Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Sexual activities of animals.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Abnormal behavioral or physiologic events that are associated with REM sleep, including REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
Sexual activities of humans.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
Therapy whose primary emphasis is on the physical and social structuring of the environment to promote interpersonal relationships which will be influential in reducing behavioral disturbances of patients.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A defense mechanism through which unacceptable impulses and instinctive urges are diverted into personally and socially acceptable channels; e.g., aggression may be diverted through sports activities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
A person's view of himself.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Involvement in community activities or programs.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger. (1/292)

This paper explores how food insecurity and hunger relate to health and nutrition outcomes in food-rich countries such as the United States. It focuses on two subgroups of the population for whom data are available: women of childbearing age and school-age children. Special consideration is given to examining how food insecurity relates to these outcomes independently of socioeconomic status and poverty. In a population-based sample of women of childbearing age, the least severe level of food insecurity (household food insecurity) was correlated with higher body mass index (BMI), controlling for other available and known influences on obesity including income level. In low income school-age children from two large urban areas of the U.S., risk of hunger and hunger were associated with compromised psychosocial functioning, controlling for maternal education and estimated household income. The nutrition and health consequences of food insecurity comprise a potentially rich area for future, socially relevant research in the field of nutritional sciences.  (+info)

Use of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist to screen for psychosocial problems in pediatric primary care: a national feasibility study. (2/292)

BACKGROUND: Routine use of a brief psychosocial screening instrument has been proposed as a means of improving recognition, management, and referral of children's psychosocial morbidity in primary care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of routine psychosocial screening using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) in pediatrics by using a brief version of the checklist in a large sample representative of the full range of pediatric practice settings in the United States and Canada. We evaluated large-scale screening and the performance of the PSC in detecting psychosocial problems by (1) determining whether the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction identified by the PSC was consistent with findings in previous, smaller samples; (2) assessing whether the prevalence of positive PSC screening scores varied by population subgroups; and (3) determining whether the PSC was completed by a significant proportion of parents from all subgroups and settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one thousand sixty-five children between the ages of 4 and 15 years were seen in 2 large primary care networks: the Ambulatory Sentinel Practice Network and the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network, involving 395 pediatric and family practice clinicians in 44 states, Puerto Rico, and 4 Canadian provinces. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire that included demographic information, history of mental health services, the 35-item PSC, and the number of pediatric visits within the past 6 months. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of psychosocial dysfunction as measured by the PSC in school-aged and preschool-aged pediatric outpatients (13% and 10%, respectively) were nearly identical to the rates that had been reported in several smaller samples (12%-14% among school-aged children and 7%-14% among preschoolers). Consistent with previous findings, children from low-income families were twice as likely to be scored as dysfunctional on the PSC than were children from higher-income families. Similarly, children from single-parent as opposed to those from 2-parent families and children with a past history of mental health services showed an elevated risk of psychosocial impairment. The current study was the first to demonstrate a 50% increase in risk of impairment for male children. The overall rate of completed forms was 97%, well within an acceptable range, and at least 94% of the parents in each sociodemographic subgroup completed the PSC form. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the PSC offers an approach to the recognition of psychosocial dysfunction that is sufficiently consistent across groups and locales to become part of comprehensive pediatric care in virtually all outpatient settings. In addition to its clinical utility, the consistency and widespread acceptability of the PSC make it well suited for the next generation of pediatric mental health services research, which can address whether earlier recognition of and intervention for psychosocial problems in pediatrics will lead to cost-effective outcomes.  (+info)

An expansion of the peer-tutoring paradigm: cross-age peer tutoring of social skills among socially rejected boys. (3/292)

We examined the effects of a cross-age peer-tutoring program on the social skills of 2 sixth-grade and 2 kindergarten socially rejected and isolated boys. Peer tutoring consisted of the older boys conducting social skills training with their younger tutees. The frequency of positive social interactions increased for all 4 boys, with maintenance of treatment gains following a 5-week interval.  (+info)

Unemployment and foster home placements: estimating the net effect of provocation and inhibition. (4/292)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought, first, to explain and reconcile the provocation and inhibition theories of the effect of rising unemployment on the incidence of antisocial behavior. Second, it tested the hypothesis, implied by the provocation and inhibition theories, that the relationship between unemployment and foster home placements forms an inverted "U." METHODS: The hypothesis was tested with data from California for 137 months beginning in February 1984. RESULTS: Findings showed that the hypothesis was supported. CONCLUSIONS: Rising joblessness increases the incidence of foster home placements among families that lose jobs or income. Levels of joblessness that threaten workers who remain employed, however, inhibit antisocial behavior and reduce the incidence of foster home placements. This means that accounting for the social costs of unemployment is more complicated than assumed under the provocation theory.  (+info)

Behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (5/292)

A postal questionnaire was used to study 49 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (including both the classical and the mild forms) to ascertain behavioural phenotype. Ages ranged from early childhood to adulthood (mean age, 10.2 years; SD, 7.8) and the degree of mental retardation from borderline (10%), through mild (8%), moderate (18%), and severe (20%) to profound (43%). A wide variety of symptoms occurred frequently, notably hyperactivity (40%), self injury (44%), daily aggression (49%), and sleep disturbance (55%). These correlated closely with the presence of an autistic like syndrome and with the degree of mental retardation. The frequency and severity of disturbance, continuing beyond childhood, is important when planning the amount and duration of support required by parents.  (+info)

The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. (6/292)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice.  (+info)

Student-school bonding and adolescent problem behavior. (7/292)

Adolescent problem behavior, including substance use, school misconduct and delinquency, is a national concern. Implicit in the concept of middle school is the recognition that students who develop positive social bonds with their school are more likely to perform well academically, and refrain from misconduct and other antisocial behavior. However, little scientific attention has been given to the complex interactions between middle school students and the school environment. Prior to implementing a middle school problem behavior prevention program we conducted a survey in the seven middle schools in one US school district. Out of 4668 grade 6-8 students enrolled, 4263 (91.3%) completed the survey. Student-school bonding was positively correlated with school adjustment (r = 0.49) and perceived school climate (r = 0.77), but inversely correlated with problem behavior (r = -0.39 to -0.43). Problem behavior was significantly higher (P < 0.001) among males than females and among students in higher grades. Conversely, school bonding, climate and adjustment were significantly higher (P < 0.001) among females than males, but declined significantly from one grade to the next. The data support the conclusion that school bonding is associated with problem behavior. We describe the development of a multiple-component intervention in middle schools designed to increase student-school bonding and prevent problem behavior.  (+info)

Disentangling the impact of low cognitive ability and inattention on social behavior and peer relationships. Conduct Problems Prevention Re search Group. (8/292)

Examined the shared and unique contributions of low cognitive ability and inattention to the development of social behavior problems and peer relationships of children at the time of school entry. Kindergarten and first-grade assessments of cognitive ability, inattention and prosocial and aggressive behavior were collected for a multisite, normative sample. Sociometric assessments of peer relationships were collected at the end of first grade. Cognitive ability and inattention both contributed to the prediction of social behavior and peer relationships. Low cognitive ability was particularly predictive of prosocial skill deficits, and social behavior mediated the relation between cognitive ability and social preference. Inattention predicted both prosocial skill deficits and elevated aggressive-disruptive behavior problems. Behavior problems partially mediated the relation between inattention and social preference. Identified subgroups of children with elevated levels of inattention or low cognitive ability showed different patterns of peer problems, with low acceptance characteristic of the low cognitive ability (only) group and high dislike ratings characteristic of the inattentive and inattentive/low-ability group. Implications are discussed for the design of early intervention and prevention programs.  (+info)

Social behavior disorders are a category of mental health conditions that are characterized by significant and persistent patterns of socially disruptive behavior. These behaviors may include aggression, impulsivity, defiance, and opposition to authority, which can interfere with an individual's ability to function in social, academic, or occupational settings.

Social behavior disorders can manifest in a variety of ways, depending on the age and developmental level of the individual. In children and adolescents, common examples include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). Adults with social behavior disorders may exhibit antisocial personality disorder or other related conditions.

It is important to note that social behavior disorders are not the result of poor parenting or a lack of discipline, but rather are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for social behavior disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and social skills training.

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia, which is a disorder that involves undesirable experiences or abnormal behaviors during sleep. Specifically, RBD is a type of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnia where the muscle atonia (lack of muscle tone) that normally occurs during REM sleep is absent or incomplete, allowing for the emergence of motor behaviors and vivid dreaming. These dreams can be quite intense and may result in the individual physically acting out their dreams, leading to potential harm for themselves or their bed partner. RBD can occur in isolation or as a symptom of another neurological condition.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Dreams are a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person's mind during sleep. They can be vivid or vague, positive or negative, and may involve memories, emotions, and fears. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. While the exact purpose and function of dreams remain a topic of debate among researchers, some theories suggest that dreaming may help with memory consolidation, problem-solving, emotional processing, and learning.

Dreams usually occur during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, although they can also happen in non-REM stages. They are typically associated with complex brain activities, involving areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the neocortex. The content of dreams can be influenced by various factors, including a person's thoughts, experiences, emotions, physical state, and environmental conditions.

It is important to note that dreaming is a natural and universal human experience, and understanding dreams can provide insights into our cognitive processes, emotional well-being, and mental health.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve unwanted physical events or experiences that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, or waking up. These behaviors can include abnormal movements, talk, emotions, perceptions, or dreams. Parasomnias can be caused by various factors such as stress, alcohol, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Some examples of parasomnias are sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep talking, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These disorders can disrupt sleep and cause distress to the individual and their bed partner.

Clonazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat seizure disorders, panic attacks, and anxiety. Clonazepam works by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

The medication comes in tablet or orally disintegrating tablet form and is typically taken two to three times per day. Common side effects of clonazepam include dizziness, drowsiness, and coordination problems. It can also cause memory problems, mental confusion, and depression.

Like all benzodiazepines, clonazepam has the potential for abuse and addiction, so it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and not to stop taking the medication suddenly, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider for medical advice.

Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders are a group of sleep disorders characterized by irregularities in the transition between sleep and wakefulness. These disorders include conditions such as:

1. Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness, causing excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep.
2. Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness despite adequate or prolonged nighttime sleep.
3. Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A rare sleep disorder characterized by recurring episodes of excessive sleepiness and eating.
4. Insomnia with Non-REM Sleep Disorder: A condition in which a person has difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, accompanied by abnormal behaviors during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
5. Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): A behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep.
6. Night Terrors (Pavor Nocturnus): A parasomnia characterized by extreme fear, agitation, and arousal during sleep, typically occurring during deep non-REM sleep.
7. Sleep Paralysis: A temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up, caused by the failure of the brain to transition properly between sleep and wakefulness.
8. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD): A disorder characterized by the acting out of dreams during REM sleep, which can result in injury to the sleeper or their bed partner.

These disorders can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life, safety, and overall health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions effectively.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. It's characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), where people experience sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. These "sleep attacks" can occur at any time - while working, talking, eating, or even driving.

In addition to EDS, narcolepsy often includes cataplexy, a condition that causes loss of muscle tone, leading to weakness and sometimes collapse, often triggered by strong emotions like laughter or surprise. Other common symptoms are sleep paralysis (a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up), vivid hallucinations during the transitions between sleep and wakefulness, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

The exact cause of narcolepsy is not fully understood, but it's believed to involve genetic and environmental factors, as well as problems with certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as hypocretin/orexin, which regulate sleep-wake cycles. Narcolepsy can significantly impact a person's quality of life, making it essential to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and management.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

Polysomnography (PSG) is a comprehensive sleep study that monitors various body functions during sleep, including brain activity, eye movement, muscle tone, heart rate, respirations, and oxygen levels. It is typically conducted in a sleep laboratory under the supervision of a trained technologist. The data collected during PSG is used to diagnose and manage various sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), movement disorders (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder), parasomnias, and narcolepsy.

The study usually involves the attachment of electrodes to different parts of the body, such as the scalp, face, chest, and legs, to record electrical signals from the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, and heartbeats. Additionally, sensors may be placed on or near the nose and mouth to measure airflow, and a belt may be worn around the chest and abdomen to monitor breathing efforts. Oxygen levels are also monitored through a sensor attached to the finger or ear.

Polysomnography is often recommended when a sleep disorder is suspected based on symptoms or medical history, and other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive. The results of the study can help guide treatment decisions and improve overall sleep health.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Social isolation, in the context of health and medicine, refers to the lack of social connections, interactions, or engagement with other people or communities. It is a state of being separated from others, lacking companionship or meaningful communication, which can lead to feelings of loneliness and disconnection. Social isolation can be self-imposed or imposed by external factors such as mobility issues, loss of loved ones, or discrimination. Prolonged social isolation has been linked to various negative health outcomes, including mental health disorders, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic conditions like heart disease and stroke.

Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms including Parkinsonism (such as stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremors), cerebellar ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), autonomic dysfunction (problems with the autonomic nervous system which controls involuntary actions like heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion), and pyramidal signs (abnormalities in the corticospinal tracts that control voluntary movements).

The disorder is caused by the degeneration of nerve cells in various parts of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a loss of function in these areas. The exact cause of MSA is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for MSA, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Lewy body disease, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is a type of progressive degenerative dementia that affects thinking, behavior, and movement. It's named after Dr. Friedrich Lewy, the scientist who discovered the abnormal protein deposits, called Lewy bodies, that are characteristic of this disease.

Lewy bodies are made up of a protein called alpha-synuclein and are found in the brain cells of individuals with Lewy body disease. These abnormal protein deposits are also found in people with Parkinson's disease, but they are more widespread in Lewy body disease, affecting multiple areas of the brain.

The symptoms of Lewy body disease can vary from person to person, but they often include:

* Cognitive decline, such as memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving
* Visual hallucinations and delusions
* Parkinsonian symptoms, such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty walking or moving
* Fluctuations in alertness and attention
* REM sleep behavior disorder, where a person acts out their dreams during sleep

Lewy body disease is a progressive condition, which means that the symptoms get worse over time. Currently, there is no cure for Lewy body disease, but medications can help manage some of the symptoms.

Olfaction disorders, also known as smell disorders, refer to conditions that affect the ability to detect or interpret odors. These disorders can be categorized into two main types:

1. Anosmia: This is a complete loss of the sense of smell. It can be caused by various factors such as nasal polyps, sinus infections, head injuries, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
2. Hyposmia: This is a reduced ability to detect odors. Like anosmia, it can also be caused by similar factors including aging and exposure to certain chemicals.

Other olfaction disorders include parosmia, which is a distortion of smell where individuals may perceive a smell as being different from its original scent, and phantosmia, which is the perception of a smell that isn't actually present.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

"Social dominance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a concept that is often used in the social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It refers to the degree of control, influence, or power that an individual or group has over others within a particular social context or hierarchy.

In some cases, social dominance may be associated with certain medical conditions or situations. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders may exhibit dominant behaviors as part of their symptoms. Similarly, social dominance can be a factor in the development and maintenance of certain types of relationships, such as those seen in abusive or coercive relationships.

