Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Sexual activities of animals.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Sexual activities of humans.
The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
Therapy whose primary emphasis is on the physical and social structuring of the environment to promote interpersonal relationships which will be influential in reducing behavioral disturbances of patients.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A defense mechanism through which unacceptable impulses and instinctive urges are diverted into personally and socially acceptable channels; e.g., aggression may be diverted through sports activities.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Government sponsored social insurance programs.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Involvement in community activities or programs.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A person's view of himself.
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.

Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/5175)

Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately.  (+info)

Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (2/5175)

Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta.  (+info)

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments. (3/5175)

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana etiology with adolescents (N = 624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires about their marijuana use, social influences to smoke marijuana, and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that social influences, such as friends' marijuana use and perceived ease of availability of marijuana, significantly predicted both occasional and future use of marijuana. Individual characteristics such as antimarijuana attitudes and drug refusal skills also predicted marijuana use. The findings imply that effective prevention approaches that target urban youths residing in public housing developments should provide them with an awareness of social influences to use marijuana, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of marijuana smoking, and train adolescents in relevant psychosocial skills.  (+info)

Sex-biased dispersal in sperm whales: contrasting mitochondrial and nuclear genetic structure of global populations. (4/5175)

The social organization of most mammals is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal. Such sex-biased dispersal can cause the genetic structure of populations to differ between the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the bi-parental nuclear genome. Here we report on the global genetic structure of oceanic populations of the sperm whale, one of the most widely distributed mammalian species. Groups of females and juveniles are mainly found at low latitudes, while males reach polar waters, returning to tropical and subtropical waters to breed. In comparisons between oceans, we did not find significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies of microsatellite loci (exact test; p = 0.23). Estimates of GST = 0.001 and RST = 0.005 also indicated negligible if any nuclear DNA differentiation. We have previously reported significant differentiation between oceans in mtDNA sequences. These contrasting patterns suggest that interoceanic movements have been more prevalent among males than among females, consistent with observations of females being the philopatric sex and having a more limited latitudinal distribution than males. Consequently, the typical mammalian dispersal pattern may have operated on a global scale in sperm whales.  (+info)

Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia. (5/5175)

This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between neurocognitive and social functioning in a sample of 80 outpatients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia. The neurocognitive battery included measures of verbal ability, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, visual-spatial organization, vigilance, and early information processing. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A range of social behaviors were assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and a video-based test, the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Social functioning as assessed by the SFS was unrelated to neurocognitive functioning. Poor cognitive flexibility was associated with low scores on the QLS and the AIPSS. Verbal ability and verbal memory were also significantly associated with the AIPSS. Visual-spatial ability and vigilance were associated with the sending skills subscale of the AIPSS. In this study, which used a wide range of neurocognitive tests and measures of community functioning and social problem solving, results support earlier research that suggests an association between certain aspects of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning.  (+info)

Scaling in animal group-size distributions. (6/5175)

An elementary model of animal aggregation is presented. The group-size distributions resulting from this model are truncated power laws. The predictions of the model are found to be consistent with data that describe the group-size distributions of tuna fish, sardinellas, and African buffaloes.  (+info)

Further analysis of the separate and interactive effects of methylphenidate and common classroom contingencies. (7/5175)

We evaluated separate and interactive effects between common classroom contingencies and methylphenidate (MPH) on disruptive and off-task behaviors for 4 children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Analogue conditions consisting of contingent teacher reprimands, brief time-out, no interaction, and alone were conducted in a multielement design. Medication status (MPH or placebo) was alternated across days in a superordinate multielement design. Results indicate that (a) the behavioral effects of MPH were influenced by one or more of the analogue conditions for each participant, and (b) time-out was associated with zero or near-zero levels of both disruptive and off-task behavior for 3 of the 4 participants during MPH and placebo conditions. Implications for the clinical effectiveness of MPH and possible behavioral mechanisms of action of MPH in applied settings are discussed.  (+info)

The human amygdala plays an important role in gaze monitoring. A PET study. (8/5175)

Social contact often initially depends on ascertaining the direction of the other person's gaze. We determined the brain areas involved in gaze monitoring by a functional neuroimaging study. Discrimination between the direction of gaze significantly activated a region in the left amygdala during eye-contact and no eye-contact tasks to the same extent. However, a region in the right amygdala was specifically activated only during the eye-contact task. Results confirm that the left amygdala plays a general role in the interpretation of eye gaze direction, and that the activity of the right amygdala of the subject increases when another individual's gaze is directed towards him. This suggests that the human amygdala plays a role in reading social signals from the face.  (+info)

