Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Housing, AnimalPheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Socioenvironmental Therapy: Therapy whose primary emphasis is on the physical and social structuring of the environment to promote interpersonal relationships which will be influential in reducing behavioral disturbances of patients.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Genetic Phenomena: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sublimation: A defense mechanism through which unacceptable impulses and instinctive urges are diverted into personally and socially acceptable channels; e.g., aggression may be diverted through sports activities.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Generalization, Response: The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.PrimatesAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Mice, Inbred C57BLModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Hypodermoclysis: Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Observation: The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.United StatesNeurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/5175)Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately. (+info)
Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (2/5175)Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta. (+info)
Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments. (3/5175)Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana etiology with adolescents (N = 624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires about their marijuana use, social influences to smoke marijuana, and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that social influences, such as friends' marijuana use and perceived ease of availability of marijuana, significantly predicted both occasional and future use of marijuana. Individual characteristics such as antimarijuana attitudes and drug refusal skills also predicted marijuana use. The findings imply that effective prevention approaches that target urban youths residing in public housing developments should provide them with an awareness of social influences to use marijuana, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of marijuana smoking, and train adolescents in relevant psychosocial skills. (+info)
Sex-biased dispersal in sperm whales: contrasting mitochondrial and nuclear genetic structure of global populations. (4/5175)The social organization of most mammals is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal. Such sex-biased dispersal can cause the genetic structure of populations to differ between the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the bi-parental nuclear genome. Here we report on the global genetic structure of oceanic populations of the sperm whale, one of the most widely distributed mammalian species. Groups of females and juveniles are mainly found at low latitudes, while males reach polar waters, returning to tropical and subtropical waters to breed. In comparisons between oceans, we did not find significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies of microsatellite loci (exact test; p = 0.23). Estimates of GST = 0.001 and RST = 0.005 also indicated negligible if any nuclear DNA differentiation. We have previously reported significant differentiation between oceans in mtDNA sequences. These contrasting patterns suggest that interoceanic movements have been more prevalent among males than among females, consistent with observations of females being the philopatric sex and having a more limited latitudinal distribution than males. Consequently, the typical mammalian dispersal pattern may have operated on a global scale in sperm whales. (+info)
Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia. (5/5175)This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between neurocognitive and social functioning in a sample of 80 outpatients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia. The neurocognitive battery included measures of verbal ability, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, visual-spatial organization, vigilance, and early information processing. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A range of social behaviors were assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and a video-based test, the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Social functioning as assessed by the SFS was unrelated to neurocognitive functioning. Poor cognitive flexibility was associated with low scores on the QLS and the AIPSS. Verbal ability and verbal memory were also significantly associated with the AIPSS. Visual-spatial ability and vigilance were associated with the sending skills subscale of the AIPSS. In this study, which used a wide range of neurocognitive tests and measures of community functioning and social problem solving, results support earlier research that suggests an association between certain aspects of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning. (+info)
Scaling in animal group-size distributions. (6/5175)An elementary model of animal aggregation is presented. The group-size distributions resulting from this model are truncated power laws. The predictions of the model are found to be consistent with data that describe the group-size distributions of tuna fish, sardinellas, and African buffaloes. (+info)
Further analysis of the separate and interactive effects of methylphenidate and common classroom contingencies. (7/5175)We evaluated separate and interactive effects between common classroom contingencies and methylphenidate (MPH) on disruptive and off-task behaviors for 4 children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Analogue conditions consisting of contingent teacher reprimands, brief time-out, no interaction, and alone were conducted in a multielement design. Medication status (MPH or placebo) was alternated across days in a superordinate multielement design. Results indicate that (a) the behavioral effects of MPH were influenced by one or more of the analogue conditions for each participant, and (b) time-out was associated with zero or near-zero levels of both disruptive and off-task behavior for 3 of the 4 participants during MPH and placebo conditions. Implications for the clinical effectiveness of MPH and possible behavioral mechanisms of action of MPH in applied settings are discussed. (+info)
The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. (8/5175)Social contact often initially depends on ascertaining the direction of the other person's gaze. We determined the brain areas involved in gaze monitoring by a functional neuroimaging study. Discrimination between the direction of gaze significantly activated a region in the left amygdala during eye-contact and no eye-contact tasks to the same extent. However, a region in the right amygdala was specifically activated only during the eye-contact task. Results confirm that the left amygdala plays a general role in the interpretation of eye gaze direction, and that the activity of the right amygdala of the subject increases when another individual's gaze is directed towards him. This suggests that the human amygdala plays a role in reading social signals from the face. (+info)
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
Social skill and language are known to relate, not least in the example of those with specific language impairment (SLI). However, most of the research examining this trend has been conducted on young primary school age children and the nature of the relationships is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about which young people in general have social difficulties and whether language, social cognition, and social skills are directly associated at this age. In this study, a large cohort made up of young people with a history of SLI (N = 134) and a typically developing (TD) group (N = 124) of the same age were followed up in their final year of compulsory schooling (aged 16). Language, social cognition, social skills, and functional social outcomes (friendships and levels of social activity) were assessed using tasks and questionnaires. Modest associations were found between social cognition, language, and social behaviours, the strongest being between language and social cognition. Regression ...
How can we design systems that encourage better cybersecurity behaviors? Despite important improvements to the usability of cybersecurity systems, much security advice goes ignored and many security systems remain underutilized. I argue that this disconnect can partially be explained by the fact that theres a largely unconsidered cost to engaging in good security behaviors: costs of social face. For example, by using two-factor authentication, one might be perceived as "paranoid." By encrypting ones phone, one might be perceived as having something to hide. More generally, by caring too strongly about cybersecurity, one may give off the impression of being shady. In this talk, I present evidence in support of the following claim: Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity behaviors by designing security systems that are more social. First, I empirically modeled how social influences affect the adoption of security behaviors ...
Bob Prechters new science of socionomics explains that stock market fluctuations mirror trends in peoples collective mood. In simple terms, when the market is buoyant, it indicates positive social mood; the opposite when a bear market takes over.. The fascinating part is that because the stock market and social mood trend closely together, a forecaster can apply Elliott wave analysis to both - and predict both.. Generally, widespread brutalities and wars do not follow the first phase of a bear market. Extreme violence, when it does occur, often follows the worst part of the markets downturn - like the end of the Great Depression, a negative social mood period that ultimately ushered in World War II.. But even during the first phase, a negative social mood grows. So, if a forecaster determines correctly where in the wave structure social mood resides, he can make educated forecasts about what will follow in society - given what has happened before under similar social mood ...
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. Skill deficits are most noticeable in social behavior and these deficits may be related to atypical responsiveness to social stimuli. The current study sought to examine how individuals with an ASD allocated their behavior in the presence of others pre and post social exchange training and to evaluate the qualitative changes in social behavior following training. One adult and three children with an ASD participated. Relative preference for social interaction and the qualitative state of social engagement during social interaction were measured. Participants then received training to initiate and sustain a social exchange. Prompting and reinforcement, in the form of preferred social consequences, were provided. Following social exchange training, the results suggested an increased preference for social interaction for some participants and a qualitatively richer state of social engagement ...
Funder: Ford Foundation Partner: CERISE The Project Goal The Social Performance Fund promotes the broad adoption of the Universal Standards for Social Performance Management. Our aim is to promote SPM implementation by building the capacity of national associations and MFIs to use the SPI4 tool to manage and report on their social performance. Geography: Global Status: Finished Social Performance Reports Social Performance in Europe, .... Read More ...
Mir Saeed Moosavi & Zhila Darvishi Postin Doz, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran, ID CLEaR2017-408; Abstract: The changing conditions within cities over time and differences in living conditions between cities suggest that at best these studies provide a crude snapshot of how the mass of urban living conditions at one point in time may be affecting population health, social behavior and communication. Urban green spaces are an integral part of any urban area and their importance is very well known for maintaining the environmental quality, sustainability, social communication as well as population health and wellbeing. Urban green spaces constitute parks, gardens and recreation venues, informal green spaces such as river or sea fronts, green spaces surrounding historical sites, railway corridors and indigenous vegetation types.. The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between green space and community attachment in urban areas including metropolitan areas in Iran. The detailed ...
Despite growing interest in integrating people׳s daily mobility into contextual studies of social inequalities in health, the links between daily mobility and health inequalities remain inadequately conceptualised. This conceptual proposal anchors the relationship between daily mobility and contextual influences on social inequalities in health into the concept of mobility potential, which encompasses the opportunities and places individuals can choose (or are constrained) to access. Mobility potential is realized as actual mobility through agency. Being shaped by socially-patterned personal and geographic characteristics, mobility potential is unequally distributed across social groups. Social inequalities in realized mobility may thus result. We discuss pathways by which these may contribute to contextual influences on social inequalities in health. One pathway is reflected in disadvantaged groups encountering more fast-food outlets during their daily activities, which may relate to their higher risk
Human social behavior develops under the influence of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. Social cognition comprises our ability to understand and respond appropriately to other peoples social approaches or responses. The concept embraces self-knowledge and theory of mind, or the ability …
Social inhibition can be lowered by a few different factors, one of them being alcohol. Alcohol consumption can be seen to lower inhibitions in both men and women. Social inhibitions generally act to control or affect the way that one conducts themselves in a social setting. By lowering inhibitions alcohol can work to increase social behaviors either negatively or positively. Importantly, one must remember that the higher the dosage of alcohol, the greater the damage it will cause to inhibitory control. By lowering inhibitions, alcohol can cause social behaviors such as aggression, self disclosure, and violent acts. Researchers have suggested that situational cues used to inhibit social behaviors are not perceived the same way after someone consumes enough alcohol to qualify them as drunk: "interacting parties who are impaired by alcohol are less likely to see justifications for the others behavior, are thus more likely to interpret the behavior as arbitrary and provocative, and then, ...
Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote.. That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. Similarly, in a mouse model of ASD, the animals, like humans, show little interest in interacting or socializing with other mice.. One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization.. Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior.. In addition, the findings suggest that giving oxytocin as early as possible in the animals life leads to more lasting effects in adults and adolescents. This suggests there may be critical ...
Our lab studies mechanisms of social disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some of our work investigates social cognition, a term that refers to the perceptual and processing abilities that facilitate social interaction. These include a wide range of skills such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and attribution biases, and we examine relationships between social cognition in ASD to general cognition, social behavior, and social functioning. Our studies utilize a variety of different neuropsychological methods, including eye tracking to monitor and quantify perceptual patterns, computerized testing of social cognitive abilities, and video analysis of social functioning.. Our lab also studies face processing, non-social motivation (i.e., circumscribed interests), and the Broad Autism Phenotype. More recently, we have been examining how social interaction difficulties for adults on the spectrum are often a relational rather than an individual impairment, and how the perceptions, ...
Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions b
Children with craniofacial anomalies, such as microtia, experience significant teasing, rejection, and other negative social responses, such as social avoidance from others. These occurrences show trends toward social withdrawal, likely as a reaction to the negative reactions of others (Snyder, 2005). Children with craniofacial anomalies are treated differently than children without such defects; the affected children consequently have been shown to be more introverted and to express a more negative self-concept than unaffected children (Weinstein, 2005). These negative events may also result in decreased self-esteem, increased anxiety, behavioral problems, and difficulty with social integration. The patients who request ear reconstruction often complain of diminished self-consciousness and being teased by peers. Children born with microtia tend towards social isolation, they play less with other children, meet less people, and hide more commonly from certain people, and avoid school. The longer ...
Enterprise 3 Your Business and the Triple Bottom Line Economic, Environmental, Social Performance The Sustainable Business Network and the Ministry for the Environment have developed this guide in partnership.
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
p,This international, peer-reviewed journal aims to advance knowledge in the growing and strongly interdisciplinary area of Interaction Studies in biological and artificial systems. Understanding social behaviour and communication in biological and artificial systems requires knowledge of evolutionary, developmental and neurobiological aspects of social behaviour and communication; the embodied nature of interactions; origins and characteristics of social and narrative intelligence; perception, action and communication in the context of dynamic and social environments; social learning, adaptation and imitation; social behaviour in human-machine interactions; the nature of empathic understanding, behaviour and intention reading; minimal requirements and systems exhibiting social behaviour; the role of cultural factors in shaping social behaviour and communication in biological or artificial societies.,/p,,p,The journal welcomes contributions that analyze social behaviour in humans and other ...
Rhonda Charles is a 2010 ASF Grant Winner and a PhD Student in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. Ms. Charles work focuses on the AVPR1A gene, which affects social behavior and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. Her ASF- funded study puts the human AVPR1A gene into a mouse model, a key step that must occur before we can introduce pharmacological treatments for individuals with autism affected by AVPR1A gene mutations.. ...
Behavior and Social Issues is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal which serves as a primary scholarly outlet for articles that advance the analysis of human social behavior, particularly with regard to understanding important social problems.
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize peoples appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals perception of others as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bear
Living in a large social group is thought to increase disease risk in wild animal populations, but comparative studies have provided mixed support for this prediction. Here, we take a social network perspective to investigate whether patterns of social contact within groups influence parasite risk. Specifically, increased modularity (i.e. sub-grouping) in larger groups could offset the increased disease risk associated with living in a large group. We simulated the spread of a contagious pathogen in random social networks to generate theoretically grounded predictions concerning the relationship between social network connectivity and the success of socially transmitted pathogens. Simulations yielded the prediction that community modularity (Q) negatively impacts parasite success. No clear predictions emerged for a second network metric we considered, the eigenvector centralization index (C), as the relationship between this measure and parasite success depended on the transmission probability ...
There is provided a system and method for transmitting social communication data across at least one social communication channel. The method is performed by a computing device for communicating social data, comprising: receiving a composed social data object; integrating at least one tracker object within the social data object; transmitting the social data object comprising said tracker object to at least one destination target; obtaining a response from said tracker object indicating target feedback, wherein the target feedback indicates at least one of: subsequent transmission of the social data object to additional destination targets and feedback parameters from at least one of: said at least one destination target and said additional destination targets.
Get this from a library! Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood. [Tremaine, Emily A.] -- Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood
This is a somewhat challenging book to review for Sociological Research Online because it is not sociological. The book, an edited collection, reflects the work of a cluster of educational and developmental psychologists with a particular interest in the influence of peers and teachers on pupil motivation. Engagement with related social factors promises to lead towards better understanding of childrens adjustment in school.. In principle I would argue, greater exploration of overlaps in psychological and sociological disciplines is to be greatly welcomed, for far too many issues have been colonised by particular disciplines only to be doomed to a lack of holistic validity. A book on social motivation thus generates very positive expectations. Indeed, for Bernard Weiner, writing the Forward, it is a landmark volume for the way in which it gives affiliative motivation its proper role and respect and for signalling the potential for a general theory of motivation.. In structure the ...
The model and results presented here demonstrate how asocial organisms that reproduce parthenogenetically and grow within somewhat isolated colonies can evolve to social organisms that invest in the common good. The effect of clonal mixing on the level of sociality can be quantified with a relatedness measure. This demonstrates how social behaviour is not precluded by clonal mixing and may evolve without the need for some form of kin recognition.. The relatedness measure we have used quantifies assortment in the population. Our derivation of this measure and the costs and benefits came from a detailed ecological model. By demonstrating how inclusive fitness arguments follow from the ecology, without the need to invoke other mechanisms such as group selection, our work contributes to a growing body of literature that highlights the usefulness of inclusive fitness in complex ecological scenarios (e.g. Lehmann et al. 2007; Taylor et al. 2007).. Interestingly, as shown by equation (2.2), both ...
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The proposition of this study was that training in social skills and subsequent stimulation to practice the skills developed in the intervention would favor the social competence of children surviving brain tumors. The results support this proposition, because the data from the interviews with the dyads indicated an improvement in the general standard of social competence of the two children following the intervention based on social skills training. These findings corroborate those from previous studies that highlight the effectiveness of interventions focused on social skills training (Barakat et al., 2003; Devine et al., 2016; Schulte, Vannatta et al., 2014).. Although they underwent the same intervention procedures, the two children demanded specific procedures to address the sequelae of their illness. Alan and Betina had different sequelae, but they shared the fear of being rejected because of these characteristics, which may be attributable to the fact that they did not have the skills ...
The health of older adults is influenced by many factors. One of the least understood is the role that social support and personal relationships may play in healthy aging. The National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) is the first population-based study of health and social factors on a national scale, aiming to understand the well-being of older, community-dwelling Americans by examining the interactions among physical health, illness, medication use, cognitive function, emotional health, sensory function, health behaviors, and social connectedness. It is designed to provide health providers, policy makers, and individuals with useful information and insights into these factors, particularly on social and intimate relationships. The National Opinion Research Center (NORC), along with Principal Investigators at the University of Chicago, conducted more than 3,000 interviews during 2005 and 2006 with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 57 to 85. Face-to-face interviews ...
The prevention of drug use and drug-related problems among young people is a key policy objective and is one of the pillars of the European Drugs Strategy 2013-20. Drug prevention encompasses a wide range of approaches. Environmental and universal strategies target entire populations, selective prevention targets vulnerable groups who may be at greater risk of developing drug use problems, and indicated prevention focuses on at-risk individuals. Over the last decade, the availability of quality standards, which can support intervention delivery and best practice, has grown. The European Drug Prevention Quality Standards Project provides toolkits to support the implementation of standards in this area.. A relatively robust evidence base exists for some prevention approaches that may be implemented in school settings. While countries report extensive implementation of smoking bans in schools and school drug policies, approaches for which an evidence base exists, prevention approaches solely based ...
The Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR) is a national initiative to improve the health of minority Americans through scholarship, better public health interventions, and by fostering and mentoring the next generation of minority scholars ...
In their new paper, Nowak, Tarnita and Wilson propose that "kin selection" is not only wrong, it is unnecessary. They argue that standard natural selection theory, in the context of precise models of population structure, is a simpler and more fruitful approach, allowing the evaluation of multiple competing hypotheses, and providing an exact framework for interpreting experimental observations. The key here is mathematical modeling; hence, Wilsons co-authors. Wilsons own vast knowledge of the social insects provides the teams empirical base. But we are not just talking about ants and bees. At the end of their paper, Nowak, Tarnita and Wilson say: "We have not addressed the evolution of human social behavior here, but parallels with the scenarios of animal eusocial evolution exist, and they are, we believe, well worth examining ...
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which encompasses the anterior paracingulate cortex and extends rostrally along the medial frontal wall, has recently received a considerable amount of scientific inquiry as a distinct subregion of the frontal lobe. This is, in part, because the mPFC is involved in core mental functions that form the foundation of many human social behaviors (Spreng et al., 2009). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided strong support for a link between the mPFC and a wide variety of cognitive functions critical for social behavior, including abilities to reflect upon past interactions and personal traits, to comprehend and/or predict the behaviors of others, and to empathize with the sufferings of others (for review, see Frith, 2007). One of the more reliable fMRI observations, however, is that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal increases in the mPFC during unconstrained rest, a characteristic that has been used to infer functional ...
A new study reports people with higher levels of moral reasoning appear to have increased grey matter volume in areas of the brain associated with complex social behavior and decision making.... Read More... ...
