Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.United StatesInfluenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting: The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive: A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Tuberous Sclerosis: Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Adolescent Medicine: A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.ItalyAnniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Multifunctional laryngeal motoneurons: an intracellular study in the cat. (1/98)

We studied the patterns of membrane potential changes in laryngeal motoneurons (LMs) during vocalization, coughing, swallowing, sneezing, and the aspiration reflex in decerebrate paralyzed cats. LMs, identified by antidromic activation from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were expiratory (ELMs) or inspiratory (ILMs) cells that depolarized during their respective phases in eupnea. During vocalization, most ELMs depolarized and most ILMs hyperpolarized. Some ILMs depolarized slightly during vocalization. During coughing, ELMs depolarized abruptly at the transition from the inspiratory to the expiratory phase. In one-third of ELMs, this depolarization persisted throughout the abdominal burst. In the remainder ("type A"), it was interrupted by a transient repolarization. ILMs exhibited a membrane potential trajectory opposite to that of type A ELMs during coughing. During swallowing, the membrane potential of ELMs decreased transiently at the onset of the hypoglossal burst and then depolarized strongly during the burst. ILMs hyperpolarized sharply at the onset of the burst and depolarized as hypoglossal activity ceased. During sneezing, ELMs and ILMs exhibited membrane potential changes similar to those of type A ELMs and ILMs during coughing. During the aspiration reflex, ELMs and ILMs exhibited bell-shaped hyperpolarization and depolarization trajectories, respectively. We conclude that central drives to LMs, consisting of complex combinations of excitation and inhibition, vary during vocalization and upper airway defensive reflexes. This study provides data for analysis of the neuronal networks that produce these various behaviors and analysis of network reorganization caused by changes in dynamic connections between the respiratory and nonrespiratory neuronal networks.  (+info)

Transient ischaemic attacks related to carotid stenosis precipitated by straining, bending, and sneezing. (2/98)

Three patients are described in whom one or more carotid territory transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) were preceded by sneezing, straining, or bending over. It is argued that the mechanism involved dislodgment of embolic material from the site of carotid atheroma. This mechanism should be considered as an alternative to paradoxical embolism when TIAs are precipitated by such physiological manoeuvres. Furthermore, TIAs should be added to the list of medical hazards associated with such events.  (+info)

Comparison of the response to histamine challenge of the nose and the maxillary sinus: effect of loratadine. (3/98)

To study the response of the maxillary sinus to histamine provocation, we performed a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial during which nonallergic subjects without symptoms of rhinitis (n = 25) received either 10 mg loratadine or placebo once daily for a week and then underwent nasal challenge with histamine (3, 10, and 30 mg/ml) followed, 24 h later, by a maxillary sinus challenge while still receiving the medication. Nasal challenge with histamine led to significant increases in vascular permeability, reflex nasal secretions, sneezing, and other nasal symptoms. Sinus challenge resulted in significant increases in vascular permeability within the sinus cavity (P < 0.01) and some nasal symptoms but no significant change in reflex nasal secretions. The response of the sinus mucosa to histamine was lower in magnitude than that of the nose. Treatment with loratadine resulted in a significant inhibition of the histamine-induced changes in both nasal and sinus cavities. Our data suggest the lack of a sinonasal reflex response to histamine provocation of the maxillary sinus of nonallergic individuals.  (+info)

Nose blowing propels nasal fluid into the paranasal sinuses. (4/98)

Intranasal pressures were measured in adults during nose blowing, sneezing, and coughing and were used for fluid dynamic modeling. Sinus CT scans were performed after instillation of radiopaque contrast medium into the nasopharynx followed by nose blowing, sneezing, and coughing. The mean (+/-SD) maximal intranasal pressure was 66 (+/-14) mm Hg during 35 nose blows, 4.6 (+/-3.8) mm Hg during 13 sneezes, and 6.6 (+/-3.8) mm Hg during 18 coughing bouts. A single nose blow can propel up to 1 mL of viscous fluid in the middle meatus into the maxillary sinus. Sneezing and coughing do not generate sufficient pressure to propel viscous fluid into the sinus. Contrast medium from the nasopharynx appeared in >/=1 sinuses in 4 of 4 subjects after a nose blow but not after sneezing or coughing.  (+info)

Comparison of cedar pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in passively and actively sensitized guinea pigs. (5/98)