However, it's important to note that social dominance is not a medical diagnosis or condition in and of itself. Rather, it is a social phenomenon that can intersect with various medical and psychological issues.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

A pair bond, in the context of human and animal behavior, refers to a long-term emotional and social attachment between two individuals, usually characterized by a strong affection, shared activities, and often sexual interaction. In humans, this concept is often discussed in the context of romantic relationships and marriage. From a medical or scientific perspective, pair bonding involves neurological and hormonal processes that help to create and maintain the attachment, such as the release of oxytocin and vasopressin during physical touch and sexual activity. The strength and duration of pair bonds can vary widely between different species and individuals.

Aversive therapy is a behavioral treatment approach that uses negative reinforcement or punishment to help an individual reduce or stop undesirable behaviors. The goal of aversive therapy is to condition the person to associate the undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus, such as a taste, sound, or image, so that they are deterred from engaging in the behavior in the future.

In aversive therapy, the therapist may use several techniques, including:

1. Contingent negative reinforcement: This involves removing a positive reinforcer (a reward) after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a child with a disruptive behavior disorder is given tokens for good behavior that can be exchanged for prizes, and then loses tokens for misbehaving, this is an example of contingent negative reinforcement.
2. Punishment: This involves presenting an unpleasant stimulus immediately after the undesirable behavior occurs. For example, if a person who bites their nails receives a mild electric shock every time they bite their nails, this is an example of punishment.
3. Avoidance conditioning: This involves associating a negative stimulus with a particular situation or object to create an aversion to it. For example, if a person has a phobia of spiders, the therapist may gradually expose them to images or objects associated with spiders while also presenting a mild electric shock. Over time, the person learns to associate the spider-related stimuli with the unpleasant shock and develops an aversion to spiders.

It's important to note that aversive therapy can be controversial due to concerns about potential harm, including physical discomfort or psychological distress. As a result, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatment approaches have been ineffective, and only under the close supervision of a qualified professional who can ensure that the therapy is administered safely and ethically.

Cataplexy is a medical condition characterized by sudden and temporary loss of muscle tone or strength, typically triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, anger, or surprise. This can result in symptoms ranging from a slight slackening of the muscles to complete collapse. Cataplexy is often associated with narcolepsy, which is a neurological disorder that affects sleep-wake cycles. It's important to note that cataplexy is different from syncope (fainting), as it specifically involves muscle weakness rather than loss of consciousness.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

Acetogenins are a type of compound that are produced by certain plants, particularly those in the family Annonaceae. They are known for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-cancer, anti-malarial, and insecticidal activities. Acetogenins have a complex structure, consisting of a long chain of carbon atoms with various functional groups attached. They work by inhibiting the function of certain enzymes that are necessary for the survival of cancer cells and other target organisms.

In the context of human behavior, grooming typically refers to the act of cleaning or maintaining one's own or another person's appearance or hygiene. However, in the field of forensic psychology and child protection, "grooming" has a specific meaning. It refers to the process by which an abuser gradually gains the trust of a potential victim, or the victim's family or friends, with the intent to manipulate or coerce the victim into sexual activity.

This can involve various behaviors such as complimenting, giving gifts, attention, and affection, gradually increasing in intimacy and inappropriateness over time. The grooming process can take place in person, online, or a combination of both. It's important to note that grooming is a criminal behavior and is often used by abusers to exploit and victimize children and vulnerable adults.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Agonistic behavior is a term used in ethology, the study of animal behavior, to describe interactions between individuals that are often competitive or hostile, but stop short of direct physical contact. These behaviors can include threats, displays, and counter-threats, as well as ritualized fighting. The term comes from the Greek word "agon," which means "competition" or "contest."

In a medical context, agonistic behavior might be used to describe competitive or hostile interactions between people, particularly in the context of mental health or psychiatric disorders. For example, a person with a personality disorder might exhibit agonistic behavior towards others as part of their pattern of manipulative or controlling behaviors. However, this is less common than the use of the term in ethology.

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. It consists of two subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (also known as Autonomic Disorders or Autonomic Neuropathies) refer to a group of conditions that affect the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. These diseases can cause damage to the nerves that control automatic functions, leading to various symptoms and complications.

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: These are conditions that primarily affect the autonomic nervous system without any underlying cause. Examples include:
* Pure Autonomic Failure (PAF): A rare disorder characterized by progressive loss of autonomic nerve function, leading to symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, urinary retention, and constipation.
* Multiple System Atrophy (MSA): A degenerative neurological disorder that affects both the autonomic nervous system and movement coordination. Symptoms may include orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and Parkinsonian features like stiffness and slowness of movements.
* Autonomic Neuropathy associated with Parkinson's Disease: Some individuals with Parkinson's disease develop autonomic symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction due to the degeneration of autonomic nerves.
2. Secondary Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: These are conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system as a result of an underlying cause or disease. Examples include:
* Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: A complication of diabetes mellitus that affects the autonomic nerves, leading to symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying), and sexual dysfunction.
* Autoimmune-mediated Autonomic Neuropathies: Conditions like Guillain-Barré syndrome or autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy can cause autonomic symptoms due to the immune system attacking the autonomic nerves.
* Infectious Autonomic Neuropathies: Certain infections, such as HIV or Lyme disease, can lead to autonomic dysfunction as a result of nerve damage.
* Toxin-induced Autonomic Neuropathy: Exposure to certain toxins, like heavy metals or organophosphate pesticides, can cause autonomic neuropathy.

Autonomic nervous system disorders can significantly impact a person's quality of life and daily functioning. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing complications. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, medications, and in some cases, devices or surgical interventions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A social hierarchy in the context of medicine and public health often refers to the organization of individuals or groups based on their relative status, power, or influence within a society or community. This structure can have significant implications for health outcomes and access to care. For instance, those with higher socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have better health and longer lifespans than those with lower SES, due in part to factors such as better access to healthcare, nutritious food, safe housing, and educational opportunities.

Social hierarchies can also intersect with other forms of inequality, such as racism, sexism, and ableism, to create additional barriers to health and well-being for marginalized communities. Understanding the role of social hierarchy in health is crucial for developing effective public health interventions and policies that address these underlying determinants of health.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "starlings" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a type of bird, specifically the species Sturnus vulgaris, also known as the European Starling. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Child psychiatry is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children, adolescents, and their families. It incorporates various disciplines, including psychology, pediatrics, neurology, social work, nursing, and education, to provide comprehensive care for children with complex needs.

Child psychiatrists use a biopsychosocial approach to understand the underlying causes of a child's difficulties, considering genetic, biological, developmental, environmental, and psychological factors. They are trained to perform comprehensive evaluations, including diagnostic interviews, cognitive and neuropsychological testing, and psychiatric assessments, to develop individualized treatment plans.

Treatment modalities may include psychotherapy (individual, family, or group), medication management, psychoeducation, and coordination with other healthcare professionals and community resources. Child psychiatrists often work in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, schools, and residential treatment facilities, to ensure that children receive the necessary support and care for their mental health concerns.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guadeloupe" is not a medical term. It is actually an overseas region and department of France, located in the Caribbean Sea. Guadeloupe is an archipelago consisting of several islands, with a total land area of approximately 1,700 square kilometers (656 square miles) and a population of around 400,000 people.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Play" and "Playthings" are not medical terms. "Play" is a fundamental aspect of child development, encompassing all types of activities that children engage in for enjoyment and recreation. These activities can include physical play (such as running, climbing, or riding a bike), social play (interacting with others), creative play (drawing, building, or pretending), and quiet play (reading, puzzles, or listening to music).

"Playthings," on the other hand, refer to objects or toys used during play. These can range from traditional toys like dolls, cars, and balls to more open-ended items like blocks, art supplies, or natural materials.

While there is no medical definition for "play" or "playthings," it's important to note that play has a significant role in children's physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Play allows children to explore their environment, learn new skills, develop problem-solving abilities, build relationships, and express themselves creatively. Access to diverse playthings can support and enhance these developmental processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) refers to the intentional, direct injuring of one's own body without suicidal intentions. It is often repetitive and can take various forms such as cutting, burning, scratching, hitting, or bruising the skin. In some cases, individuals may also ingest harmful substances or objects.

SIB is not a mental disorder itself, but it is often associated with various psychiatric conditions, including borderline personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. It is also common in individuals with developmental disabilities, such as autism spectrum disorder.

The function of SIB can vary widely among individuals, but it often serves as a coping mechanism to deal with emotional distress, negative feelings, or traumatic experiences. It's essential to approach individuals who engage in SIB with compassion and understanding, focusing on treating the underlying causes rather than solely addressing the behavior itself. Professional mental health treatment and therapy can help individuals develop healthier coping strategies and improve their quality of life.

Sleep disorders, intrinsic, refer to a group of sleep disorders that are caused by underlying medical conditions within an individual's body. These disorders originate from internal physiological or psychological factors and can significantly impact the quality, duration, and timing of sleep. The most common types of intrinsic sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders (such as sleep apnea), central hypersomnias (like narcolepsy), circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and parasomnias (including nightmares and sleepwalking).

Intrinsic sleep disorders can lead to various negative consequences, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of accidents or injuries. Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve addressing the underlying medical condition and implementing appropriate treatment strategies, which may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, or medical devices.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

REM sleep parasomnias are a category of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors, experiences, or physiological events occurring during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and vivid dreaming. These parasomnias include:

1. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD): A condition where individuals act out their dreams during REM sleep, often resulting in complex motor behaviors, vocalizations, or even injuries to themselves or their bed partners.
2. Nightmare disorder: Recurrent episodes of extended, extremely vivid, and frightening dreams that cause significant distress and impairment upon awakening.
3. Sleep paralysis: A temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up, often accompanied by hallucinations or a feeling of suffocation.
4. Catathrenia (nocturnal groaning): A rare parasomnia characterized by involuntary groaning or moaning during expiration (breathing out) in REM sleep.
5. Impaired sleep-related penile erections: The inability to achieve or maintain an erection during REM sleep, which can be a symptom of various medical conditions or medications.
6. Sleep-related painful erections: Spontaneous, often severe penile pain during REM sleep that can disrupt sleep and cause significant distress.

REM sleep parasomnias are thought to result from dysregulation in the brain mechanisms controlling REM sleep, leading to the intrusion of REM sleep phenomena into wakefulness or the intensification of REM-related physiological processes.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Dominance-subordination is a social hierarchy system that exists in many animal species, including humans, where individuals within a group establish a ranking or pecking order. This hierarchy helps to maintain order and reduce conflict within the group.

In dominance-subordination, dominant individuals are those who have priority access to resources such as food, mates, and space. They also tend to be more assertive and aggressive in their behavior towards other group members. Subordinate individuals, on the other hand, defer to the dominants and may show signs of submission, such as avoiding eye contact or averting their gaze.

The establishment of dominance-subordination relationships can occur through various means, including aggression, ritualized displays, or social manipulation. Once established, these relationships can be relatively stable over time, although they may shift in response to changes in the group's composition or external factors.

In a medical context, the term "dominance-subordination" is sometimes used to describe relationships between different physiological processes or responses within an individual. For example, one process may be dominant over another in terms of its influence on behavior or physiology. However, this usage is less common than the social hierarchy sense of the term.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

'Nesting behavior' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it can be described as a type of behavior often observed in pregnant women, particularly close to their due date, where they have an intense desire to clean and organize their living space in preparation for the arrival of their baby. This behavior is considered a normal part of pregnancy and is not usually regarded as a medical condition.

In some cases, healthcare providers may use the term 'nesting' to describe a symptom of certain mental health disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Mania, where an individual may experience an intense urge to clean and organize their environment, but it is often accompanied by other symptoms that interfere with daily functioning.

Therefore, the definition of 'nesting behavior' can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Animal communication is the transmission of information from one animal to another. This can occur through a variety of means, including visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical signals. For example, animals may use body postures, facial expressions, vocalizations, touch, or the release of chemicals (such as pheromones) to convey messages to conspecifics.

Animal communication can serve a variety of functions, including coordinating group activities, warning others of danger, signaling reproductive status, and establishing social hierarchies. In some cases, animal communication may also involve the use of sophisticated cognitive abilities, such as the ability to understand and interpret complex signals or to learn and remember the meanings of different signals.

It is important to note that while animals are capable of communicating with one another, this does not necessarily mean that they have language in the same sense that humans do. Language typically involves a system of arbitrary symbols that are used to convey meaning, and it is not clear to what extent animals are able to use such symbolic systems. However, many animals are certainly able to communicate effectively using their own species-specific signals and behaviors.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Media" is a term related to communication technologies, particularly websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. It is not a medical concept or term, and therefore, it does not have a medical definition. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Social work is a professional field of practice that promotes social change, problem-solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. According to the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW), social work involves "the application of social sciences, theory, knowledge, and skills to effect positive changes in individuals, groups, communities, and societies."

Social workers are trained to work with individuals, families, groups, and communities to address a wide range of social, emotional, and practical needs. They help people navigate complex systems, access resources, and advocate for their rights. Social workers may be employed in various settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, schools, community centers, and government agencies.

In medical settings, social work is often focused on helping patients and their families cope with illness, disability, or injury. Medical social workers provide counseling, support, and advocacy to help patients and families navigate the healthcare system, access needed resources, and make informed decisions about treatment options. They may also assist with discharge planning, coordinating care transitions, and connecting patients with community-based services.

Medical social work is a specialized area of practice that requires knowledge and skills in areas such as psychosocial assessment, crisis intervention, case management, and advocacy. Medical social workers must be able to communicate effectively with healthcare professionals, patients, and families, and have a deep understanding of the social determinants of health and the impact of illness on individuals and communities.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Oxytocin receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells, primarily in the uterus and mammary glands. They bind to the hormone oxytocin, which is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland.

When oxytocin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to various physiological responses. In the uterus, oxytocin receptors play a crucial role in promoting contractions during labor and childbirth. In the mammary glands, they stimulate milk letdown and ejection during breastfeeding.

Oxytocin receptors have also been identified in other tissues, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, where they are involved in a variety of functions such as social bonding, sexual behavior, stress response, and cardiovascular regulation. Dysregulation of oxytocin receptor function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and hypertension.

Eye movement measurements, also known as oculometry, refer to the measurement and analysis of eye movements. This can include assessing the direction, speed, range, and patterns of eye movement. These measurements are often used in research and clinical settings to understand various aspects of vision, perception, and cognition. They can be used to diagnose and monitor conditions that affect eye movement, such as strabismus (crossed eyes), amblyopia (lazy eye), or neurological disorders. Additionally, eye movement measurements are also used in areas such as human-computer interaction, marketing research, and virtual reality to understand how individuals interact with their environment.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome, also known as Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), is a condition characterized by recurring involuntary jerking movements of the limbs during sleep, particularly the legs. These movements typically occur every 20-40 seconds and can last for an hour or more throughout the night. They often disrupt normal sleep patterns, causing insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness.