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, born in Geneva in 1712, had an important influence on political philosophy in the 18th century and since, in particular through his book The social contract, published in 1762.1,2 This monumental work is part of the family of older, major writings on social contract theory by Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704).. The relationships between individuals, the state and government form the key components of Rousseaus "social contract". A first principle to govern these relationships is that man has no natural authority over other human beings and sheer force exercised by one individual over another does not justify authority. Rather, legitimate authority must find its rationale in so-called social pacts or contracts.2 Secondly, competition among men will stimulate the need for a social pact, so that each can preserve oneself and be protected by the "general will" enacted by the people.3. The social contract purports to provide a proper alternative to the ...
The authores propose that humans are adapted to transfer knowledge to, and receive knowledge from, conspecifics by teaching. This adaptation, which they call 'pedagogy', involves the emergence of a special communication system that does not presuppose either language or high-level theory of mind, but could itself provide a basis facilitating the development of these human-specific abilities both in phylogenetic and ontogenetic terms. They speculate that tool manufacturing and mediated tool use made the evolution of such a new social learning mechanism necessary. However, the main body of evidence supporting this hypothesis comes from developmental psychology. They argue that many central phenomena of human infant social cognition that may seem puzzling in the light of their standard functional explanation can be more coherently and plausibly interpreted as reflecting the adaptations to receive knowledge from social partners through teaching ...
Video created by University of Pennsylvania for the course Viral Marketing and How to Craft Contagious Content. In this module, youll learn what social networks are, and how they shape the spread of information and influence. How the patterns ...
Deficits in social behavior are found in several neuro-psychiatric disorders with a presumed developmental origin. The aim of the present study is to determine if prenatal stress at a given day of gestation alters social behavior in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute stress (presence of a cat) either at the 10th (S10), the 14th (S14) or the 19th (S19) gestational day. When adult, their offsprings were studied in anxiety, neophobic and social behaviors. The results showed that S10 and S19 rats were more anxious and less aggressive than control rats, while the anxious and aggressive behavior of S14 rats was similar to that of the control ones ...
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10). SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure), increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia) was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce
The follow-up finding is equally illuminating, shedding light on both the workings of the brain and on evolution itself. The relationship between people and pathogens, the researchers suggest, could have directly affected the development of our social behavior, allowing us to engage in the social interactions necessary for the survival of the species while developing ways for our immune systems to protect us from the diseases that accompany those interactions. Social behavior is, of course, in the interest of pathogens, as it allows them to spread.. The UVA researchers have shown that a specific immune molecule, interferon gamma, seems to be critical for social behavior and that a variety of creatures, such as flies, zebrafish, mice and rats, activate interferon gamma responses when they are social. Normally, this molecule is produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Blocking the molecule in mice using genetic modification made regions of the brain hyperactive, ...
A frame of reference for studying human disease is presented. An individuals social behavior serves as the orienting theme. Special forms of social behavior are in effect what tie an individual to his physical and social space, and alterations here can lead to disease. Causes of disease can thus be linked to behaviors of the individual. Although associated with basic changes in the physiologies and chemistries of the individual, disease invariably comes to affect the individuals behavior and adaptation. Different ways in which such behavioral changes can be conceptualized are discussed. The individual relies on these behavioral changes as the data for evaluating his disease and deciding about medical treatment. A model of how an individual processes information about illness and makes decisions designed to alleviate his condition is presented. Finally, the rationale and value of keeping behavior and adaptation in mind when studying disease are discussed. ...
Humans spend much of their time in the company of other people, whose behaviour is complex, often unpredictable, and highly relevant to our own daily lives. Making sense of all of this places strong demands on the "social brain". We can think of the social brain as a system that continuously (and often unconsciously) seeks answers to questions: Is anyone there? Who is that? What are they looking at? What are they doing? What are they feeling? What are they thinking? How do I feel about them? Modern social-cognitive neuroscience has uncovered a great deal about the brain systems that ask and answer these questions. The module will cover important concepts and findings in this area. There is a particular emphasis on understanding the "typical" social brain - we do not focus on mental illnesses and psychiatric disorders.. ...
Natural selection is expected to lead to "good" genes taking over a population, and thereby to deplete genetic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, even traits closely correlated to fitness often show considerable genotypic and phenotypic variation. Social behavior like dominance behavior and parental care behavior can vary widely between individuals, and incur fitness consequences. There must therefore be mechanisms operating that result in genetic variation in social behavioral traits being preserved. Different social environments may select for different social traits ...
Infancy is the time of life during which enormous changes take place- the helpless newborn seems almost a different creature from the inquisitive, walking and talking 2-year-old. During this formative life period, infants develop in an intensely social world filled with other people and one of the most important tasks they face is to develop skills that help them to interact with others and understand others social behavior.
Latest research in Modelling and Simulation of Complex Social Systems Presents the modelling of the complex dynamics that drive the linked epidemiologies
Downloadable! This paper seeks to provide a profile of social group disparities and poverty in India, where social groups are classified as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other social groups, and examine the factors underlying differences in levels of living between these groups and for each group separately. The paper argues that social group disparities in levels of living are the result of historically rooted social disadvantages for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by way of social exclusion and physical exclusion respectively, which continue to operate in contemporary Indian society.
Downloadable! This paper seeks to provide a profile of social group disparities and poverty in India, where social groups are classified as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other social groups, and examine the factors underlying differences in levels of living between these groups and for each group separately. The paper argues that social group disparities in levels of living are the result of historically rooted `social disadvantages for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by way of social exclusion and physical exclusion respectively, which continue to operate in contemporary Indian society.
This book examines the cultural, biological and other processes that explain how humans evolved into an exceptionally cooperative species. It advances two propositions, the first of which deals with proximate motivations for prosocial behavior and the second is concerned with the distant evolutionary origins and ongoing perpetuation of these cooperative dispositions. It argues that cooperation arose because it was highly beneficial to the members of groups that practiced it, and humans were able to construct social institutions that minimized the disadvantages of those with social preferences in competition with fellow group members, while heightening the group-level advantages associated with the high levels of cooperation that these social preferences allowed. The book explains why altruistic social preferences supporting human cooperation outcompeted unmitigated and amoral self-interest.
Whats normal social behavior? And how can parents help their kids develop strong social skills? Check out this evidence-based guide to social cognition.
Research at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences revolves around human cognitive abilities and cerebral processes, with a focus on the neural basis of brain functions like language, emotions and human social behaviour, music and action.
Social behavior. Adults typically do not survive cold northern winters, but larvae overwinter and moths begin to appear ... The adults will feed on different flowers depending on its behavior and on whether they are diurnal or nocturnal. It the adults ...
Behavior. Social behavior. Risso's dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which ... Risso's dolphins have a stratified social organisation. These dolphins typically travel in groups of 10-51, but can ... "Social structure of Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) at the Azores: a stratified community based on highly associated social ... Linear scars mostly from social interaction eventually cover the bulk of the body; scarring is a common feature in toothed ...
Social behavior. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... Feeding behavior. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Mating behavior. In general, both sexes will copulate with several mates during mating season. However, each time a ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Social behavior. Female and calf American mastodon at the George Page Museum ... Based on the characteristics of mastodon bone sites, it can be inferred that, as in modern proboscideans, the mastodon social ... behavior". Quaternary International. 126-128: 5. Bibcode:2005QuInt.126....5S. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.011.. ...
Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences? (2013) indicated that with internal deliberation, the ... "Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences?". Journal of the European Economic Association. 11 (3 ... Social behavior. Cognitive dissonance is used to promote positive social behaviours, such as increased condom use; ... social pain) caused by salient, upward social-comparison, by social-class snobbery. That social emotions, such as embarrassment ...
Social behavior. Two male gazelles in an agonistic display with females nearby ... a b c d e f g h Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los ... Estes, R. D. (1967). "The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles". Journal of Mammalogy. 48 (2): 189-209. doi: ... Jarman, P. J. (1974). "The Social Organization of Antelope in Relation to their Ecology". Behaviour. 48 (3-4): 215-267. doi: ...
Social behavior and reproduction. Play media. Male elephant seals fighting for mates ... Le Boeuf BJ (1972). "Sexual behavior in the Northern Elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris". Behaviour. 41 (1): 1-26. doi: ... Le Beouf, Burney J.; Richard M. Laws (1994). Elephant Seals: Population ecology, behavior, and physiology. University of ... Males and females differ in diving behavior. Males tend to hug the continental shelf while making deep dives and forage along ...
Social behavior. The scarlet ibis is a sociable and gregarious bird, and very communally-minded regarding the search for ... Behavior. Breeding. Mating pairs build nests in a simple style, typically "loose platforms of sticks" of a ...
Social organization and behavior. This female eastern bongo presents her hindquarters while looking over her shoulder to ... This behavior is believed to be a means of getting salts and minerals into their diets. This behavior has also been reported in ... Estes, Richard D. (1991) The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Berkeley and ... They have a complex social interaction and are found in African dense forest mosaics. ...
The value of a social behavior depends in part on the social behavior of an animal's neighbors. For example, the more likely a ... When a population exhibits a number of interacting social behaviors such as this, it can evolve a stable pattern of behaviors ... Social behaviors. Animals cooperate with each other to increase their own fitness. These altruistic, and sometimes ... Hamilton, W. D. (1964). "The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 7 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1016/ ...
Social and foraging behavior. Newly emerged workers start out at the bottom of the dominance hierarchy in the social ... Social castes. Like in most social bees, there are three main social caste divisions in B. terrestris. This ensures a ... Reproductive behavior. Mating system. B. terrestris is a singly mating species. Mating with multiple males might ... Foraging behavior. B. terrestris generally forage on a large variety of flower species. Their highest activity is in the ...