Possible new insights into the underlying neurobiology of human social behavior came to light as researchers studied Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that causes hyper sociability, UC San Diego reported Wednesday. The research involved a variety of disciplines at UC San Diego, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and other organizations. The scientists, whose work […]. ...
Education is a social practice and the ability to interact socially is important to social cognitive learning and social learning. Online education is frequently criticized because it lacks social interaction, a sense of social engagement, and the benefits of learning with others. Social ability with computer-mediated social mechanisms is key to participation and contributions in online learning environments. What is social ability in online education, and can it be measured? The purpose of this study was to explicate and develop an instrument to measure the construct of social ability in online learning. The findings demonstrate construct and predictive validity for a measure of social ability in online learning, indicate that the instrument has power for measuring social ability and underlying factors, and suggests that the instrument may be a valuable tool in technology research for collaborative and networked learning.. ...
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms far, the examples in this module have often Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms how people are expected to behave in certain Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms example, when buying food or boarding a Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms. These examples describe the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured, or what sociologists call norms. Norms Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms how Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms behave in accordance with what a society has defined as good, right, and important, and most members of the society adhere to them.. Formal norms are established, written rules. They are behaviors worked out and agreed upon in order to suit and serve the most people. Formal norms are the most Acceptable Social Behavior - Laws and Norms and clearly stated of the various types of norms, and they are the most strictly enforced. But Sample Soccer Resume Places Visit ...
Social skill and language are known to relate, not least in the example of those with specific language impairment (SLI). However, most of the research examining this trend has been conducted on young primary school age children and the nature of the relationships is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about which young people in general have social difficulties and whether language, social cognition, and social skills are directly associated at this age. In this study, a large cohort made up of young people with a history of SLI (N = 134) and a typically developing (TD) group (N = 124) of the same age were followed up in their final year of compulsory schooling (aged 16). Language, social cognition, social skills, and functional social outcomes (friendships and levels of social activity) were assessed using tasks and questionnaires. Modest associations were found between social cognition, language, and social behaviours, the strongest being between language and social cognition. Regression ...
How can we design systems that encourage better cybersecurity behaviors? Despite important improvements to the usability of cybersecurity systems, much security advice goes ignored and many security systems remain underutilized. I argue that this disconnect can partially be explained by the fact that theres a largely unconsidered cost to engaging in good security behaviors: costs of social face. For example, by using two-factor authentication, one might be perceived as paranoid. By encrypting ones phone, one might be perceived as having something to hide. More generally, by caring too strongly about cybersecurity, one may give off the impression of being shady. In this talk, I present evidence in support of the following claim: Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity behaviors by designing security systems that are more social. First, I empirically modeled how social influences affect the adoption of security behaviors ...
Bob Prechters new science of socionomics explains that stock market fluctuations mirror trends in peoples collective mood. In simple terms, when the market is buoyant, it indicates positive social mood; the opposite when a bear market takes over.. The fascinating part is that because the stock market and social mood trend closely together, a forecaster can apply Elliott wave analysis to both - and predict both.. Generally, widespread brutalities and wars do not follow the first phase of a bear market. Extreme violence, when it does occur, often follows the worst part of the markets downturn - like the end of the Great Depression, a negative social mood period that ultimately ushered in World War II.. But even during the first phase, a negative social mood grows. So, if a forecaster determines correctly where in the wave structure social mood resides, he can make educated forecasts about what will follow in society - given what has happened before under similar social mood ...
Image from article: Early puberty for girls is raising health concerns) Welcome to Wopulars coverage of Social Behavior. Wopular aggregates news headlines from the top newspapers and news sources. To the right are articles about Social Behavior that have been featured on main sections of the site.. Below are topics about Social Behavior. (Click on all to view all articles related to the topic, including articles NOT about Social Behavior.. Click here to search news sites, aggregators, and blogs as well as videos, photos, and websites about Social Behavior.. ...
Influence Social Distancing - Part 5 - Government Guidelines - Influence Social Distancing - Part 5 - Government Guidelines to encourage the switch to more Hygienic Non-Contact solutions |img
Play is a complex social behavior that is highly conserved across mammals. In most species, males engage in more frequent and vigorous play as juveniles than females, which reflects subtle yet impactful sex differences in brain circuitry and development. In this protocol, we describe a behavioral testing paradigm to assess social play in male and female juvenile rats. We highlight the behavior scoring criteria for distinguishing rough-and-tumble play from other play-related social behaviors. By analyzing both sexes, play behavior can be leveraged as a powerful tool to understand the sex-specific development and expression of social behavior., 游戏是一种复杂的社会行为,在哺乳动物中高度保守。在大多数物种中,雄性幼鱼比雌性更频繁,更有活力,这反映出大脑回路和发育中的细微但有影响的性别差异。在此协议中,我们描述了一种行为测试范式来评估雄性和雌性幼鼠的社交游戏。我们重点介绍了行为评分标准
Women have a very important hormone named oxytocin that is found to play a huge role in building social interaction and relationships in mammals, especially humans. This hormone is also found to help connect us to others. The trust, closeness, pleasant touch, eye contact, and empathy are all triggered in an individual with the help of the hormone. The oxytocin levels in the mother are found to have an impact on the childs behavior and also help mothers build a stronger bond with their baby. According to Tobias Grossmann from the Max Planck Institute and Jessica Connelly and Kathleen Krol from the University of Virginia, the development of oxytocin system in a child is found to rely on the mothers behavior.. During childhood, an individual has his/her systems maturing either physiologically or behavior-wise as a step to adulthood. Oxytocin plays an important role in early social, perceptual, & cognitive functions and even complex social behaviors also depend on the hormone. The recent study has ...
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. Skill deficits are most noticeable in social behavior and these deficits may be related to atypical responsiveness to social stimuli. The current study sought to examine how individuals with an ASD allocated their behavior in the presence of others pre and post social exchange training and to evaluate the qualitative changes in social behavior following training. One adult and three children with an ASD participated. Relative preference for social interaction and the qualitative state of social engagement during social interaction were measured. Participants then received training to initiate and sustain a social exchange. Prompting and reinforcement, in the form of preferred social consequences, were provided. Following social exchange training, the results suggested an increased preference for social interaction for some participants and a qualitatively richer state of social engagement ...
Funder: Ford Foundation Partner: CERISE The Project Goal The Social Performance Fund promotes the broad adoption of the Universal Standards for Social Performance Management. Our aim is to promote SPM implementation by building the capacity of national associations and MFIs to use the SPI4 tool to manage and report on their social performance. Geography: Global Status: Finished Social Performance Reports Social Performance in Europe, .... Read More ...
Mir Saeed Moosavi & Zhila Darvishi Postin Doz, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran, ID CLEaR2017-408; Abstract: The changing conditions within cities over time and differences in living conditions between cities suggest that at best these studies provide a crude snapshot of how the mass of urban living conditions at one point in time may be affecting population health, social behavior and communication. Urban green spaces are an integral part of any urban area and their importance is very well known for maintaining the environmental quality, sustainability, social communication as well as population health and wellbeing. Urban green spaces constitute parks, gardens and recreation venues, informal green spaces such as river or sea fronts, green spaces surrounding historical sites, railway corridors and indigenous vegetation types.. The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between green space and community attachment in urban areas including metropolitan areas in Iran. The detailed ...
Project Summary/AbstractThe brain neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important roles in altering neuralcircuits that regulate social behavior. These ligands regulate normative social function in a host of areas,including social attachment, parental behavior, aggression, and complex social cognition. In pathologicalbrain/behavior conditions, many disorders are characterized by dramatic deficits in the social realm.Knowledge of the way OT and AVP alter cellular function in neurons has the potential to both identifymechanisms that produce social dysfunction and to design compounds that normalize cellular function andbehavior. The present project takes advantage of the discovery of novel OT ligand structure, and variation incellular receptors for OT and AVP in the marmoset, a species that exhibits social monogamy, infant care bymales, and a family-like social structure. The first aim will characterize the effects of ligand diversity on thealteration of behavior in a ...
Primates live in highly social environments, where prosocial behaviors promote social bonds and cohesion and contribute to group members fitness. Despite a growing interest in the biological basis of nonhuman primates social interactions, their underlying motivations remain a matter of debate. We report that macaque monkeys take into account the welfare of their peers when making behavioral choices bringing about pleasant or unpleasant outcomes to a monkey partner. Two macaques took turns in making decisions that could impact their own welfare or their partners. Most monkeys were inclined to refrain from delivering a mildly aversive airpuff and to grant juice rewards to their partner. Choice consistency between these two types of outcome suggests that monkeys display coherent motivations in different social interactions. Furthermore, spontaneous affilitative group interactions in the home environment were mostly consistent with the measured social decisions, thus emphasizing the impact of ...
Research in my laboratory broadly focuses on understanding the neural circuit mechanisms underlying social behaviors and their dysregulations in neuropsychiatric disorders. Humans are an exquisitely social species; we live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by a wide range of animal species and are of ubiquitous adaptive value; many social behaviors, such as aggression, pair bonding, and mating, are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, social behaviors displayed at inappropriate time or place or of inappropriate intensity can have detrimental effects on both the individuals and a social group as a whole. Impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Despite its importance, ...
Sociability is the disposition to interact with one another. Rodents have a rich repertoire of social behaviors and demonstrate strong sociability. Various methods have been established to measure the sociability of rodents in simple and direct ways, which includes reciprocal social interaction, juvenile social play, and three-chamber social tests. There are possible confounding factors while performing some of these tasks, such as aggression, avoidance of interaction by the stimulus mouse, exposure to a new environment, and lengthy procedures. The present study devised a method to complement these shortcomings and measure sociability as a group in the home cage setting, which prevents group-housed mice from isolation or exposure to a new environment. The home cage social test can allow high-throughput screening of social behaviors in a short amount of time. We developed two types of home cage setup: a home cage social target interaction test that measures sociability by putting the wire cage in ...
Despite growing interest in integrating people׳s daily mobility into contextual studies of social inequalities in health, the links between daily mobility and health inequalities remain inadequately conceptualised. This conceptual proposal anchors the relationship between daily mobility and contextual influences on social inequalities in health into the concept of mobility potential, which encompasses the opportunities and places individuals can choose (or are constrained) to access. Mobility potential is realized as actual mobility through agency. Being shaped by socially-patterned personal and geographic characteristics, mobility potential is unequally distributed across social groups. Social inequalities in realized mobility may thus result. We discuss pathways by which these may contribute to contextual influences on social inequalities in health. One pathway is reflected in disadvantaged groups encountering more fast-food outlets during their daily activities, which may relate to their higher risk
Human social behavior develops under the influence of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors. Social cognition comprises our ability to understand and respond appropriately to other peoples social approaches or responses. The concept embraces self-knowledge and theory of mind, or the ability …
What are social cues? How do these stimuli determine specific social actions? Classical studies by ethologists point to a general rule, in which animals use a rather simple set of discrete stimuli to trigger complex social behaviours such as aggression and mating. In fact, rodents use special scents known as pheromones as signals carrying information such as species, sex, and social status. Our research takes advantage of a large collection of pheromonal compounds - those identified by pioneers of this field as well as ones newly identified by us - to understand how information carried by single or multiple monomolecular pheromones is processed and in turn yields specific social behaviours.. We combine in vivo physiology with molecular methods such as single-cell transcriptomics and genomics to define the functions of specific neurons in social circuits. Our research so far has defined specific social cues, both olfactory and non-olfactory, and corresponding neural pathways for specific controls ...
Social inhibition can be lowered by a few different factors, one of them being alcohol. Alcohol consumption can be seen to lower inhibitions in both men and women. Social inhibitions generally act to control or affect the way that one conducts themselves in a social setting. By lowering inhibitions alcohol can work to increase social behaviors either negatively or positively. Importantly, one must remember that the higher the dosage of alcohol, the greater the damage it will cause to inhibitory control.[55] By lowering inhibitions, alcohol can cause social behaviors such as aggression, self disclosure, and violent acts.[55] Researchers have suggested that situational cues used to inhibit social behaviors are not perceived the same way after someone consumes enough alcohol to qualify them as drunk: interacting parties who are impaired by alcohol are less likely to see justifications for the others behavior, are thus more likely to interpret the behavior as arbitrary and provocative, and then, ...
Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote.. That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. Similarly, in a mouse model of ASD, the animals, like humans, show little interest in interacting or socializing with other mice.. One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization.. Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior.. In addition, the findings suggest that giving oxytocin as early as possible in the animals life leads to more lasting effects in adults and adolescents. This suggests there may be critical ...
Our lab studies mechanisms of social disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some of our work investigates social cognition, a term that refers to the perceptual and processing abilities that facilitate social interaction. These include a wide range of skills such as emotion recognition, theory of mind and attribution biases, and we examine relationships between social cognition in ASD to general cognition, social behavior, and social functioning. Our studies utilize a variety of different neuropsychological methods, including eye tracking to monitor and quantify perceptual patterns, computerized testing of social cognitive abilities, and video analysis of social functioning.. Our lab also studies face processing, non-social motivation (i.e., circumscribed interests), and the Broad Autism Phenotype. More recently, we have been examining how social interaction difficulties for adults on the spectrum are often a relational rather than an individual impairment, and how the perceptions, ...
Convergent evidence shows that alcohol exerts its effects on social behavior via modulation of amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli. Given that affective processing involves dynamic interactions b
Children with craniofacial anomalies, such as microtia, experience significant teasing, rejection, and other negative social responses, such as social avoidance from others. These occurrences show trends toward social withdrawal, likely as a reaction to the negative reactions of others (Snyder, 2005). Children with craniofacial anomalies are treated differently than children without such defects; the affected children consequently have been shown to be more introverted and to express a more negative self-concept than unaffected children (Weinstein, 2005). These negative events may also result in decreased self-esteem, increased anxiety, behavioral problems, and difficulty with social integration. The patients who request ear reconstruction often complain of diminished self-consciousness and being teased by peers. Children born with microtia tend towards social isolation, they play less with other children, meet less people, and hide more commonly from certain people, and avoid school. The longer ...
Enterprise 3 Your Business and the Triple Bottom Line Economic, Environmental, Social Performance The Sustainable Business Network and the Ministry for the Environment have developed this guide in partnership.
This paper sets out to review the influence of social processes on the timing of the diagnosis of cancer and to explore the potential for promoting earlier diagnosis by addressing social factors that influence symptom recognition and the diagnostic process. Social processes refer to the means by which culture and social organisation may impact on timely cancer diagnosis. The paper calls for concerted action around an important and developing research agenda that may prove highly valuable in the quest to secure prompt diagnosis for cancer and through it improved outcomes for individuals. ...
The depression-prone mice displayed higher concentrations of engram cells compared to the less susceptible mice, and the density of the cells correlated with the level of social avoidance behavior. Activating the engram cells increased social avoidance behavior while suppressing the cells decreased it, suggesting a role in the cognitive symptoms of depression ...
p,This international, peer-reviewed journal aims to advance knowledge in the growing and strongly interdisciplinary area of Interaction Studies in biological and artificial systems. Understanding social behaviour and communication in biological and artificial systems requires knowledge of evolutionary, developmental and neurobiological aspects of social behaviour and communication; the embodied nature of interactions; origins and characteristics of social and narrative intelligence; perception, action and communication in the context of dynamic and social environments; social learning, adaptation and imitation; social behaviour in human-machine interactions; the nature of empathic understanding, behaviour and intention reading; minimal requirements and systems exhibiting social behaviour; the role of cultural factors in shaping social behaviour and communication in biological or artificial societies.,/p,,p,The journal welcomes contributions that analyze social behaviour in humans and other ...
Rhonda Charles is a 2010 ASF Grant Winner and a PhD Student in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. Ms. Charles work focuses on the AVPR1A gene, which affects social behavior and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. Her ASF- funded study puts the human AVPR1A gene into a mouse model, a key step that must occur before we can introduce pharmacological treatments for individuals with autism affected by AVPR1A gene mutations.. ...
This paper tracks the consequences of individuals desire to align their location with their social preferences. The social preference studied in the...
The Journal of the Royal Society Interface has published my paper with Ben Althouse on how social dynamics may hold the key to understand the unique cycling ...
In a recent study with potential wide-reaching influence, Edsinger and Dolen (2018) tested for the first time, the effect of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in octopus. In their main experiment (Experiment 2), the authors placed octopuses in the central compartment of a three-chambered arena and allowed them to freely explore the lateral chambers, one containing an object and the other containing a social stimulus (a familiar male conspecific), both isolated through a perforated plastic container. All subjects first received a pre-trial to establish a baseline for the social response toward the conspecific, and following the administration of MDMA, they were given a post-trial with the same individual. According to the authors, the results demonstrate that MDMA induces both quantitative (i.e. longer intervals spent in the social stimulus chamber) and qualitative (i.e. different behaviors) acute prosocial responses in octopus. Here we highlight fundamental flaws in the study, thus challenging the
Behavior and Social Issues is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal which serves as a primary scholarly outlet for articles that advance the analysis of human social behavior, particularly with regard to understanding important social problems.
Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize peoples appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals perception of others as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bear
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Living in a large social group is thought to increase disease risk in wild animal populations, but comparative studies have provided mixed support for this prediction. Here, we take a social network perspective to investigate whether patterns of social contact within groups influence parasite risk. Specifically, increased modularity (i.e. sub-grouping) in larger groups could offset the increased disease risk associated with living in a large group. We simulated the spread of a contagious pathogen in random social networks to generate theoretically grounded predictions concerning the relationship between social network connectivity and the success of socially transmitted pathogens. Simulations yielded the prediction that community modularity (Q) negatively impacts parasite success. No clear predictions emerged for a second network metric we considered, the eigenvector centralization index (C), as the relationship between this measure and parasite success depended on the transmission probability ...
We have shown that the behavior of individuals in a social sequential decision-making task can be described by an evidence accumulation process whereby personal and social information is integrated until a decision is made, formalized by the social DDM. The model accurately predicts decision time and choice by taking personal information, social information, and the willingness to wait for social information into account. It successfully captured all the interrelationships of the key behavioral results of the social phase, thereby revealing the cognitive underpinnings of the group-level self-organization according to information quality. Measuring how individuals process personal and social information affords a deeper understanding of how individuals in a social environment cope with the complex problem of evaluating personal information and how they time their decision and incorporate social information.. During the social decision-making process, individuals incorporated personal information ...
There is provided a system and method for transmitting social communication data across at least one social communication channel. The method is performed by a computing device for communicating social data, comprising: receiving a composed social data object; integrating at least one tracker object within the social data object; transmitting the social data object comprising said tracker object to at least one destination target; obtaining a response from said tracker object indicating target feedback, wherein the target feedback indicates at least one of: subsequent transmission of the social data object to additional destination targets and feedback parameters from at least one of: said at least one destination target and said additional destination targets.
Get this from a library! Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood. [Tremaine, Emily A.] -- Siblings of Children with Autism: Social Behavior in Early Childhood
This is a somewhat challenging book to review for Sociological Research Online because it is not sociological. The book, an edited collection, reflects the work of a cluster of educational and developmental psychologists with a particular interest in the influence of peers and teachers on pupil motivation. Engagement with related social factors promises to lead towards better understanding of childrens adjustment in school.. In principle I would argue, greater exploration of overlaps in psychological and sociological disciplines is to be greatly welcomed, for far too many issues have been colonised by particular disciplines only to be doomed to a lack of holistic validity. A book on social motivation thus generates very positive expectations. Indeed, for Bernard Weiner, writing the Forward, it is a landmark volume for the way in which it gives affiliative motivation its proper role and respect and for signalling the potential for a general theory of motivation.. In structure the ...
The model and results presented here demonstrate how asocial organisms that reproduce parthenogenetically and grow within somewhat isolated colonies can evolve to social organisms that invest in the common good. The effect of clonal mixing on the level of sociality can be quantified with a relatedness measure. This demonstrates how social behaviour is not precluded by clonal mixing and may evolve without the need for some form of kin recognition.. The relatedness measure we have used quantifies assortment in the population. Our derivation of this measure and the costs and benefits came from a detailed ecological model. By demonstrating how inclusive fitness arguments follow from the ecology, without the need to invoke other mechanisms such as group selection, our work contributes to a growing body of literature that highlights the usefulness of inclusive fitness in complex ecological scenarios (e.g. Lehmann et al. 2007; Taylor et al. 2007).. Interestingly, as shown by equation (2.2), both ...
Search +Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure -Link community +Temporal network -Innovation -Sinan Aral -Albert-László Barabási ...
Search +Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network -Community structure +Industry-Academic Partnership -Elizabeth Leicht -Adrien Friggeri +Science of science -modularity +Interdisciplinary research -Ecology -Community formation ...
The increasing importance of corporate social responsibility with practitioners is having huge attention in the academic literature. A growing study examines the reasons why firms engage in corporate social responsibility, and how it relates to financial performance of firms. Yet, the link between market performance of a firms stock and its social performance is under researched compared to that of the environment and economic perspectives. Therefore, this study adds insights to CSR-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of social performance. Social performance refers to the firms product responsibility, community involvement, health and safety, diversity, training and development, human right, and employment quality. Using Thomson Reuters database social performance scores, we conduct a descripto-explanatory analysis to examine whether the Swedish stock market responds to social performance over the years 2010 to 2014 for a sample of 66 Swedish firms listed at OMX ...
Autism spectrum disorders are a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior. Those with autism have problems with social interactions, repetitive behaviors, and both verbal and non-verbal communication. While the cause of autism is not yet know, studies have shown that there are both genetic and environmental factors linked with autism. The amygdala is considered to be part of the
The Department of Social Neuroscience investigates human social behaviour. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, we study the neuronal, hormonal, and developmental foundations of human social cognition, social and moral emotions such as empathy and compassion, envy, revenge, fairness as well as emotion regulation capacities and their role in social decision making and communication.
Social deficit is one of the core symptoms of neuropsychiatric diseases, in which immune genes play an important role. Although a few immune genes have been shown to regulate social and emotional behaviors, how immune gene network(s) may jointly regulate sociability has not been investigated so far. To decipher the potential immune-mediated mechanisms underlying social behavior, we first studied the brain microarray data of eight inbred mouse strains with known variations in social behavior and retrieved the differentially expressed immune genes. We then made a protein-protein interaction analysis of them to find the major networks and explored the potential association of these genes with the behavior and brain morphology in the mouse phenome database. To validate the expression and function of the candidate immune genes, we selected the C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains among the eight inbred strains, compared their social behaviors in resident-intruder and 3-chambered social tests and the mRNA levels of
Formica polyctena (es); Kis erdeivöröshangya (hu); Formica polyctena (ast); Formica polyctena (ca); Kahlrückige Waldameise (de); Formica polyctena (ga); Formica polyctena (bg); Formica polyctena (ro); Kal skogsmyra (sv); Formica polyctena (uk); Formica polyctena (la); Formica polyctena (io); Kaljukekomuurahainen (fi); mravenec lesní menší (cs); Formica polyctena (an); Formica polyctena (fr); palukuklane (et); Formica polyctena (vi); Formica polyctena (sr); Formica polyctena (pt-br); Formica polyctena (gl); Formica polyctena (ceb); Mrówka ćmawa (pl); Formica polyctena (nb); kale rode bosmier (nl); Formica polyctena (it); Formica polyctena (pt); Formica polyctena (id); Formica polyctena (sq); Formica polyctena (en); Малый лесной муравей (ru); Formica polyctena (war); Formica polyctena (nn) specie di formica (it); কীটপতঙ্গের প্রজাতি (bn); espèce dinsectes (fr); מין של חרק (he); art av insekt (sv); вид насекомых (ru); ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute administration of ketamine attenuates the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles via activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. AU - Hasegawa, Sho. AU - Yoshimi, Akira. AU - Mouri, Akihiro. AU - Uchida, Yoji. AU - Hida, Hirotake. AU - Mishina, Masayoshi. AU - Yamada, Kiyofumi. AU - Ozaki, Norio. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Noda, Yukihiro. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - The impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles is resistant to some antidepressants and an antipsychotic, although the underlying mechanisms and/or therapeutic target are not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the glutamatergic neuronal system in the impairment of social behaviors in this model, as this system is known to be involved in many central pathologies. Acute administration of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ...
Playing Online games are one of the medium of entertainment especially in the student of (Holy cross of Davao College). Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. Social isolation can be an immediate consequence of continuous and ceaseless gaming. If players take the role of pro-social characters in violent or gory games then this will tend to influence them to behave in a pro-social fashion, he added. The impact of video games on a childs social well-being is modest at best, Przybylski says, accounting for only 2 percent of a childs psychological and social function. A number of experiments show that adults feelmore hostile after playing violent games--especially games that simulate real-life situations (Bartlett et al 2007; Bartlett and Rodeheffer 2009; Bartlett et al 2009). In fact, given that not only players of violent video games but also their social network respond ...
In vertebrates, the early social environment can persistently influence behaviour and social competence later in life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in animal social competence are largely unknown. In rats, high-quality maternal care causes an upregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (gr) and reduces offspring stress responsiveness. This identifies gr regulation as a candidate mechanism for maintaining variation in animal social competence. We tested this hypothesis in a highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, reared with or without caring parents. We find that the molecular pathway translating early social experience into later-life alterations of the stress axis is homologous across vertebrates: fish reared with parents expressed the glucocorticoid receptor gr1 more in the telencephalon. Furthermore, expression levels of the transcription factor egr-1 (early growth response 1) were associated with gr1 expression in the telencephalon and ...
Definition of social perception in the dictionary. Meaning of social perception. What does social perception mean? Information and translations of social perception in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Factors influencing supportive social networks of people with schizophrenia are little understood. Data from 46 outpatients with schizophrenia were analysed using structural equation modelling to test plausible sets of inter-relationships between social skill, social networks, and social support. The data supported a tentative model about the causal relationships between variables. Paths showed that people with greater social skill had larger social networks, but did not necessarily perceive greater support from these networks. Negative symptoms accounted for some of the effect of social skill on social networks. Whereas groups of single-admission and multiple-admission participants did not differ in terms of social skill, social networks, or support, the age of the participants influenced their social skill and the size of their social networks. Younger participants had greater social skill and larger social networks. The results appear to suggest the importance of early intervention for young ...
Researchers have discovered that a form of oxytocin-the hormone responsible for making humans fall in love-has a similar effect on fish, suggesting it is a key regulator of social behavior that has evolved and endured since ancient times.. The findings, published in the latest edition of the journal Animal Behaviour, help answer an important evolutionary question: why do some species develop complex social behaviors while others spend much of their lives alone?. We know how this hormone affects humans, explains Adam Reddon, lead researcher and a graduate student in the Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour at McMaster University. It is related to love, monogamy, even risky behaviour, but much less is known about its effects on fish.. Specifically, researchers examined the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, a highly social species found in Lake Tanganyika in Africa.. These cichlids are unusual because they form permanent hierarchical social groups made up of a dominant breeding ...
Social systems encompass individual components that come together and interact. How these interactions and resulting group-level phenomena unfold depends on the properties of the individuals, their experience, ambient conditions, as well as the interactions themselves. How evolution shapes social interactions and social behavior, and how social behavior plays out on a mechanistic level are questions of great general importance. These questions touch on sensitive issues related to human psychology and cognitive abilities, as well as how humans differ in these respects from other animals (Wilson, 1975; de Waal and Ferrari, 2010), but they also relate to fundamental aspects of evolutionary processes. In particular, social evolutionary theory provides a unifying framework in which social behavior and the evolutionary dynamics between interacting components can be understood at a variety of organizational levels, ranging from genes in a genome, to cells in multicellular organisms, individuals in a ...
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain ... read more polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites ...
Research suggests an overrepresentation of autism spectrum diagnoses (ASD) or autistic traits in gender diverse samples, particularly in children and adolescents. Using data from the GENTLE (GENder identiTy Longitudinal Experience) Cohort at the Gender Diversity Service at the Perth Children’s Hospital, the primary objective of the current retrospective chart review was to explore psychopathology and quality of life in gender diverse children with co-occurring ASD relative to gender diverse children and adolescents without ASD. The Social Responsiveness Scale (Second Edition) generates a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) score indicating a likely clinical ASD diagnosis, which was used to partition participants into two groups (indicated ASD, n = 19) (no ASD indicated, n = 60). Indicated ASD was far higher than would be expected compared to general population estimates. Indicated ASD on the Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS 2) was also a significant predictor of
Social plasticity is a pervasive feature of animal behavior. Animals adjust the expression of their social behavior to the daily changes in social life and to transitions between life-history stages, and this ability has an impact in their Darwinian fitness. This behavioral plasticity may be achieved either by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of the neural network underlying social behavior in response to perceived social information. Independent of the proximate mechanisms, at the neuromolecular level social plasticity relies on the regulation of gene expression, such that different neurogenomic states emerge in response to different social stimuli and the switches between states are orchestrated by signaling pathways that interface the social environment and the genotype. Here, we test this hypothesis by characterizing the changes in the brain profile of gene expression in response to social odors in the Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. This species has a rich repertoire of
Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a devastating disorder and one the most common neurodegenerative diseases in middle age. The most prominent early manifestations of bvFTD (behavior variant FTD) are not the memory and other cognitive deficits typical of Alzheimers disease (AD) but, rather, disturbance in social or interpersonal behavior. A basic manifestation of this disorder is a disturbance in the emotions and motives that drive social and moral behavior. In fact, bvFTD is an incredible window to the neuroscience of social behavior. This study will help clarify the neurobiological substrates of sociomoral emotions and their associated clinical features. The findings of this proposal can have major implications for understanding the interaction between brain and social behavior and for designing future research on the basic mechanisms of social neuroscience. This research aims to document the loss of sociomoral emotions (SME) compared to primary emotions in patients with bvFTD vs. patients ...
I am interested in the evolution of human social behaviour and wonder if there is any literature on a cognitive centre for the modelling of social status. It has occured to me that the ability to model relative social status i.e. where we stand in relation to others must be a central brain function for social primates, like ourselves. Social primates need to be able to learn the relative social status of other individuals and then react to them appropriately, either with submissive or dominant behaviour. I see that brain mapping techniques have revealed that the hippocampus (the cornu ammonis and the dentate gyrus) is involved in learning face/name pairs. Does anyone know of experiments to discover which part of the brain is active when the faces presented are of individuals with social status that is important to the subject? It seems likely to me that a social status centre exists and that it would have exert a high degree of control over other behavioural centres, especially mood etc e.g. ...
New research in the FASEB Journal suggests that activation of nicotinic receptors within the prefrontal region of the mouse brain helps establish appropriate ranking between competing motivations. If you think nicotine receptors are only important to smokers trying to kick the tobacco habit, think again. New research published in the FASEB Journal ( suggests that these receptors also play an important role in social interaction and the ability to choose between competing motivations. Specifically, scientists from France show that the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social interaction in mice and that this area of the brain is necessary for adapted and balanced social interactions to occur. This new knowledge could one day lead to novel treatments for ADHD, schizophrenia, and depression, among other illnesses.. One of the main aims would be to understand and help people to make good decisions for themselves (and for others) and to maintain, ...
Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenetic form of intellectual disability and autism. Although the Fmr1 knockout mouse model recapitulates many aspects of the human FXS condition, the establishment of robust social behavioural phenotypes suitable for drug screening has been difficult. Here, we describe a novel social behavioural paradigm, the Automated Tube Test (ATT), for which Fmr1 knockout mice demonstrate a highly reliable and robust phenotype. Fmr1 KO mice show highly dominant behaviour over wild-type littermates in the ATT. Consistent with previous findings, we observed a highly significant, albeit partial, rescue of the altered social behaviour of Fmr1 knockout mice in the ATT, using genetic (mGluR5 deletion) or pharmacological inhibition (mGluR5 antagonist) of mGluR5 signalling independently. Together, our results validate the Automated Tube Test as a robust outcome measure for social behaviour in preclinical research for FXS, and confirm the pathophysiological relevance of ...
mice are exposed to 10 bouts of social defeat in which c57bl/6 test mice are forced to intrude into space occupied by mice of a larger and more aggressive strain, leading to subordination of the test mice. Following this repeated stress, a subset of mice develop significant avoidance of social contact with mice of the same strain and exhibit other signs that are reminiscent of symptoms of human depression, including weight loss and loss of hedonic (pleasure) responses to sucrose. A strength of the social defeat stress model is that, at least in this mouse strain, the stressor convincingly separates the mice into two groups, a group that the authors designate Susceptible, which develop social avoidance, and a group described as Unsusceptible, which continue to interact with other mice at the same rate as never stressed controls. The model has other strengths. Repeated social defeat would appear to be a good model for some adverse human experience. Moreover, the traits that emerge in ...
In social neuroscience, prosocial behavior is sought in genes, brains and evolutionary past. Social is simultaneously understood as a capacity of the organisms brain to cope with the environment and as an evolutionary advantage of the species. This perspective on the social differs fundamentally from sociologys perspective, where the social can be anything from the sum of individual actions to power relations or social structures. The list of phenomena having been defined to be social in the course of the history of the social sciences is rather long and diverse as (Greenwood, 1997, p. 3) points out by giving a random collection of those phenomena: states, families, armies, religious organizations, literary societies, mobs, street brawls, people chatting on a street corner, the Roman Catholic Church, the Renaissance, insect communication, dominance hierarchies among primates, language, financial instruments, and traffic flow in a city. Thus, social is by no means an unambiguous term and ...
Game-theoretic models of network formation typically assume that people create relations so as to maximize their own outcome in the network. Recent experiments on network formation suggest that the assumption of self-interest might be unwarranted and that social preferences, such as altruism and inequality aversion, play a role in the formation of social networks. We developed an experiment to systematically investigate whether people show preferences for outcomes of others during network formation. We find that such preferences play a role when network decisions degenerate to simple two-person decision tasks. In more complex environments, however, we find little evidence for social preferences as a significant decision criterion. Furthermore, we find some evidence for farsighted behavior in network formation.. ...
