelerate social learning in this area. (
  • Sick leave due to mental health problems is increasing, and there is evidence that it is associated with the individual's self-perceived organisational and social work environment. (
  • The goal is to identify the sectors with the most unfavourable work environment and thus where the need to improve the work environment, to prevent mental health problems, is greatest. (
  • Questions on the self-perceived organisational and social work environment were assessed by the QPS mismatch questionnaire. (
  • The coronavirus has focused our attention on the human environment, and on the ways in which we shape our relationships with one another and with the natural world. (
  • The symptoms are ongoing and may affect family and social life, too. (
  • Therefore, friendly cities are those that project their structures and services so that everybody, regardless of age, skills and capabilities, can be healthy and can participate actively in all areas of social life in complete safety. (
  • UCT Prague's Rector has announced a contact person for social environment-related issues, ThDr Klára Muzikářová PhD. (
  • In addition to my volunteer activities in the social/charitable field, I have been active in the UCT Prague's COVID response team and the team dealing with issues related to the war in Ukraine. (
  • However, attributes of the built environment influence participation in physical activity. (
  • World Environment Day encourages us to reflect on these relationships too. (
  • At Jesuit Social Services we are committed to ensuring that our programs, practices, relationships and our reflection embody that respect. (
  • UCT Prague fully supports positive relationships in the university environment, including respect for others and a collegial, open, and balanced ways of acting and communicating. (
  • This ecologic approach recognizes the connection between health and social institutions, surroundings, and social relationships (3). (
  • Jesuit Social Services acknowledges the Traditional Owners of the land where we work and live. (
  • The award for “Outstanding Social Intranet 2012” was presented to Business Environment earlier this month at the yearly Interact conference held in London. (
  • For World Environment Day, ANDY HAMILTON SJ writes that the COVID-19 pandemic offers a valuable opportunity to pause and reconsider our relationship with our environment and the communities it sustains. (
  • Congratulations to serviced office operator Business Environment which scooped a “Social Communication” award at this year's Interact Intranet awards. (
  • An atmosphere of safe neighbourhoods and parks allows children, youngsters and adults to safely enjoy outdoor physical and social activities. (