The movements are usually jerky, rapid, and rhythmic, involving extension of the big toe and flexion of the ankle, knee, or hip. In some cases, these movements can be so forceful that they cause the person to wake up, although often individuals with this condition may not be aware of their nighttime leg movements.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is different from another common sleep disorder called Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), as RLS primarily causes discomfort or an irresistible urge to move the legs while awake and still, whereas Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome involves involuntary movements during sleep. However, up to 80% of people with RLS also have PLMD.

The exact cause of Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is not fully understood, but it may be associated with abnormalities in the brain's regulation of muscle activity during sleep. Certain medications, neurological conditions, and iron deficiency anemia have been linked to an increased risk of developing this disorder. Treatment options include medication, lifestyle changes, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development or worsening of symptoms.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

Altruism is a term used in the medical and psychological fields to describe selfless behavior that is done with the intention of benefiting another person, often at the expense or risk of the person performing the act. Altruistic behaviors can include a wide range of actions, from small acts of kindness to more significant sacrifices, such as donating an organ to save the life of someone else.

Altruism is often motivated by feelings of empathy and compassion for others, and it can have positive effects on both the giver and the recipient. Research has shown that engaging in altruistic behaviors can improve mental health and well-being, reduce stress, and even increase lifespan.

While altruism is often viewed as a positive trait, there is some debate among psychologists and philosophers about whether true altruism exists, or if all acts of kindness are ultimately motivated by self-interest. Nonetheless, the concept of altruism remains an important one in medicine and psychology, as it helps to explain why people sometimes act in ways that put others' needs before their own.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Sciences" is a broad term that refers to academic disciplines that study human society and social relationships. It includes fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. These subjects are considered part of the liberal arts and humanities, not medical sciences.

However, aspects of social sciences can intersect with medical studies in areas like medical anthropology, health psychology, sociology of health and illness, and psychiatry. For instance, medical anthropologists might study how cultural factors influence healthcare practices, while health psychologists examine the role of behavior and mental processes in health and illness.

If you're looking for a definition related to medical sciences, perhaps there was some confusion with the term. Could you please clarify or provide more context?

In medical terms, imitative behavior is also known as "echopraxia." It refers to the involuntary or unconscious repetition of another person's movements or actions. This copying behavior is usually seen in individuals with certain neurological conditions, such as Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, or after suffering a brain injury. Echopraxia should not be confused with mimicry, which is a voluntary and intentional imitation of someone else's behaviors.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Vasotocin is not generally recognized as a medical term or a well-established physiological concept in human medicine. However, it is a term used in comparative endocrinology and animal physiology to refer to a nonapeptide hormone that is functionally and structurally similar to arginine vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in mammals.

Vasotocin is found in various non-mammalian vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, and reptiles, where it plays roles in regulating water balance, blood pressure, social behaviors, and reproduction. In these animals, vasotocin is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland before being released into the circulation to exert its effects on target organs.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, vasotocin can be defined as a neuropeptide hormone that regulates various physiological functions in non-mammalian vertebrates, with structural and functional similarities to mammalian arginine vasopressin.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by progressive and persistent loss of neuronal structure and function, often leading to cognitive decline, functional impairment, and ultimately death. These conditions are associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genetic mutations in the brain. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). The underlying causes and mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood, and there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "role playing" as it is not a term typically used in the medical field. However, role-playing in general refers to the acting out or adopting of a particular role or character, often in a structured situation for the purpose of learning, practicing skills, therapy, or entertainment.

In a healthcare context, role-playing can be used as a teaching tool for medical students and healthcare professionals to practice communication skills, break bad news, manage difficult conversations, or learn about patient perspectives. Role-playing can also be used in therapeutic settings, such as psychodrama or drama therapy, to help individuals explore their emotions, experiences, and relationships.

It's important to note that role-playing should not be confused with "role-play," which is a paraphilic behavior where an individual derives sexual pleasure from acting out a scenario in which they adopt a specific role or character. Role-play as a paraphilia is considered a mental disorder when it causes distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs. The condition worsens during periods of rest, particularly when lying or sitting.

The symptoms typically include:

1. An uncontrollable need or urge to move the legs to relieve uncomfortable sensations such as crawling, creeping, tingling, pulling, or painful feelings.
2. Symptoms begin or intensify during rest or inactivity.
3. Symptoms are partially or totally relieved by movement, such as walking or stretching, at least as long as the activity continues.
4. Symptoms are worse in the evening or night, often leading to disturbed sleep.

The exact cause of RLS is unknown, but it may be related to abnormalities in the brain's dopamine pathways that control muscle movements. It can also be associated with certain medical conditions like iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and pregnancy. Treatment often involves addressing any underlying conditions and using medications to manage symptoms.

Parkinsonian disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, there are also several other secondary Parkinsonian disorders, including:

1. Drug-induced parkinsonism: This is caused by the use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.
2. Vascular parkinsonism: This is caused by small vessel disease in the brain, which can lead to similar symptoms as PD.
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): This is a type of dementia that shares some features with PD, such as the presence of alpha-synuclein protein clumps called Lewy bodies.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): This is a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and eye movements.
5. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, motor system, and cerebellum.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD): This is a rare neurological disorder that affects both movement and cognition.

It's important to note that while these disorders share some symptoms with PD, they have different underlying causes and may require different treatments.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Social reinforcement is a term used in psychology and psychiatry to describe the process by which certain behaviors are strengthened or increased due to positive social consequences. These consequences can include things like praise, attention, affection, or other forms of social recognition.

For example, if a child receives a lot of positive attention and praise from their parents for completing their homework, they may be more likely to continue doing their homework in the future because they have learned that this behavior is associated with positive social reinforcement. Similarly, if an employee is praised and recognized by their manager for a job well done, they may be more motivated to work hard and perform at a high level in order to receive further recognition and reinforcement.

Social reinforcement can play an important role in shaping behavior and promoting positive social interactions. However, it's important to note that the use of social reinforcement should be balanced with other forms of reinforcement, such as intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy, to ensure that individuals are motivated to engage in behaviors for their own sake and not just to receive positive social feedback.

"Social distancing" is not a term with a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and infectious diseases, it generally refers to measures taken to reduce close physical contact between people in order to prevent or slow down the spread of an infectious agent. This can include things like keeping a certain distance from others, avoiding crowded places, and limiting gatherings. The specific recommendations for social distancing can vary depending on the situation and the nature of the infectious agent.

"Social change" is not a medical term, but it refers to the alterations in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural patterns, social institutions, and organizational structures within societies over time. While not a medical concept itself, social change can have significant impacts on health and healthcare. For example, shifts in societal values and norms around tobacco use or access to mental health services can influence public health outcomes and healthcare delivery.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) modulators are substances that affect the function of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the activity of overactive nerve cells.

GABA modulators can either enhance or decrease the activity of GABA receptors, depending on their specific mechanism of action. These substances can be classified into two main categories:

1. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): These compounds bind to a site on the GABA receptor that is distinct from the neurotransmitter binding site and enhance the activity of GABA at the receptor, leading to increased inhibitory signaling in the brain. Examples of positive allosteric modulators include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain non-benzodiazepine drugs used for anxiolysis, sedation, and muscle relaxation.
2. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs): These compounds bind to a site on the GABA receptor that reduces the activity of GABA at the receptor, leading to decreased inhibitory signaling in the brain. Examples of negative allosteric modulators include certain antiepileptic drugs and alcohol, which can reduce the effectiveness of GABA-mediated inhibition and contribute to their proconvulsant effects.

It is important to note that while GABA modulators can have therapeutic benefits in treating various neurological and psychiatric conditions, they can also carry risks for abuse, dependence, and adverse side effects, particularly when used at high doses or over extended periods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "territoriality" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of psychology, sociology, and animal behavior to refer to the tendency of an individual or group to defend a particular territory from intrusion by others.

In a medical context, the term "territory" may be used more broadly to refer to a specific area or region of the body that is associated with a particular medical condition or specialty. For example, a neurologist might refer to the "territory" of the brain that is affected by a stroke or other type of brain injury.

If you have any further questions about medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Vasopressin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH). There are two main types of vasopressin receptors, V1 and V2.

V1 receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including vascular smooth muscle, heart, liver, and kidney. Activation of V1 receptors leads to vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels), increased heart rate and force of heart contractions, and release of glycogen from the liver.

V2 receptors are primarily found in the kidney's collecting ducts. When activated, they increase water permeability in the collecting ducts, allowing for the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream and reducing urine production. This helps to regulate fluid balance and maintain normal blood pressure.

Abnormalities in vasopressin receptor function can contribute to various medical conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Experimental Games" as it is not a term commonly used in the medical field. However, I can provide some context that might help you understand the possible relationship between experimental games and medicine.

Experimental games generally refer to games designed specifically to explore, test, or validate certain concepts, hypotheses, or theories. These games often involve novel mechanics, rules, or systems that are intended to create unique experiences, engage players in specific ways, or teach particular skills or knowledge.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for various purposes, such as:

1. Medical education and training: Experimental games can help medical professionals learn new skills, understand complex concepts, or practice decision-making in a safe, controlled environment. These games could simulate various medical scenarios, allowing players to develop their expertise and improve patient outcomes.
2. Therapeutic interventions: Experimental games might be used as a form of therapy for patients with physical, cognitive, or emotional challenges. By engaging patients in gameplay that targets specific areas of need, these games can help improve various aspects of health and well-being. For example, therapeutic gaming applications have been developed to assist with rehabilitation, pain management, stress reduction, and mental health conditions like anxiety and depression.
3. Research: Experimental games could be used in medical research to investigate various aspects of human behavior, cognition, or physiology. By observing how players interact with the game and its mechanics, researchers can gain insights into factors that influence health, decision-making, or treatment outcomes.

In summary, while "Experimental Games" is not a standard medical term, it generally refers to games designed to explore, test, or validate specific concepts, hypotheses, or theories. In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for medical education, therapeutic interventions, or research purposes.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that the term "social discrimination" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, discrimination can be a significant social determinant of health, which refers to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that shape their health.

Discrimination can be defined as the unfair or unequal treatment of people based on certain characteristics or attributes, such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, or socioeconomic status. Discrimination can occur in various settings, including employment, education, housing, healthcare, and criminal justice, among others.

Experiences of discrimination can have negative effects on physical and mental health outcomes, contributing to chronic stress, anxiety, depression, and other health conditions. Therefore, it is essential to address discrimination as a critical social determinant of health and work towards promoting equity, inclusion, and social justice in society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Sleep stages are distinct patterns of brain activity that occur during sleep, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG). They are part of the sleep cycle and are used to describe the different types of sleep that humans go through during a normal night's rest. The sleep cycle includes several repeating stages:

1. Stage 1 (N1): This is the lightest stage of sleep, where you transition from wakefulness to sleep. During this stage, muscle activity and brain waves begin to slow down.
2. Stage 2 (N2): In this stage, your heart rate slows, body temperature decreases, and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity becomes slower, with occasional bursts of electrical activity called sleep spindles.
3. Stage 3 (N3): Also known as deep non-REM sleep, this stage is characterized by slow delta waves. It is during this stage that the body undergoes restorative processes such as tissue repair, growth, and immune function enhancement.
4. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep: This is the stage where dreaming typically occurs. Your eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, heart rate and respiration become irregular, and brain wave activity increases to levels similar to wakefulness. REM sleep is important for memory consolidation and learning.

The sleep cycle progresses through these stages multiple times during the night, with REM sleep periods becoming longer towards morning. Understanding sleep stages is crucial in diagnosing and treating various sleep disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Nonverbal communication in a medical context refers to the transmission of information or messages through visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetic channels, excluding spoken or written language. It includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye contact, touch, physical appearance, use of space, and paralanguages such as tone of voice, volume, and pitch. In healthcare settings, nonverbal communication plays a crucial role in building rapport, expressing empathy, conveying emotions, and understanding patients' needs and concerns. Healthcare providers should be aware of their own nonverbal cues and interpret those of their patients to enhance clinical encounters and improve patient-centered care.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a medical term used to describe a stage between the cognitive changes seen in normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. It's characterized by a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, such as memory or thinking skills, that are greater than expected for an individual's age and education level, but not significant enough to interfere with daily life.

People with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease, compared to those without MCI. However, it's important to note that not everyone with MCI will develop dementia; some may remain stable, and others may even improve over time.

The diagnosis of MCI is typically made through a comprehensive medical evaluation, including a detailed medical history, cognitive testing, and sometimes brain imaging or laboratory tests.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social values" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, "social values" refer to the beliefs, principles, and standards that a group or society holds in regard to what is considered important, desirable, or acceptable. These values can influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions related to health and healthcare. They may also impact medical research, policy-making, and patient care.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Medical professionals may use the term "social conditions" to refer to various environmental and sociological factors that can impact an individual's health and well-being. These conditions can include things like:

* Socioeconomic status (SES): This refers to a person's position in society, which is often determined by their income, education level, and occupation. People with lower SES are more likely to experience poor health outcomes due to factors such as limited access to healthcare, nutritious food, and safe housing.
* Social determinants of health (SDOH): These are the conditions in which people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health risks and outcomes. Examples include poverty, discrimination, housing instability, education level, and access to healthy foods and physical activity opportunities.
* Social support: This refers to the emotional, informational, and instrumental assistance that individuals receive from their social networks, including family, friends, neighbors, and community members. Strong social support is associated with better health outcomes, while lack of social support can contribute to poor health.
* Social isolation: This occurs when people are disconnected from others and have limited social contacts or interactions. Social isolation can lead to negative health outcomes such as depression, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic diseases.
* Community context: The physical and social characteristics of the communities in which people live can also impact their health. Factors such as access to green spaces, transportation options, and safe housing can all contribute to better health outcomes.

Overall, social conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's health and well-being, and addressing these factors is essential for promoting health equity and improving overall public health.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Williams Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small portion of chromosome 7. This results in various developmental and medical problems, which can include:

1. Distinctive facial features such as a broad forehead, wide-set eyes, short nose, and full lips.
2. Cardiovascular disease, particularly narrowed or missing blood vessels near the heart.
3. Developmental delays and learning disabilities, although most people with Williams Syndrome have an IQ in the mild to moderate range of intellectual disability.
4. A unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses in cognitive skills, such as strong language skills but significant difficulty with visual-spatial tasks.
5. Overly friendly or sociable personality, often displaying a lack of fear or wariness around strangers.
6. Increased risk of anxiety and depression.
7. Sensitive hearing and poor depth perception.
8. Short stature in adulthood.

Williams Syndrome affects about 1 in every 10,000 people worldwide, regardless of race or ethnic background. It is not an inherited disorder, but rather a spontaneous genetic mutation.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social problems" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a broad term used in sociology and social work to refer to issues that affect large numbers of people within a society, such as poverty, discrimination, crime, and substance abuse. These issues can certainly have impacts on individuals' mental and physical health, but they are not considered medical conditions themselves. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Socioenvironmental Therapy" is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or therapy. It may be a term used in some specific contexts or by certain practitioners, but it does not have a standardized medical definition.