We have developed an allergic rhinitis model in guinea pigs using Japanese cedar pollen as antigen. In the present study, we examined whether provocation by pollen induces similar magnitudes of rhinitis symptoms in passively and actively sensitized guinea pigs. One group of animals was actively sensitized by intranasal application of pollen extract, and another was passively sensitized by intraperitoneal injection with anti-pollen serum. Actively and passively sensitized groups were then challenged by repeated and a single pollen inhalation, respectively. In both groups, sneeze was induced immediately after the challenge. The actively sensitized animals developed not only early but also late nasal blockage, whereas the passively sensitized animals showed only early nasal blockage. In both groups, an H1 antagonist, mepyramine, inhibited the occurrence of sneezing but did not inhibit nasal blockage. Nasal hyperresponsiveness to intranasal instillation of leukotriene D4 was obvious only in the actively sensitized animals. We thus conclude that although early nasal blockage is induced by a single antigen-antibody reaction, repetitive anaphylactic reaction is required for occurrence of late nasal blockage and hyperresponsiveness to stimuli. Furthermore, histamine plays a central role in induction of sneezing but not in nasal blockage, irrespective of whether animals are actively or passively sensitized.  (+info)

Prevalence of nasal symptoms and their relation to self-reported asthma and chronic bronchitis/emphysema. (6/98)

Little information is available on associations between rhinitis and chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CBE). Self-reported upper airway symptoms, asthma, and CBE were examined in 12,079 adults living in southern Sweden. The response rate was 70% (n=8,469), of whom 33% reported significant nasal symptoms: a blocked nose was reported by 21%; sneezing by 18%; nasal discharge by 17%; and thick yellow nasal discharge by 5.7%. Nasal symptoms and combined nasal and self-reported bronchial disease were generally more common among smokers than nonsmokers. There was little overlap between asthma and CBE, but 46% of those with asthma and 40% of those with CBE had significant nasal symptoms. Best predicting factors (odds ratios >3) for asthma and CBE were nasal symptoms due to exposure to animals and damp/cold air, respectively. One-third of an adult, southern Swedish population, had significant allergic and/or nonallergic nasal symptoms. Nasal symptoms were frequently found to coexist with both asthma and chronic bronchitis/emphysema, suggesting that pan-airway engagement is common in both diseases. Differing associations between types of nasal symptoms and allergic and irritant triggers of nasal symptoms, with regard to asthma and chronic bronchitis/emphysema, emphasize the different natures of these bronchial diseases.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of olopatadine hydrochloride on the sneezing response induced by intranasal capsaicin challenge in guinea pigs. (7/98)

To investigate the possible inhibitory effect of olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine), an antiallergic drug, on the tachykinin-mediated nasal responses, we examined the effect of olopatadine on the sneezing and the nasal rubbing responses induced by intranasal capsaicin challenge in guinea pigs. Olopatadine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the sneezing response by 57% without affecting the nasal rubbing one. The antihistamines chlorpheniramine and clemastine did not affect the responses. Morphine caused the inhibition of both responses, which was antagonized by naloxone. These results suggest that olopatadine inhibits the sneezing response by the inhibition of the tachykinin release and not by its antihistaminic action.  (+info)

Variant effect of first- and second-generation antihistamines as clues to their mechanism of action on the sneeze reflex in the common cold. (8/98)

Treatment with first-generation antihistamines reduces sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal mucus weight, and, in some instances, cough in subjects with experimental or natural colds; however, treatment with second-generation antihistamines has not been effective for these complaints in trials in subjects with natural colds. This article reports the negative results of a clinical trial with loratadine, a second-generation antihistamine, in adults in the rhinovirus challenge model. This finding in the highly controlled setting of the challenge model confirms the earlier negative studies with second-generation antihistamines in natural colds. First-generation antihistamines block both histaminic and muscarinic receptors as well as passing the blood-brain barrier. Second-generation antihistamines mainly block histaminic receptors and do not pass the blood-brain barrier. The effectiveness of first-generation antihistamines in blocking sneezing in colds may be due primarily to neuropharmacological manipulation of histaminic and muscarinic receptors in the medulla.  (+info)