Social behavior. See also: Social behavior in the brown rat. Generally speaking, rats are quite sociable and function ... Rat Behavior and Biology - A website with useful referenced articles that pertain to the scientific study of the domesticated ... are a mostly benign group of bacteria that commonly reside on the top of the skin, but cuts and scratches from social and ... Price, Edward O. (2003). Animal Domestication and Behavior. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-597-7.. ...
"Social Behavior of the Little Brown Bat, Myotis lucifugus: I. Mating Behavior". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 6 (2): 129 ... Little brown bats are most affected by white-nose syndrome when they exhibit social, grouping behavior when hibernating, as P. ... In the fall, however, individuals of both sexes will congregate in the same roost in a behavior known as "swarming." Like ... In some colonies where grouping behavior was common before exposure to white-nose syndrome, bats now hibernate in a more ...
Social behavior. A pair of captive North American river otters at Phillips Park Zoo in Aurora, IL. ... The North American river otter is more social than most mustelids. In all habitats, their basic social group is the family, ... Behavior. North American river otters are active year-round, and are most active at night and during crepuscular hours. ... However, playful behavior was found in only 6% of 294 observations in a study in Idaho, and was limited mostly to immature ...
Behavior and social systems. Many megabat species are highly gregarious, or social. Megabats will vocalize to communicate ... Megabat social behavior includes using sexual behaviors for more than just reproduction. Female Egyptian fruit bats take food ... Safi, Kamran (2008). "Social Bats: The Males' Perspective". Journal of Mammalogy. 89 (6): 1342-1350. Bibcode:2007JMamm..88.. ... Dumont, Elizabeth R.; O'Neal, Reilly (2004). "Food Hardness and Feeding Behavior in Old World Fruit Bats (Pteropodidae)". ...
social behavior Plasmodium. (malaria parasite). Birds, mammals. (inc. humans). Anopheles mosquito vector, attracted by odour of ... "Social Parasites in the Ant Colony". Antkeepers. Retrieved 4 April 2016.. *^ Deslippe, Richard (2010). "Social Parasitism in ... Social parasitism. Further information: Ant mimicry and Cuckoo bee. Social parasites take advantage of interspecific ... Further information: Behavior-altering parasites. Some parasites modify host behaviour in order to increase their transmission ...
Yin, Xu; Jin-Song, Huang (2014). "Effects Of Price Discounts And Bonus Packs On Online Impulse Buying". Social Behavior & ... Although there are aspects that can determine a consumer's shopping behavior, there are many outside factors that can influence ... because of this habitual behavior, "consumers may perceive the ($14) difference between $93 and $79 as greater than the ($14) ... "increasingly implement promotional campaigns that will be effective in triggering consumer impulse buying behavior" to increase ...
... better academic and classroom behavior, and improved social behavior. Exercising while on stimulant medication augments ... The social construct theory of ADHD suggests that because the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" behavior are socially ... People with ADHD of all ages are more likely to have problems with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and ... They also may drift off during conversations, miss social cues, and have trouble learning social skills. ...
Rustichini Aldo, Claire Villeval Marie (2014). "Moral hypocrisy, power and social preferences". Journal of Economic Behavior & ... Greene M., Low K. (2014). "Public integrity, private hypocrisy, and the moral licensing effect". Social Behavior and ... Social psychology. Social psychologists have generally viewed hypocrisy as an instantiation of attitudinal and/or ... how prosocial behavior is shaped by social expectations". Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 897. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00897. PMC ...
Lameiras Fernández, M.; Rodríguez Castro, Y. (2003). "The Big Five and sexual attitudes in Spanish students". Social Behavior ... Social structural theory. According to social structural theory, the division of labor and social expectations lead to ... An examination of implicit social motives, sexual fantasies, coercive sexual attitudes, and aggressive sexual behavior". ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 19 (3): 153-170. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.522.7377. doi:10.1016/s1090-5138(98)00006-3.. ...
Marmots: social behavior and ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford *^ Aaltonen, K; A.A. Bryant; J.A. Hostetler & M. K. ... Allee proposed that social animals require a critical mass in order to survive, because survival requires group activities such ... Ecologist Justin Brashares suggests that at least some of the marmot's group behavior is learned, so that the loss of marmot " ... "Marmot meltdown averted: Vancouver Island species on the brink of extinction regaining social bonds". Scientific American. ...
"Journal of Social Behavior & Personality. 9 (4): 665-84.. *^ a b Major, Brenda (1994). Olson, James M.; Zanna, Mark P., eds. " ... Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 978 ... "From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership". ... Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 26: 293-355. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08) ...
"Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 17 (10): 633-38. doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.0585. PMID 25226054.. ... "social ritual" of privacy, or the social practice of respecting an individual's privacy barriers, the social group communicates ... Altman, Irwin (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior: Privacy, Personal Space, Territory, and Crowding. Monterey: Brooks/ ... Goffman, Erving (1968). Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New York: Doubleday.. ...
Behavior, and Social Networking. 16 (5): 364-369. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0271. ISSN 2152-2715. S K Mangal (1 August 2013). ... Psychological evaluation is defined as a way of assessing an individual's behavior, personality, cognitive abilities, and ... Behavior Research Methods: 1-15. doi:10.3758/s13428-016-0710-8. ISSN 1554-3528. Grieve, Rachel; Elliott, Jade (2013-04-10). " ... and designs treatment plans based around broad social categories. Taking a personal history along with clinical examination ...
Social behavior in facultative social bees is often reliably predicted by ecological conditions, and switches in behavioral ... "Evo-Devo and the Evolution of Social Behavior: Brain Gene Expression Analyses in Social Insects". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia ... International Union for the Study of Social Insects. References. *^ a b c d e f g Gintis, Herbert (2012). "Clash of the ... Michener, Charles D. (1969). "Comparative Social Behavior of Bees". Annu. Rev. Entomol. 14: 299-342. doi:10.1146/annurev.en. ...
Behaviors of networks. Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections ... Social cognitive neuroscience. Interdisciplinary. fields. *Consumer neuroscience. *Cultural neuroscience. *Educational ...
... difficulties adjusting behavior to suit social contexts) as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior such as ... specific features of ASD include deficits in social and emotional reciprocity (e.g., atypical social approaches, conversational ... disorder broadly defined by impaired social communication as well as restricted or repetitive patterns of behavior and interest ... What are the longer-term effects (,6 months) on core symptoms (e.g., social deficits, communication deficits, and repetitive ...
This over-friendly behavior of a child with unknown people known as disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is highly ... Societal norms, social niceties and our own tainted childhood influence our parenting. Due to which we end our imposing, ... Adults who lived high-stress childhoods have trouble reading environmental signals which affect not just their social ... Our reptilian brain is continuously evaluating risk in the environment, making judgments, and prioritizing behaviors. ...
A reflex, however, does not constitute a behavior.. There are myriad examples of instinctual behaviors throughout the animal ... What does our social psychology tell us? Large numbers of people are inclined toward herd mentality, or mob mentality - people ... There is no behavior a human cannot consciously override. The physiological responses that are forced within us remain merely ... But I contend that from the end of infancy forward, we have no behaviors that are performed without being based on prior ...
Many people defend substance use or addictive behavior as an action that only affects the addict and no one else. The reality ... The characteristic disturbance in social interactions can begin from infancy and may have lasting effects in the life of the ... Addicted parents may not see how their way of life and behavior impacts the mental health of their children. Even other ... Reactive attachment disorder is a disorder diagnosed in children who develop an abnormal response to social interactions and a ...
This essay has been submitted by a student.As being a very important part of the humans behavior, Personal Space and eye ... it generally signifies.Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye ... experience essay David lentini team building experience essay food compare.Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social ...
Dopamine pathway is highly diverged in primate species that differ markedly in social behavior *From the Cover ... Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward Don Wei, DaYeon Lee, Conor D. Cox, Carley A. Karsten, Olga ... Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain ... Early adolescent Rai1 reactivation reverses transcriptional and social interaction deficits in a mouse model of Smith-Magenis ...
Sickness behaviors constitute an array of symptoms exhibited by an animal during the course of an infection, including reduced ... activity, reduced food and water intake, and reduced social... ... Sickness behaviors constitute an array of symptoms exhibited by ... no studies in passerines have linked modulation of sickness behaviors to social settings. Here, it is demonstrated that social ... Cohn D, de Sa-Rocha L (2006) Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide in the social behavior of dominant and submissive mice ...
... * 1. CAN SOCIAL MEDIA CHANGE HEALTH BEHAVIOR? IRIS THIELE ISIP TAN MD, MSC Professor, ... SOCIAL MEDIA VS SOCIAL NETWORK Social media is much broader than the concept of social networking sites, and also includes ... SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT & ATTACHMENT Berkman L, Glass T. (2000) Social integration, social networks, social support and health ... Berkman L, Glass T. (2000) Social integration, social networks, social support and health SOCIAL INFLUENCE How the presence, ...
p,,em,A new study in Biological Psychiatry identifies specific brain circuit that may lead to social impairments in autism ... "It is interesting that the circuit implicated in social behavior in this study is also a circuit implicated in the biology of ... Study identifies brain circuit controlling social behavior. A new study in Biological Psychiatry identifies specific brain ... Switzerland has identified a key brain region of the neural circuit that controls social behavior. Increasing the activity of ...
You are here: LD Topics , Behavior & Social Skills Index , Behavior & Social Skills ... Behavior & Social Skills. Social competence and emotional well-being are issues for some adults and children with learning ... Many students with learning disabilities struggle with social interactions and appropriate behavior, putting them at greater ... Included in this section are the dos and donts for fostering social competence, the teacher s role in developing social skills ...
