Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Phospholipases A2, Secretory: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Erabutoxins: Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Receptors, Phospholipase A2: Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.LizardsModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thymidine Monophosphate: 5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 188.8.131.52.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 184.108.40.206.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Isolation and characterization of nerve growth factor from the venom of Naja naja atra. (1/438)Nerve growth factor was isolated from the venom of Naja naja atra by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and was found to be homogeneous by disc gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 20,000 by gel filtration and 22,000 by ultracentrifugation. This protein, which showed an isoelectric point of pH 7.02, probably consists of two subunits of equal molecular weight which are held together or interact with each other noncovalently. The biological activity survives treatment by a number of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin [EC 220.127.116.11], chymotrypsin [EC 18.104.22.168], and pepsin [EC 22.214.171.124]. (+info)
Isolation and amino acid sequence of a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of the Australian tiger snake Notechis scutatus scutatus. (2/438)The complete amino acid sequence of notechis 5, a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. The main fragmentation of the 119-residue peptide chain was accomplished by digesting the reduced and S-carboxymethylated derivative of the protein with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. Tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence of the four staphylococcal protease peptides. The sequence was determined by Edman degradation by means of the direct phenylthiohydantoin method. Notechis 5 differs in seven positions from the recently elucidated sequence of the presynaptic neurotoxin notexin from the same venom. Notechis 5 has a 50% higher specific prospholipase A activity than notexin when assayed against egg yolk but is only one-third as toxic. (+info)
NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (3/438)A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs. (+info)
Probing the role of C-1 ester group in Naja naja phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions using butanetriol-containing phosphatidylcholine analogues. (4/438)To understand the role of the ester moiety of the sn-1 acyl chain in phospholipase A2-glycerophospholipid interactions, we introduced an additional methylene residue between the glycerol C1 and C2 carbon atoms of phosphatidylcholines, and then studied the kinetics of hydrolysis and the binding of such butanetriol-containing phospholipids with Naja naja phospholipase A2. Hydrolysis was monitored by using phospholipids containing a NBD-labelled sn-2 acyl chain and binding was ascertained by measuring the protein tryptophan fluorescence. The hydrolysis of butanetriol-containing phospholipids was invariably slower than that of the glycerol-containing phospholipids. In addition, the enzyme binding with the substrate was markedly decreased upon replacing the glycerol residue with the 1,3,4-butanetriol moiety in phosphatidylcholines. These results have been interpreted to suggest that the sn-1 ester group in glycerophospholipids could play an important role in phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions. (+info)
The effects of specific antibody fragments on the 'irreversible' neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom. (5/438)Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom has been reported to produce 'irreversible' post synaptic neurotoxicity (Harris & Maltin, 1981; Barnett et al., 1980). A murine phrenic nerve/diaphragm preparation was used to study the neurotoxic effects of this venom and pre- and post-synaptic components were distinguished by varying the temperature and frequency of nerve stimulation. There were no myotoxic effects and the neurotoxicity proved irreversible by washing alone. The effects of a new Fab based ovine antivenom have been investigated and proved able to produce a complete, rapid (< 1 h) reversal of the neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake venom. A reversal was also possible when the antivenom addition was delayed for a further 60 min. We believe that this is the first time such a reversal has been shown. (+info)
SVPD-post-labeling detection of oxidative damage negates the problem of adventitious oxidative effects during 32P-labeling. (6/438)The exploitation of oxidative DNA lesions as biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo requires techniques that allow for the precise and valid measurement of oxidative damage to DNA. Previously, endogenous levels of the oxidative lesion 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-HO-dG) in rat tissues determined by a micrococcal nuclease/calf spleen phosphodiesterase-based 32P-post-labeling protocol were found to be at least 10-fold higher than those determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. This was attributed to the adventitious oxidation of the normal nucleotides (dGp) occurring during the labeling stage of the postlabeling protocol, which could only be prevented by the introduction of additional chromatographic steps to remove the unmodified species prior to labeling. In the present study we report that an alternative snake venom