Author(s): Hanson, Kari | Advisor(s): Semendeferi, Katerina | Abstract: The evolution of the human brain has yielded advanced cognitive capacities supporting the development of language, technologically advanced material culture, and highly complex social behavior that has allowed for the development of the rich diversity of human cultures. Comparative neuroanatomy in evolutionary perspective continues to make great strides in characterizing and defining unique elements of the human neuroanatomical phenotype at the gross and microscopic level that underlie these key behavioral adaptations. In conjunction with these studies, an understanding of the functional implications of derived anatomical traits is gained through analyses of neurodevelopmental disorders, which help to define a spectrum of variation in the diversity of human brain phenotypes. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemideletion of ~1.6 Mb (25-28 genes) on human chromosome 7q11.23, a highly dynamic
BASF Report 2009 Economic, environmental and social performance Investing in the future: children in the BASF Kids Lab in Hong Kong BASF Group 2009 * Economic data (million ) Change in % Sales
The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS), a condition caused by deletion of ∼28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music), and a negative physical stressor (cold). We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median
The Self-determination theory and The Vallerands Hierarchical Model has been studied with different types of social factors that can bring different consequences. The purpose of this work was if responsibility and social climate could predict the social and prosocial behaviors and vio-lence. For this, 429 students (M = 11.46, SD = 1.92) participated in this study answering a ques-tionnaire with five variables: school climate, responsibility, motivation, satisfaction of psycholog-ical needs, prosocial and antisocial behaviors and violence. The main results saw that the most part of variables were correlated positive and directly except with antisocial behaviors and vio-lence. On the other hand, prediction model (X2 = 584.145 (98); RMSEA = 0.104 [90% CI = 0.096, 0.112]; TLI = 0.849; CFI = 0.894) showed that responsibility and school climate can predict psy-chological basic needs and these needs, can improve the autonomous motivation and finally have positive consequences improving prosocial behaviors and
Infants innately relieve stress by crying, turning their heads or maintaining eye contact. Adults manage emotional tension using problem-solving or by seeking support. A new study by a University of Missouri human development ...
BACKGROUND: Recent research has revealed that the community of microorganisms inhabiting the gut affects brain development, function and behaviour. In particular, disruption of the gut microbiome during critical developmental windows can have lasting effects on host physiology. Both antibiotic exposure and germ-free conditions impact the central nervous system and can alter multiple aspects of behaviour. Social impairments are typically displayed by antibiotic-treated and germ-free animals, yet there is a lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiological changes. Since the μ-opioid, oxytocin and vasopressin systems are key modulators of mammalian social behaviour, here we investigate the effect of experimentally manipulating the gut microbiome on the expression of these pathways. RESULTS: We show that social neuropeptide signalling is disrupted in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice, which may contribute to the behavioural deficits observed in these animal models. The most notable finding is
Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others, is a strong determinant of social functioning among individuals with schizophrenia. Identifying the neural bases of ToM and their relationship to social functioning may elucidate functionally relevant neurobiological targets for intervention. ToM ability may additionally account for other social phenomena that affect social functioning, such as social anhedonia (SocAnh). Given recent research in schizophrenia demonstrating improved neural functioning in response to increased use of cognitive skills, it is possible that SocAnh, which decreases ones opportunity to engage in ToM, could compromise social functioning through its deleterious effect on ToM-related neural circuitry. Here, twenty individuals with schizophrenia and 18 healthy controls underwent fMRI while performing the False-Belief Task. Aspects of social functioning were assessed using multiple methods including self-report (Interpersonal ...
Elephants typically have very strong social bonds, and social interactions can include affiliative, agonistic, or ambiguous behaviors. The social interactions and dominance hierarchy between individuals of a herd depend upon many factors, including maternal lineage, age, and sex. This study was designed to determine how social behaviors among a herd of captive African elephants varied throughout the day and to establish if the frequency of social interactions and age class were correlated. The study also aimed to determine if handler perceptions of elephant personality were an accurate predictor of the type and frequency of social behaviors observed, in addition to the factors stated above. The research was performed at the African Elephant Research Unit at Knysna Elephant Park (KEP) in South Africa. The herd included 7 elephants in 3 age groups: juvenile (0-10 years), young adult (11-20 years), and adult (20+ years). Continuous, all-occurrence sampling of pre-determined affiliative, agonistic, and
Social phobia, also known as social anxiety disorder, is a common, often debilitating condition. People with social phobia experience high levels of anxiety when they participate in social situations or perform in front of others. Approximately 80% of social phobia cases occur before the age of 18, and often precede other anxiety, mood, and substance abuse or dependence disorders. Physical symptoms typically accompany the intense anxiety caused by the disorder, and may include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment method for most people with social phobia. Approximately 30% of people with the disorder, however, do not respond to CBT treatment. A better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying social phobia and CBTs effect on these mechanisms will help physicians to better predict the best treatment for different patients. This study will evaluate the effect of CBT on how the ...
Humans are a social species; our ability to function in a diverse range of social environments is indispensable to our livelihood. Although a large range of individual differences in social cognitive ability has been described in clinical and typically-developed populations, our understanding of the neurophysiological sources of individual differences in social cognition is incomplete. Taking the viewpoint that across-individual variances in social behavioral tendencies are the manifestations of differences in baseline and task-related functional properties of fundamental information-processing neural networks, this manuscript presents a series of experiments that aim to characterize the extent to which functional properties of basic brain networks can explain individual differences across a number of traits. The results of these experiments show that functional properties of the default network, the somatosensory network, and the emotion processing network predict several socially-relevant ...
Social structure is proposed to influence the transmission of both directly and environmentally transmitted infectious agents. However in natural populations, many other factors also influence transmission, including variation in individual susceptibility and aspects of the environment that promote or inhibit exposure to infection. We used a population genetic approach to investigate the effects of social structure, environment, and host traits on the transmission of Escherichia coli infecting two populations of wild elephants: one in Amboseli National Park and another in Samburu National Reserve, Kenya. If E. coli transmission is strongly influenced by elephant social structure, E. coli infecting elephants from the same social group should be genetically more similar than E. coli sampled from members of different social groups. However, we found no support for this prediction. Instead, E. coli was panmictic across social groups, and transmission patterns were largely dominated by habitat and ...
Please note that we are unable to supply publications unless we are listed as the publisher. However, if you are a UK resident you may be able to obtain them from your local public library, your college library or direct from the publisher.. ...
Summary Micro-organisms were believed until recently to live independent, unicellular lives but are now understood to rely on complex systems of social behaviours for survival. In pathogenic bacteria, cooperation and communication between cells leads to increased virulence and the understanding of how these behaviours evolve is of fundamental importance to the future of human health. Almost nothing is known, however, about social behaviours of bacteria infecting human hosts, and research on social behaviour in microbes is limited to well-characterised lab strains. This proposal describes a program of research designed to exploit the opportunities offered by an interdisciplinary approach to address the growing challenge posed to human health by disease caused by bacterial infection. Specifically, I have three primary objectives: (1) to develop a model system for investigating social behaviour in long-term bacterial infections; (2) to identify evolutionary mechanisms driving dynamics of social ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Suspendisse viverra egestas eros. Duis tempus varius diam et condimentum. Donec elementum, mi ut posuere posuere, erat dui interdum ante, nec fringilla augue odio ac felis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse quam mauris, tempus ut felis nec, rutrum cursus arcu. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque id sodales elit. Quisque et dui vulputate, rutrum nunc a, ullamcorper tortor. Duis at libero vestibulum, aliquet diam a, pharetra mauris. Donec justo libero, suscipit eu dolor scelerisque, eleifend rhoncus quam. Nullam aliquet semper magna, commodo tincidunt risus varius tincidunt. Integer pulvinar ac libero non vulputate.. Vivamus et felis vitae dolor imperdiet pulvinar id eu dui. Donec ultrices sem nisl, ut porttitor purus scelerisque vel. Morbi eget lacinia ligula, eu condimentum urna. Maecenas id nisi a ex sollicitudin commodo. Duis imperdiet libero eget nibh volutpat, in iaculis felis varius. Nullam ullamcorper bibendum eros ...
Ireland is in the middle of a catastrophized recession. This will come as no surprise to anyone in Ireland, though perhaps it is not known as well internationally as one might think. One of the crucial features of the time leading up to the boom was the activity of the property developers, the risk-taking darlings of the neo-liberal miracle. The developers built and built, while prices and availability of cheap credit grew. Until one day it all fell apart and the Irish economy collapsed into a heap on the floor. What was once prime residential housing, is now a toxic asset. A crucial feature of the post-crash Irish landscape is the presence of vacant or half-built houses and apartments. The question I want to address here is what those radicals concerned with social justice in Ireland should do in the face of this landscape. To get to the point, I would like to go back and point towards an alternate historiography which reveals that rights have been used in truly radical demands and ...
Introduction. Social adjustment is an umbrella term encompassing various aspects of peoples performance in social context. It is ones tendency to cope with all the difficulties that one may encounter in a social environment. Passer & smith (2011) refer to it as a life-long process that involves adjustment of an individual to the society and others in order to be accepted as member of the society. It is, therefore, the strive by individuals to cope with societal demands in order to be accepted by others. Interestingly, those who design and provide programmes for students in educational settings often seek to enhance aspect of social adjustment either as a primary outcome or as a value by product of other product activities (Yeseldyke & thurlow, 1993). It is almost certain that well developed social abilities affect virtually all aspects of ones life in social settings; hence, social adjustment is considered as moving forward with members of the society. Social adjustment is a psychological ...
The purpose of the study was to investigate how peoples endogenous levels of oxytocin were related to brain activity when they viewed social interactions, said Katie Lancaster, a Ph.D. candidate in psychology at the University of Virginia and first author of the study. We found that people with higher oxytocin levels showed greater recruitment of brain regions that support social cognition, suggesting that these people are naturally attending to the more social aspects of the interactions.. People with low levels of oxytocin showed less recruitment of these social brain areas; their brain activity resembles the patterns of neural activity previously observed when people focus on non-socially relevant information.. The study has implications for better understanding how oxytocin interacts with cognition in both healthy people and people with disordered social behavior. For example, low levels of oxytocin have previously been associated with social deficits often found in individuals with ...
Recent studies suggest that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline, or its cousins, hold therapeutic potential for affective and psychotic disorders. This is proposed on the basis of a direct effect on microglia‐mediated frontocortical synaptic pruning (FSP) during adolescence, perhaps in genetically susceptible individuals harboring risk alleles in the complement component cascade that is involved in this normal process of CNS circuit refinement. In reviewing this field, it is argued that minocycline is actually probing and modulating a deeply evolved and intricate system wherein psychosocial stimuli sculpt the circuitry of the social brain underlying adult behavior and personality. Furthermore, this system can generate psychiatric morbidity that is not dependent on genetic variation. This view has important ramifications for understanding pathologies of human social behavior and cognition as well as providing long‐sought potential mechanistic links between social experience and ...
Social behavior[edit]. Adults typically do not survive cold northern winters, but larvae overwinter and moths begin to appear ... The adults will feed on different flowers depending on its behavior and on whether they are diurnal or nocturnal. It the adults ...
Behavior[edit]. Social behavior[edit]. Risso's dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which ... Risso's dolphins have a stratified social organisation.[13] These dolphins typically travel in groups of 10-51, but can ... "Social structure of Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) at the Azores: a stratified community based on highly associated social ... Linear scars mostly from social interaction eventually cover the bulk of the body; scarring is a common feature in toothed ...
Social behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... Feeding behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Mating behavior[edit]. In general, both sexes will copulate with several mates during mating season. However, each time a ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Social behavior[edit]. Female and calf American mastodon at the George Page Museum ... Based on the characteristics of mastodon bone sites, it can be inferred that, as in modern proboscideans, the mastodon social ... behavior". Quaternary International. 126-128: 5. Bibcode:2005QuInt.126....5S. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.011.. ...
Social behavior[edit]. Smilodon[edit]. Main article: Smilodon § Social behavior. A 2009 study compared the ratios of social and ... "Assessing behavior in extinct animals: was Smilodon social?". Brain Behav. Evol. 61 (3): 159-64. doi:10.1159/000069752. PMID ... Rebuttals to the social hypothesis[edit]. The question of sociality is still controversial. Strong support for the traditional ... Social carnivores, such as lions, have few other predators to fear, and will readily attend these calls. The study concluded ...
Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences? (2013) indicated that with internal deliberation, the ... "Peer Effects in Pro-Social Behavior: Social Norms or Social Preferences?". Journal of the European Economic Association. 11 (3 ... Social behavior[edit]. Cognitive dissonance is used to promote positive social behaviours, such as increased condom use;[42] ... social pain) caused by salient, upward social-comparison, by social-class snobbery. That social emotions, such as embarrassment ...
Social behavior[edit]. Two male gazelles in an agonistic display with females nearby ... a b c d e f g h Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los ... Estes, R. D. (1967). "The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles". Journal of Mammalogy. 48 (2): 189-209. doi: ... Jarman, P. J. (1974). "The Social Organization of Antelope in Relation to their Ecology". Behaviour. 48 (3-4): 215-267. doi: ...
Social behavior and reproduction[edit]. Play media. Male elephant seals fighting for mates ... Le Boeuf BJ (1972). "Sexual behavior in the Northern Elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris". Behaviour. 41 (1): 1-26. doi: ... Le Beouf, Burney J.; Richard M. Laws (1994). Elephant Seals: Population ecology, behavior, and physiology. University of ... Males and females differ in diving behavior. Males tend to hug the continental shelf while making deep dives and forage along ...
Social behavior[edit]. The scarlet ibis is a sociable and gregarious bird, and very communally-minded regarding the search for ... Behavior[edit]. Breeding[edit]. Mating pairs build nests in a simple style, typically "loose platforms of sticks"[12] of a ...
Social organization and behavior[edit]. This female eastern bongo presents her hindquarters while looking over her shoulder to ... This behavior is believed to be a means of getting salts and minerals into their diets. This behavior has also been reported in ... Estes, Richard D. (1991) The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Berkeley and ... They have a complex social interaction and are found in African dense forest mosaics. ...
The value of a social behavior depends in part on the social behavior of an animal's neighbors. For example, the more likely a ... When a population exhibits a number of interacting social behaviors such as this, it can evolve a stable pattern of behaviors ... Social behaviors[edit]. Animals cooperate with each other to increase their own fitness.[85] These altruistic, and sometimes ... Hamilton, W. D. (1964). "The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 7 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1016/ ...
Behavior[edit]. Social structure[edit]. Gelada reproductive unit. Geladas live in a complex multilevel society similar to that ... 1986). "The social ecology of gelada baboons", In: Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals, Rubenstein DI, ... Reproductive behavior". Contributions to Primatology. 16: 183-197. PMID 101336.. *^ Dunbar, R. I. M.; Hannah-Stewart, L.; ... The Males Relationship with his Females", Animal Behavior 31:565-575. *^ a b Dunbar, R. I. M. (1984). Reproductive decisions: ...
Social and foraging behavior[edit]. Newly emerged workers start out at the bottom of the dominance hierarchy in the social ... Social castes[edit]. Like in most social bees, there are three main social caste divisions in B. terrestris. This ensures a ... Reproductive behavior[edit]. Mating system[edit]. B. terrestris is a singly mating species. Mating with multiple males might ... Foraging behavior[edit]. B. terrestris generally forage on a large variety of flower species. Their highest activity is in the ...
Social behavior[edit]. See also: Social behavior in the brown rat. Generally speaking, rats are quite sociable and function ... Rat Behavior and Biology - A website with useful referenced articles that pertain to the scientific study of the domesticated ... are a mostly benign group of bacteria that commonly reside on the top of the skin, but cuts and scratches from social and ... Price, Edward O. (2003). Animal Domestication and Behavior. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-597-7.. ...
"Social Behavior of the Little Brown Bat, Myotis lucifugus: I. Mating Behavior". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 6 (2): 129 ... Little brown bats are most affected by white-nose syndrome when they exhibit social, grouping behavior when hibernating, as P. ... In the fall, however, individuals of both sexes will congregate in the same roost in a behavior known as "swarming."[21] Like ... In some colonies where grouping behavior was common before exposure to white-nose syndrome, bats now hibernate in a more ...
Behavior[edit]. Social systems[edit]. Primates are among the most social of animals, forming pairs or family groups, uni-male ... Within a social group there is a balance between cooperation and competition. Cooperative behaviors include social grooming ( ... Social monogamy in some species may have evolved to combat this behavior.[137] Promiscuity may also lessen the risk of ... Lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, and New World monkeys rely on olfactory signals for many aspects of social and reproductive behavior ...
Social behavior[edit]. A pair of captive North American river otters at Phillips Park Zoo in Aurora, IL. ... The North American river otter is more social than most mustelids. In all habitats, their basic social group is the family, ... Behavior[edit]. North American river otters are active year-round, and are most active at night and during crepuscular hours. ... However, playful behavior was found in only 6% of 294 observations in a study in Idaho, and was limited mostly to immature ...
Behavior and social systems[edit]. Many megabat species are highly gregarious, or social. Megabats will vocalize to communicate ... Megabat social behavior includes using sexual behaviors for more than just reproduction. Female Egyptian fruit bats take food ... Safi, Kamran (2008). "Social Bats: The Males' Perspective". Journal of Mammalogy. 89 (6): 1342-1350. Bibcode:2007JMamm..88.. ... Dumont, Elizabeth R.; O'Neal, Reilly (2004). "Food Hardness and Feeding Behavior in Old World Fruit Bats (Pteropodidae)". ...
... organizational behavior; social, cognitive, and health psychology; communications; complex systems; evaluation science; ... Huang Y, Contractor N, Yao Y. CI-KNOW: Recommendation based on social networks. Paper presented at: 2009 Annual Conference for ... Aboelela SW, Merrill JA, Carley KM, Larson E. Social network analysis to evaluate an interdisciplinary research center. J ... Miller K. Successful collaborations: social scientists who study science have noticed a trend. Biomed Comp Rev. 2008:7-15. ...
Homans, George Caspar (1974). Social behavior; its elementary forms (Rev. ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. pp. 246- ... Social justice is also associated with social mobility, especially the ease with which individuals and families may move ... John Gray (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), Chapter 5. "social justice , Definition of social justice in English by ... saying that justice is a result of individual behavior and unpredictable market forces. Social justice is closely related to ...