The objectives of this project were to conduct a comprehensive study of social influences on smoking behavior using an agent- ... Social Influences and Smoking Behavior. Robert Axtell, Steven Durlauf, Joshua M. Epstein, Ross A. Hammond, Ben Klemens, Jon ... The objectives of this project were to conduct a comprehensive study of social influences on smoking behavior using an agent- ... The second part of the research involved a statistical analysis of social network structures among teenagers, which function as ...
But predicting, and at once influencing human behavior is well on its way to becoming reality. Scientists at the Technical ... mathematical modelling of social systems and dynamics was considered in the realm of science fiction. ... Mathematical algorithms calculate social behavior Predicting and influencing the behavior of groups based on mathematical ... Mathematical algorithms calculate social behavior. Technical University of Munich (TUM). Funder. European Research Council. ...
When social class and attitudes toward greed were entered into a linear-regression model predicting cheating behavior, social ... social cognition (4), and interpersonal behavior (7), consistent with objective, resource based measures of social class (e.g ... Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Paul K. Piff, Daniel M. Stancato, Stéphane Côté, Rodolfo Mendoza- ... Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Paul K. Piff, Daniel M. Stancato, Stéphane Côté, Rodolfo Mendoza- ...
Chapter 8: The Evolution of Social Behavior. Cooperation and Altruism: An Evolutionary Puzzle. Most of the anthropoid primates ... So how might seemingly altruistic behavior have evolved, given the conflict with individual fitness? Kin Selection. This ... Hamilton took this degree of relatedness into account when addressing altruistic social encounters, stating it in a formula ... Kin selection is not the only reason why cooperative and seemingly altruistic behavior may have evolved. Reciprocal altruism - ...
Consumer Email Behavior: Leveraging Social in Email Marketing. Consumer Email Behavior: Leveraging Social in Email Marketing ... Leveraging Social Media: 9 Truths. *Consumer behaviors influence B2B. Consumer email behaviors are the behaviors that envelop ... You can learn from segmenting social data. Start to segment your social data. You need to understand: Who are these people who ... You should be using social to drive prospects to your website. If youre not monetizing that audience (on social networks), you ...
Criminal Justice-COAS , Girls, Violence, and Anti-Social Behavior. P493 , 2808 , Herrera. Girls involvement in delinquency and ... In this course we will begin to explore the extent and nature of girls violence and antisocial behavior in context. This will ... We will also investigate both the causes and consequences of girls involvement in these behaviors. How do family, poverty, ...
Alcohol consumption affects social behavior, as any college student can tell you. But does it have to have such an effect? A ... The team was able to study how social environments shape the impact of alcohol on behavior by dissociating sociality from ... indicating that the presence of peers had a substantial impact on social behavior under the influence of alcohol. ... Polytechnic School of Engineering suggests that the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior can be understood and ...
Social behavior and pheromonal communication in reptiles.. Mason RT1, Parker MR. ... The role of pheromones in orchestrating social behaviors in reptiles is reviewed. Although all reptile orders are examined, the ... In these two systems, enough is known about the chemical constituents that mediate behaviors to explore the evolution of ... The literature is surprisingly large, but most studies have explored relatively few behaviors. The evolution of chemical ...
You are here: , Features , LD OnLine Discussion Boards , Behavior: Social Skills, Self Esteem ... Behavior: Social Skills, Self Esteem Forum Jump. Please select forum --------------------. Teaching Students with LD and ADHD. ...
... and behavior and is linked with the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. The purpose of this ... neuroinflammatory events promote myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that reinforces stress-related behavior, and is argued ... Repeated Social Defeat, Neuroinflammation, and Behavior: Monocytes Carry the Signal. *Michael D Weber. ORCID: orcid.org/0000- ... Kinsey SG, Bailey MT, Sheridan JF, Padgett DA, Avitsur R (2007). Repeated social defeat causes increased anxiety-like behavior ...
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species. Social behavior is exhibited by a ... Even though humans and animals share some aspects of social behavior, human social behavior is generally more complex. Social ... Health behavior Public health Social science "Social Behavior - Biology Encyclopedia - body, examples, animal, different, life ... social insects, social shrimp, naked mole-rats, and humans. Sociology is the scientific or academic study of social behavior, ...
Forthcoming: Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Sweden, Mårten Palme and Lisa Laun. in Social ... Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Sweden. Mårten Palme, Lisa Laun. NBER Working Paper No. 25394. ... 2019 Social Security: Panel on Economic Determinants of Fertility Behavior 2019 NBERs Entrepreneurship Research Boot Camp. ... the social security wealth (SSW), the accrual in the social security wealth from working one additional year as well as the ...
Your Brain On Nicotine: Nicotine Receptors Affect Social Behavior. by Sam Savage ... When the beta2 nicotinic receptor in the brain was re-expressed, a normal balance between social contact and novelty seeking ... "Who could have guessed that there may be a biological explanation for social butterflies. The explanation was found in an ... Specifically, scientists from France show that the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social ...
... Mårten Palme and Lisa Laun. This chapter is a ... 2019 Social Security: Panel on Economic Determinants of Fertility Behavior 2019 NBERs Entrepreneurship Research Boot Camp. ... This chapter first appeared as NBER working paper w25394, Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in ... the social security wealth (SSW), the accrual in the social security wealth from working one additional year as well as the ...
... included the general theory and behavior of complex systems and talks on the behavior of specific social systems ranging from ... First, social systems are inherently insensitive to most policy changes that people select in an effort to alter the behavior ... Counterintuitive Behavior of Social Systems. This paper addresses several issues of broad concern in the United States: ... There are no Utopias in our social systems. There appear to be no sustainable modes of behavior that are free of pressures and ...
AutismInteractionsEnvironmentDisorderSkipAnimal behaviorAutismAnti-Social BCognitiveProsocial behaviorGenesResearchersHealth behaviorsBasis of social behaviorJournal of Health and Social BehaviorGroup behaviorAntisocial behaviorCuesCognitionNeural2017Callous-unemotional traitsSexual behaviorDeficits in social behaviorIndividual behaviorZebrafishControl of social behaviorDisordersHealthy behaviorsPeople's behaviorAltruistic behaviorAggressive behaviorsScientistsMiceAspects of social behaviorStudyContextFindingsMaternal behavior2016MammalsAffects social behaviorNormsTraitsRetirement BehaviorSpeciesPrefrontal cortexExhibitGeneticEmpathyIndividuals2020Mechanistic levelAnalyzePrimatesSearchOrganizationStimuli
- The types of social behaviour include the following: Collective animal behavior involves the coordinated behavior of large groups of similar animals as well as emergent properties of these groups. (wikipedia.org)
- At once instructive and compelling, this theme-spanning book reveals the complex nature of maturity in scores of social species and shows that animal behavior often displays the same diversity we find in ourselves. (jhu.edu)
- To do this, you may need help, both from your veterinarian and from an animal behavior specialist who is knowledgeable in cat behavior. (paws.org)
- You may need professional help from an animal behavior specialist to successfully implement these techniques. (paws.org)
- In a new study published in iScience , researchers at Harvard University and the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior developed a new way to study how genes influence collective behavior . (phys.org)
- We developed new computational tools for tracking and analyzing behavior among animals, which provide a powerful means to investigate how genetic factors influence collective behaviors," said Iain Couzin, Director of the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior and Chair of Biodiversity and Collective Behaviour at the University of Konstanz. (phys.org)
- The study, which appears in Biological Psychiatry , suggests that social impairments characteristic of autism spectrum disorder may stem from alteration of activity in this circuit, and that tuning this circuit may help treat the social deficits in the disorder. (elsevier.com)
- We are excited about this study as it identifies a brain circuit that may play a critical role in social reward, which is affected in autism," said senior author Dr. Anirvan Ghosh, who was the Head of Neuroscience Research at Roche and now serves as Head of Research and Early Development at Biogen. (elsevier.com)
- Understanding how altered brain function leads to social deficits could help develop novel targeted therapeutics for autism spectrum disorder," said Ghosh, such as by tuning the circuit to correct the altered activity. (elsevier.com)
- Because of this, many researchers have suggested that oxytocin might be useful in treating conditions affecting social behavior such as autism spectrum disorders. (eurekalert.org)
- Meyer, the UMass Amherst neuroscientist, calls the findings "exciting" because they not only support the idea that oxytocin may have a positive effect on social interaction among children on the autism spectrum, but because the newborn monkeys provide an informative, generalizable model for studying early neurobiology and social behavior during development. (eurekalert.org)
- An Iranian scientist Peyman Golshani, along with his colleagues at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), has managed to restore social behavior in autism mice model. (iran-daily.com)
- Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote. (iran-daily.com)
- Giving an inhaled hormone to children with autism for four weeks improves their social behavior, a new study by Stanford researchers indicates. (stanford.edu)
- Vasopressin levels are low in the cerebrospinal fluid of less-social rhesus monkeys and in people with autism, the study found. (stanford.edu)
- The new findings, published June 19 in Cell , may throw light on psychiatric disorders marked by impaired social interaction such as autism, social anxiety, schizophrenia and depression, said the study's senior author, Karl Deisseroth , MD, PhD, a professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. (stanford.edu)
- People with autism, for example, often have an outright aversion to social interaction," he said. (stanford.edu)
- For example, researchers may study rodents or zebrafish to learn more about psychiatric disorders that affect human social behaviors, such as schizophrenia and autism. (noldus.com)
- To search for genes that affect collective behavior, we focused on genetic mutations that are associated with psychiatric diseases that have a social behavior component, including autism and schizophrenia. (phys.org)
- The neurons, which have equivalent genes in mice and in humans, provide a new avenue for research on the basic biological underpinnings of social behavior , said co-author Philip Washbourne, a professor of biology and member of the UO Institute of Neuroscience who has studied autism genes for almost two decades. (phys.org)
- I wanted to find a way to get at more complex behavior that might be affected by mutations in autism genes," he said. (phys.org)
- We thought of social behavior, which probably uses the kind of synapses that are affected in autism. (phys.org)
- Anti-Social Behavior is a comic by Tom Wolf with previews of the first two issues available online. (wikifur.com)