phosphodiesterase-based 32P-post-labeling procedure (SVPD-postlabeling) negates the problem of adventitious oxidative damage during labeling by virtue of a unique digestion strategy. In SVPD-post-labeling, digestion yields certain lesions (thymine glycols, phosphoglycolates and abasic sites) as damage-containing dimer species which are ready substrates for labeling. In contrast, the undamaged DNA is recovered as mononucleoside species (dN) which are not substrates for labeling and so remain undetected. Furthermore, even if the mononucleosides are oxidized during labeling, they will not contribute to the level of damage detected. Indeed, we demonstrate that neither the external gamma-irradiation of the digested DNA samples nor increasing the incubation time of the labeling reaction alters the levels of damage detected by SVPD-post-labeling. The negation of adventitious oxidative effects during labeling deems that an optimized SVPD-post-labeling procedure should be well-suited for the biomonitoring of endogenous oxidative stress in vivo. (+info)
Long-term regeneration of fast and slow murine skeletal muscles after induced injury by ACL myotoxin isolated from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broad-banded copperhead) venom. (7/438)The aim of the present work was to analyze the regenerated muscle types I and II fibers of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of mice, 8 months after damage induced by ACL myotoxin (ACLMT). Animals received 5 mg/kg of ACLMT into the subcutaneous lateral region of the right hind limb, near the Achilles tendon; contralateral muscles received saline. Longitudinal and cross sections (10 microm) of frozen muscle tissue were evaluated. Eight months after ACLMT injection, both muscle types I and II fibers of soleus and gastrocnemius muscles still showed centralized nuclei and small regenerated fibers. Compared with the left muscle, the incidence of type I fibers increased in the right muscle (21% +/- 03% versus 12% +/- 06%, P = 0.009), whereas type II fibers decreased (78% +/- 02% versus 88% +/- 06%, P = 0.01). The incidence of type IIC fibers was normal. These results confirm that ACLMT induced muscle type fiber transformation from type II to type I, through type IIC. The area analysis of types I and II fibers of the gastrocnemius revealed that injured right muscles have a higher percentage of small fibers in both types I and II fibers (0-1,500 microm2) than left muscles, which have larger normal type I and II fibers (1,500-3,500 microm2). These results indicate that ACLMT can be used as an excellent model to study the rearrangement of motor units and the transformation of muscle fiber types during regeneration. (+info)
Reaction of an activated complex of guinea-pig complement components, C56, with unsensitized erythrocytes and with erythrocytes carrying C3b molecule. (8/438)During the interaction of guinea-pig complement intermediate cells, EAC423, with guinea-pig C5 and C6, an activated complex of C5 and C6, C56, was demonstrated in the fluid phase of the reaction mixture. C56 also was eluted from EAC42356 which had been generated by the interaction of EAC423 with C5 and C6. Both preparations of C56 showed quite similar characteristics and were not distinguished from one another. Both were capable of reacting with unsensitized erythrocytes (E) in the presence of C7 to form EC567. Further, they were able to react with EAC43 in the absence of C7 to form EAC43568 but did react with EAC43 pretreated with C3b inactivator, dithiothreitol or N-bromosuccinimide. These results indicate that guinea-pig C56 generated on EAC423 has a tendency to dissociate into the fluid phase. Nevertheless, the dissociated C56 can bind again to intact C3b molecule on the cells. The ability of cell-bound C3b to combine with C56 may lead to localization of C56 to the cell membrane carrying C3b, resulting in acceleration of attachment of C567 to the membrane. This assumption could be supported by the finding that the replacement of E by EAC43 increased the susceptibility of the cells to lytic action of complement induced by cobra venom factor. Thus, a new function of cell-bound C3b as localizing C56 to the membrane of sensitized cells was indicated. (+info)
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Potential of Integrin Inhibitors for Treating Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review
Epithelial ovarian cancer is a fatal disease, with a cure rate of only 30%. Several recent studies have targeted integrins for cancer treatment. Preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of several integrin inhibitors for blocking cancer progression, especially by blocking angiogenesis. Because the initial critical step in ovarian cancer metastasis is the attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneum or omentum and because clinical trials have provided positive results for anti-angiogenic therapy, therapies targeting integrins may be the most feasible approach for treating cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of integrin biology in ovarian cancer metastasis and various therapeutic approaches involving integrin inhibitors. However, no integrin inhibitor has shown favorable results thus far. However, conjugates of cytotoxic agents with the triplet sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides targeting α5β1-, αvβ3-, and αvβ6-integrins may be promising integrin
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Direct Fibrinolytic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases Affecting Hemostasis: Structural, Biochemical...