The term seems to combine elements of socio-therapy, which focuses on addressing psychological issues within a social context, and environmental therapy, which uses natural environments as a therapeutic tool. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition.

If you have more information about where you encountered this term or its specific use, I may be able to provide a more precise interpretation.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

"Social desirability bias" is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept that's relevant in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and research methodology. It refers to the tendency of individuals to provide responses that they believe are socially acceptable or desirable, rather than their true feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, during surveys, interviews, or other forms of assessment. This bias can lead to inaccurate or skewed data, as it may not reflect the actual experiences or attitudes of the respondents. It's important for researchers to be aware of and control for social desirability bias to ensure the validity and reliability of their findings.

Vision disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the visual system and result in various symptoms, such as blurry vision, double vision, distorted vision, impaired depth perception, and difficulty with visual tracking or focusing. These disorders can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes where they point in different directions, which can lead to double vision or loss of depth perception.
3. Amblyopia: Often called lazy eye, amblyopia is a condition where one eye has reduced vision due to lack of proper visual development during childhood. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or other factors that interfere with normal visual development.
4. Accommodative disorders: These involve problems with the focusing ability of the eyes, such as convergence insufficiency (difficulty focusing on close objects) and accommodative dysfunction (inability to maintain clear vision at different distances).
5. Binocular vision disorders: These affect how the eyes work together as a team, leading to issues like poor depth perception, eye strain, and headaches. Examples include convergence insufficiency, divergence excess, and suppression.
6. Ocular motility disorders: These involve problems with eye movement, such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), strabismus, or restricted extraocular muscle function.
7. Visual processing disorders: These affect the brain's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information, even when the eyes themselves are healthy. Symptoms may include difficulty with reading, recognizing shapes and objects, and understanding spatial relationships.
8. Low vision: This term refers to significant visual impairment that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery. It includes conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts.
9. Blindness: Complete loss of sight in both eyes, which can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or genetic conditions.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations. It examines the ways in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists seek to understand how we make sense of other people and how we understand ourselves in a social context. They study phenomena such as social influence, social perception, attitude change, group behavior, prejudice, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

In summary, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by their social context and interactions with others.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

"Social identification" is a psychological concept rather than a medical term. It refers to the process by which individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership(s) and the social categories to which they believe they belong. This process involves recognizing and internalizing the values, attitudes, and behaviors associated with those groups, and seeing oneself as a member of that social collective.

In medical and healthcare settings, social identification can play an important role in shaping patients' experiences, perceptions of their health, and interactions with healthcare providers. For example, a patient who identifies strongly with a particular cultural or ethnic group may have unique health beliefs, practices, or needs that are influenced by that group membership. Recognizing and understanding these social identifications can help healthcare professionals provide more culturally sensitive and effective care.

However, it's important to note that 'social identification' itself is not a medical term with a specific diagnosis or clinical definition.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Illness behavior is a term used in the field of medicine and psychology to describe the way an individual perceives, experiences, and responds to symptoms or illness. It encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are associated with being sick or experiencing discomfort. This can include seeking medical attention, adhering to treatment plans, and adjusting one's daily activities to accommodate the illness.

Illness behavior is not simply the presence of physical symptoms, but rather it is the way in which an individual interprets and responds to those symptoms. It can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural beliefs about health and illness, previous experiences with illness, personality traits, and mental health status.

It's important to note that illness behavior is not necessarily indicative of malingering or fabricating symptoms. Rather, it reflects the complex interplay between an individual's physical health, psychological factors, and social context. Understanding illness behavior can help healthcare providers better assess and manage their patients' symptoms and improve overall care.

"Paternal behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a male animal or human towards their offspring. In humans, paternal behavior can include providing financial support, emotional care, and protection for their children. It can also involve active involvement in child-rearing activities such as feeding, bathing, playing, teaching, and disciplining.

In some cases, "paternal behavior" may be used to describe a syndrome or set of behaviors exhibited by individuals who have a particular genetic mutation associated with increased paternal caregiving. However, this is not a widely recognized medical term or condition.

It's worth noting that the study of paternal behavior and its impact on child development has gained increasing attention in recent years, as researchers seek to better understand the complex interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors that shape parenting behaviors and outcomes for children.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

"Social Security" is a term that refers to a social insurance program, providing financial security to eligible individuals primarily through retirement, disability, and survivor's benefits. In the United States, it is administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA). The program is funded through payroll taxes known as Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax, paid by workers and their employers.

It's important to note that "Social Security" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of social welfare programs and policies. However, it does have an impact on healthcare as many Americans rely on Social Security benefits to help cover their medical expenses, especially during retirement.

Competitive behavior, in a medical or psychological context, refers to the actions, attitudes, and strategies that individuals employ in order to achieve their goals while contending with others who have similar objectives. This concept is often studied within the framework of social psychology and personality psychology.

Competitive behavior can manifest in various domains, including sports, academics, professional settings, and social relationships. It may involve direct competition, where individuals or groups engage in head-to-head contests to determine a winner, or indirect competition, where individuals strive for limited resources or recognition without necessarily interacting with one another.

In some cases, competitive behavior can be adaptive and contribute to personal growth, skill development, and motivation. However, excessive competitiveness may also lead to negative outcomes such as stress, anxiety, reduced cooperation, and strained relationships. Factors that influence the expression of competitive behavior include genetic predispositions, environmental influences, cultural norms, and individual personality traits.

In a medical setting, healthcare providers may encounter competitive behavior among patients vying for attention or resources, between colleagues striving for professional advancement, or in the context of patient-provider relationships where power dynamics can influence decision-making processes. Understanding the nuances of competitive behavior is essential for fostering positive interactions and promoting collaboration in various domains.

Genetic phenomena refer to the observable characteristics or traits resulting from the expression of genes, the units of heredity. These phenomena can be influenced by various factors including gene mutations, interactions between genes, and the influence of environmental factors on gene expression. Genetic phenomena can be seen at different levels, including molecular, biochemical, developmental, physiological, and population levels. Examples of genetic phenomena include eye color, height, skin color, and certain diseases or conditions such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is often referred to as the "hormone of darkness" because its production is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Melatonin plays a key role in synchronizing the circadian rhythm, the body's internal clock that regulates various biological processes over a 24-hour period.

Melatonin is primarily released at night, and its levels in the blood can rise and fall in response to changes in light and darkness in an individual's environment. Supplementing with melatonin has been found to be helpful in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It may also have other benefits, including antioxidant properties and potential uses in the treatment of certain neurological conditions.

It is important to note that while melatonin supplements are available over-the-counter in many countries, they should still be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as their use can have potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social conformity" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in sociology and psychology.

In general, social conformity refers to the process of changing one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to fit in with a group, society, or culture. This can be driven by a variety of factors, including the desire for social acceptance, the need to maintain social norms, and the fear of social rejection or punishment.

While not a medical term, social conformity can have implications for health and healthcare. For example, social conformity can influence people's attitudes and behaviors related to health risks, such as smoking or excessive drinking, and can affect help-seeking behaviors, such as seeking medical care when needed. Understanding the dynamics of social conformity can be useful in developing interventions and policies aimed at promoting positive health behaviors and outcomes.

Behavioral genetics is a subfield of genetics that focuses on the study of the genetic basis of behavior. It seeks to understand how genes and environment interact to influence individual differences in behaviors such as personality traits, cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and addiction. This field integrates knowledge from genetics, psychology, neuroscience, and statistics to investigate the complex relationship between genetic factors and behavioral outcomes. Research in behavioral genetics includes studies of twins, families, and adopted individuals, as well as animal models, to identify specific genes or genetic variations that contribute to the heritability of various behaviors. Understanding these genetic influences can provide insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of behavioral disorders.

In medical terms, the sense of smell is referred to as olfaction. It is the ability to detect and identify different types of chemicals in the air through the use of the olfactory system. The olfactory system includes the nose, nasal passages, and the olfactory bulbs located in the brain.

When a person inhales air containing volatile substances, these substances bind to specialized receptor cells in the nasal passage called olfactory receptors. These receptors then transmit signals to the olfactory bulbs, which process the information and send it to the brain's limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as to the cortex. The brain interprets these signals and identifies the various scents or smells.

Impairment of the sense of smell can occur due to various reasons such as upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, nasal polyps, head trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Loss of smell can significantly impact a person's quality of life, including their ability to taste food, detect dangers such as smoke or gas leaks, and experience emotions associated with certain smells.

'Sublimation' does not have a widely accepted medical definition. However, in some psychological contexts, it is used to refer to a coping mechanism where socially unacceptable impulses or desires are transformed into a more acceptable form of behavior, like converting aggressive feelings into competitive energy in sports. This term is often used in psychoanalytic theory, proposed by Sigmund Freud. It's important to note that this is not a term used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), which are standard references for mental health professionals.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

In the context of medicine, "odors" refer to smells or scents that are produced by certain medical conditions, substances, or bodily functions. These odors can sometimes provide clues about underlying health issues. For example, sweet-smelling urine could indicate diabetes, while foul-smelling breath might suggest a dental problem or gastrointestinal issue. However, it's important to note that while odors can sometimes be indicative of certain medical conditions, they are not always reliable diagnostic tools and should be considered in conjunction with other symptoms and medical tests.

Maternal deprivation is a psychoanalytic term that refers to the lack of adequate emotional nurturing and care from a mother or primary caregiver during early childhood. It can also refer to the physical separation of a child from their mother shortly after birth, which can lead to attachment issues and developmental delays if not addressed promptly.

The concept of maternal deprivation was first introduced by British pediatrician and psychoanalyst John Bowlby in his 1951 book "Maternal Care and Mental Health." Bowlby argued that the early bond between a child and their mother is critical for healthy emotional and social development, and that prolonged separation or inadequate care can lead to serious psychological consequences.

It's important to note that maternal deprivation can also occur in cases where the mother is physically present but emotionally unavailable or neglectful, and that fathers, other family members, and caregivers can also play a critical role in providing emotional nurturing and support to children.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

Habituation, psychophysiologic, refers to the decrease in autonomic nervous system response to repeated exposure to a stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus repeatedly over time, leading to a reduced reaction or no reaction at all. This process involves the decreased responsiveness of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

Examples of psychophysiologic habituation include the decreased heart rate and skin conductance response that occurs with repeated exposure to a startling stimulus, such as a loud noise. This form of habituation is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that allows individuals to respond appropriately to novel or important stimuli while reducing the response to non-significant or irrelevant stimuli.

It's worth noting that habituation can also occur in other systems and contexts, such as sensory habituation (decreased response to repeated sensory stimulation) or cognitive habituation (reduced attention or memory for repeated exposure to a stimulus). However, the term "psychophysiologic habituation" specifically refers to the decreased autonomic nervous system response that occurs with repeated exposure to a stimulus.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Game Theory" is not a medical term. It is actually a mathematical model of strategic interaction, which is commonly used in economics, political science, and psychology. Game theory analyzes how people or entities make decisions when their outcomes depend on the actions of others, and how they can use this knowledge to achieve better results.

In medicine, the term "game" might be used informally to describe various types of simulations or training exercises, but it does not have a specific medical definition related to game theory.

'Infant behavior' is not a medical term per se, but it does fall under the purview of child development and pediatrics. It generally refers to the actions or reactions of an infant (a child between birth and 12 months) in response to internal states (e.g., hunger, discomfort, fatigue) and external stimuli (e.g., people, objects, events).

Infant behavior can encompass a wide range of aspects including:

1. Reflexes: Automatic responses to certain stimuli, such as the rooting reflex (turning head towards touch on cheek) or startle reflex (abrupt muscle contraction).
2. Motor skills: Control and coordination of movements, from simple ones like lifting the head to complex ones like crawling.
3. Social-emotional development: Responses to social interactions, forming attachments, expressing emotions.
4. Communication: Using cries, coos, gestures, and later, words to communicate needs and feelings.
5. Cognitive development: Problem-solving skills, memory, attention, and perception.

Understanding typical infant behavior is crucial for parental education, childcare, early intervention when there are concerns, and overall child development research.

"Social facilitation" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from social psychology that refers to the phenomenon where the presence of others can influence an individual's performance on a task. Specifically, social facilitation occurs when the presence of others enhances the dominant response or behavior of an individual, leading to improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks and impaired performance on complex or novel tasks.

In some cases, social facilitation can have implications for health and well-being, particularly in situations where individuals are performing tasks that require concentration, coordination, or other cognitive or physical skills. For example, the presence of others during exercise may enhance an individual's motivation and performance, leading to better health outcomes. However, the presence of distractions or social pressure can also impair performance on certain tasks, such as driving or operating machinery, leading to increased risk of accidents or injuries.

Overall, while "social facilitation" is not a medical term per se, it is a concept that has relevance for understanding various social and behavioral factors that can influence health and well-being.

Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a rare but serious condition in which children fail to form a healthy emotional attachment with their primary caregivers, such as parents or guardians. This disorder typically develops before the age of 5 and is often related to neglectful, abusive, or otherwise disrupted early childhood experiences.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), RAD has two subtypes:

1. Inhibited type: Children with this subtype are extremely reluctant to initiate or respond to social interactions. They may appear withdrawn, fearful, or excessively cautious around caregivers and have difficulty seeking comfort when distressed.
2. Disinhibited type: Children with this subtype exhibit overly familiar or indiscriminate behavior towards strangers, lack wariness of potential dangers, and seek comfort from virtually anyone, including complete strangers.

It is essential to note that RAD is a complex disorder requiring professional evaluation and treatment. Early intervention and support from mental health professionals, as well as stable, nurturing caregiving relationships, can significantly improve the prognosis for children with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Social participation, in the context of health and medicine, refers to an individual's involvement in various life situations, activities, and interactions with others, families, communities, and society at large. It encompasses areas such as employment, education, community life, recreation, and social relationships. Social participation is considered an important aspect of overall health and well-being, as it can contribute to a person's sense of purpose, self-esteem, and quality of life. Reduced social participation may be associated with various health conditions, disabilities, or social determinants of health, making it an essential component of comprehensive healthcare and rehabilitation.

"Social welfare" is a broad concept and not a medical term per se, but it is often discussed in the context of public health and medical social work. Here's a definition related to those fields:

Social welfare refers to the programs, services, and benefits provided by governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote the well-being of individuals, families, and communities, with a particular focus on meeting basic needs, protecting vulnerable populations, and enhancing social and economic opportunities. These efforts aim to improve overall quality of life, reduce health disparities, and strengthen the social determinants of health.

Examples of social welfare programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Medicaid, Section 8 housing assistance, and various community-based services such as mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, and home healthcare.