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M. (2000). "The Origins of Social Phobia". Behavior Modification. 24 (1): 102-129. doi: ... "capable of pro-social values and intelligent enough ('high IQ') to see the truth about the social world." The study determined ... In the 2000s, incel communities became more extremist as they adopted behaviors common on forums like 4chan and Reddit, where ... Clyde had shared incel memes on social media, along with other posts referencing right-wing beliefs and conspiracy theories. ...
Organizational Behavior; and Social Statistics. While most such schools offer only masters and PhD degrees in human resources ... Organizational Behavior, and Social Statistics. Established by the state legislature in 1945, the school is a statutory or ... The first two years consisted of many social science classes such as American history and government, sociology, psychology, ... and champion of both the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Social Security Act. Andy Stern, former President of the SEIU, holds ...
Social behavior. 3: 107-111. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.03.001. ISSN 2352-1546. Chugh, Dolly; Bazerman, Max H.; Banaji, Mahzarin ... The Role of Self-Deception in Unethical Behavior". Social Justice Research. 17 (2): 223-236. doi:10.1023/B:SORE. ... It is often caused by external factors due to which an individual is unable to see the immoral aspect of their behavior in that ... Studies on individual unethicality have also looked at the role of social norms and as well as how we view others' unethical ...
social behavior Plasmodium. (malaria parasite). Birds, mammals. (inc. humans). Anopheles mosquito vector, attracted by odour of ... "Social Parasites in the Ant Colony". Antkeepers. Retrieved 4 April 2016.. *^ Deslippe, Richard (2010). "Social Parasitism in ... Social parasitism[edit]. Further information: Ant mimicry and Cuckoo bee. Social parasites take advantage of interspecific ... Further information: Behavior-altering parasites. Some parasites modify host behaviour in order to increase their transmission ...
social behavior Plasmodium. (malaria parasite). Birds, mammals. (inc. humans). Anopheles mosquito vector, attracted by odour of ... Social parasites take advantage of interspecific interactions between members of social animals such as ants, termites, and ... "Social Parasites in the Ant Colony". Antkeepers. Retrieved 4 April 2016.. *^ Emery, Carlo (1909). "Über den Ursprung der ... This behavior makes micropredators suitable as vectors, as they can pass smaller parasites from one host to another.[21][33][22 ...
Social Behavior and Personality. 41 (10): 1747-1756. doi:10.2224/sbp.2013.41.10.1747. Farh, Jiing-Lih; Hackett, Rick D.; Liang ... Social Behavior & Personality. 43 (6): 1043-1054. doi:10.2224/sbp.2015.43.6.1043. Velo, Veronica (2011). Cross-Cultural ... Thus, voice behavior and expression rely on the transformational leadership style often seen in low power distance cultures. ... Negative behavior in a low power distance culture increases when organizations treat them poorly because they lack the ...
Yin, Xu; Jin-Song, Huang (2014). "Effects Of Price Discounts And Bonus Packs On Online Impulse Buying". Social Behavior & ... Although there are aspects that can determine a consumer's shopping behavior, there are many outside factors that can influence ... However, because of this habitual behavior, "consumers may perceive the ($14) difference between $93 and $79 as greater than ... "increasingly implement promotional campaigns that will be effective in triggering consumer impulse buying behavior" to increase ...
Social Behavior & Personality. 38 (3): 415-426. doi:10.2224/sbp.2010.38.3.415. Chao, Cheng-Min (2019). "Factors Determining the ... Women considered social media to be beneficial, and men exhibited more confidence in actively utilizing social media. Verhoeven ... social support in using instant messaging and found that social influence plays an important role in affecting online social ... theory of planned behavior, a combined theory of planned behavior/technology acceptance model, model of personal computer use, ...
Pratt D. M.; Anderson V. H. (1985). "Giraffe social behavior". Journal of Natural History. 19 (4): 771-81. doi:10.1080/ ... Social relationships can be disrupted by proximity to humans. Masai giraffes of Tanzania live in distinct social subpopulations ... Males establish social hierarchies through "necking", which are combat bouts where the neck is used as a weapon. Dominant males ... Its Biology, Behavior, and Ecology. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida (Reprint 1982 with updated supplementary ...
Fox, Stanley; McCoy, Kelly; Baird, Troy (2003). Lizard Social Behavior. p. 49. Birkhead, T.R.; Martinez, J. G.; Burke, T.; ... Sacki, Yoriko; Kruse, Kip C; Switzer, Paul V (2005). "The social environment affects mate guarding behavior in Japanese Beetles ... Offensive adaptation behavior differs from defensive behavior because it involves an attempt to ruin the chances of another ... This offensive behavior is facilitated by the presence of certain traits, which are called armaments. An example of an armament ...
Behaviors of networks[edit]. Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections ... Social cognitive neuroscience. Interdisciplinary. fields. *Consumer neuroscience. *Cultural neuroscience. *Educational ...
The prefrontal cortex is thought essential for all goal-directed and socially-mediated behavior. The PFC is an ideal target for ... while PIR had greater efficacy in the realms of emotional regulation and social interactions.[9] ... difficulties with attention and some mode of obsessive behavior. Many patients with ASD have normal to above normal ... All ASD sufferers exhibit impaired understanding and performance of social and communicative skills, impulsivity, ...
... eating is in fact the primary purpose of a social gathering. At many social events, food and beverages are made available to ... McKenna, R. J. (1972). "Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A ... Sharia and Social Engineering: p 143, R. Michael Feener - 2013 *^ FOOD & EATING IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE - Page 73, Joel T. Rosenthal ... Another possible explanation would be that obese individuals do not eat more than the others while having meals due to social ...
Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social growth. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company and Associates.. ... and social interactions that affect, sustain, or are modified by living organisms, including humans".[77]:1018 ...
This behavior allows searching for more cooperating peers and gives a second chance to previously non-cooperating peers. The ... Moreover, the tit-for-tat strategy has been of beneficial use to social psychologists and sociologists in studying effective ... Those using it quickly recognize its contingencies and adjust their behavior accordingly. Moreover, it is considered to be nice ... Individuals commonly engage in behavioral assimilation, a process in which they tend to match their own behaviors to those ...
Southwick, C., Beg, M., and R. Siddiqi (1965) "Rhesus Monkeys in North India." Primate Behavior: Field Studies of monkeys and ... Maestripieri D. (1999) "Primate social organization, gestural repertoire size, and communication dynamics: a comparative study ...
Magpies have been observed engaging in elaborate social rituals, possibly including the expression of grief.[44] Mirror self- ... 2012). "Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic ... in terms of social cognition, causal reasoning, flexibility, imagination and prospection.[43] ... using their own experience to predict the behavior of conspecifics.[2] Another behaviour exhibiting intelligence is cutting ...
Schools, businesses and social organisations were closed.[157] The initial response was led by Congolese doctors, including ... animal behavior and other factors may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[82] ... Social anthropologists may help find alternatives to traditional rules for burials.[121] ...
Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 48 (4): 450-464. doi:10.1177/002214650704800408. PMID 18198690.. ...
"Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 105 (1): 98-121. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.05.002. PMC 2702783 . PMID ... As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from ... Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 28 (3): 187-209. doi:10.1023/b:jonb.0000039649.20015.0e. ISSN 0191-5886.. ... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. American Psychological Association. 77 (6): 1121-1134. CiteSeerX ...
The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This species is the main ancestor of most ...
In some instances (at least the Tlingit), they developed social stratification, slavery, and complex social structures such as ... "The Predatory Behavior and Ecology of Wild Chimpanzees".. *^ Milton, Katharine (1999). "A hypothesis to explain the role of ... Social organization[edit]. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for ... "When Did "Modern" Behavior Emerge in Humans?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2008-02-05.. ...
Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals : Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... The three distinct social groups are the female herds, the bachelor herds, and the territorial bulls. They are fast runners, ... Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4. [Dr.]. ed.). ... Male black wildebeest have been reported to mate with female blue wildebeest and vice versa.[11] The differences in social ...
It may result in psychological and social problems.[20] Scars[edit]. Acne scars are caused by inflammation within the dermis ... The costs and social impact of acne are substantial. In the United States, acne vulgaris is responsible for more than 5 million ... Acne vulgaris and its resultant scars are associated with significant social and academic difficulties that can last into ...
Journal of Public Management & Social Policy. Retrieved April 2, 2016.. *^ a b Transgender 'bathroom bill' leaves Texas ... Others argued for complete space separation citing the pressure on women to engage in sexual behavior to keep their jobs.[1]: ... Journal of Public Management & Social Policy. 19 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2016.. ... a b Kate Wheeling: Stalled Out: How Social Bias Is Segregating America's Bathrooms - The Pacific Standard ...
JEL: H55 - Social security and Public Pensions. JEL: H56 - National Security and War. JEL: H57 - Procurement. JEL: H59 - Outros ... JEL: K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior JEL: K40 - Geral. JEL: K41 - Litigation Process. JEL: K42 - ... JEL: D71 - Social choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations. *JEL: D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, ... JEL: H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents JEL: H30 - Geral. JEL: H31 - Eletrodomésticos. JEL: H32 - Empresa. ...
Discomfort and social embarrassment are some of the main concerns when using tools such as this. ... Behavior. 91 (2-3): 196-201. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.02.009. PMID 17399746.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ...
In its 2009 human development report, UN highlighted a growing social problem in Nepal. Individuals who lack a citizenship are ... Karki, Yagya B.; Agrawal, Gajanand (May 2008). "Effects of Communication Campaigns on the Health Behavior of Women of ... resulting in the social exclusion of other parts of Nepal. The restoration of democracy in 1990 has allowed the strengthening ... social, and physical potential. In 2010, the average Nepalese lived to 65.8 years. According to the latest WHO data published ...
Driscoll, Killian (2006). The early prehistory in the west of Ireland: Investigations into the social archaeology of the ... Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be ... MacKenzie, Donald A.; Wajcman, Judy (1999). "Introductory Essay". The Social Shaping of Technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open ... Solutionism is the ideology that every social issue can be solved thanks to technology and especially thanks to the internet. ...
Chrzan, Janet (2013). Alcohol: Social Drinking in Cultural Context. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-89249-0. .. ... Behavior. 81 (1): 51-58. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2003.12.017. PMID 15059684.. ... The consumption of alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production ... Such laws generally seek to reduce the adverse health and social impacts of alcohol consumption. In particular, alcohol laws ...
Social Networks and Archival Context, SNAC Ark-ID w6fp3mw0, besøkt 9. oktober 2017 ... Shiv B, Lowenstein G, Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio A. (2005). «Investment behavior and the negative side of emotion». ...
Outcome was shown to be better in people with higher IQ,[24] social status,[25] greater educational attainments,[26] younger ... Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR (May 2015). "Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures". Epilepsy & Behavior. 46: 60-5. doi ...
Wendt, H.W. (1972). "Dealing with a common problem in social science: A simplified rank-biserial coefficient of correlation ... Animal Behavior Processes. 2: 285-302. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.2.4.285.. ... based on the U statistic". European Journal of Social Psychology. 2 (4): 463-465. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420020412.. ...
From a social perspective shortness can be a problem independently of the cause. In many societies there are advantages ... Evidence of Early Life Origins of Suicidal Behavior?". Retrieved 2014-02-25.. ...
Council of Graduate Students (CGS), which promotes and provides academic, administrative, and social programs for the ... as well as multiple social media outlets.[76][77] Ohio State has two improvisational comedy groups, The 8th Floor Improv and ... social, religious, artistic, service-based, diversity and many more. There are over 1,000 registered student organizations that ... social justice and academic excellence on campus. There are three scholarship levels Prominence, Excellence, and Distinction.[ ...
Social, and Biological Perspectives [1] Published in Reviews in Fisheries Science, Volume 15, Issue 1 & 2 January 2007, pages ... Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh performing research on rainbow trout concluded that fish exhibit behaviors ...
Ada, OH: Institute for Social Research, Ohio Northern University. ISBN 0-9728055-5-9.. [page needed] Summarized in: McDonald WP ... changing risky/unhealthy behaviors, nutritional/dietary recommendations, relaxation/stress reduction recommendations, ice pack/ ... Martin SC (October 1993). "Chiropractic and the social context of medical technology, 1895-1925". Technol Cult. 34 (4): 808-34 ... violating the social contract between patients and physicians.[31] According to a 2015 Gallup poll of U.S. adults, the ...
... which entails involuntary and unconscious motor behavior." ... Related articles on Social change and Parapsychology. * ...
See also: Extinction risk from global warming, Ocean acidification, Marine pollution, and Social and environmental impact of ... some of which had adapted flightlessness and ground nesting habits and others had no defensive behavior as a result of having ...
Carlson, Neil (January 22, 2012). Physiology of Behavior. Reproductive Behavior. 11th edition. Pearson. p. 326. ISBN 0205239390 ... Social isolation has a hindering effect in AHN whereas normal regulation of androgens increases AHN. A study using male rats ... "Hormones and Behavior. 53 (5): 613-26. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.013. PMC 2706155 . PMID 18374335.. ... A Brdu analysis showed that excess testosterone did not increase this blocking effect against social isolation; that is, the ...
Dopamine pathway is highly diverged in primate species that differ markedly in social behavior *From the Cover ... Endocannabinoid signaling mediates oxytocin-driven social reward Don Wei, DaYeon Lee, Conor D. Cox, Carley A. Karsten, Olga ... Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain ... Early adolescent Rai1 reactivation reverses transcriptional and social interaction deficits in a mouse model of Smith-Magenis ...
The primary intellectual framework for Behavior and Social Issues is the science of behavior analysis and its sub-discipline of ... For more related content, please see Behavior and Social Issues Predecessor Title, Behavior Analysis and Social Action (https ... The primary intellectual framework for Behavior and Social Issues is the science of behavior analysis and its sub-discipline of ... Behavior and Social Issues is an official publication of the Association for Behavior Analysis International. ...
... and Social Behavior comprehensively examines the role of sleep in emotion and motivation, the impact of sleep on social- ... a new interdisciplinary field of inquiry about sleep that examines sleep processes in the context of social behavior and social ... and behavior). Contributors identify key gaps in scientific knowledge about sleep and its import for personality-social ... and the role of sleep in personality and social development. Researchers in personality and social psychology, health ...
Sickness behaviors constitute an array of symptoms exhibited by an animal during the course of an infection, including reduced ... activity, reduced food and water intake, and reduced social... ... Sickness behaviors constitute an array of symptoms exhibited by ... no studies in passerines have linked modulation of sickness behaviors to social settings. Here, it is demonstrated that social ... Cohn D, de Sa-Rocha L (2006) Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide in the social behavior of dominant and submissive mice ...
... * 1. CAN SOCIAL MEDIA CHANGE HEALTH BEHAVIOR? IRIS THIELE ISIP TAN MD, MSC Professor, ... SOCIAL MEDIA VS SOCIAL NETWORK Social media is much broader than the concept of social networking sites, and also includes ... SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT & ATTACHMENT Berkman L, Glass T. (2000) Social integration, social networks, social support and health ... Berkman L, Glass T. (2000) Social integration, social networks, social support and health SOCIAL INFLUENCE How the presence, ...
p,,em,A new study in Biological Psychiatry identifies specific brain circuit that may lead to social impairments in autism ... "It is interesting that the circuit implicated in social behavior in this study is also a circuit implicated in the biology of ... Study identifies brain circuit controlling social behavior. A new study in Biological Psychiatry identifies specific brain ... Switzerland has identified a key brain region of the neural circuit that controls social behavior. Increasing the activity of ...
You are here: LD Topics , Behavior & Social Skills Index , Behavior & Social Skills ... Behavior & Social Skills. Social competence and emotional well-being are issues for some adults and children with learning ... Many students with learning disabilities struggle with social interactions and appropriate behavior, putting them at greater ... Included in this section are the dos and donts for fostering social competence, the teacher s role in developing social skills ...
But predicting, and at once influencing human behavior is well on its way to becoming reality. Scientists at the Technical ... mathematical modelling of social systems and dynamics was considered in the realm of science fiction. ... Mathematical algorithms calculate social behavior Predicting and influencing the behavior of groups based on mathematical ... Mathematical algorithms calculate social behavior. Technical University of Munich (TUM). Funder. European Research Council. ...
When social class and attitudes toward greed were entered into a linear-regression model predicting cheating behavior, social ... social cognition (4), and interpersonal behavior (7), consistent with objective, resource based measures of social class (e.g ... Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Paul K. Piff, Daniel M. Stancato, Stéphane Côté, Rodolfo Mendoza- ... Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Paul K. Piff, Daniel M. Stancato, Stéphane Côté, Rodolfo Mendoza- ...
Chapter 8: The Evolution of Social Behavior. Cooperation and Altruism: An Evolutionary Puzzle. Most of the anthropoid primates ... So how might seemingly altruistic behavior have evolved, given the conflict with individual fitness? Kin Selection. This ... Hamilton took this degree of relatedness into account when addressing altruistic social encounters, stating it in a formula ... Kin selection is not the only reason why cooperative and seemingly altruistic behavior may have evolved. Reciprocal altruism - ...
By contrast, the Social Security trustees report shows that the administrative costs of running the Social Security system are ... If the Social Security trustees had assumed that productivity would grow as fast as Bushs Council of Economic Advisors ... Even after the trust fund is projected to be depleted, the report shows that Social Security will still be able to pay a ... But, tens of millions of Americans will not know these basic facts about Social Security, at least in part because of how the ...
You are here: Home / Archives for Social Equality. A Conversation with Henry Stein. March 18, 2000 by Gil Levin Filed under ...
Criminal Justice-COAS , Girls, Violence, and Anti-Social Behavior. P493 , 2808 , Herrera. Girls involvement in delinquency and ... In this course we will begin to explore the extent and nature of girls violence and antisocial behavior in context. This will ... We will also investigate both the causes and consequences of girls involvement in these behaviors. How do family, poverty, ...
Alcohol consumption affects social behavior, as any college student can tell you. But does it have to have such an effect? A ... The team was able to study how social environments shape the impact of alcohol on behavior by dissociating sociality from ... indicating that the presence of peers had a substantial impact on social behavior under the influence of alcohol. ... Polytechnic School of Engineering suggests that the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior can be understood and ...
You are here: , Features , LD OnLine Discussion Boards , Behavior: Social Skills, Self Esteem ... Behavior: Social Skills, Self Esteem Forum Jump. Please select forum --------------------. Teaching Students with LD and ADHD. ...
... and behavior and is linked with the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. The purpose of this ... neuroinflammatory events promote myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that reinforces stress-related behavior, and is argued ... Repeated Social Defeat, Neuroinflammation, and Behavior: Monocytes Carry the Signal. *Michael D Weber. ORCID: ... Kinsey SG, Bailey MT, Sheridan JF, Padgett DA, Avitsur R (2007). Repeated social defeat causes increased anxiety-like behavior ...
Your Brain On Nicotine: Nicotine Receptors Affect Social Behavior. by Sam Savage ... When the beta2 nicotinic receptor in the brain was re-expressed, a normal balance between social contact and novelty seeking ... "Who could have guessed that there may be a biological explanation for social butterflies. The explanation was found in an ... Specifically, scientists from France show that the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social ...
... Mårten Palme and Lisa Laun. This chapter is a ... 2019 Social Security: Panel on Economic Determinants of Fertility Behavior 2019 NBERs Entrepreneurship Research Boot Camp. ... This chapter first appeared as NBER working paper w25394, Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in ... the social security wealth (SSW), the accrual in the social security wealth from working one additional year as well as the ...