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist only of a single metalloproteinase domain. Despite sharing high sequence homology, only some of them induce hemorrhage. They have direct fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Their main biological substrate is fibrin(ogen), whose Aα-chain is degraded rapidly and independently of activation of plasminogen. It is important to understand their biochemical and physiological mechanisms, as well as their applications, to study the etiology of some human diseases and to identify sites of potential intervention. As compared to all current antiplatelet therapies to treat cardiovascular events, the SVMPs have outstanding biochemical attributes: (a) they are insensitive to plasma serine proteinase inhibitors; (b) they have the potential to avoid bleeding risk; (c) mechanistically, they are inactivated/cleared by α2-macroglobulin that limits their range of
snake venom medicinal uses - snake venom medicinal uses online Wholesalers
Cilengitide in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma That Has Not Responded to Standard...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the objective response rate to cilengitide in younger patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma that is refractory to standard therapy.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To estimate the distribution of time to progression, time to treatment failure, and time to death in these patients.. II. To estimate the rate of toxicity, especially symptomatic intratumoral hemorrhage, in these patients.. III. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cilengitide in plasma using a limited sampling strategy.. IV. To evaluate the pharmacogenetic polymorphisms in drug transporters (eg, breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP], P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) and relate to cilengitide disposition.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive cilengitide IV over 1 hour on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, and 25. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for 2 years and then ...
Could the study of snake venom benefit controlled penis tissue deformation - Thunder's Place
There is no way to find out by just reading this, but Ive heard a lot about snake venom deforming tissues after exposure, now Im not saying that you should just take some venom and the penis will get bigger. But what Im suggesting that further studies of snake venom and the reactions of tissue under controlled environments might lead the way to understand the benefits of tissue deformation without death. There is an antidote for the snake venom if bitten in the wild, it uses a plant of some kind which acts alone in some cases and target the venom in the nervous system rendering the venom useless as it deforms the cells.. Could a controlled dose of venom mixed with another tissue isolating chemical change the size of cells in the penis? Could such a thing be possible? Its a long shot so dont all laugh at once, but its the ideas that people have that spark discovery.. Here is some facts on what people are trying.. The relationship between microstructural features and macroscopic mechanical ...
Snake venom is a highly complex cocktail of proteins, peptides, non protein toxins, carbohydrates, lipids, amines and other molecules. The chemical composition of venom varies at all taxonomic levels. Further, composition can vary considerably between snakes in different geographical locations and individuals within those populations. The composition is also subject to change based on diet, age, season and environment. The widely differing manifestations of snake bite could be attributed to complexity of venom to some extent.. The snake venom mainly contains proteins (,90%, dry weight). There are more than hundred different proteins in each venom; with elapid and viperid venoms constituting 25-70% and 80-90% of enzymes respectively. Some non-enzymatic polypeptide toxins and non-toxic proteins are also present. The snake venoms are mainly characterized as neurotoxic and hemotoxic. The neurotoxic venoms act at molecular level, by disrupting the neuromuscular junctions, limiting muscle activity ...