- Greater resources, freedom, and independence from others among the upper class give rise to self-focused social-cognitive tendencies ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ), which we predict will facilitate unethical behavior. (pnas.org)
- Animals interacting successfully use cognitive skills such as recognizing individuals, their social rank and logic as described here in a cichlid fish, and the neural bases of these skills are identified. (biologists.org)
- If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. (nih.gov)
- Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. (nih.gov)
- In doing so, we advocate a social-cognitive perspective on economic behavior, aimed at revealing the psychological mechanisms that shape how people construe a particular situation. (repec.org)
- This study aimed to analyze Iranian farmers' water conservation behavior using Bandura's social-cognitive theory. (springer.com)
- The results indicated that variables of social-cognitive theory could predict about 73% of farmers' water conservation behavior variance. (springer.com)
- Findings showed that factors that have been mentioned in social-cognitive theory could be considered for enhancing farmers' water conservation behaviors since the theory provides a more realistic insight into farmers' behaviors with an emphasis on farmers' social and structural contexts. (springer.com)
- Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. (jci.org)
- Not only will it enhance cognitive function but, importantly, promote good social behavior," which is essential to brain development and intelligence. (psychcentral.com)
- You want to manipulate nutrition to see whether you can get improvements in social behavior and cognitive function. (psychcentral.com)
- This highly original book brings the latest insights from logic, philosophy, social choice theory, cognitive psychology, and game theory to bear on the vast information streams that drive our lives. (springer.com)
- Reciprocal cooperation, meaning an investment in a partner, which is later reciprocated, is thought to require complex cognitive and social skills. (medindia.net)
- Dr. Aaron Beck discusses the future of Cognitive Therapy at Beck Institute's Cognitive Behavior Therapy Workshop in Spanish. (beckinstitute.org)
- According to Dr. Beck, the theory of Cognitive Therapy rests on the science of human behavior and human psychopathology. (beckinstitute.org)
- Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy is a leading international source for training, therapy, and resources in CBT. (beckinstitute.org)
- A study recently published online in the American Journal of Public Health found that prosocial behavior at age 5 can predict success in adulthood. (parents.com)
- It turns out that individuals who had shown more prosocial skills in kindergarten were more likely to have graduated from college, be consistently employed, and less likely to have been arrested than those who had demonstrated less prosocial behavior at the same age. (parents.com)
- We are only now beginning to develop an understanding of how the processes underlying prosocial behavior might differ in these children. (drugs.com)
- Bioinformatics, RNAi and behavioral assays reveal that plasticity in the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and target genes is associated with social behavior, social context and endocrine state. (biologists.org)
- A gene set enrichment analysis used to search for the pathways in T cells that might mediate the observed social behavior strongly implicated IFN-γ-related genes. (jax.org)
- To search for genes that might play a role in social behavior, Sinha and his colleagues used the newly sequenced honey bee genome to scan the binding sites of transcription factors known to function in the development of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) from a single cell to an adult. (biologynews.net)
- We used genomic prediction to partition genetic variants into gene ontology (GO) terms and constituent genes, and identified GO terms and genes with high prediction accuracies in both social environments and for GSEI. (genetics.org)
- We performed genomic prediction across environments, and identified genes in common between the social environments that turned out to be enriched for genome-wide associated variants. (genetics.org)
- A large proportion of the associated genes have previously been associated with aggressive behavior in Drosophila and mice. (genetics.org)
- A rare genetic disorder may lead scientists to genes for social behavior, a Salk Institute study has found. (scienceagogo.com)
- The study takes aim at the genes that may lead to the marked extroverted behavior seen in children with Williams syndrome, demonstrating that "hyper-sociability" - especially the drive to greet and interact with strangers - follows a unique developmental path. (scienceagogo.com)
- Here we not only have shown hyper-social behavior as a hallmark symptom that follows a characteristic developmental course in Williams syndrome, but we may be closer to identifying the genes involved in regulating that behavior. (scienceagogo.com)
- We don't know at this point whether these genes are involved in regulating social behavior in the general population, or whether their involvement is specific to Williams syndrome," said Bellugi. (scienceagogo.com)
- The researchers tested 90 different genes to see if they affect zebrafish social behavior, using gene editing to mutate one gene at a time. (phys.org)
- The most fundamental problem comes from postulating genes to account for behaviors. (ed.gov)
- A new study by researchers at Roche in Basel, Switzerland has identified a key brain region of the neural circuit that controls social behavior. (elsevier.com)
- The researchers developed a custom algorithm that allowed them to track a single fish throughout the experiment, while at the same time analyzing group behavior. (redorbit.com)
- The researchers caution, however, that aggressive, risk-taking behaviors, which are common under the disinhibitory effects of alcohol, might resemble normal leadership behavior in this species. (redorbit.com)
- Researchers then removed the prefrontal cortex in otherwise normal mice, which resulted in mice with significant social deficits. (redorbit.com)
- AMHERST, Mass. - The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, say researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Parma, Italy, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers surveyed 996 seventh- and eighth-graders, age 13 on average, about their use of social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Tumbler. (reuters.com)
- Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior. (iran-daily.com)
- People at risk of psychopathy later in life have persistent disruptive behaviors and callous-unemotional traits, the researchers explained. (drugs.com)
- To test this idea more directly, the researchers examined the behaviors of naïve mice-those that had been maintained in isolation since weaning, without any social or sexual experience. (caltech.edu)
- This book should be read by everyone interested in network formation and researchers interested in decision making behavior. (springer.com)
- These behaviors can be studied in a pair or group of animals, but researchers can also study how individual animals respond to social stimuli. (noldus.com)
- In social behavior studies, researchers are often interested in differences between treatment groups or genetic strains. (noldus.com)
- The researchers analyzed the genetic deletion of a two-year-old girl with Williams syndrome who did not exhibit this especially outgoing behavior. (scienceagogo.com)
- The researchers found several genetic mutations that had a distinctive effect on fish group behavior. (phys.org)
- Expecting to see behavioral disruptions in the drugged fish, which the researchers did, they also saw reduced orienting behaviors by the healthy fish. (phys.org)
- The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is "mining" Facebook and Twitter to improve its social media footprint and to assess how Tweets can be used as "change-agents" for health behaviors. (prisonplanet.com)
- The Health Behaviors section of the Publications Page. (cdc.gov)
- USAID's social and behavior change flagship programs work in close collaboration to increase the practices of priority health behaviors. (usaid.gov)
- These insights open new vistas on the neural basis of social behavior and social impairment. (nih.gov)
- A major goal of the volume is to integrate research findings on the neural basis of social behavior across different levels of analysis from rodent studies on molecular neurobiology to behavioral neuroscience to fMRI imaging data on human social behavior. (springer.com)
- This is a first step toward developing a mechanistic understanding of the genetic basis of social behavior, and to understand more clearly how specific neural defects impact behavior in the way they do. (phys.org)
- J. D. Mcleod and M. J. Shanahan, "Trajectories of poverty and children's mental health," Journal of Health and Social Behavior , vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 207-220, 1996. (hindawi.com)
- V. D. Ojeda and S. M. Bergstresser, "Gender, race-ethnicity, and psychosocial barriers to mental health care: an examination of perceptions and attitudes among adults reporting unmet need," Journal of Health and Social Behavior , vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 317-334, 2008. (hindawi.com)
- In an experiment conducted in May 2015 in collaboration with Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) and the University of Rome „La Sapienza" in Italy, Fornasier and his team demonstrated that the process is in fact amenable to influencing group behavior. (eurekalert.org)
- The team observed that in fish with specific genetic mutations associated with human psychiatric disease, group behavior was altered. (phys.org)
- The zebrafish model established in this study opens new avenues to investigating group behavior. (phys.org)
- Normal group behavior in unaltered fish. (phys.org)
- Many questions about group behavior have eluded biologists at a fundamental level: What is the nature of leadership and followership? (phys.org)
- How do individual personality traits-such as boldness, shyness, and sociability-contribute to overall group behavior? (phys.org)
- This study gives us insight into approaches that might help us understand group behavior at the level of the individual. (phys.org)
- If so, it is conceivable that zebrafish group behavior will help us better understand psychiatric disease, and even provide a method to discover therapeutics for these currently poorly treated disorders. (phys.org)
- Hierarchical rank in females is determined by observing group behavior (eg, seeking out resources such as water holes). (merckvetmanual.com)
- In this course we will begin to explore the extent and nature of girls violence and antisocial behavior in context. (indiana.edu)
- This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). (rug.nl)
- Mice modify their vocalizations in response to audiences, but not to simple social stimuli, constituting a novel paradigm for measuring the influence of social cues. (biologists.org)
- That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. (iran-daily.com)
- Those social cues that automatically give us pleasure or alert us to someone's distress do not register in the same way for these children," said lead author Essi Viding, of University College London in England. (drugs.com)
- At what point in time did social cues and behavior become a suggestion and not an expectation? (buzzsprout.com)
- Using that model system, Sinha led a team that searched the honey bee genome for clues for social cues - a form of bee pressure that can cause bees to change jobs in response to needs of the hive. (biologynews.net)
- Abundant resources and elevated rank allow upper-class individuals increased freedom and independence ( 4 ), giving rise to self-focused patterns of social cognition and behavior ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Mounting evidence indicates that proinflammatory signaling in the brain affects mood, cognition, and behavior and is linked with the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. (nature.com)
- Among boys, all four social media platforms were associated with greater cognition issues. (reuters.com)
- Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior. (nih.gov)
- Why process matters: A social cognition perspective on economic behavior ," Journal of Economic Psychology , Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 677-685. (repec.org)