The study supports other findings that have suggested that lead exposure can be a factor in anti-social behavior and adds to ... Becker-Lausen, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs, studies social policy and the ... and that lead has not yet been established as a firm cause of delinquent behavior, which has complex origins. However, he said ... the children with the highest levels of lead in their bones were most likely to show more aggressive and delinquent behavior. ...
Facebook global brand experience manager Paul Adams says social design is to web developers as electricity is to appliance ... Social behavior in humans is as old as our species, so the emergence of an Internet based on social behavior is simply our ... Social media design should start with human behavior. Facebooks Paul Adams says social media is about more than just tech.. by ... When it comes to designing around social behavior, its not just about meeting a need that people currently struggle with, its ...
He displays socially inappropriate behavior. Even at sc... ... Communities>Child Behavior>Emotional and Social Developmental ... I am currently trying to fight for my child in regards to the behavior color chart system. Her behavior this year has been ... I am currently trying to fight for my child in regards to the behavior color chart system. Her behavior this year has been ... He displays socially inappropriate behavior. Even at school. While he is not trouble, or violent, his behavior is disruptive. ...
Switzerland has identified a key brain region of the neural circuit that controls social behavior. Increasing the activity of ... The study, which appears in Biological Psychiatry, suggests that social impairments characteristic of autism spectrum disorder ... this region, called the habenula, led to social problems in rodents, whereas decreasing activity of the region prevented social ... It is interesting that the circuit implicated in social behavior in this study is also a circuit implicated in the biology of ...
... included the general theory and behavior of complex systems and talks on the behavior of specific social systems ranging from ... First, social systems are inherently insensitive to most policy changes that people select in an effort to alter the behavior ... Counterintuitive Behavior of Social Systems. This paper addresses several issues of broad concern in the United States: ... There are no Utopias in our social systems. There appear to be no sustainable modes of behavior that are free of pressures and ...
Social norms and community enforcement. Rev. Econ. Stud. 59, 63-80], a cooperative norm does not emerge in the treatments where ... "Cooperative Behavior and the Frequency of Social Interaction," Levines Working Paper Archive 122247000000000060, David K. ... "End behavior in sequences of finite Prisoners Dilemma supergames A learning theory approach," Journal of Economic Behavior & ... "Cooperative Behavior and the Frequency of Social Interaction," Levines Bibliography 122247000000000108, UCLA Department of ...
Consumer Behavior In Social Media. 1125 Words , 5 Pages. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN SOCIAL MEDIA The behavior of consumers are not ... How Does Social Media Affect Consumer Behavior. 1693 Words , 7 Pages. *. Advertisement: The Influence Of Advertising And Social ... More about Social Media Influence On Consumer Behavior. *. Social Media Thesis. 8272 Words , 34 Pages ... Attitude Towards Social Media. 755 Words , 4 Pages. Social Media is most useful mean of communication among people. Social ...
Africa Social & Behavior Change Conference. From February 19-22, social behavior change experts from across the African ... and examine the role behavior change plays in achieving health impact at national and regional levels at the 1st Africa Social ... Behavior Change (ASBC) Conference, hosted by Population Services Kenya, a PSI network member. ...
Summary: Social behaviors are linked to foraging behavior on a behavioral and mechanistic level, and we propose that ... Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior Eva K. Fischer, Lauren A. OConnell ... Summary: We review recent developments in machine vision for automatic, quantitative analysis of social behavior that have ... Differences in electrosensory anatomy and social behavior in an area of sympatry between two species of mormyrid electric ...
Earlier research in adults has shown that oxytocin increases certain social behaviors, says behavioral endocrinologist Jerrold ... Oxytocin promotes social behavior in infant rhesus monkeys The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn ... Oxytocin promotes social behavior in infant rhesus monkeys. University of Massachusetts at Amherst ... The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, say researchers at the National Institutes ...
... researchers have gained new insights into the formation and evolution of social networks among cows. ... By tracking the grooming behaviors of dairy cows, ... Grooming behavior reveals social networks among dairy cows. By ... Analysis of the allogrooming patterns revealed the influence of age and social rank on the formation of social networks among ... Researchers found age, familiarity and social hierarchies influenced the formation and evolution of social networks among dairy ...
O ne of the most widely accepted notions in con-sumer behavior is that word-of-mouth commu-nication (hereafter WOM) plays an ... The study demonstrates different roles played by weak and strong social ties. At the macro level, weak ties displayed an ... The relational properties of tie strength and homophily were employed to examine referral behavior at micro and macro levels of ... allowing information to travel from one distinct subgroup of referral actors to another subgroup in the broader social system. ...
  • The study supports other findings that have suggested that lead exposure can be a factor in anti-social behavior and adds to the list of brain-related problems -- including fatigue, irritability, sleep disorders and intellectual impairment -- caused by lead. (
  • Sickness behaviors constitute an array of symptoms exhibited by an animal during the course of an infection, including reduced activity, reduced food and water intake, and reduced social interactions. (
  • Many students with learning disabilities struggle with social interactions and appropriate behavior, putting them at greater risk for bullying, harassment, and victimization online. (
  • But, it seems practically impossible to precisely predict the behavior of individuals, not least because of the myriad interactions between the physical, emotional, cognitive and social domains. (
  • Furthermore, upper-class individuals are more disengaged during social interactions-for example, checking their cell phones or doodling on a questionnaire-compared with their lower-class peers ( 6 ). (
  • This research integrates rigorous principles from engineering and biology to develop an experiment that sheds light on the complex interactions among individuals in a group, their individuality and their collective behavior," said Massimo Ruzzene , NSF program director for the Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation. (
  • The evolution of chemical signaling in reptiles is discussed along with behaviors governed by pheromones including conspecific trailing, male-male agonistic interactions, sex recognition and sex pheromones, and reptilian predator recognition. (
  • Specifically, scientists from France show that the nicotinic receptors in the prefrontal cortex are essential for social interaction in mice and that this area of the brain is necessary for adapted and balanced social interactions to occur. (
  • We review recent developments in machine vision for automatic, quantitative analysis of social behavior that have changed the scale and resolution with which we can dissect interactions between animals. (
  • Studies have also shown that oxytocin plays a role in parental bonding, mating and social interactions. (
  • In a within-subjects study with infant rhesus monkeys, where the infants served as their own controls interacting with a human caregiver while inhaling oxytocin and without it, the NIH researchers found that oxytocin increased two facial gestures associated with social interactions. (
  • Mundane social behavior is a result of interactions in day-to-day life, and are behaviors learned as one is exposed to those different situations. (
  • Through social interactions, emotion is understood through various verbal and nonverbal displays, and thus plays a large role in communication. (
  • One must learn how to behave according to the interactions and people relevant to a certain setting, and therefore begin to intuitively know the appropriate form of social interaction depending on the situation. (
  • These patterns can often correspond with social development, and biological changes lead to respective changes in interactions. (
  • However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. (
  • social interactions. (
  • These transactions include the social interactions between individuals or groups, their communication and feedback loops, and the possible outcomes associated with their interactions (Tseng & Seidman, 2007). (
  • All social phenomena, including economic institutions and social norms, emerge from the actions and interactions of individuals. (
  • The implications are that the compensatory responses that promote renal-sodium excretion when faced with hypernatremia also act on the nervous system to decrease reactivity to psychogenic stressors and facilitate social behavior, which may suppress the anxiety associated with approaching a communal water source and support the social interactions that may be encountered when engaging in drinking behavior. (
  • Social interactions studied included friendliness, extent of verbalization, active social play, and exploratory behavior. (
  • By studying marmosets, researchers and students at UNO gain insight into the roles that hormones and genetics play in complex social interactions. (
  • Social relationships and interactions are so important for human health and development," Carp said. (
  • To avoid confusing simple social interactions with mating- and aggression-related behaviors, the researchers restricted their experiments to female mouse pairs. (
  • The scientists first examined the relationship between the mice's social interactions and a region in the brain stem called the ventral tegmental area. (
  • Exploring the interactions of feeding and social drives was guaranteed to be tricky. (
  • The circuit incorporates brain regions involved in reward and pleasure, leading the authors to consider that social dysfunction may stem from reduced enjoyment in social interaction. (
  • Most of the anthropoid primates live in social groupings which create many opportunities for interaction. (
  • New research published in the FASEB Journal ( ) suggests that these receptors also play an important role in social interaction and the ability to choose between competing motivations. (
  • Cooperative Behavior and the Frequency of Social Interaction ," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000000108, UCLA Department of Economics. (
  • Cooperative Behavior and the Frequency of Social Interaction ," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000000060, David K. Levine. (
  • First author Elizabeth Simpson of the NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development says, "It was important to test whether oxytocin would promote social behaviors in infants in the same respects as it appears to promote social interaction among adults. (
  • Meyer, the UMass Amherst neuroscientist, calls the findings "exciting" because they not only support the idea that oxytocin may have a positive effect on social interaction among children on the autism spectrum, but because the newborn monkeys provide an informative, generalizable model for studying early neurobiology and social behavior during development. (
  • By observing the monkeys' ability to imitate the two gestures, the researchers sought to determine if oxytocin could promote social interaction through a gesture that was natural to them as well as through a gesture not part of their normal communication sequence. (
  • It is safe to say that social media use is complicated, ever changing, and has not only provided a new platform for social interaction, but has likely changed teen social interaction," said C. Alix Timko, a psychologist at the Eating Disorder Assessment and Treatment Program at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, who wasn't involved in the study. (
  • Therefore, social behavior arises as a result of an interaction between the two-the organism and its environment. (
  • These various settings the child is placed in (for example, the playground and classroom) form habits of interaction and behavior insomuch as the child being exposed to certain settings more frequently than others. (
  • In other words, agents of socialization are the building blocks that influences a child's interaction with people that are appropriate for their social position. (
  • The endocrine and cardiovascular profile of hypernatremic rats was predictive of decreased anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction test. (
  • The basic notion underlying sociolinguistics is quite simple: Language use symbolically represents fundamental dimensions of social behavior and human interaction. (
  • Results indicate that both parties are willing to incorporate these social media sites into academics but caution that digital identities are not necessarily representative of face-to-face behavior, thus suggesting the need for an awareness of social presence for online interaction between students and faculty. (
  • As little as 30 minutes of social interaction with a female, the team found, was enough to make naïve mice aggressive towards males 24 hours later, as well as to cause the separation of male- versus female-specific representations in the mouse's brain. (
  • While biology and physiology are important contributors to an individual's health, the social determinants that shape human interaction also play an important role in health at the individual, family, and community levels. (
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects approximately 1 in 68 children in the U.S. It is characterized by social interaction and communication challenges, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. (
  • They further showed that disrupting function within Right Crus I in normal mice resulted in impaired social interaction and abnormal, repetitive behaviors. (
  • Carp's study takes a unique tact, looking at the interaction of multiple systems that influence social behavior. (
  • The new findings, published June 19 in Cell , may throw light on psychiatric disorders marked by impaired social interaction such as autism, social anxiety, schizophrenia and depression, said the study's senior author, Karl Deisseroth , MD, PhD, a professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences. (
  • People with autism, for example, often have an outright aversion to social interaction," he said. (
  • Researchers at Stanford demonstrated that direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen neurons linked to social interaction was enough to suppress a mouse's drive to feed itself. (
  • The researchers demonstrated in mice that direct stimulation of fewer than two dozen nerve cells, or neurons, linked to social interaction was enough to suppress the animals' drive to feed themselves - a finding with potential clinical significance for understanding and treating eating disorders such as anorexia. (
  • and could point to a potential genotype-by-social environmental interaction (GSEI). (
  • provided the first evidence for an interaction between genotype and early life maltreatment affecting the probability of developing antisocial behavior later in life. (
  • The study, which appears in Biological Psychiatry , suggests that social impairments characteristic of autism spectrum disorder may stem from alteration of activity in this circuit, and that tuning this circuit may help treat the social deficits in the disorder. (
  • We are excited about this study as it identifies a brain circuit that may play a critical role in social reward, which is affected in autism," said senior author Dr. Anirvan Ghosh, who was the Head of Neuroscience Research at Roche and now serves as Head of Research and Early Development at Biogen. (
  • Understanding how altered brain function leads to social deficits could help develop novel targeted therapeutics for autism spectrum disorder," said Ghosh, such as by tuning the circuit to correct the altered activity. (
  • Because of this, many researchers have suggested that oxytocin might be useful in treating conditions affecting social behavior such as autism spectrum disorders. (
  • An Iranian scientist Peyman Golshani, along with his colleagues at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), has managed to restore social behavior in autism mice model. (
  • Among the problems people with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with, are difficulties with social behavior and communication, ISNA wrote. (
  • Being social animals, zebrafish are an interesting model for studying psychiatric disorders that affect social behavior, such as schizophrenia and autism. (
  • Social behavior is a hot topic in neuroscience research because it is often affected in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. (
  • Giving an inhaled hormone to children with autism for four weeks improves their social behavior, a new study by Stanford researchers indicates. (
  • Vasopressin levels are low in the cerebrospinal fluid of less-social rhesus monkeys and in people with autism, the study found. (
  • And although neuromodulation would not cure the underlying genetic cause of a person's autism, improving social deficits in children with autism could make a huge impact on their quality of life. (
  • The December edition of Nature Neuroscience highlights a study that demonstrates how brain stimulation can correct social impairments associated with autism. (
  • By stimulating neurons in Right Crus I of the autism mouse model, the scientists showed that cerebellar stimulation improved social behaviors but not the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism in these mice. (
  • A study recently published online in the American Journal of Public Health found that prosocial behavior at age 5 can predict success in adulthood. (
  • It turns out that individuals who had shown more prosocial skills in kindergarten were more likely to have graduated from college, be consistently employed, and less likely to have been arrested than those who had demonstrated less prosocial behavior at the same age. (
  • We are only now beginning to develop an understanding of how the processes underlying prosocial behavior might differ in these children. (
  • Mice modify their vocalizations in response to audiences, but not to simple social stimuli, constituting a novel paradigm for measuring the influence of social cues. (
  • That being said, the individual characteristics of the child (their temperament) is important to understanding how the individual learns social behaviors and cues given to them, and this learnability is not consistent across all children. (
  • That can translate to an inability to make friends, engage in routine conversations, or pick up on the social cues that are second nature to most people. (
  • Those social cues that automatically give us pleasure or alert us to someone's distress do not register in the same way for these children," said lead author Essi Viding, of University College London in England. (
  • At what point in time did social cues and behavior become a suggestion and not an expectation? (
  • Using that model system, Sinha led a team that searched the honey bee genome for clues for social cues - a form of bee pressure that can cause bees to change jobs in response to needs of the hive. (
  • We invite behavior analysts, as well as scholars and researchers from related disciplines familiar with behavior analysis, to contribute to a special issue of Behavior and Social Issues focused on behavioral community psychology. (
  • The focus of this special issue is to explore and promote the ways that behavioral-community psychology can once again become a prominent contributor to addressing social problems, both domestically and internationally. (
  • Hence, birds in a social context were able to overcome the behavioral, but not physiological, symptoms usually associated with an inflammatory response. (
  • We can take the same approach when looking at flows of human masses, animal swarms or interacting robots: Analogous to the force of attraction between molecules in a gas, we can describe generalized behavioral patterns as resulting from interacting social forces between individual agents and represent them in mathematical equations," says Fornasier, describing his approach. (
  • Bioinformatics, RNAi and behavioral assays reveal that plasticity in the regulatory relationships between transcription factors and target genes is associated with social behavior, social context and endocrine state. (
  • Social behaviors are linked to foraging behavior on a behavioral and mechanistic level, and we propose that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of social behaviors. (
  • Earlier research in adults has shown that oxytocin increases certain social behaviors, says behavioral endocrinologist Jerrold Meyer of UMass Amherst, but the current study is the first to show that it may have the same effect in primate infants, including humans. (
  • If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. (
  • Material priming: The influence of mundane physical objects on situational construal and competitive behavioral choice ," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes , Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 83-96, September. (
  • Here, we show that neonatal social isolation disrupts molecular, cellular, and circuit developmental processes, leading to behavioral dysfunction. (
  • These results indicate that neonatal social isolation alters neuronal plasticity mechanisms and perturbs the initial establishment of a normal cortical circuit, which potentially explains the long-lasting behavioral effects of neonatal stress. (
  • Social dysfunction can have a severe impact on daily functioning, making these symptoms the target of behavioral therapies. (
  • A major goal of the volume is to integrate research findings on the neural basis of social behavior across different levels of analysis from rodent studies on molecular neurobiology to behavioral neuroscience to fMRI imaging data on human social behavior. (
  • The journal is abstracted and indexed in the Social Sciences Citation Index, Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences, and Scopus. (
  • TRANSFORM's partners make up 5 contract teams and include nearly 30 organizations with expertise in marketing, advertising, human-centered design, social psychology, and behavioral economics, among other fields. (
  • A new study by researchers at Roche in Basel, Switzerland has identified a key brain region of the neural circuit that controls social behavior. (
  • The researchers developed a custom algorithm that allowed them to track a single fish throughout the experiment, while at the same time analyzing group behavior. (
  • The researchers caution, however, that aggressive, risk-taking behaviors, which are common under the disinhibitory effects of alcohol, might resemble normal leadership behavior in this species. (
  • Researchers then removed the prefrontal cortex in otherwise normal mice, which resulted in mice with significant social deficits. (
  • AMHERST, Mass. - The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, say researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Parma, Italy, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. (
  • Researchers found age, familiarity and social hierarchies influenced the formation and evolution of social networks among dairy cows. (
  • To understand how the relationships between individuals in a group changed over time, the researchers deployed a unique form of social network analysis called stochastic actor-oriented modeling. (