My laboratory, in collaboration with my colleague Dr. Jon Bjarnason, was one of the first to identify and characterize the metalloproteinases present in numerous snake venoms. These Snake Venom Metalloproteinases; SVMPs are responsible for many of the pathologies associated with snake envenoming. Our research has elucidated the structures of these toxins and identified the biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which the toxins function to give rise to their noted pathologies. Specifically my research interests have been centered on metalloproteinases and extracellular matrix and the processes they regulate in normal and pathological circumstances. Our recent focus has expanded to include the interaction of host and tumor in carcinogenesis and metastasis and the role of stromal microenvironment, inflammation in cancer metastasis and invasion. We are also carrying out research on the discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with normal and chronic wound healing. Our longstanding interest ...
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PRODUCT DETAILS Serum by ItS SKIN. Highly effective serum containing SYN-AKE® peptides which mimic the action of snake venom. Wrinkles are frozen, preventing formation of new creases and lines to give a more evenly toned complexion. Delivers deep moisture and vitamins to the skin. Hydration through many levels of skin. Soft texture with enriched essence. Apply to clean skin and leave on , snake venom whitening anti ageing ...
Snake venom might provide a safer antiplatelet drug | American Heart Association
Study Highlights: In preliminary research, an antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom protein prevented blood clotting without leading to excessive bleeding, a dangerous side effect of currently available antiplatelet drugs. The venom protein may be the template for a new class of antiplatelet drugs that offers fewer bleeding complications.
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Snake venom may replace aspirin for heart disease patients - The Financial Express
Snake venom hydrogel stops bleeding in 6 seconds - Futurity
Cediranib Maleate and Cilengitide in Treating Patients With Progressive or Recurrent Glioblastoma
Pharmacokinetics in Subjects With Renal Impairment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Subjects in Groups 2 and 3 will receive a single dose of 2000mg of cilengitide as 1-hour i.v. infusion. Subjects from group 4a will receive a single dose of 1000mg of cilengitide as 1-hour i.v. infusion . PK samples will be collected and basic PK parameters will be calculated. The safety, tolerability, and PK will be evaluated by the Safety Monitoring Committee (SMC). If the SMC has no concerns, Group 4b will be treated with a higher dose (up to 2000mg) of cilengitide. Then, Group 1 (healthy subjects) will be started after the last subject with renal impairment (in either Group 2, 3, or 4a; or in Group 4b, if applicable) has completed all activities on Day 3. They will also receive a single dose of 2000mg of cilengitide as 1-hour i.v. infusion.. The duration of the trial from the first subject enrolled to the last subject last visit will be approximately 6 months (approximately 8 months, in case Group 4b is included). Each subject will participate in the trial for up to 35 days, including ...
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Specific binding sites in collagen for integrins and use thereof
The present invention identified a high affinity binding sequence in collagen type III for the collagen-binding integrin I domains. Provided herein are the methods used to characterize the sequence, the peptides comprising this novel sequence and the use of the peptides in enabling cell adhesion. Also provided herein are methods to identify specific integrin inhibitors, sequences of these inhibitors and their use in inhibiting pathophysiological conditions that may arise due to integrin-collagen interaction ...
Snake venom is a cure for heart disease patients: No aspirin, no side-effects! - Global Village Space
In the process of study, researchers first created a drug that interacts with the receptor found on the exterior of the blood clotting cells. The protein was then mixed with the blood and introduced into the bodies of mice.. The results obtained showed slower blood clot formation in mice having the protein in their system than those without. The protein in the venom interacted with the GPVI, the receptor on the cells, and resultantly inhibited the blood clot formation.. According to another significant benefit revealed in the research, the protein also did not cause the excessive bleeding which is the common side effect of the concurrent medicines used in the treatment.. ...
Animal venom toxins are a good template for new medicines: Zoltan Takacs | ET HealthWorld
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High-throughput immuno-profiling of mamba (Dendroaspis) venom toxin epitopes using high-density peptide microarrays
Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens. In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high-density peptide microarrays displaying linear toxin fragments. By detection of binding for three different antivenoms and performing an alanine scan, linear elements of epitopes and the positions important for binding were identified. A strong tendency of antivenom antibodies recognizing and binding to epitopes at the functional sites of toxins was observed. With these results, high-density peptide microarray ...