In the medical field, social workers often play a crucial role in connecting patients to available social welfare resources to address various psychosocial needs that can impact their health outcomes.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

In medical terms, "punishment" is a consequence or intervention that is intended to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior occurring again in the future. It is often used in the context of behavioral therapy and modification, particularly for addressing maladaptive behaviors in individuals with developmental disorders, mental health conditions, or substance use disorders.

Punishment can take various forms, such as response cost (removal of a positive reinforcer), time-out (removal of access to reinforcement), or aversive stimuli (presentation of an unpleasant stimulus). However, it is important to note that punishment should be used judiciously and ethically, with careful consideration given to the potential negative consequences such as avoidance, escape, or aggression. Additionally, positive reinforcement (rewarding desirable behaviors) is generally considered a more effective and sustainable approach to behavior change than punishment alone.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) is a chemosensory organ found in many animals, including humans, that is involved in the detection of pheromones and other chemical signals. It's located in the nasal cavity, specifically on the septum, which separates the two nostrils.

In humans, the existence and functionality of the VNO have been a subject of debate among researchers. While it is present in human embryos and some studies suggest that it may play a role in the detection of certain chemicals, its significance in human behavior and physiology is not well understood. In many other animals, however, the VNO plays a crucial role in social behaviors such as mating, aggression, and hierarchy establishment.

I believe you may have accidentally omitted the word "in" from your search. Based on that, I'm assuming you are looking for a medical definition related to the term "ants." However, ants are not typically associated with medical terminology. If you meant to ask about a specific condition or concept, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

If you are indeed asking about ants in the insect sense, they belong to the family Formicidae and order Hymenoptera. Some species of ants may pose public health concerns due to their ability to contaminate food sources or cause structural damage. However, ants do not have a direct medical definition associated with human health.

The preoptic area (POA) is a region within the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. It is named for its location near the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross. The preoptic area is involved in various functions, including body temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and sleep-wake regulation.

The preoptic area contains several groups of neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature and are responsible for generating heat through shivering or non-shivering thermogenesis. It also contains neurons that release inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and galanin, which help regulate arousal and sleep.

Additionally, the preoptic area has been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior, particularly in males. Certain populations of neurons within the preoptic area are involved in the expression of male sexual behavior, such as mounting and intromission.

Overall, the preoptic area is a critical region for the regulation of various physiological and behavioral functions, making it an important area of study in neuroscience research.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, "generalization of response" refers to the phenomenon where an individual responds in a similar way to different but related stimuli, situations or conditions. This is a key concept in learning theories and behavioral psychology.

When a person learns a new response to a specific stimulus, they may eventually apply this same response to other similar stimuli. For example, if a person learns to associate a bell (stimulus) with food (unconditioned stimulus), they will salivate (response) to the sound of the bell alone. Over time, this conditioned response may generalize to other sounds that are similar to the bell.

Generalization of response is considered a natural and important part of learning and adaptation. However, in some cases, it can also lead to maladaptive behaviors or phobias, where an individual responds excessively or inappropriately to stimuli that are only remotely related to the original conditioned stimulus.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

"Cultural deprivation" is a term that was previously used in sociology and social work to describe the idea that some individuals or groups may be at a disadvantage due to their lack of exposure to dominant cultural values, customs, and behaviors. This concept has been criticized for its deficit-based perspective and oversimplification of complex social issues.

In medical contexts, the term "cultural competence" is more commonly used to describe the ability of healthcare providers to understand, respect, and respond to the cultural differences of their patients. Cultural competence involves recognizing and addressing power imbalances, communication barriers, and other factors that may affect healthcare access and outcomes for individuals from diverse backgrounds.

It's important to note that cultural competence is not just about acquiring knowledge about different cultures, but also about developing skills and attitudes that promote respectful and effective communication and care. This includes self-awareness of one's own biases and assumptions, flexibility in adapting to different cultural contexts, and a commitment to ongoing learning and improvement.

The term "septum" in the context of the brain refers to the septal nuclei, which are a collection of neurons located in the basal forebrain. Specifically, they make up the septal area, which is part of the limbic system and plays a role in reward, reinforcement, and positive motivational states.

There isn't a structure called the "septum of brain" in medical terminology. However, there are several structures in the brain that contain a septum or have a partitioning septum within them, such as:

1. Septal nuclei (as mentioned above)
2. The nasal septum, which is a thin wall of bone and cartilage that separates the two nostrils in the nose
3. The interventricular septum, which is a thin muscular wall that separates the left and right lateral ventricles within the brain
4. The membranous septum, a part of the heart's structure that separates the left and right ventricles

Confusion might arise due to the term "septum" being used in different contexts. In this case, there is no specific medical definition for 'Septum of Brain'.

The septal nuclei are a collection of gray matter structures located in the basal forebrain, specifically in the septum pellucidum. They consist of several interconnected subnuclei that play important roles in various functions such as reward and reinforcement, emotional processing, learning, and memory.

The septal nuclei are primarily composed of GABAergic neurons (neurons that release the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA) and receive inputs from several brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and prefrontal cortex. They also send projections to various areas, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and other limbic structures.

Stimulation of the septal nuclei has been associated with feelings of pleasure and reward, while damage or lesions can lead to changes in emotional behavior and cognitive functions. The septal nuclei are also involved in neuroendocrine regulation, particularly in relation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the release of stress hormones.

Special education is a type of education that is designed to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the United States, special education is defined as:

"Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including—

(A) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and

(B) Instruction in physical education."

Special education may include a variety of services, such as:

* Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of the child
* Related services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, or physical therapy
* Assistive technology devices and services
* Counseling and behavioral supports
* Transportation services

Special education is provided in a variety of settings, including regular classrooms, resource rooms, self-contained classrooms, and specialized schools. The goal of special education is to provide students with disabilities with the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in school and in life.

"Social alienation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the same way that a term like "hypertension" or "diabetes" does. However, it is often used in a psychological or sociological context to describe a state of feeling disconnected or isolated from society, including feelings of loneliness, estrangement, and rejection.

In some cases, social alienation may be associated with mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia. For example, a person with social anxiety disorder may experience social alienation due to their fear of social interactions and avoidance of social situations. Similarly, a person with schizophrenia may experience social alienation due to the stigma associated with their condition and difficulties with communication and social cues.

However, it's important to note that social alienation can also occur in people without any underlying mental health conditions. Factors such as discrimination, poverty, migration, and social upheaval can all contribute to feelings of social alienation.

In a medical or scientific context, "Primates" is a biological order that includes various species of mammals, such as humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (like lemurs and lorises). This group is characterized by several distinct features, including:

1. A forward-facing eye position, which provides stereoscopic vision and depth perception.
2. Nails instead of claws on most digits, except for the big toe in some species.
3. A rotating shoulder joint that allows for a wide range of motion in the arms.
4. A complex brain with a well-developed cortex, which is associated with higher cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning.
5. Social structures and behaviors, such as living in groups and exhibiting various forms of communication.

Understanding primates is essential for medical and biological research since many human traits, diseases, and behaviors have their origins within this group.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Animal welfare is a concept that refers to the state of an animal's physical and mental health, comfort, and ability to express normal behaviors. It encompasses factors such as proper nutrition, housing, handling, care, treatment, and protection from harm and distress. The goal of animal welfare is to ensure that animals are treated with respect and consideration, and that their needs and interests are met in a responsible and ethical manner.

The concept of animal welfare is based on the recognition that animals are sentient beings capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and emotions, and that they have intrinsic value beyond their usefulness to humans. It is guided by principles such as the "Five Freedoms," which include freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress.