  • Because the bonds formed by cows are important to their emotional well-being and overall health -- and because healthier dairy cows produce more milk -- researchers suggest farmers should pay close attention to the effects of modern farming practices on social networks. (
  • Researchers surveyed 996 seventh- and eighth-graders, age 13 on average, about their use of social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Tumbler. (
  • Now the researchers have treated ASD mice with a neuropeptide, molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other, called oxytocin, and have found that it restores normal social behavior. (
  • People at risk of psychopathy later in life have persistent disruptive behaviors and callous-unemotional traits, the researchers explained. (
  • To test this idea more directly, the researchers examined the behaviors of naïve mice-those that had been maintained in isolation since weaning, without any social or sexual experience. (
  • By studying the humble honey bee, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have come a step closer to understanding the molecular basis of social behavior in humans. (
  • Researchers tracked color-coded ants, using an algorithm to analyze following behavior. (
  • Feeding behavior and social stimulation activate intermingled but distinct brain circuits, and activating one circuit can inhibit the other, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University. (
  • Greater resources, freedom, and independence from others among the upper class give rise to self-focused social-cognitive tendencies ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ), which we predict will facilitate unethical behavior. (
  • Animals interacting successfully use cognitive skills such as recognizing individuals, their social rank and logic as described here in a cichlid fish, and the neural bases of these skills are identified. (
  • Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. (
  • In doing so, we advocate a social-cognitive perspective on economic behavior, aimed at revealing the psychological mechanisms that shape how people construe a particular situation. (
  • This study aimed to analyze Iranian farmers' water conservation behavior using Bandura's social-cognitive theory. (
  • The results indicated that variables of social-cognitive theory could predict about 73% of farmers' water conservation behavior variance. (
  • Findings showed that factors that have been mentioned in social-cognitive theory could be considered for enhancing farmers' water conservation behaviors since the theory provides a more realistic insight into farmers' behaviors with an emphasis on farmers' social and structural contexts. (
  • The development of behavior is deeply tied with the biological and cognitive changes one is experiencing at any given time. (
  • Stressful events during early childhood can have a profound lifelong influence on emotional and cognitive behaviors. (
  • Not only will it enhance cognitive function but, importantly, promote good social behavior," which is essential to brain development and intelligence. (
  • You want to manipulate nutrition to see whether you can get improvements in social behavior and cognitive function. (
  • As with humans, alcohol has been shown to reduce inhibitory behavior in zebrafish-meaning that the faster swimming speed could also reflect a heightened interest in interacting with the school. (
  • Social behavior in humans is as old as our species, so the emergence of an Internet based on social behavior is simply our rudimentary technology catching up with offline life. (
  • This means that, in regards to humans, social behavior can be determined by both the individual characteristics of the person, and the situation they are in. (
  • This creates general patterns of social behavior development in humans. (
  • One drug, risperidone, works in both humans and mice with ASD to treat other symptoms of the disorder-including repetitive behaviors--but no medication has been found to help socialization. (
  • The oxytocin system is a key mediator of social behavior in mammals, including humans, for maternal behavior, mother-infant bonding, and social memory,' said Daniel Geschwind, a UCLA professor of psychiatry. (
  • Many mammalian species, including humans, exhibit social behavior and form complex social groups. (
  • By studying the social regulation of gene expression, we hope to extrapolate the biology to humans. (
  • Their findings, Sinha said, suggest that honey bees will be useful in elucidating the mechanisms by which social factors regulate gene expression in brains, including those of humans. (
  • To better understand the cerebellum's role in mediating these behaviors, Dr. Tsai's team used neuromodulation to show that humans and mice have parallel connections between the Right Crus I domain of the cerebellum and the cortex's inferior parietal lobule. (
  • Abundant resources and elevated rank allow upper-class individuals increased freedom and independence ( 4 ), giving rise to self-focused patterns of social cognition and behavior ( 3 ). (
  • Mounting evidence indicates that proinflammatory signaling in the brain affects mood, cognition, and behavior and is linked with the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. (
  • Among boys, all four social media platforms were associated with greater cognition issues. (
  • Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior. (
  • Why process matters: A social cognition perspective on economic behavior ," Journal of Economic Psychology , Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 677-685. (
  • In these two systems, enough is known about the chemical constituents that mediate behaviors to explore the evolution of chemical signaling mechanisms that affect life history patterns. (
  • Analysis of the allogrooming patterns revealed the influence of age and social rank on the formation of social networks among cows. (
  • 5. Record significant or rare behavior patterns of free-ranging primates species. (
  • The result is a singular textbook that truly bridges theory and practice by revealing the patterns and paradoxes of our behavior in the social context. (
  • I did this because I did not want to area where I was working to be busy, I wanted it to be slow that way I could focus on reactions, and see if there were any patterns of behavior among those I violated. (
  • The behavior patterns in this type of aggression include chasing and ambushing the intruder, as well as hissing and swatting when contact occurs. (
  • In approaching language as a social activity, it is possible to focus on discovering the specific patterns or social rules for conducting conversation and discourse . (
  • The world-wide explosion in the use of social media provides a unique opportunity for sampling sentiment and use patterns of NLM's 'customers' and for comparing NLM to other sources of health-related information," the agency said. (
  • A new report analyzes social media trends and patterns, including the influence of social media on consumer behavior. (
  • Cohn D, de Sa-Rocha L (2006) Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide in the social behavior of dominant and submissive mice. (
  • The study shows that a primary deficit in oxytocin may cause the social problems in these mice, and that correcting this deficit can correct social behavior,' said Geschwind. (
  • Adult male mice have a simple repertoire of innate, or instinctive, social behaviors: When encountering a female, a male mouse will try to mate with it, and when encountering another male, the mouse will attack. (
  • The team used mice that had been genetically engineered so that neurons in a specific part of the brain involved in aggression and sexual behavior-the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-would glow green when activated. (
  • At the same time, these mice initially exhibited little fighting (with males) or mating (with females) behaviors. (
  • Only after repeated social experience-contact with either male or female mice for two minutes, five times a day, for three days-did the separate sets of neurons representing male versus female mice appear. (
  • Further studies indicated that social experience with a female seemed to be the key requirement for the mice to develop separate, sex-specific populations of neurons, as well as aggressive behavior. (
  • Naïve mice that were exposed only to males did not develop aggressive behaviors, nor did they show this separation. (
  • The group first investigated social behavior in mice devoid of a functional adaptive immune system. (
  • 001913 ) mice were tested in a three-chamber sociability test, which measures social motivation by quantifying time spent investigating a novel object versus another conspecific mouse. (
  • Wild-type mice preferentially investigated the mouse over the object, whereas the SCID mice did not show a social preference. (
  • Interestingly, when the 4-week-old, immune-deficient SCID mice were repopulated with lymphocytes from wild-type donors, their social preferences increased to the level of the wild-type group. (
  • 002287 ) showed social deficits and non-anxious behavior similar to the SCID mice. (
  • Further, repopulating SCID mice with lymphocytes from IFN-γ knockout donors did not restore the treated animals' social preferences to wild-type levels. (
  • A single injection of recombinant IFN-γ into the cerebrospinal fluid of IFN-γ knockout mice, however, restored the animals' social preferences by 24 hours post-injection. (
  • Microglia were excluded as the IFN-γ source mediating social behaviors in mice, because mice with cre-recombinase mediated, microglia-specific deletion of STAT1,a signaling molecule downstream of IFN-γ, did not show social deficits. (
  • Treatment with diazepam, a benzodiazepine that augments GABAergic neurotransmission, also rescued social behavior in IFN-γ receptor knockout mice. (
  • Subsequent phases of the study showed that disrupting the function within the cerebellar domain resulted in autistic behaviors and that brain stimulation corrected social impairment in mice. (
  • Neuromodulation in this area of the brain corrected social impairment in mice. (
  • However, he also noted that this neuromodulation restored social behaviors even in adult mice. (
  • A large proportion of the associated genes have previously been associated with aggressive behavior in Drosophila and mice. (
  • In an experiment conducted in May 2015 in collaboration with Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) and the University of Rome „La Sapienza" in Italy, Fornasier and his team demonstrated that the process is in fact amenable to influencing group behavior. (
  • Differences in the sensory system that mediates electric communication correlate with differences in social behavior between two sympatric species of African mormyrid fishes. (
  • The field station encompasses 1,000 acres and includes a mosaic of primary and secondary tropical rainforest, riparian habitats, and areas of human use, and is inhabited by wild groups of three species of nonhuman primates, making it an ideal location in which to study primate behavior and diversity and the effects of anthropogenic habitat modifications on wildlife. (
  • Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. (
  • At once instructive and compelling, this theme-spanning book reveals the complex nature of maturity in scores of social species and shows that animal behavior often displays the same diversity we find in ourselves. (
  • Dr. Christina Semeniuk, associate professor at the University of Windsor, is studying the behaviors of multiple fresh water fish species in the Great Lakes. (
  • MDMA is an amazing tool for studying social behaviors across multiple species. (
  • Investigation of direct effects of factors on farmers' water conservation behavior revealed that the major determinants are as follows: intention of water conservation, social-structural factors, perception of others' behavior, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, and water conservation co-regulation. (
  • The dual-systems model of reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior came out of the realization that behavior cannot just be determined by one single factor. (
  • The initiatives we lead are grounded in research to understand the complex contextual and social determinants of behavior. (
  • The marketers are always concerned with the consumer behavior because they have to keep the advertising strategies based on the consumer behavior. (
  • To do this, you may need help, both from your veterinarian and from an animal behavior specialist who is knowledgeable in cat behavior. (
  • You may need professional help from an animal behavior specialist to successfully implement these techniques. (
  • Previous research has linked social function to the prefrontal region of the brain, but circuits that affect prefrontal control of social behavior were unknown. (
  • More specific behaviors such swim speed and swim bursts, zig zag motions, distance to social stimuli, path shape, etc., are also easily measured with EthoVision XT. (
  • You can set up a video screen next to your tank, and include the start and stop of a video in your EthoVision XT protocol - for example you can program your video to start at a certain time point or trigger with the fish showing specific behaviors. (
  • We first learn about the drivers of specific behaviors and the hurdles to change in order to develop programs that can make a difference for individuals and communities. (
  • Mechanistic studies in animal models have revealed important roles for the endocannabinoid signaling system, comprising G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid-derived agonists, in the control of neural processes that underpin social anxiety and social reward, two key aspects of social behavior. (
  • These insights open new vistas on the neural basis of social behavior and social impairment. (
  • Stress, broadly defined as a real or perceived threat to homeostasis, activates neural circuits that alter the body's physiology and behavior to ensure survival and well-being. (
  • These observations have suggested linkages between immune responses and social behavior, but specific mechanisms that connect peripheral immunity with neural circuit function have not been validated. (
  • Now, a study published in the July 2016 issue of Nature from a research team lead by Dr. Vladimir Litvak at the University of Massachusetts and Dr. Jonathan Kipnis at the University of Virginia demonstrates a critical role for meningeal interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in mediating both neural function and social behavior ( Filiano et al, 2016 ). (
  • Their results suggest that social deficits symptomatic in a variety of neuropsychatric disorders may result from the dysfunctional immune responses altering neural circuit homeostasis. (
  • Also presented at the 2017 #HealthXPH Social Media & Healthcare summit 25 Apr 2017 at Marco Polo Hotel, Cebu City. (
  • Scientific Reports, 2017 ) tracked freezing behavior and erratic movements of zebrafish in detail, and found that zebrafish handled an aversive stimulus better if they are not alone. (
  • FRIDAY, Sept. 29, 2017 -- A child's inability to laugh with others could point to psychopathic behavior later, a new study suggests. (
  • In 2017, Social Behavior and Personality started to offer advance online publication through the Ingenta Connect Fast Track service. (
  • DALLAS - Dec. 13, 2017 - Scientists are examining the feasibility of treating autistic children with neuromodulation after a new study showed social impairments can be corrected by brain stimulation. (
  • Given their feelings of social isolation, lonely individuals may be left to find relative comfort in nonsocial rewards,' said John Cacioppo, the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Professor in Psychology at the University of Chicago. (
  • Social Behavior and Personality is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering social, developmental, and personality psychology. (
  • The journal publishes on general topics of social psychology with a strong focus on how these topics link with the areas of health, education and organizations. (
  • Social engineering is essentially the art of gaining access to buildings, systems or data by exploiting human psychology, rather than by breaking in or using technical hacking techniques. (
  • The objectives of this project were to conduct a comprehensive study of social influences on smoking behavior using an agent-based modeling approach. (
  • We suspect that social media use is encouraging young people to compare themselves to their peers and others, particularly on their appearance, at an age where adolescents are very vulnerable to peer influences," said study leader Simon Wilksch of Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. (
  • We want to learn how the honey bee society influences behavior in individual honey bees," said Sinha, who is lead author of a paper that will be posted online this week ahead of regular publication by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Social influences strongly affect cybersecurity behaviors, and it is possible to encourage better cybersecurity behaviors by designing security systems that are more social. (
  • First, I empirically modeled how social influences affect the adoption of security behaviors and systems of 1.5 million Facebook users. (
  • In so doing, I provide some of the first direct evidence that security behaviors are strongly driven by social influence, and that the design of a security system strongly influences its potential for social spread. (
  • Constructs can be classified into three categories: job-relevant content, interviewee performance (behavior unrelated to the job but which influences the evaluation), and job-irrelevant interviewer biases. (
  • The screen identified changes in activity in regions related to emotional behavior, particularly in the habenula. (
  • Social competence and emotional well-being are issues for some adults and children with learning disabilities. (
  • Included in this section are the dos and don'ts for fostering social competence, the teacher s role in developing social skills, and many helpful articles on behavior modification, anger management, disciplining students with disabilities, and the emotional issues experienced by some individuals with LD. (
  • For students with learning disabilities (LD), a sense of competence and ability (also known as self-efficacy) plays a vital role in their social and emotional development as well as academic achievement. (
  • Discover how educators can adapt their teaching style to support social and emotional development (including self-efficacy) in students with language-based LD. (
  • Does he exhibit signs of Emotional and Social Developmental Delay? (
  • If he is in a Special Education unit, have a word to his teachers, as they generally run great programs that assist in the development of emotional and social skills. (
  • This new knowledge should be translated into innovative practical strategies that will result in the continued integration of cattle emotional and social needs into management systems," he said. (
  • The good news is that social and emotional skills can improve,' said senior research associate Damon Jones, 'and this shows that we can inexpensively and efficiently measure these competencies at an early age. (
  • The Handbook of Life-Span Development: Volume 2, Social and Emotional Development (pp. 9-50). (
  • Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry , whose purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, or behavior. (
  • Two biogenic amines, octopamine and tyramine, influence the thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees, highlighting the importance of physiological mechanisms in the organization of social insect societies. (
  • Subliminal anchoring: Judgmental consequences and underlying mechanisms ," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes , Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 133-143, November. (
  • Genetic inheritance continues to be critical for the capacity to quickly learn an adaptive behavior, but environmental factors that are stable over generations remove any selective pressure for the development of parallel genetic mechanisms," he explained. (
  • Mechanisms of social buffering of fear in zebrafish. (
  • Preferences are considered to be self-regarding if an individual does not care per se for the outcomes and behaviors of other individuals. (
  • Self-regarding preferences may, therefore, be considered to be amoral preferences because a self-regarding person neither likes nor dislikes others' outcomes or behaviors as long as they do not affect his or her economic well-being. (
  • In contrast, people with other-regarding preferences value per se the outcomes or behaviors of other persons either positively or negatively. (
  • Among other things, people frequently do not form rational beliefs, objectively irrelevant contextual details affect their behavior in systematic ways, they prefer to be treated fairly and resist unfair outcomes, and they do not always choose what seems to be in their best interest. (
  • Through social and behavior change activities, USAID and its partners raise awareness, reduce misinformation, and address the barriers that prevent individuals, families, and communities from practicing lifesaving behaviors to improve health outcomes. (
  • Vasopressin-treated children also experienced some reductions in anxiety and repetitive behaviors. (
  • The core features are social impairments, poor verbal communication skills and restricted and repetitive behaviors. (
  • But new research from Caltech neuroscientists shows that these behaviors and the neurons that represent them are not as fixed as previously believed. (
  • Karl Deisseroth and his team have used a method for stimulating and monitoring several neurons at once to identify different clusters of neurons responsible for feeding behavior and social behavior. (
  • We sought to understand, at the level of individual neurons, how these potentially competing drives may negotiate with each other, and how the brain circuits associated with feeding versus social behavior may interact. (
  • A key goal was to know which neurons actually matter for behavior. (
  • It's not as if there is a cluster of 'feeding' neurons' and another cluster of 'social' neurons sitting in two neatly labeled clumps in the orbitofrontal cortex, so you can just position an electrode in one or the other cluster and find out all you need to know," Deisseroth said. (
  • This let them determine which orbitofrontal-cortex neurons were active during feeding-associated or social activities, or both, or neither. (
  • The technology also allowed them to stimulate on the order of 20 neurons identified as dedicated to one or the other activity and watch what behavior resulted. (
  • This study builds on our initial demonstration in mammals of single cell control with optogenetics in 2012, but now marks the first demonstration of control of mammalian behavior by the manipulation of multiple, individually specified neurons," he said. (
  • For more related content, please see Behavior and Social Issues' Predecessor Title, Behavior Analysis and Social Action ( (
  • Integrating content created on social media platforms into search engines raises big questions around data usage and privacy. (
  • This raises a really important question: Does the fact that a post or update was public on a blog, social media site, or review site make it permissible for anyone to take that content and publish it wherever they choose? (
  • By the end of this course, you'll have a better understanding of how to craft contagious content, build stickier messages, and get any product, idea, or behavior to catch on. (
  • If you choose to leave social media content public, filter out anything that can tarnish your professional reputation, and post communications, links and photos that portray you in the best possible light. (