- Mechanistic studies in animal models have revealed important roles for the endocannabinoid signaling system, comprising G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid-derived agonists, in the control of neural processes that underpin social anxiety and social reward, two key aspects of social behavior. (nih.gov)
- These observations have suggested linkages between immune responses and social behavior, but specific mechanisms that connect peripheral immunity with neural circuit function have not been validated. (jax.org)
- Now, a study published in the July 2016 issue of Nature from a research team lead by Dr. Vladimir Litvak at the University of Massachusetts and Dr. Jonathan Kipnis at the University of Virginia demonstrates a critical role for meningeal interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in mediating both neural function and social behavior ( Filiano et al, 2016 ). (jax.org)
- Their results suggest that social deficits symptomatic in a variety of neuropsychatric disorders may result from the dysfunctional immune responses altering neural circuit homeostasis. (jax.org)
- Avitsur R, Yirmiya R (1999) The immunobiology of sexual behavior: gender differences in the suppression of sexual activity during illness. (springer.com)
- The team used mice that had been genetically engineered so that neurons in a specific part of the brain involved in aggression and sexual behavior-the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-would glow green when activated. (caltech.edu)
- There are three phases of sexual behavior in horses: courtship, mating, and postmating behavior. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Explaining individual behavior on the social net. (springer.com)
- 2484 words - 10 pages process these three elements will be compared and contrasted and commented upon as to how each of the three elements determine individual behavior as well as how the elements of communication can impact individual behavior in managing organizational behavior. (brightkite.com)
- Efforts to increase appropriate MNC are much more likely to be successful and sustainable if they promote broader social change in addition to individual behavior change. (k4health.org)
- The unexpected ability of the alcohol-exposed zebrafish to influence the behavior of the school might be a form of leadership. (redorbit.com)
- The zebrafish has become an important vertebrate model to study neurobiology and behavior. (noldus.com)
- One of the ways zebrafish express social behavior is through shoaling . (noldus.com)
- Using zebrafish as a model, they set out to establish the connection between genetic mutations and behavior. (phys.org)
- Genetic control of collective behavior in zebrafish, iScience (2020). (phys.org)
- Eventually, the research team concluded that zebrafish copy each other's motions and are dependent on another socially engaged fish to begin social orienting. (phys.org)
- Initially, Stednitz set out to explore basic social behavior in zebrafish using an approach used by other scientists to study shoaling in fish. (phys.org)
- Zebrafish are social animals," Washbourne said. (phys.org)
- For the research, the UO team developed novel software to help measure the orientation of fish during social behaviors of some 500 zebrafish. (phys.org)
- Sarah J. Stednitz et al, Forebrain Control of Behaviorally Driven Social Orienting in Zebrafish, Current Biology (2018). (phys.org)
- Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry , whose purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, or behavior. (elsevier.com)
- In conjunction, microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory events promote myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that reinforces stress-related behavior, and is argued to play a role in stress-related psychiatric disorders. (nature.com)
- Findings suggest that oxytocin is a promising candidate for new treatments for developmental disorders affecting social skills and bonding. (eurekalert.org)
- Our results indicate that oxytocin is a candidate for further studies on treating developmental disorders of social functioning. (eurekalert.org)
- Overall, 75% of girls and 70% of boys had at least one social media account, and 52% of girls reported at least one disordered eating behavior along with 45% of the boys, according to the report in the International Journal of Eating Disorders. (reuters.com)
- The study wasn't designed to prove whether social media use directly contributes to body image problems or eating disorders. (reuters.com)
- Interestingly, both dysfunctional social behaviors and immune system dysregulation are clinical symptoms associated with several neurologic and mental disorders. (jax.org)
- Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability of conducting a violent act. (genetics.org)
- A breakdown in social behavior by either fish will alter how they relate to one another, resembling similar disruptions seen by people with some socialization disorders. (phys.org)
- This randomly assigned feedback caused people to take irrational, self-defeating risks (Experiments 1 and 2), choose unhealthy, rather than healthy, behaviors (Experiment 3), and procrastinate longer with pleasurable activities rather than practicing for an upcoming test (Experiment 4). (nih.gov)
- Decisions about whether to access MNC services and adopt healthy behaviors are influenced by social factors, such as social norms, religious beliefs, social support, cultural traditions, myths and rumors, local or national policies, and the role of women in reproductive health decision-making. (k4health.org)
- SBC activities may include providing women with information about available MNC services and benefits of adopting healthy behaviors during pregnancy, holding group-based discussions to address myths and misconceptions about MNC, and engaging community leaders to build support for appropriate care-seeking. (k4health.org)
- A community action group in Lakhai Upazila, Bangladesh meets monthly to discuss health concerns and healthy behaviors around pregnancy. (usaid.gov)
- Families and health care workers who are able to integrate these healthy behaviors into their communities ensure the sustainability of USAID's maternal and child survival efforts beyond our development assistance. (usaid.gov)
- USAID's partnership with the Peace Corps helps promote healthy behaviors in 12 USAID maternal and child health priority countries. (usaid.gov)
- In the last year, USAID partnered with 212 religious leaders in Mali to help advocate for healthy behaviors like the healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy. (usaid.gov)
- If individuals exhibit, however, systematically biased beliefs about external events or other people's behavior or if they systematically deviate from the action that best satisfies their preferences, we speak of bounded rationality. (sciencemag.org)
- Feelings of loneliness and social isolation can affect a human brain activity as well as people's behavior, shows a new study conducted at the University of Chicago. (enotalone.com)
- So how might seemingly altruistic behavior have evolved, given the conflict with individual fitness? (wwnorton.com)
- Kin selection is not the only reason why cooperative and seemingly altruistic behavior may have evolved. (wwnorton.com)
- Given these conditions, the strategy of reciprocating altruistic behavior has proven to be both successful and evolutionarily stable. (wwnorton.com)
- Scientists studying bottlenose dolphins that use sponges as tools to protect their sensitive beaks has shown that social behavior can shape the genetic makeup of an animal population in the wild. (digitaljournal.com)
- Fast forward two years, as the scientists' work in neuroscience and behavior continued to fascinate her. (unomaha.edu)
- In 2016, he received the Social Sciences Associate Professor Research Award for his NSF-funded work to develop a new method for meta-analysis that will be an important advancement in scientists' ability to evaluate reproducibility of research. (uci.edu)
- Cohn D, de Sa-Rocha L (2006) Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide in the social behavior of dominant and submissive mice. (springer.com)
- The study shows that a primary deficit in oxytocin may cause the social problems in these mice, and that correcting this deficit can correct social behavior,' said Geschwind. (iran-daily.com)
- Adult male mice have a simple repertoire of innate, or instinctive, social behaviors: When encountering a female, a male mouse will try to mate with it, and when encountering another male, the mouse will attack. (caltech.edu)
- At the same time, these mice initially exhibited little fighting (with males) or mating (with females) behaviors. (caltech.edu)
- Only after repeated social experience-contact with either male or female mice for two minutes, five times a day, for three days-did the separate sets of neurons representing male versus female mice appear. (caltech.edu)
- Further studies indicated that social experience with a female seemed to be the key requirement for the mice to develop separate, sex-specific populations of neurons, as well as aggressive behavior. (caltech.edu)
- The group first investigated social behavior in mice devoid of a functional adaptive immune system. (jax.org)
- 001913 ) mice were tested in a three-chamber sociability test, which measures social motivation by quantifying time spent investigating a novel object versus another conspecific mouse. (jax.org)
- Wild-type mice preferentially investigated the mouse over the object, whereas the SCID mice did not show a social preference. (jax.org)
- Interestingly, when the 4-week-old, immune-deficient SCID mice were repopulated with lymphocytes from wild-type donors, their social preferences increased to the level of the wild-type group. (jax.org)
- 002287 ) showed social deficits and non-anxious behavior similar to the SCID mice. (jax.org)
- Further, repopulating SCID mice with lymphocytes from IFN-γ knockout donors did not restore the treated animals' social preferences to wild-type levels. (jax.org)
- A single injection of recombinant IFN-γ into the cerebrospinal fluid of IFN-γ knockout mice, however, restored the animals' social preferences by 24 hours post-injection. (jax.org)
- Microglia were excluded as the IFN-γ source mediating social behaviors in mice, because mice with cre-recombinase mediated, microglia-specific deletion of STAT1,a signaling molecule downstream of IFN-γ, did not show social deficits. (jax.org)
- Treatment with diazepam, a benzodiazepine that augments GABAergic neurotransmission, also rescued social behavior in IFN-γ receptor knockout mice. (jax.org)
- Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT(3A) knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. (uva.nl)
- We found that 5-HT(3A) knockout mice display impaired social communication in the social transmission of food preference task. (uva.nl)
- Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT(3A) knockout mice during the social approach test. (uva.nl)
- If the findings of the pilot trial are replicated, it will also be important to validate the safety of the hormone in large populations and to understand which aspects of social behavior are most improved by vasopressin, Hardan added. (stanford.edu)
- It is interesting that the circuit implicated in social behavior in this study is also a circuit implicated in the biology of depression," said Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry . (elsevier.com)
- The objectives of this project were to conduct a comprehensive study of social influences on smoking behavior using an agent-based modeling approach. (brookings.edu)
- In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. (pnas.org)
- A new study from New York University's (NYU) Polytechnic School of Engineering suggests that the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior can be understood and the negative effects perhaps mitigated. (redorbit.com)
- Perhaps the most remarkable finding of the study was that the unexposed fish also modulated their behavior and swimming speeds differentially in the presence of a shoalmate exposed to different levels of alcohol. (redorbit.com)
- According to the study's press release , for each one-point increase in a student's social competency score, he or she was twice as likely to graduate from college and 46 percent more likely to be employed full-time job by age 25. (parents.com)