Animal welfare is an important consideration in various fields, including agriculture, research, conservation, entertainment, and companionship. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that draws on knowledge from biology, ethology, veterinary medicine, psychology, philosophy, and law. Ultimately, animal welfare aims to promote the humane treatment of animals and to ensure their well-being in all aspects of their lives.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Behavior and Social Networking. 13 (4): 429-435. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0164. PMID 20712501. Archived from the original on 25 ... Many people with personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, and borderline ... Post-traumatic stress disorder Acute stress disorder Depression Bipolar disorder Schizophrenia Borderline personality disorder ... borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder, as well as all the dissociative disorders. It inquires about ...
... and improve associated behaviors, including on-task behavior, academic performance, and social functioning. The therapeutic ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders". J Dev Behav Pediatr. 25 (4 ... better academic and classroom behavior, and improved social behavior. Exercising while on stimulant medication augments the ... Patients who have ADHD along with tics or tic disorders may also have problems with disruptive behaviors, overall functioning, ...
CPT utilizes social cognitive theory (SCT) to consider the patient's cognitions, emotions, and behavior in the context of the ... Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 29 (2): 266-281. doi:10.1080/10911359.2018.1527739. ISSN 1091-1359. S2CID ... "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Wildfires: A Fifth-Year Postdisaster Evaluation among Residents ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition caused by past, life altering events in which people have experienced or ...
This social rejection can reinforce their asocial behavior. People with this disorder usually have little interest in sexual or ... Major depressive disorder Panic disorder[citation needed] Paranoid personality disorder Social anxiety disorder[citation needed ... Children with this disorder usually have poor relationships with others, social anxiety, internal fantasies, strange behavior, ... Hafemeister TL (2019-02-05). "Mental Disorders and Criminal Behavior". Criminal Trials and Mental Disorders. New York ...
Polivy, Janet (December 2017). "What's that you're eating? Social comparison and eating behavior". Journal of Eating Disorders ... "Halo effects from agency behaviors and communion behaviors depend on social context: Why technicians benefit more from showing ... depicting behaviors present in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or ... Monahan (1941) studied social workers who were accustomed to interacting with a diverse range of people and found that the ...
Ellis, Albert (1998). "Addictive Behaviors and Personality Disorders". Social Policy. 29 (2): 25-30. Archived from the original ... Certain psychological disorders such as panic attacks, depressive disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder have been related ... Behavior-based addictions, on the other hand, are those that are not linked to neurological behavior as much and are thus ... Engs, Ruth C. "The Addictive Process and Addictive Behaviors." Addictive Behaviors. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 March 2010. (Wikipedia ...
A number of forms of mental disorder affect social behavior. Social anxiety disorder is a phobic disorder characterized by a ... Aggression Health behavior Collective animal behavior Expectancy challenge sociological method Herd behavior Social behavior in ... Just as positive affect can influence social behavior, social behavior can have an influence on positive affect. Social ... Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one ...
... a standardized observation of communicative and social behavior". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 19 (2): 185- ... During this time, the examiner provides a series of opportunities for the subject to show social and communication behaviors ... a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ... Some examples of Modules 1 or 2 include response to name, social smile, and free or bubble play. Modules 3 or 4 can include ...
Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 53 (4): 448-464. doi:10.1177/0022146512453928 ... Abused children may also develop eating disorders, substance abuse problems, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Behavioral ... They may also be more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as substance abuse, unsafe sex, or criminal behavior. Overall, ... Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress". Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 25 ...
These patterns of behavior result in impairment at school or other social venues. There is no specific element that has yet ... anxiety disorders, emotional disorders as well as mood disorders. Those mood disorders can be linked to major depression or ... bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or anxiety disorder. Diagnoses of ODD or conduct disorder are not ... "Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: ...
Others argue that modeling agencies and fashion cannot be blamed for the disordered eating behavior of easily influenced ... There are two components to the social comparison theory: Downward social comparison, comparison to others perceived to be less ... Social Behavior and Personality. 31: 81-89. doi:10.2224/sbp.2003.31.1.81. Pinhas, Leora, Brenda B. Toner, Alisha Ali, Paul E. ... According to the sociocultural model of bulimia, eating disorders are a product of the increasing pressures for women in our ...
Later studies observed the use of safety behaviors in people with other disorders such as social phobia, obsessive compulsive ... The Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) is an assessment of safety behaviors in social anxiety that was developed in 1994. The ... People without social anxiety tend to use behaviors that are designed to gain approval from others, while people with social ... preventive and restorative safety behaviors. These behaviors are also known as "emotional avoidance behaviors". These behaviors ...
Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 53 (4): 448-464. doi:10.1177/0022146512453928. PMID 23197484. S2CID 18970611. Retrieved ... Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher (2012). "Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders" (PDF ... They are often considered to be a burden, and carry a very negative social stigma. Many are unable to contribute to society, ... The civil rights movement started off the "disability rights movement", which focused on social and therapeutic services for ...
... "social anxiety disorder"; however, patients are diagnosed with a social anxiety disorder only at debilitating levels, where ... Journal of Health and Social behavior, 54(1), 1-21. "Furthermore, by 1996, a majority endorsed newer neuroscientific views for ... Mental Health: Social Anxiety Disorder". Webmd.com. Retrieved 14 April 2010. Rissmiller, D.J.; Rissmiller, J.H. (June 2006). " ... there is an "intense fear in social situations". Unlike a shy individual, a person diagnosed with social anxiety disorder is ...
Taylor OD (6 May 2010). "Barriers to Treatment for Women With Substance Use Disorders". Journal of Human Behavior in the Social ... Such an approach lies in stark contrast to the approaches of social cognitive theory to addiction-and indeed, to behavior in ... People who are diagnosed with a mental health disorder and a simultaneous substance use disorder are known as having a dual ... For example, someone with bipolar disorder who also has an alcohol use disorder would have dual diagnosis. On such occasions, ...
A non-disordered condition results from, and is perpetuated by, social stressors. Included in DSM-IV's classification is that a ... Abnormality (behavior) Attitude change Deviance (sociology) Eccentricity (behavior) Norms (social) Bartlett, Steven James (2011 ... He suggests that behaviors, or social facts, which are present in the majority of cases are normal, and exceptions to that ... The social norms that guide people are not always normal for everyone. Behaviors that are abnormal for most people may be ...
"Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Media". Deviant Behavior. 35 (9): 669-686. doi:10.1080/01639625.2013.872526. S2CID ... Those who were told that mental disorders had a genetic basis were more prone to increase their social distance from the ... It not only changes their behavior, but it also shapes their emotions and beliefs. Members of stigmatized social groups often ... Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder characterized by recurring seizures, is associated with various social stigmas. Chung- ...
"The Social Media Disorder Scale". Computers in Human Behavior. 61: 478-487. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038. Bányai, Fanni; Zsila ... and in particular between cyberostracism and social media disorder. The defining feature of social anxiety disorder, also ... The Social Media Disorder Scale (SMD) is a nine-item scale that was created to investigate addiction to social media and get to ... Possible treatment for social anxiety disorder includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as well. CBT helps victims of social ...
Abnormality (behavior) Asociality Antisocial personality disorder Breach of the peace Callous and unemotional traits ... anti-social behaviour. Antisocial Personality Disorder can only be diagnosed when a pattern of anti-social behaviour began ... The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 defines anti-social behaviour as acting in a manner that has "caused or was likely to cause ... "Antisocial behavior". Encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Anti Social Behaviour Team (2014). "Anti ...
Appropriate behaviors depend on the social and cultural context, including time and place. Some behaviors that are unacceptable ... Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 369-379. Freund, K. (1990). "Courtship disorder." In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws, & H. E. ... Where such cultural festivals alter normative courtship behaviors, the signs of courtship disorder may be masked or altered. ... these sexual interests are individual symptoms of a single underlying disorder. According to the courtship disorder hypothesis ...
Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 54 (2): 183-203. doi:10.1177/0022146513485244. PMC 3998519. PMID 23653312. Sherrill C, ... A survey conducted in 2010 amongst patients with ALS, MS, Parkinson's disease, HIV, fibromyalgia, and mood disorders found that ... SIBAT Consortium). "Suicide Ideation and Behavior Assessment Tool (SIBAT): A Novel Measure of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior ... Being social animals, this isolation often leads to anxiety and depression (related to diagnosis) which are known to undermine ...
The social learning theory proposes that social behavior is learned by observing and imitating others behavior. This suggests ... Millon T, Grossman S, Millon C, Meagher S, Ramnath R (2004). Personality Disorders in Modern Life (PDF). Wile y. p. 343. ISBN ... "Collective narcissism and its social consequences" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 97 (6): 1074-1096. doi: ... "The lack of social norms, controls, and of people centering them makes these people believe they're invulnerable," so that the ...
"Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in highfunctioning autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). PNAS. 107 (9): 4389-4394. doi: ... Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is considered the most effective therapy for autism spectrum disorders by the American Academy ... ABA focuses on teaching adaptive behaviors like social skills, play skills, or communication skills and diminishing problematic ... Asperger's Disorder Archived 2013-04-25 at archive.today - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition ...
"Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... 2000). Sex differences in human neonatal social perception. Infant Behavior and Development, 23, 113-118. Fine, C. (2010). From ... patients respond more strongly to others and exhibit more appropriate social behavior and affect, suggesting a therapeutic ... Girls have a tendency to play with baby dolls when they are young, enacting their social and emotional skills. Boys tend to ...
"Burden of caregiving amongst family caregivers of patients with eating disorders". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric ... The Anorectic Behavior Observation Scale (ABOS) is a thirty-item diagnostic questionnaire devised to be answered by the parents ... That is the reason why a detailed observation of the patient by their caregivers is crucial in the early stage of the disorder ... Overall, however, the Spanish-language version of the ABOS can be a useful tool in the diagnosis of eating disorders. The ...
Hezel, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (2014). Theory of mind: Impairments in social anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 45, 530-540. ... network connectivity among symptoms of social anxiety disorder and comorbid depression in people with social anxiety disorder. ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, and PTSD. More recent work concerns social anxiety disorder and complicated grief, including ... social anxiety disorder, complicated grief, rumination, and post-traumatic growth. McNally, R. J., & Reiss, S. (1984). The ...
The Charles Tilly Award for Best Book is given by the Collective Behavior and Social Movements section of the American ... Democracy & Disorder: Protest & Politics in Italy, 1965-1975. 1994 - Clark McPhail. The Myth of the Madding Crowd. 1996 - ... "Books Submitted for the Charles Tilly Award for Best Book Published in Collective Behavior and Social Movements." Mobilizing ... Protest: Studies of Collective Behavior and Social Movements. 1990 - Doug McAdam. Freedom Summer. 1990 - Rick Fantasia. ...
Nonverbal learning disorder Observational learning Rejection Self-efficacy Social behavior Social learning theory Social ... Sometimes, persons affected with mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or social anxiety disorder also struggle with ... Dyssemia represents the social dysfunction aspect of nonverbal learning disorder. The social interactions of dyssemic adults ... Chronic dyssemia is a condition that some neurologists term social-emotional processing disorder (SEPD). Dyssemia is considered ...
... social anxiety, and panic disorder; depression; and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The concept of social determinants ... Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 44 (3): 237-256. doi:10.2307/1519777. ISSN 0022-1465. JSTOR 1519777. PMID 14582306. ... 2018). "Social determinants of mental disorders and the Sustainable Development Goals: A systematic review of reviews". The ... while the most common mental disorders include anxiety-disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, ...
For a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder, the child's history and atypical social behavior must suggest the absence of ... Conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and social phobia share ... such as conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, post traumatic stress disorder and social phobia ... Reactive Attachment Disorder for the current inhibited form of RAD, and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder for what is ...
... autism spectrum disorder) nonetheless exhibit extremely different social learning traits, or social mind profiles, and should ... Social Thinking Methodology: Evidence-Based or Empirically Supported? A Response to Leaf et al. (2016), Behavior Analysis in ... 42-50 . Winner, M. G. & Crooke P.J. (2013). Social Learning and Social Functioning: Social Thinking's Cascade of Social ... Social thinking in this context, is also referred to as social cognition. The social thinking is a developmental, language- ...
Each disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, which are worsened by co-occurrence of the disorders. ... Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder commonly co-occur. ... Dialectical Behavior and Social Rhythm Therapy for Comorbid Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. *. ... for bipolar disorder) is described. Unlike either treatment alone, the new therapy, called dialectical behavior and social ...
... with increased repetitive behaviors but not social communication difficulties in young children with autism spectrum disorders. ... with increased repetitive behaviors but not social communication difficulties in young children with autism spectrum disorders. ... with increased repetitive behaviors but not social communication difficulties in young children with autism spectrum disorders. ... Furthermore, we found that repetitive behaviors, but not social or communication symptoms, are associated with gastrointestinal ...
The Amygdalas Role In Learning, Memory, Social Intelligence, Criminal Behavior, Mood Disorders And Especially The Retention of ... Tags: ADHD, Alzheimers, amygdala, Antonio Damsio, Anxiety Disorders, Brain and behavior, consciousness and the brain, emotion ... In other words, they cannot pay attention to what is being demonstrated by others and imitate it as part of learning or social ... de Carvalho, M. R., Rozenthal, M., & Nardi, A. E. (2009). The fear circuitry in panic disorder and its modulation by cognitive- ...
People with borderline personality disorder can suffer from tumultuous social worlds in which other people seem unreliable or ... I will explore how these social processes may go awry in borderline personality disorder. ... In this webinar, I will discuss the details of social learning: What do we expect about new people we meet? How do we respond ... Brain & Behavior Research Foundation 747 Third Avenue, 33rd Floor New York, NY 10017 646-681-4888 / 800-829-8289 ...
... El Alaoui, Samir ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to ... Conclusions: This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit ... Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge ...
The disruptive behavior disorders are abnormal behaviors that are expressed in many different forms. Such behaviors are usually ... They are also called Behavioral Disorders. These behaviors also violate the social norms of others and especially towards their ... Social_Phobia_(Social_Anxiety_Disorder) : property get [Map MindTouch.Deki.Logic.ExtensionProcessorQueryProvider+,,c__ ... A disorder that causes behavior that is significantly disturbing to others (such as aggressive, impulsive, argumentative ...
... the Docosahexaenoic Acid/Arachidonic Acid Ratio Relating to the Social Behaviors of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: ... Social behaviors were assessed using the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To overcome the problem of using small samples, ... This unbeneficial DHA/ARA-ratio-induced ferroptosis contributes to autistic social behaviors and is available for therapy. ... arachidonic acid; autistic social behavior; docosahexaenoic acid ferroptosis; lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde-modified low- ...
A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder appear to show an improvement in their behavioural symptoms during the ... Neurodevelopmental Disorders / immunology* * Pregnancy * Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects * Social Behavior Substances * Fmr1 ... IL-17a promotes sociability in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders Nature. 2020 Jan;577(7789):249-253. doi: 10.1038/ ... By contrast, we did not observe an LPS-induced rescue of social deficits in the monogenic models. We demonstrate that the ...
Behavior and Social Networking. 13 (4): 429-435. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0164. PMID 20712501. Archived from the original on 25 ... Many people with personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, and borderline ... Post-traumatic stress disorder Acute stress disorder Depression Bipolar disorder Schizophrenia Borderline personality disorder ... borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder, as well as all the dissociative disorders. It inquires about ...
ASD is a developmental disability that affects behavior, communication, and social skills. Learn more. ... Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening looks for signs of ASD. ... Problems with communication and social behavior, such as: * ... So, ASD screening may also be used in older children and adults who have certain challenges with social life and/or behavior ... Autism spectrum disorder screening is most often used to check for signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children age 2 ...
... profound retardation with severely disturbed social behavior ... Lipid Storage Disorders * Fast Five Quiz: Glycogen Storage ... All forms of MPS are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders, with the exception of Hunter syndrome (MPS II), which is ... Jones KL, Jones MC, del Campo M. Storage disorders. Smiths Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. 8th ed. Philadelphia: ... MPS III - The most common MPS disorder; severe CNS involvement and only minimal somatic involvement; coarse hair, hirsutism, ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication and behavior ... Learning Disorders. There are many kinds of learning disorders (also called learning disabilities). They can range from mild to ... Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have trouble paying attention and controlling impulsive behaviors ... These include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, separation anxiety, selective mutism, and different types of ...
Psychologic Disorders; Psychological-disorders. Source Name. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Psychological-disorders; Teaching; Job-stress; Mental-stress; Attitude; Coping-behavior ... Stressors, social support, and adversity of the school environment were investigated. Results indicated that it was not likely ... Social and Psychological Fdns the City College of Cuny Convent Avenue at 138Th St New York, New York 10031 ...
Behavioral problems are exaggerated, psychotic behavior may be displayed, and social activities are reduced to a minimum. ... Motor disorders. Motor disorders become apparent in the middle and advanced stages of the disease. They include a progressive ... Eating/swallowing disorders. Eating disorders with progressive dysphagia and frequent choking may be observed initially but are ... Communication/speech disorder: Early indication of the impairment was observed after an average of 1.4 years (range, 0-4 y; 0 ...
... delineates the clinical presentation in an extended cohort and investigates the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder in ... Mutations in human accelerated regions disrupt cognition and social behavior. Cell. 2016;167:341-54.e12. ... Table 1 Summary of clinical features of CUX1-related neurodevelopmental disorder.. Full size table. ... Oppermann, H., Marcos-Grañeda, E., Weiss, L.A. et al. CUX1-related neurodevelopmental disorder: deep insights into phenotype- ...
Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders - A Special Issue published by Hindawi ... Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male ... especially mood and anxiety disorders) must include an integrated approach, from the molecules to behavior, embracing the ... Clinical and preclinical studies have reported that the impact of stressful life events on the emotional and cognitive behavior ...
Neurodevelopmental disorders. Social and anxiety-related behaviors. Aaron Jasnow. Associate Professor, School of Medicine ... Neurobiology of stress, anxiety disorders, and PTSD.. Sex differences and estrogen regulation of emotional behavior ... Modulation of neural circuits underlying motivated behaviors. Neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and epilepsy ... Stress and neuropsychiatric disorders. Insulin resistance, synaptic plasticity and cognition. Swapan Ray. Professor, School of ...
Shifting social behaviors behind the youth mental health crisis. More young people in the U.S. are engaging with social media ... Social media use by itself has been shown in psychiatric studies to worsen self-esteem and depression and increase stress and ... "The survey points out that once people with mood disorders get care, they do well and can flourish," NAMI Chief Medical Officer ... 15% of youth in the US were treated for mental health disorders in 2021. Sandstone Care examined how youth are receiving ...
"Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 53 (4): 448-464. doi:10.1177/ ... Abused children may also develop eating disorders, substance abuse problems, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors.[31][32][33] ... Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress". Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 25 ... Some people may engage in abusive behavior as a way to gain power and control over a child. Abusive behavior can be used to ...
If someone in your family has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), you may be more likely to have a child with ASD. ASD can look ... is a developmental disorder. Someone with ASD may have difficulty with social interaction, communication, and behavior. For ... What is autism spectrum disorder?. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ... personality disorder, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); ...
Combining Social Skills Instruction and the Good Behavior Game to Support Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders ... When they completed the social skill lessons, teachers randomly grouped students into teams, reviewed Good Behavior Game rules ... which included reminding students of expected behavior and offering appropriate behavior alternatives. Baseline sessions ... The Good Behavior Game is a classroom management strategy that promotes students collaborating together to create a positive ...
Today, researchers at the University of Virginia Health System say children with sleep disorders can face similar risks of ... Lead as a Social Determinant of Child and Adolescent Physiological Stress and Behavior ... Sleep Disorders Can Impair Childrens IQs As Much As Lead Exposure. Date:. March 14, 2007. Source:. University of Virginia ... "Sleep Disorders Can Impair Childrens IQs As Much As Lead Exposure." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2007. ...
Researchers have made a discovery that may in future help to explain many aspects of human social behavior and disorders such ... Researchers have made a discovery that may in future help to explain many aspects of human social behavior and disorders such ... so release of vasopressin during social encounters facilitates social behavior. If such familial traits are adaptive in a given ... and perhaps influence disorders of sociability like autism and social anxiety disorders. ...
Keywords: self-efficacy, guided Internet-delivered therapy, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, symptom ... Three of nine modules in the panic disorder treatment and six of nine in the social anxiety disorder treatment showed ... Three of nine modules in the panic disorder treatment and six of nine in the social anxiety disorder treatment showed ... study including 575 patients receiving guided Internet-delivered therapy for panic disorder or social anxiety disorder. ...
Social behavior ; RC0512 Psychopathology. Mental disorders Share:. Terms and Conditions , Notice and Takedown Policy , Privacy ... The sense of self was set in a social context characterised by feelings of powerlessness isolation and lack of trust. In the ... These findings confirm that the belief may, in part, serve to protect participants from poor "social self-esteem". These ...
Social-emotional learning activities and strategies for ADHD kids who struggle to make and keep friends. ... Difficulty with social skills can take many different forms. Maybe your child is exhibiting behavior thats alienating peers, ... Intention Deficit Disorder: Why ADHD Minds Struggle to Meet Goals with Action ... This is part of why Social Spy is such an effective way for kids to learn nuanced social skills. Social Spy is a technique that ...
Discover the potential link between spontaneous speech and executive function shift in children with autism spectrum disorders ... Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors ... Autism Spectrum Disorders, Spontaneous Speech, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), Attentional Flexibility ... This technique enhances self-control of behavior using rule-governed behavior (RGB) training. More research with a larger ...
Sleep behavior; Immune factors; Risk for brain disorders; Positive and negative emotional states; Anxiety disorders; Additive ... Hot topics in human brain-related health/diseases/social behavior. Global mental health and neuroscience; Brain wellness and ... disorders, Attention disorder, Ischemia, Bipolar Disorder, etc.; Neurogenesis; Neuroepigenetics; Neuropsychiatric diseases; ... Social behavior. Neuroscience. Evolutionary Neuroscience; Neuronal Activity; Neuronal Circuits; Neuro-feedback; Affective ...
Some time after she died, I read extensively about this disorder. Lo and behold, all of her behaviors from my childhood were ... Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2017, February 7). Narcissism and social networking behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality ... who shows no empathy or regards to observe the normal rules of social behavior, who dismisses or minimizes your opinions as " ... or consider the gaslighting portion… what were you like before you met him and did you simply start to emulate his behavior as ...
  • The Joker and his Antisocial Personality Disorder How would you know if someone has antisocial personality disorder? (ipl.org)
  • According to Haycock, Dean A., and Emily Jane Willingham, "antisocial personality disorder is a diagnosis applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the rights, safety, or feelings of others" (109). (ipl.org)
  • The main causes of the abnormal function of the brain in people with Antisocial Personality Disorder are not known with certainty, although genetics and the environment play an important role. (ipl.org)
  • Famous People with Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), comes in many different forms, and they are all characterised by the way a person thinks and perceives situations that are much different from normal people. (ipl.org)
  • People with Antisocial Personality Disorder can be very deceitful and clever, and often times are good at faking sadness, remorse, anxiety, and loyalty. (ipl.org)
  • An antisocial personality disorder is a highly misunderstood personality disorder that is often surrounded by many negative stereotypes. (ipl.org)
  • An antisocial personality disorder is often triggered by a traumatic past. (ipl.org)
  • These gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with higher levels of irritability and aggressive behavior, but less is known about their relationship with core autism spectrum disorder symptoms. (iasp-pain.org)
  • We investigated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder symptom severity and gastrointestinal symptoms while accounting for three associated behavioral symptom domains (Irritability, Aggressiveness, and Specific Fears), in a sample of 176 children (140 males and 36 females) ages 2-7 years old with autism spectrum disorder. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Increased severity of autism spectrum disorder symptoms was correlated with increased gastrointestinal symptom severity. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Social and communication difficulties were not significantly associated with gastrointestinal symptom severity after accounting for associated behavioral symptoms. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that repetitive behaviors, but not social or communication symptoms, are associated with gastrointestinal symptom severity, even after accounting for associated behavioral symptoms. (iasp-pain.org)
  • This suggests that gastrointestinal symptoms may exacerbate repetitive behaviors, or vice versa, independent from other associated behavioral symptoms. (iasp-pain.org)
  • A subset of children with autism spectrum disorder appear to show an improvement in their behavioural symptoms during the course of a fever, a sign of systemic inflammation 1,2 . (nih.gov)
  • While brief episodes of depersonalization or derealization can be common in the general population, the disorder is only diagnosed when these symptoms cause substantial distress or impair social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core symptoms of depersonalization-derealization disorder are the subjective experience of "unreality in one's self", or detachment from one's surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of people with depersonalization-derealization disorder misinterpret the symptoms, thinking that they are signs of serious psychosis or brain dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASD is called a "spectrum disorder" because there is a wide range of symptoms and strengths in people with ASD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Older children and adults may also be screened if they have symptoms of ASD but have never been diagnosed with the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many different types of anxiety disorders with many different causes and symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • People with ASD may share some similar symptoms, such as problems with social interaction but there are differences in when the symptoms start, how severe they are, and the specifics of the symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Indeed, routines, rituals, and repetitive patterns of behavior are among the core symptoms of ASD. (scirp.org)
  • The term social communication disorder was also developed to describe people with very mild social or communication problems or autism-like symptoms. (childrens.com)
  • Students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders improved significantly more than those not at risk on ratings of internalizing symptoms and prosocial behaviors, even when the intervention was delivered school-wide in all classrooms. (ed.gov)
  • Personality disorders may cause extreme suspicion of others, lack of interest in social relationships, inappropriate emotional responses, and other concerning symptoms 2 . (psychguides.com)
  • Individuals with these symptoms may end up in legal trouble due to their inability to control their behavior. (psychguides.com)
  • Each disorder has a specific set of symptoms to distinguish it from the others. (psychguides.com)
  • Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. (aafp.org)
  • The current qualitative study compares the experiences of veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder as they interact with a virtual grocery store environment. (researchgate.net)
  • The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased the need for evidence-based treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • Presently, no therapies are available to effectively treat individuals with all of the symptoms of this disorder. (cochrane.org)
  • What are symptoms of a personality disorder? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children with the disorder may meet age-appropriate milestones for the first 6 to 18 months before they start showing symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The items are scored in 5 sub-scales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationships and pro-social behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • A novel psychotherapy combining elements of two evidence-based treatments (i.e., dialectical behavior therapy [DBT] for borderline personality disorder and social rhythm therapy [SRT] for bipolar disorder) is described. (medworm.com)
  • DBSRT may also have utility for individuals with overlapping characteristics of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder or for those whose illness manifestation includes a mix of bipolar and borderline personality disorder traits. (medworm.com)
  • The therapy may be effective in the long-term treatment and relapse prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). (news-medical.net)
  • Cameron Carter, MD, Editor of Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging , said of the work, 'This study, which uses task fMRI to engage specific brain circuits affected by bipolar disorder before and after different forms of therapy, reveals new insights regarding their mechanisms of action in the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • 2023). Daring to feel: Emotion-focused psychotherapy increases amygdala activation and connectivity in euthymic bipolar disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • This study is the first to examine whether 'Strong Kids', an SEL program, delivered school-wide in all classrooms, could result in decreased internalizing behaviors and increased prosocial behaviors for both at-risk and general education students. (ed.gov)
  • Gastrointestinal problems are associated with increased repetitive behaviors but not social communication difficulties in young children with autism spectrum disorders. (iasp-pain.org)
  • We studied unsettled issues in the association between MDA-LDL and the pathophysiology of ASD in 18 individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and eight age-matched controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • As subgroups of autism spectrum disorders are characterized, a stronger connection may emerge. (news-medical.net)
  • Response inhibition and attentional flexibility are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (scirp.org)
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are devastating developmental disorders characterized by altered social interactions and behavior. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are poorly studied. (bvsalud.org)
  • Indeed, while the fast response to stress includes plasticity enhancing effects associated with improved cognition, the long-term adaptive changes induced by stress, in particular following chronic stress, can be deleterious, leading to impaired function, enhanced susceptibility, or triggering of mood and anxiety disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • We invite investigators to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that highlight the multifaceted impact of stress and glucocorticoids on synaptic transmission, neuroplasticity, gene expression, cognition, and behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Schurz M, Radua J, Tholen MG, Maliske L, Margulies DS … Kanske P. Towards a Hierarchical Model of Social Cognition: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis and Integrative Review on Empathy and Theory of Mind. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • Evidence for independence and interaction between the routes of social cognition. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • The 2018 Symposium on Brains & Behavior: Order & Disorder in the Nervous System explores the tremendous recent progress in neuroscience and technologies and how these advances may be used to improve brain health and address psychiatric and neurological disorders. (cshlpress.com)
  • Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • In addition to the physical injuries caused by physical abuse, it can also lead to psychological trauma, such as fear , anxiety , depression , and post-traumatic stress disorder . (wikipedia.org)
  • A greater rate of SAD was found in veterans with than without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (22.0% vs. 1.1%), and primary care providers detected anxiety problems in only 58% of veterans with SAD. (researchgate.net)
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in the United States and has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, yet the role of a PTSD diagnosis on functional impairment among suicidal individuals remains unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • Authors concluded pointing out that long-term outcomes of psychiatric disorders may be unsatisfactory not because technical interventions are missing, but because our conceptual models that ignore iatrogenic forms of psychopathology are inadequate. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We compared an environmental model of neurodevelopmental disorders in which mice were exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA) during embryogenesis 3,4 with mouse models that are genetically deficient for contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) 5 , fragile X mental retardation-1 (Fmr1) 6 or Sh3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) 7 . (nih.gov)
  • Our data support a neuroimmune mechanism that underlies neurodevelopmental disorders in which the production of IL-17a during inflammation can ameliorate the expression of social behaviour deficits by directly affecting neuronal activity in the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • The Center for Autism Care is an interdisciplinary program offering comprehensive patient care and translational medicine for individuals with autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders. (childrens.com)
  • Social behavior in prepubertal neurexin 1α deficient rats: A model of neurodevelopmental disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. (aafp.org)
  • Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder commonly co-occur. (medworm.com)
  • People with borderline personality disorder can suffer from tumultuous social worlds in which other people seem unreliable or even threatening, and relational ruptures can be difficult to repair. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Using new mathematical and neuroimaging methods, I will explore how these social processes may go awry in borderline personality disorder. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Abstract Borderline Personality Disorder has many different Characteristics, and Patterns of instability.impulsiveness, Interpersonal Relationships, People may have suicidal thoughts and attempts, aggression, emotional dysregulations. (ipl.org)
  • Borderline Personality Disorder affects millions of people around the globe. (ipl.org)
  • As with all personality disorders, diagnosis is dependent on longitudinal evidence that mal-adaptive features of feeling, thinking and behaving are enduring over time. (cambridge.org)
  • Features of personality disorders in general can be considered as extreme, maladaptive variants of normal traits ( Reference Widiger, Frances, Costa and Widiger Widiger 2002 ). (cambridge.org)
  • The anti-social personality disorder is perhaps one of the most frightening personality disorders a person can have, as well as one of the most complex to diagnose. (ipl.org)
  • Personality disorders overall are defined as inflexible, personality characteristics that base on personal distress or the inability to communicate with others. (ipl.org)
  • Personality disorders usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood, and multiple disorders fall under this category. (ipl.org)
  • Some personality disorders also cause increased impulsivity or aggression. (psychguides.com)
  • Personality disorders are a type of mental disorder that can damage lives and relationships if left undiagnosed and untreated. (psychguides.com)
  • People who have personality disorders can express a wide range of emotions and behaviors that are considered detrimental to relationships, causing friends and family to withdraw from the individual. (psychguides.com)
  • Personality disorders make up a group of mental illnesses in which a person displays long-term rigid patterns of behavior and thoughts that don't adapt to a wide range of settings. (psychguides.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) lists 10 separate personality disorders. (psychguides.com)
  • What are personality disorders? (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are different personality disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What are the types of personality disorders? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some personality disorders start to cause problems earlier in life than others. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although most people with personality disorders may be able to get along in the world, some get into serious trouble. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In contrast, the patients of the cognitive-behavioral intervention demonstrated increased activation of brain regions related to social function but not altered amygdala activity. (news-medical.net)
  • A growing portion of today's youth are reporting that they struggle with mental health disorders. (onlinemadison.com)
  • Teenagers, ages 12-17, were more often treated for mental health disorders than younger kids, reaching a rate close to the general adult population. (onlinemadison.com)
  • Virtual environments have been increasingly used in conjunction with traditional cognitive behavioral treatments for disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder. (researchgate.net)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication and behavior challenges. (cdc.gov)
  • Someone with ASD may have difficulty with social interaction, communication, and behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we elucidate the molecular and neural mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of inflammation on social behaviour deficits in mice. (nih.gov)
  • They include problems of social functioning and learning disability of children with ADHD, psychological, physiological, genetic and neurological mechanisms, cerebral substrate and etiology of this form of dysontogenesis, forensic implications for behavioral disturbances associated with childhood ADHD, practical suggestions for clinicians and psychologists, new methods of its assessment and efficient methods and approaches to remediation of children with ADHD. (novapublishers.com)
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) solicits Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant applications from applicant organizations to investigate the underlying mechanisms that drive behavior change within the context of behavioral treatments for alcohol dependence. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms of behavior change refer to the underlying psychological, social, and neurophysiological processes through which therapeutic change occurs. (nih.gov)
  • Research proposals submitted under this FOA are encouraged to develop pilot projects that directly assess the causal relationship between mechanisms of behavior change and treatment outcome using the recommendations laid out by Kazdin and Nock (2003). (nih.gov)
  • Non-experimental exploratory studies of mechanisms of behavior change (e.g., secondary analyses of extant data sets, naturalistic studies of behavior change) are eligible. (nih.gov)
  • A further aim of this FOA is development of methods to facilitate explicit study of mechanisms of behavior change. (nih.gov)
  • Although the efficacy of ICBT for social anxiety disorder has been established in several studies, there is limited knowledge of its effectiveness and application in clinical psychiatric care. (diva-portal.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and to determine the significance of patient adherence and the clinic's years of experience in delivering ICBT. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusions: This study suggests that ICBT for social anxiety disorder is effective when delivered within the context of a unit specialized in Internet-based psychiatric care and may be considered as a treatment alternative for implementation within the mental health care system. (diva-portal.org)
  • The analyzed data comes from an open effectiveness study including 575 patients receiving guided Internet-delivered therapy for panic disorder or social anxiety disorder. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three of nine modules in the panic disorder treatment and six of nine in the social anxiety disorder treatment showed significant interaction effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Panic disorder (PD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are both among the most prevalent anxiety disorders with lifetime prevalence of, respectively, 1.6-5.2% and 2.8-13% ( Bandelow and Michaelis, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To examine the prevalence and correlates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in veterans, 733 veterans from four VA primary care clinics were evaluated using self-report questionnaires, telephone interviews, and a 12-month retrospective review of primary care charts. (researchgate.net)
  • In a sample of 86 veterans diagnosed with PTSD, 73.3% had another anxiety disorder diagnosis (Magruder et al. (researchgate.net)
  • Acceptance based behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder through videoconferencing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Anxiety is being worried or nervous. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with certain genetic disorders , such as fragile X syndrome , tuberous sclerosis , and Down syndrome , are more likely to have ASD. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, your doctor might recommend carrier screening if you have a family health history of a genetic disorder, such as fragile X syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Finding strong evidence that at one position in the genome increases in the genetic material lead to ASD, while losses at precisely the same region lead to a highly social personality, was particularly exciting. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disorder in which a child's early growth and development regresses after initially meeting their developmental milestones . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The second intervention, delivered to 31 participants, was a specific cognitive-behavioral therapy that focused on practicing social interventions. (news-medical.net)