  • Time elapsed photos of people sneezing show countless droplets of moisture surrounding their heads. (emaxhealth.com)
  • During a sneeze, the air travels at a speed of approximately 100 miles per hour and disperses about 40,000 droplets, according to Science Line. (reference.com)
  • On an average 40,000 droplets can come out when you sneeze and it can carry as much 10000 germs. (blogarama.com)
  • Without any covering at all, a sneeze can project droplets at a speed of up to 100 miles per hour for a distance of as much as 26 feet (8 meters ) due to the pressure in the windpipe. (allsensors.com)
  • While the sneeze only last for as long as 150 milliseconds, the droplets can stay suspended in the air for up to 10 minutes . (allsensors.com)
  • Learn about topics such as How to Stop a Sneeze , How to Make Yourself Sneeze , How to Sneeze Properly , and more with our helpful step-by-step instructions with photos and videos. (wikihow.com)
  • Nevertheless, many people will want to stop a sneeze for various reasons, including the world record holder who, according to The Guinness Book of World Records, had a sneezing fit for 977 days, and produced more than a million sneezes. (wikihow.com)
  • Echinacea , Yin Chiao Chieh Tu Pien (a Chinese over-the-counter formulation), zinc , and vitamin C are all potentially useful against sneezing and other cold symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Similar symptoms - sneezing, mucus with an unpleasant smell-can be a sign of a foreign body in the cat's nose. (mrpetler.com)
  • Sneezing forces water, mucus, and air from the nose with an incredible force. (blogarama.com)
  • If any mucus is produced by the sneeze, you should be able to clear it out with your purge button. (distractify.com)
  • A reasonable alarm should be caused by blood impurities in the mucus that the pet sneezes out. (mrpetler.com)
  • You know the kind the sneeze where your hand/monitor/date s face is left splattered as if shot at close range with a mucus blunderbuss. (halfbakery.com)
  • The force of the sneeze causes the sacs to spring out of their disc state and into their extended state they are structured in a manner akin to a tiny concertina/wind sock where they dangle from the user s nostrils, holding the mucus. (halfbakery.com)
  • sneezing on your date or sneezing little sac(k)s of mucus on your date? (halfbakery.com)
  • Sneezing can shoot tiny particles out of the nose at up to 100 miles per hour," said Dr. Cassius Bordelon an associate professor of cell biology who teaches anatomy at Baylor College of Medicine. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Sneezing may simply be triggered by a small foreign object or substance in the nose, including particles of pepper, smoke, irritating chemical fumes, or gases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I don't fancy having footer about attempting to detach the rubbery scrotum of slime dangling from my nostrils each time I sneeze. (halfbakery.com)
  • Tickle the roof of your mouth with the tip of your tongue when you feel the sneeze coming on. (wikihow.com)
  • Snatiation is a term for sneezing after a heavy meal. (reference.com)
  • Sneezing begins when people inhale foreign substances such as smoke, pet dander, pollution and perfumes through the nostrils. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The person doing the sneezing, more often than the amount or kind of irritant, determines if the sneeze comes out as a gale-force windstorm or several small ach-oos, Bordelon said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A sneeze is a reflexive action usually produced by your body in response to an irritant in the nasal mucosa. (zidbits.com)
  • Know if you suffer from "sun sneezing. (wikihow.com)
  • I am one of those who suffer from the sun sneeze and in all honestly it is more funny than anything when you are laying on the beach with your family and you just start a sneezing spell for no apparent reason. (zidbits.com)
  • The old wives tale that if you sneeze with your eyes open, you will blow them out is absolutely untrue," Bordelon said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • No we should not suppress it as sneezing is part of our bodies defense mechanism and the power with which a sneeze builds up, trying to suppress it might lead to, though rare, injuries, including broken blood vessels in the eyes, weakened blood vessels in the brain, ruptured eardrums or problems with the diaphragm. (blogarama.com)
  • The myth that "you can't sneeze with your eyes open because the force will cause your eyeballs to pop out" is false and is shown debunked below in an episode of Mythbusters. (zidbits.com)
  • We go online for every sneeze, but for some reason we close our eyes when a cat sneezes . (mrpetler.com)
  • Sneezing helps humans eject harmful substances from their noses and mouths. (reference.com)
  • The brain receives the message and sends a signal of its own in response which travels through our central nervous system to tell our face, throat, and chest muscles that it's time to sneeze. (zidbits.com)