- We suspect that social media use is encouraging young people to compare themselves to their peers and others, particularly on their appearance, at an age where adolescents are very vulnerable to peer influences," said study leader Simon Wilksch of Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. (reuters.com)
- The study focused on two main issues related to disordered eating: how teens thought about their bodies and about eating, and whether teens exhibited disordered eating behaviors like skipping meals or exercising excessively. (reuters.com)
- Join unique field courses from Earthquest (Canada) for the Environment in Costa Rica designed to study the ecology and behavior of neotropical primates. (goabroad.com)
- Since its establishment in 1993, the La Suerte Biological Field Station has been visited by more than 1,300 students from across the United States, Canada, and all over the world to study primate behavior and ecology, tropical rainforest ecology and conservation. (goabroad.com)
- The field station encompasses 1,000 acres and includes a mosaic of primary and secondary tropical rainforest, riparian habitats, and areas of human use, and is inhabited by wild groups of three species of nonhuman primates, making it an ideal location in which to study primate behavior and diversity and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications on wildlife. (goabroad.com)
- The different ways men and women behave - passed down from generation to generation - can be inherited by men and women from their social environment and not only through genetics, according a study. (jpost.com)
- Jean Decety says, 'The study raises the intriguing possibility that loneliness may result from reduced reward-related activity in the ventral striatum in response to social rewards,' leading to speculation that activity in the ventral striatum may even promote feelings of loneliness. (enotalone.com)
- The current study is the first one that used fMRI scans to measure activity in the brain in combination with data about social isolation, or loneliness. (enotalone.com)
- Given the social role of language, it stands to reason that one strand of language study should concentrate on the role of language in society. (pbs.org)
- Similarly, we might study the status of French and English in Canada or the status of national and vernacular languages in the developing nations of the world as symbols of fundamental social relations among cultures and nationalities. (pbs.org)
- The study of language in its social context tells us quite a bit about how we organize our social relationships within a particular community. (pbs.org)
- In the same study," Raine said, "we've shown that children with positive social behavior, eight years later, they have higher IQs. (psychcentral.com)
- Five years ago, Facebook was rarely mentioned in the context of a marriage ending, but now it has become commonplace for clients to cite social media use, or something they discovered on social media, as a reason for divorce," said Andrew Newbury, head of family law at Slater and Gordon, the firm that commissioned the study. (promises.com)
- 2003). These physical features make the bottlenose dolphin easy to distinguish, which makes them a good subject for the study of communication and social behavior in cetaceans. (brightkite.com)
- Their reproduction is very important to the study of social behavior because of the complexity of reproduction and calf-rearing. (brightkite.com)
- Hypotheses were tested using data from the Social Network Analysis of Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence (SNARE) study (N = 1,100, 50% boys, (X) over bar (age) = 12.7, SD = 0.47 years). (rug.nl)
- Early in the National Institutes of Health-funded study, lead author Sarah J. Stednitz, a doctoral student, noticed a regular pattern of behavior between two fish interacting socially. (phys.org)
- The neurons involved in the study are in a region of the fish brain that is theorized to be the evolutionary and functional equivalent for the regulation of memory, emotion and social behavior in mammals. (phys.org)
- Hence, birds in a social context were able to overcome the behavioral, but not physiological, symptoms usually associated with an inflammatory response. (springer.com)
- We provide several examples highlighting that seemingly similar phenomena can be governed by very different psychological processes, that the same processes can have explanatory power in very different domains, and that the situational context is a crucial determinant of the mental processes governing behavior. (repec.org)
- The result is a singular textbook that truly bridges theory and practice by revealing the patterns and paradoxes of our behavior in the social context. (ecampus.com)
- The author examines human behavior in the context of the larger social conflicts associated with class, race and ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and ability status. (google.it)
- These findings suggest a trade-off between allowing the body to respond to an infection and taking advantage of being in a social situation. (springer.com)
- Building upon past findings, in the present investigation we tested whether upper-class individuals-relative to lower-class individuals-are more likely to engage in unethical behavior, and whether their attitudes toward greed might help explain this tendency. (pnas.org)
- Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory. (sciencemag.org)
- The findings are also significant in that they highlight not merely the role of one or another brain chemical, as pharmacological studies tend to do, but rather the specific components of brain circuits involved in a complex behavior. (stanford.edu)
- Co-author Bellwood said, "The findings should further ignite efforts to understand fishes as highly developed organisms with complex social behaviors. (medindia.net)
- In this regard, recent findings based on experimental work have reinvigorated the social contagion explanation [ 13 , 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Findings indicated that adolescents with an early onset of one or more externalizing behaviors were more popular, less liked, and had as many friends as their peers. (rug.nl)
- The research team noted that the findings "are promising for future studies into the visual circuitry required to drive social behavior. (phys.org)
- Social norms and community enforcement. (repec.org)
- Interventions which directly affect knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and social norms that influence health or development outcomes, known collectively as social and behavior change (SBC) interventions, are vital to the success of the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) global health programs. (usaid.gov)
- These projects' approaches to maternal and child health enhance the impact and sustainability of health service delivery and other development programs by positively shifting health-seeking behaviors, conducting research, improving provider behaviors, and fostering supportive social norms. (usaid.gov)
- Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Sweden , Mårten Palme and Lisa Laun. (nber.org)
- The DP model delivers a rich set of predictions about the dynamics of retirement behavior, and comparisons of actual vs. predicted behavior show that the DP model is able to account for wide variety of phenomena observed in the data, including the pronounced peaks in the distribution of retirement ages at 62 and 65 (the ages of early and normal eligibility for Social Security benefits, respectively). (psu.edu)
- Overall, our model suggests that a number of heretofore puzzling aspects of retirement behavior can be viewed as artifacts of particular details of the Social Security rules, whose incentive effects are especially strong for lower income individuals and those who do not have access to fairly priced loans, annuities, and health insurance. (psu.edu)
- Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species. (wikipedia.org)
- Even species with less complex brains, such as ants, may have behaviors serving similar general functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Differences in the sensory system that mediates electric communication correlate with differences in social behavior between two sympatric species of African mormyrid fishes. (biologists.org)
- More mechanistic studies of social behavior, both in traditional genetic model systems and in species that have been less tractable experimentally, have made great strides over the past years due to technical advances. (biologists.org)
- These data suggest a novel role for IFN-γ signaling in mediating social behavior via GABAergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex. (jax.org)
- Conventionally, these deficits are linked to dysfunctional brain circuitry responsible for decision-making, attribution of incentive salience, behavioral reinforcement and expression of motivated behavior (e.g., via the prefrontal cortex and striatum) ( Russo and Nestler, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Here, it is demonstrated that social surroundings affect the extent to which animals exhibit symptoms of sickness. (springer.com)
- Recent research has documented the existence of a substantial share of strong reciprocators who exhibit a particular form of other-regarding behavior ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Here, we used the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to investigate the genetic basis of variation in male aggressive behavior for flies reared in a socialized and socially isolated environment. (genetics.org)
- Is Social Behavior Genetic? (scienceagogo.com)
- Home › News › Is Social Behavior Genetic? (scienceagogo.com)
- The authors also performed genetic screening on a young girl to look for genetic underpinnings of this pronounced social behavior. (scienceagogo.com)
- Teresa Doyle and Ursula Bellugi of the Salk Institute, along with Julie Korenberg and John Graham of UCLA and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, found that children with Williams syndrome scored significantly higher on tests measuring behavior in social situations, including their ability to remember names and faces, eagerness to please others, empathy with others' emotions and tendency to approach strangers. (scienceagogo.com)
- Included in this section are the dos and don'ts for fostering social competence, the teacher s role in developing social skills, and many helpful articles on behavior modification, anger management, disciplining students with disabilities, and the emotional issues experienced by some individuals with LD. (ldonline.org)
- But things look quite different when considering people in traffic, in social networks and at major events in which they do not appear as individuals, but rather as part of a crowd. (eurekalert.org)
- Based on earnings histories for different hypothetical individuals corresponding to groups by gender and educational attainments we calculate the following measures: the replacement rate (RR), the social security wealth (SSW), the accrual in the social security wealth from working one additional year as well as the implicit tax rate on working longer (ITAX). (nber.org)
- A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. (sciencemag.org)
- Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. (sciencemag.org)
- Preferences are considered to be self-regarding if an individual does not care per se for the outcomes and behaviors of other individuals. (sciencemag.org)
- A behavior that occurs predominantly or only, in individuals that are part of a group. (bioontology.org)
- Behaviors that, though not ideal, are more likely to be adopted because they are considered feasible by individuals and are effective from a public health perspective when practiced consistently and correctly. (fhi360.org)
- Analyze and visualize social behavior with TrackLab's parameters for proximity and pair relations, and gain valuable insights in social networks and animal welfare. (noldus.com)
- Andy explains how to analyze the behavior of your website visitors. (socialmediaexaminer.com)
- Google Analytics: How to Analyze the Behavior of Your Site Visitors featuring insights from Andy Crestodina on the Social Media Marketing Podcast. (socialmediaexaminer.com)
- Primates exposed to early-life social stress develop long-lasting behavioral changes that depend on the exact nature and timing of the stressor. (jneurosci.org)
- Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in behaviors that are related to early-life stress, no studies have examined the molecular changes that result from maternal separation in primates. (jneurosci.org)