  • The purpose of this article series is to provide a framework for the integration of academic and behavior supports for each tier of intervention in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model. (rtinetwork.org)
  • What are the most efficient and reliable ways to integrate intensive academic assessment and remediation, complex functional behavior assessment and behavioral intervention plans (including person-centered planning), and progress monitoring (tertiary supports)? (rtinetwork.org)
  • however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. (aafp.org)
  • In 2014, an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality systematic review found a growing body of evidence that an applied behavior analysis-based early intensive behavioral intervention, delivered over an extended time frame, improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills in autistic children. (aafp.org)
  • In children with autism spectrum disorder, an applied behavior analysis-based early intensive behavioral intervention delivered over an extended time frame improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. (aafp.org)
  • however, depersonalization-derealization disorder occurs when these feelings are strong, severe, persistent, or recurrent and when these feelings interfere with daily functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASD is a spectrum disorder which means that ASD affects each person differently and can range from very mild to severe. (cdc.gov)
  • Temple and Konstantareas found that persons with DS and AD have less severe psychotic behaviors, fewer hallucinations, and fewer delusions and were more likely to engage in physical movements than those with AD only. (medscape.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease and other disorders that cause dementia cause severe nerve cell loss. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These were called Asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that used to be diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome. (myfloridacfo.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. (aafp.org)
  • 5 - 7 In 2013, DSM-5 created the umbrella diagnosis of ASD, consolidating four previously separate disorders: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. (aafp.org)
  • information-processing disturbances may cause maltreating parents to misperceive or mislabel their child's behavior, which leads to inappropriate responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder is a condition that impacts a child's development. (childrens.com)
  • Cognitive behavior therapy is effective at lowering anxiety in older children with autism spectrum disorder who have an average or above-average IQ. (aafp.org)
  • There was no evidence that high-pressure oxygen therapy improved social interaction, behavioral problems, speech or language communication, or mental function in children with ASD. (cochrane.org)
  • Overall, study authors reported no improvement in social interaction and communication, behavioral problems, communication and linguistic abilities, or cognitive function. (cochrane.org)
  • Physical abuse can have long-term physical, psychological, and social consequences, and can even be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article presents a summary of the key diagnostic issues relating to paranoid personality disorder and describes various psychological and social processes mooted to be central to the genesis of paranoid thinking and behaviours. (cambridge.org)
  • The evaluation of preterm and term infants with complex conditions requires the involvement of professionals from multiple medical, rehabilitative, psychological, and social-service subspecialties. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep disorders can be intellectually and behaviorally detrimental to children because they interrupt the deep sleep patterns needed for healthy development. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Jeffrey Borenstein, M.D., serves as the President & CEO of the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, the largest private funder of mental health research grants. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused by mental illness by awarding grants that will lead to advances and breakthroughs in scientific research. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in a person's brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stress, with the ensuing activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, deeply affects neurotransmission and synaptic morphology in brain areas associated with behavior and mental states. (hindawi.com)
  • This special issue is intended to collect findings highlighting the idea that the understanding of the pathophysiology of stress-related pathologies (especially mood and anxiety disorders) must include an integrated approach, from the molecules to behavior, embracing the plasticity of the ever-changing brain in mammals. (hindawi.com)
  • He says this is an extraordinary example of research linking gene variation to brain receptors to behavior. (news-medical.net)
  • Adult male offspring with the long version had more vasopressin receptors in brain areas involved in social behavior and parenting and they also checked out female odors and greeted strangers more readily and were more apt to form pair bonds and nurture their young. (news-medical.net)
  • This relatively small genomic interval clearly holds important clues to understanding the social brain," explains Dr. State. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Kanske P , Böckler A, Trautwein M, Singer T. Dissecting the social brain: Introducing the EmpaToM to reveal distinct neural networks and brain-behavior relations for empathy and Theory of Mind. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • They damage neurons and slowly destroy their connections with the parts of the brain responsible for memory, language, social behavior, and reasoning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which means it affects how the brain and nervous system develop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Developed by Dr. Robert Goodman (Professor of Brain and Behavioural Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, London, England), the SDQ is a brief behavioral questionnaire designed for use by researchers, clinicians, and educators to identify children with clinically significant conduct disorders, emotional problems, and hyperactivity. (cdc.gov)
  • There are several reasons why integrating academic and behavior supports (particularly in the area of reading) could lead to improved student outcomes. (rtinetwork.org)
  • Wellness outcomes included self-reported pain/aching in specific body areas (musculoskeletal disorders or MSDs) and physical activity (PA). (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Gengoux serves as Associate Editor for the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. (stanford.edu)
  • For treatment of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we have developed effective group-based programs for treatment of core communication and social deficits in the preschool years using naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions such as Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and we have investigated the delivery of these treatments in home and community settings in several randomized controlled trials. (stanford.edu)
  • We establish that the social behaviour deficits in offspring exposed to MIA can be temporarily rescued by the inflammatory response elicited by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, we did not observe an LPS-induced rescue of social deficits in the monogenic models. (nih.gov)
  • 11, 2022 Lead is an environmental neurotoxicant that causes neurocognitive deficits and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Today, researchers at the University of Virginia Health System say children with sleep disorders can face similar risks of intellectual impairment. (sciencedaily.com)
  • A key goal of the UVa researchers is to predict which children with sleep disorders are most likely to suffer cognitive impairment or develop behavior problems. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Children with sleep disordered breathing may have cognitive impairment even if they don't completely stop breathing, even if their oxygen levels don't fall and even if they don't totally wake up. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We've also found that obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSBD) occurs more often in African American children and, therefore, places them at greater risk of cognitive impairment. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Introduction: Middle ear effusion (MEE) is a common childhood disorder that causes hearing impairment due to the presence of fluid in the middle ear which reduces the middle ear's ability to conduct sound. (bvsalud.org)
  • A diagnosis is made when the dissociation is persistent and interferes with the social or occupational functions of daily life. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these traits are all associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) , people with just a few of these traits may not necessarily meet criteria for diagnosis. (goodtherapy.org)
  • A normal response to unusual circumstances should always be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of a patient with cross-sectional features suggestive of paranoid personality disorder. (cambridge.org)
  • Diagnosis of this disorder is very difficult without extensive testing. (ipl.org)
  • The researchers, Drs. Larry Young and Elizabeth Hammock, of Emory University , using the native vole, traced social behavior traits, such as monogamy, to seeming glitches in DNA that determines when and where a gene turns on. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers suggest that variability in vasopressin receptor microsatellite length could help account for differences in normal human personality traits, such as shyness, and perhaps influence disorders of sociability like autism and social anxiety disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • Depersonalization-derealization disorder is thought to be caused largely by interpersonal trauma such as childhood abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DSM-IV-TR criteria for paranoid personality disorder ( American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) have been criticised for underrepresenting the typical affective and interpersonal features of the disorder, features that give a richer sense of the typical presentation ( Reference Bernstein, Useda, O'Donohue, Fowler and Lilienfield Bernstein 2007 ) ( Box 1 ). (cambridge.org)
  • a condition that negatively affects a person's physical or mental abilities, including learning, language skills, and behavior. (kidshealth.org)
  • 1 When a person's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors deviate from what's expected, it causes significant distress. (psychguides.com)
  • The competition, designed to reach a global audience of problem solvers, attracted more than 250 competitors from 63 countries who submitted innovative, multifaceted ideas for developing alternative housing and support services for the growing number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (prweb.com)
  • Initial triggers for developing this disorder may include significant stress or panic attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental stress is widely recognized as one of the main risk factors for neuropsychiatric diseases, including mood and anxiety disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical and preclinical studies have reported that the impact of stressful life events on the emotional and cognitive behavior may vary depending on the nature of stress and its intensity or duration, as well as the time window of development during which stress exposure occurs (perinatally, adolescence, adulthood, or ageing). (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Gengoux oversees the PRT group parent training program at Stanford, supervises postdoctoral fellows providing PRT clinical treatment, and has completed multiple clinical trials evaluating the effects of PRT on the social-communication competence of young children with autism. (stanford.edu)
  • What is autism spectrum disorder screening? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If a screening shows that a child may have the disorder, more testing will be needed to find out for sure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Autism spectrum disorder screening is most often used to check for signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children age 2 and under. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So, ASD screening may also be used in older children and adults who have certain challenges with social life and/or behavior that could be signs of ASD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why does a child or an adult need an autism spectrum disorder screening? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. (aafp.org)
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for autism spectrum disorder in young children for whom no concerns of autism spectrum disorder have been raised by their parents or a clinician. (aafp.org)
  • Screening for autism spectrum disorder with a validated tool is recommended at 18- and 24-month well-child visits to assist with early detection. (aafp.org)
  • Aug. 18, 2021 Children and adolescents can experience sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea, like adults. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Adolescents diagnosed with a personality disorder are more likely to be diagnosed with another mental disorder, such as anxiety or oppositional defiant disorder. (ipl.org)
  • Research indicate that anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders with epidemiological studies from USA and Europe showing that anxiety disorders has a lifetime prevalence of 14.5-33.7% in adults ( Bandelow and Michaelis, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This disorder became an important international problem, independently of cultural and economic conditions of life, styles of education, learning systems with a prevalence of about 5% -7% in most cultures. (novapublishers.com)
  • It is not an uncommon disorder, with a prevalence in community samples of around 1.3% ( Reference Torgersen, Oldham, Skodol and Bender Torgersen 2005 ), rising to up to 10% in psychiatric out-patient samples ( Reference Bernstein, Useda and Siever Bernstein 1993 ). (cambridge.org)
  • 1 Although it appeared to be a rare disorder at that time, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) steadily increased. (aafp.org)
  • 3 , 4 The increase in ASD prevalence may be partially attributed to the evolving diagnostic criteria prior to the publication of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th ed. (aafp.org)
  • Melatonin helps manage sleep disorders, improves daytime behavior, and has minimal adverse effects in children with autism spectrum disorder. (aafp.org)
  • The typical high school student today is not only navigating the complexities of adolescent hormones, a desire to belong, and stereotypical representations of beauty and success but also new forms of connection made possible by social media, which has been shown to exacerbate poor mental health. (onlinemadison.com)
  • The inner turmoil created by the disorder can also result in depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if these feelings do not go away and they interfere with daily life (for example, keeping a child home from school or other activities, or keeping an adult from working or attending social activities), a person might have depression. (cdc.gov)
  • Mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse can lead to a lack of impulse control, which can in turn lead to abusive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with BD experience alternating extreme mood states typically categorized by mania, depression, and impaired social functioning. (news-medical.net)
  • At NIH, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Division of Rare Diseases Research Innovation at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences all support research on Rett syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have trouble paying attention and controlling impulsive behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • However, these behaviors continue beyond early childhood (0-5 years of age) among children with ADHD. (cdc.gov)
  • In some cases, children with peer problems may also be at higher risk for anxiety, behavioral and mood disorders, substance abuse and delinquency as teenagers. (cdc.gov)
  • We're getting closer to the day when we can quickly establish risk profiles and effective treatment plans for children with sleep disorders. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We descriptively analyzed whether differences in the functions of spontaneous speech derived from Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) analysis are related to the T-scores for response inhibition ("Inhibit") and attentional flexibility ("Shift") of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) profiles of children with ASD. (scirp.org)
  • taught children with autism to respond to simple rules of "if/then" antecedent-behavior conditions, and observed a varied profile of responses. (scirp.org)
  • This disorder interferes to a great extent with functioning and development of children at different age. (novapublishers.com)
  • Therefore better understanding of children suffering Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder could help these children, their parents and educators to develop efficient treatment plans and integrated approaches that are uniquely tailored to each individual child. (novapublishers.com)
  • For instance, some children may have social challenges but be gifted learners. (childrens.com)
  • Dr. Gengoux is also a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in training parents to promote the healthy development of social skills in their children and manage challenging behavior using positive behavioral approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • In partnership with the community agency AbilityPath (formerly Gatepath/Abilities United), Dr. Gengoux also led an innovative inclusive social skills research program focused on improving peer initiations made by children with ASD (Social SUCCESS). (stanford.edu)
  • Autism was first described by psychiatrist Leo Kanner in 1943 as a disorder in children who had problems relating to others and a high sensitivity to changes in their environment. (aafp.org)
  • Does high-pressure oxygen therapy improve social communication or other aspects of function in children and adults with ASD, and how safe is this therapy? (cochrane.org)
  • Children with Rett syndrome may behave or move similarly to children with autism spectrum disorder , which is another neurodevelopmental disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These may include medications, occupational therapy, special equipment to help children with physical movement, nutritional programs, and educational and social support. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first section contains 25 questions regarding both positive and negative behaviors in children. (cdc.gov)
  • DSM-5), an increase in social awareness, and mandatory availability of treatments. (aafp.org)
  • The Rett Syndrome Research Trust supports clinical research into treatments and cures for the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to Young, far from being junk, the repetitive DNA sequences, which are highly prone to mutate rapidly, may ultimately exert their influence through complex interactions with other genes to produce individual differences and social diversity. (news-medical.net)
  • ASD can interfere with verbal and nonverbal communication, affect social interactions, and cause intense interests and/or repetitive behaviors. (prweb.com)
  • The survey points out that once people with mood disorders get care, they do well and can flourish," NAMI Chief Medical Officer Ken Duckworth , M.D., said in a statement. (onlinemadison.com)
  • A secondary objective was to examine the ways in which participants interpreted questions and the ensuing types of experiences or behaviors they considered as they formed their response. (cdc.gov)
  • The culminating text from the interview related how participants understood or interpreted each question and also outlined the types of experiences and behaviors participants considered in providing an answer. (cdc.gov)
  • Small group and individual qualified health plans effective on or after January 1, 2014, are required to provide ten essential health benefits, with one being coverage for mental health and substance use disorders. (myfloridacfo.com)
  • Grandfathered and transitional individual and small group health plans are not required to include mental health and substance use disorder benefits and are not subject to requirements of the ACA as it relates to mental health benefits. (myfloridacfo.com)
  • ACEs include both unhealthy home environments, such as living with a substance abusing parent, as well as harmful behaviors directed toward the child, such as emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike either treatment alone, the new therapy, called dialectical behavior and social rhythm therapy (DBSRT), targets all three disease-relevant processes and therefore may represent a promising new approach to treatment for individuals with these two conditions. (medworm.com)
  • Guided Internet-delivered therapy has shown to be an effective treatment format for anxiety disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current study aimed to examine whether treatment self-efficacy (self-efficacy regarding the mastery of obstacles during treatment) in guided Internet-delivered therapy for anxiety disorders in adults could be a predictor of lower dropout rates and greater symptom reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • This calls for ways in which more patients can receive treatment for their disorder. (frontiersin.org)
  • The evidence relating to paranoid personality disorder and risk of violence is summarised and clinically useful guidance for the safe treatment of people with the disorder is outlined. (cambridge.org)
  • Pretest and posttest teacher ratings revealed significant decreases in students' internalizing behaviors at the treatment school, while these behaviors increased at the control school. (ed.gov)
  • However, applicants must clearly demonstrate how these studies will lead to future experimental tests of the causal relationship between a potential mechanism of behavior change and treatment outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Most people who have these disorders don't seek treatment immediately, even if personality disorder treatment program options are available for them. (psychguides.com)
  • The types of coverage include treatment of ASD and Down Syndrome through speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and applied behavior analysis. (myfloridacfo.com)
  • People with intellectual disability have a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence and limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities. (cdc.gov)
  • This disorder can cause communication problems, social challenges, difficult behaviors or intellectual disability. (childrens.com)
  • Researchers also provided tips for introducing social skills to students and a script to use during sessions. (ed.gov)
  • Researchers have made a discovery that may in future help to explain many aspects of human social behavior and disorders such as autism. (news-medical.net)
  • Once the specific genes mutated in ASDs are known with confidence, we can begin to think with clarity about problems specific to individuals within categories of causation rather than attempting to manage a conglomerate disorder. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This is the latest discovery in a two decades-old scientific quest for the neural basis of familial behavior begun at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Intramural Research Program in the mid l980s by NIMH director Thomas Insel, M.D. By l993. (news-medical.net)
  • Paranoid personality disorder is a neglected topic in clinical psychiatry, and is often the subject of diagnostic confusion and therapeutic pessimism. (cambridge.org)