  • If the findings of the pilot trial are replicated, it will also be important to validate the safety of the hormone in large populations and to understand which aspects of social behavior are most improved by vasopressin, Hardan added. (
  • Turning down habenula activity prevented the social deficits that could be induced by activating the frontal region. (
  • Naringenin attenuates social defeat stress induced neurobehavioral deficits. (
  • These results suggest that social deficits derived from IFN-γ deficiency may be linked to a concomitant loss of GABAergic neuron-mediated synaptic inhibition. (
  • Deisseroth, the D.H. Chen Professor and a member of the interdisciplinary Stanford Bio-X institute, is a practicing psychiatrist who sees patients with severe social deficits. (
  • A gene set enrichment analysis used to search for the pathways in T cells that might mediate the observed social behavior strongly implicated IFN-γ-related genes. (
  • To search for genes that might play a role in social behavior, Sinha and his colleagues used the newly sequenced honey bee genome to scan the binding sites of transcription factors known to function in the development of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) from a single cell to an adult. (
  • The massive expansion of 9-exon ORs happened concurrently with the evolution of complex social behavior, suggesting that the duplication of odorant receptor genes was vital to the development of ant communication. (
  • We used genomic prediction to partition genetic variants into gene ontology (GO) terms and constituent genes, and identified GO terms and genes with high prediction accuracies in both social environments and for GSEI. (
  • We performed genomic prediction across environments, and identified genes in common between the social environments that turned out to be enriched for genome-wide associated variants. (
  • Evolutionary processes have not given us the mental skill needed to properly interpret the dynamic behavior of the systems of which we have now become a part. (
  • We provide several examples highlighting that seemingly similar phenomena can be governed by very different psychological processes, that the same processes can have explanatory power in very different domains, and that the situational context is a crucial determinant of the mental processes governing behavior. (
  • Social behavior is said to be determined by two different processes, that can either work together or oppose one another. (
  • Many of the processes that occur in the brain and underlay emotion often greatly correlate with the processes that are needed for social behavior as well. (
  • It seems obvious that these violations of the rationality and preference assumptions will appear in the behavior of aggregate entities like markets and organizations or in political processes. (
  • Of these three components, the current study will focus on social processes. (
  • Social processes are the ongoing transactions between two or more people or groups in a setting. (
  • Social processes are shaped by individuals' roles within the setting. (
  • Even if you've got all the bells and whistles when it comes to securing your data center, your cloud deployments, your building's physical security, and you've invested in defensive technologies, have the right security policies and processes in place and measure their effectiveness and continuously improve, still a crafty social engineer can weasel his way right through (or around). (
  • If individuals exhibit, however, systematically biased beliefs about external events or other people's behavior or if they systematically deviate from the action that best satisfies their preferences, we speak of bounded rationality. (
  • Feelings of loneliness and social isolation can affect a human brain activity as well as people's behavior, shows a new study conducted at the University of Chicago. (
  • The report , by the Neilsen Company , a provider of consumer insight and social media analysis, shows that social networks and blogs dominate people's online time by accounting for almost a quarter of total time on the Internet, Americans spend more time on Facebook than any other U.S. website and most adult social network users also shop online. (
  • There is differences in behavior when coming to different situations. (
  • One is used by the monkeys themselves in certain social situations, the other is an imitation of their human caregivers. (
  • In kindergarten , teachers answered questions about how their students interacted with other children in social situations. (
  • These factors that determine behavior can work in different situations and moments, and can even oppose one another. (
  • Culture (parents and individuals that influence socialization in children) play a large role in the development of a child's social behavior, as the parents or caregivers are typically those who decide the settings and situations that the child is exposed to. (
  • Culture is the guider of selection of appropriate responses in social situations. (
  • A slightly different concern with language and society focuses more closely on the effect of particular kinds of social situations on language structure. (
  • In examining language contact situations, it is also possible to examine not only the details of a particular language but also the social and linguistic details that show how bilingual speakers use each language and switch between them. (
  • We know social situations can inhibit the urge to eat," Deisseroth said. (
  • Social norms and community enforcement. (
  • These topics provide a better understanding of the human behavior and actions because of social control and societal norms. (
  • The focus of this discussion is to provide a detailed analysis of societal norms, deviance, and social control. (
  • The study of social norms can help us understand a wide variety of seemingly puzzling human behavior. (
  • Doing so also requires changing the health-seeking behaviors of individuals and communities, as well as the norms that underpin those behaviors. (
  • How did social norms about same sex marriage change more rapidly than anyone anticipated? (
  • These "invisible" mathematical properties of social networks have powerful implications for the ways that teams solve problems, the social norms that are likely to emerge, and even the very future of our society. (
  • In this course we will begin to explore the extent and nature of girls violence and antisocial behavior in context. (
  • The conflicts over social media behavior among spouses are on the rise. (
  • Alcohol consumption affects social behavior, as any college student can tell you. (
  • It is interesting that the circuit implicated in social behavior in this study is also a circuit implicated in the biology of depression," said Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry . (
  • In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. (
  • A new study from New York University's (NYU) Polytechnic School of Engineering suggests that the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior can be understood and the negative effects perhaps mitigated. (
  • Perhaps the most remarkable finding of the study was that the unexposed fish also modulated their behavior and swimming speeds differentially in the presence of a shoalmate exposed to different levels of alcohol. (
  • The study demonstrates different roles played by weak and strong social ties. (
  • According to the study's press release , for each one-point increase in a student's social competency score, he or she was twice as likely to graduate from college and 46 percent more likely to be employed full-time job by age 25. (
  • Reuters Health) - Adolescents who are active on social media may be more likely to exercise excessively, skip meals or develop other forms of disordered eating, a U.S. study suggests. (
  • The study focused on two main issues related to disordered eating: how teens thought about their bodies and about eating, and whether teens exhibited disordered eating behaviors like skipping meals or exercising excessively. (
  • The study wasn't designed to prove whether social media use directly contributes to body image problems or eating disorders. (
  • Join unique field courses from Earthquest (Canada) for the Environment in Costa Rica designed to study the ecology and behavior of neotropical primates. (
  • Since its establishment in 1993, the La Suerte Biological Field Station has been visited by more than 1,300 students from across the United States, Canada, and all over the world to study primate behavior and ecology, tropical rainforest ecology and conservation. (
  • The task of social sciences is to study how these two components can give rise to different social dynamics and social events. (
  • The different ways men and women behave - passed down from generation to generation - can be inherited by men and women from their social environment and not only through genetics, according a study. (
  • The study of zebrafish behavior can include a lot of parameters and assessing these is a lot easier with the right software. (
  • Jean Decety says, 'The study raises the intriguing possibility that loneliness may result from reduced reward-related activity in the ventral striatum in response to social rewards,' leading to speculation that activity in the ventral striatum may even promote feelings of loneliness. (
  • The current study is the first one that used fMRI scans to measure activity in the brain in combination with data about social isolation, or loneliness. (
  • Given the social role of language, it stands to reason that one strand of language study should concentrate on the role of language in society. (
  • Similarly, we might study the status of French and English in Canada or the status of national and vernacular languages in the developing nations of the world as symbols of fundamental social relations among cultures and nationalities. (
  • The study of language in its social context tells us quite a bit about how we organize our social relationships within a particular community. (
  • The study included 62 boys aged 11 to 16 with disruptive behaviors with or without "callous-unemotional traits" -- a general disregard for others. (
  • In the same study," Raine said, "we've shown that children with positive social behavior, eight years later, they have higher IQs. (
  • Five years ago, Facebook was rarely mentioned in the context of a marriage ending, but now it has become commonplace for clients to cite social media use, or something they discovered on social media, as a reason for divorce," said Andrew Newbury, head of family law at Slater and Gordon, the firm that commissioned the study. (
  • Findings suggest that oxytocin is a promising candidate for new treatments for developmental disorders affecting social skills and bonding. (
  • Our results indicate that oxytocin is a candidate for further studies on treating developmental disorders of social functioning. (
  • Avitsur R, Yirmiya R (1999) The immunobiology of sexual behavior: gender differences in the suppression of sexual activity during illness. (
  • China's 'Brave New World' move towards a mandatory 'social credit' system for all citizens by 2020 has already blocked people from 11 million flights and 4.25 million high-speed train trips, according to Chinese state-run media . (
  • TRANSFORM , a 5-year (2014-2019), multiple-award indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contract, is designed to infuse innovative practices from a range of disciplines into USAID-supported social and behavior change activities in maternal and child health, nutrition, tuberculosis, infectious diseases, and HIV and AIDS. (
  • Search engines are integrating social media into their products. (
  • Click here to search news sites , aggregators , and blogs as well as videos , photos , and websites about Social Behavior. (
  • Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Games and Economic Behavior . (
  • End behavior in sequences of finite Prisoner's Dilemma supergames A learning theory approach ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 47-70, March. (
  • Much research on economic behavior has been devoted to demonstrating deviations from standard economic theories. (
  • Here, we advocate a shift to a more process-focused research approach aimed at uncovering the why of economic behavior. (
  • Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Sweden , Mårten Palme and Lisa Laun. (
  • The DP model delivers a rich set of predictions about the dynamics of retirement behavior, and comparisons of actual vs. predicted behavior show that the DP model is able to account for wide variety of phenomena observed in the data, including the pronounced peaks in the distribution of retirement ages at 62 and 65 (the ages of early and normal eligibility for Social Security benefits, respectively). (
  • Overall, our model suggests that a number of heretofore puzzling aspects of retirement behavior can be viewed as artifacts of particular details of the Social Security rules, whose incentive effects are especially strong for lower income individuals and those who do not have access to fairly priced loans, annuities, and health insurance. (
  • This work is summarized in two papers, "Social Influence, Reactance, and Tobacco," by Ross Hammond, and "Addiction and Cessation Functions in the Agent-Based Smoking Model" by Zirui Song. (
  • Consumer behaviors influence B2B. (
  • The swimming speeds of fish exposed to intermediate or high concentrations nearly doubled, indicating that the presence of peers had a substantial impact on social behavior under the influence of alcohol. (
  • The unexpected ability of the alcohol-exposed zebrafish to influence the behavior of the school might be a form of leadership. (
  • 2010th Is social media influence on buying behavior of consumers? (
  • Our aim was to understand how social networks are formed by cows after they are reunited at the beginning of the milking period, and what factors may influence these changes," lead researcher Gustavo E. Monti said in a news release. (
  • Social Influence and Television Hilde T. Himmelweit 8. (
  • There are many ways in which people can influence our behavior, and as we have learned before, the presence of others and how they behave tends to set up expectations in our minds for how people should act and behave. (
  • Central drive of these motivated behaviors may well influence the perception of psychogenic stressors that may be subsequently encountered. (
  • Rather than the sexes acting differently because of genetic inheritance, the human environment and culture can influence some gender-specific behavior traits from one generation to the next, said Prof. Cordelia Fine of the University of Melbourne, Prof. John Dupré of the University of Exeter and Prof. Daphna Joel from Tel Aviv University. (
  • Specifically, security systems that are more observable, inclusive, and stewarded are positively affected by social influence, while those that are not are often negatively affected by social influence. (
  • You'll learn how to make ideas stick, how to increase your influence, how to generate more word of mouth, and how to use the power of social networks to spread information and influence. (
  • In this module, you'll examine how social influence shapes everything people do: from the products we buy and candidates we vote for to the food we like and careers we pursue. (
  • Applicants without realizing it may engage in a number of behaviors that influence ratings of their performance. (
  • In conjunction, microglia-dependent neuroinflammatory events promote myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that reinforces stress-related behavior, and is argued to play a role in stress-related psychiatric disorders. (
  • Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. (
  • Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability of conducting a violent act. (
  • Social Behavior and Personality is published electronic only and is hosted on its own website and on Ingenta Connect. (
  • But things look quite different when considering people in traffic, in social networks and at major events in which they do not appear as individuals, but rather as part of a crowd. (
  • Building upon past findings, in the present investigation we tested whether upper-class individuals-relative to lower-class individuals-are more likely to engage in unethical behavior, and whether their attitudes toward greed might help explain this tendency. (
  • Based on earnings histories for different hypothetical individuals corresponding to groups by gender and educational attainments we calculate the following measures: the replacement rate (RR), the social security wealth (SSW), the accrual in the social security wealth from working one additional year as well as the implicit tax rate on working longer (ITAX). (
  • A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. (
  • Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. (
  • The primary purpose of our lab is to conduct and disseminate innovative social psychological research that has the potential to make practical and meaningful contributions to individuals and society as a whole. (
  • Our experiences and intuitions about the social world as individuals are often quite different from the behaviors that we observe emerging in large societies. (
  • Even minor changes to the structure of a social network - changes that are unobservable to individuals within those networks - can lead to radical shifts in the spread of new ideas and behaviors through a population. (
  • As the social relations model provides a straightforward conceptual model of the components that make up behaviors in dyads and groups, this book will provide a powerful conceptual and methodological toolbox to analyze behaviors in dyads and groups across the sciences. (
  • It helps identify the relevant phenomena and dynamics surrounding behaviors in dyads and groups, and goes on to assess and analyze them empirically. (
  • By using scientific reasoning, we define and identify unique personal and social behaviors illustrating the different branches of sciences and conducting studies that critically analyze demographics. (
  • He and colleagues explore "how these modern techniques can be used to get new insights into the relationship between the endocrine system and behavior in animal research and human studies. (
  • Explore communication in social insects by planning and carrying out investigations on how termites communicate with members of their colony. (
  • Adelman JS, Martin LB (2009) Vertebrate sickness behaviors: adaptive and integrated neuroendocrine immune responses. (
  • To the right are articles about Social Behavior that have been featured on main sections of the site. (
  • O ne of the most widely accepted notions in con-sumer behavior is that word-of-mouth commu-nication (hereafter WOM) plays an important role in shaping consumers ' attitudes and behaviors. (
  • M. Henslin (2014), the agents of socialization are the people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life. (
  • A survey of 100 undergraduates and 30 post-secondary faculty members was conducted in order to examine the current attitudes and perceptions of both groups toward the integration of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter in education. (
  • V. D. Ojeda and S. M. Bergstresser, "Gender, race-ethnicity, and psychosocial barriers to mental health care: an examination of perceptions and attitudes among adults reporting unmet need," Journal of Health and Social Behavior , vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 317-334, 2008. (
  • The role of pheromones in orchestrating social behaviors in reptiles is reviewed. (
  • It was well known that ant language is produced through pheromones, but now we understand a lot more about how pheromones are perceived," says Daniel Kronauer , head of the Laboratory of Social Evolution and Behavior . (
  • Our research suggests that intergenerational inheritance of gender-specific traits may be better explained by highly stable features of the social environment. (
  • Our results indicate that licking behavior is important to make friends and to maintain harmony in the herd," Monti said. (
  • Social Relations Modeling of Behavior in Dyads and Groups covers software, interpersonal perception (adult and children), the SRM with roles (e.g. in families), and applications to non-human research. (
  • they lack regions such as the cortex, basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens that we normally associate with complex interpersonal behaviors. (
  • Our work incorporates a broad spectrum of activities and tools to reach and motivate intended audiences: mobile technology, mass media, social media, community media, interpersonal communication, group events, and social mobilization. (
  • These interviewee performance constructs can also be classified into three categories: social effectiveness skills, interpersonal presentation, and personal/contextual factors. (
  • This enables us to work closely with them to design social behavior change communication strategies that are led locally, fit the culture and context of focus communities, and promote sustainable, lasting change. (
  • In addition, the social sciences have fallen into some mistaken "scientific" practices which compound man's natural shortcomings. (
  • Ideal for subject librarians, these databases span major subject areas including business, computer science, education, and social sciences. (
  • A final series of experiments investigated the mechanism by which IFN-γ could mediate the social behavior. (
  • you need an email address to have a Twitter account or most social accounts…if you're going to do anything online, email is a part of it. (
  • It's like blogging or on Twitter or any of those social platforms - there needs to be a frequency and you need to be contextually relevant to why they're following you. (
  • The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is "mining" Facebook and Twitter to improve its social media footprint and to assess how Tweets can be used as "change-agents" for health behaviors. (
  • Facebook was the most frequently cited social media, but others included Skype Snapchat, Twitter and What's App. (
  • Fifteen percent of those surveyed considered social media dangerous to their marriage, with Facebook leading the threats followed by What's App, Twitter and Instagram. (
  • A significant percentage of job seekers are passed over because of inappropriate posts on Facebook, Twitter and other social media sites, according to a CareerBuilder survey. (
  • Factors Affecting Female Students' Behavior When Shopping Via Social Media (Instagram), PSU Surat Thamonwan Chatarat and Suwimol Jitdee Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus Abstract In the past decade, the development of communication and information technology has played a role in changing people 's lifestyles and changing the way businesses operate, especially the internet. (
  • Scientists studying bottlenose dolphins that use sponges as tools to protect their sensitive beaks has shown that social behavior can shape the genetic makeup of an animal population in the wild. (
  • For a long time, social scientists have disagreed on which component plays a dominant role. (
  • The fast-paced forum is offering scientists a peek at real-time, presumably little-filtered human behavior and thoughts. (
  • Fast forward two years, as the scientists' work in neuroscience and behavior continued to fascinate her. (
  • While he is not trouble, or violent, his behavior is disruptive. (
  • This has led to the widespread presumption among neuroscientists that the brain circuits mediating these behaviors are "hardwired," meaning that they are genetically encoded pathways with little flexibility. (
  • The findings are also significant in that they highlight not merely the role of one or another brain chemical, as pharmacological studies tend to do, but rather the specific components of brain circuits involved in a complex behavior. (
  • Other experiments involved stimulating or inhibiting impulses within those circuits to see how these manipulations affected the mice's social behavior. (