Cyclo(RGDyK) trifluoroacetate | Integrin Inhibitor | MedChemExpress
Carbon monoxide, Iron-based Therapy Inhibits Effects of Snake Venom
A University of Arizona researcher developing a therapy to prevent or delay the dangerous results of rattlesnake and other venomous snakebites in humans has shown that a combination of carbon monoxide and iron inhibits snake venoms effects for up to an hour in animals, a major advance in bringing the treatment to market.. Snake venom is hemotoxic-destructive to the ability of blood to clot-and can cause the destruction of fibrinogen, an essential protein that enables blood to clot and stop excessive bleeding. Snake-venom enzymes also can cause abnormally fast clotting, which can lead to heart attack, stroke and damage to the bodys organs. Both reactions are inhibited by the therapy.. Vance G. Nielsen, professor and vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the UA College of Medicine - Tucson, has confirmed that, if given soon enough after a snake bite, the carbon monoxide-iron-based therapy directly can inhibit snake venoms ability to block blood clotting in laboratory ...
Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. - PubMed - NCBI
Snake Venom Antisera : medicine prices in Pakistan - WhatPriceDrugs.com
Snake venom evolved for prey not protection | EurekAlert! Science News
It is estimated that every year, over 100,000 human deaths can be attributed to snakebite from the worlds 700 venomous snake species -- all inflicted in self-defence when the snakes feel threatened by encroaching humans. However, a new piece of research concludes that snake venom did not evolve as a defence mechanism.
Snake Spiele - Spiele
Neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number only 2-10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are present , while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae. Amphibians and reptiles portal. An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year. The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales. More advanced snakes have no remnants of limbs, but basal snakes such as pythons and boas do have traces of highly reduced, vestigial hind limbs. Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. This process leads to genome wide homozygosity , expression of deleterious recessive alleles and often to developmental abnormalities. Snakes use smell to track their prey. It is reconstituted with sterile water and becomes antivenom. More than 20 families are currently recognized, comprising about genera and about 3, species. King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other ...
Decoding Snake-Venom Origins | The Institute for Creation Research
The origin of snake venom has long been a mystery to both creationists and evolutionists. However, by stepping outside the standard research paradigm, scientists recently showed that snake venom proteins may have arisen from existing salivary proteins.1. The Bible indicates that at the beginning of creation, Gods handiwork was not fraught with death, disease, and violence. Because of Adam and Eves rebellion, creation became subject to all of these negative factors, including snakes with toxic venom. The question then arises of how the curse on creation brought about these deadly changes. Were new genes of malicious intent added by the Creator, or was pre-existing genetic information corrupted or altered in some way? According to what we know about genomic decay and the character of God as revealed in the Bible, it is more likely that genomic modification, possibly associated with degradation (genetic entropy), was the cause.2,3. On the other side of the scientific paradigm lies the ...
Snake Venom worth 12 crore seized by BSF | Medicare News
Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay
Snake venoms affect bloodstream coagulation and platelet function inside a organic - Small molecule epigenetic inhibitors...
Snake venoms affect bloodstream coagulation and platelet function inside a organic way. A23187 with identical IC50 concentrations. They neither influence shape modification nor the cAMP level. Further research demonstrated that trigramin and echistatin purified from and venom, which like RUC-2, got a minor priming impact in induction of fibrinogen-binding or PAC-1 binding, reflecting that TMV-7 induces small publicity of LIBs (unpublished data). It binds ideally to IIb, a binding epitope not the same as those of mAb 7E3, tirofiban, eptifibatide & most RGD-containing disintegrins including dimeric disintegrin, and brief- and medium-size disintegrins. TMV-7 in addition has been shown to become an efficacious antithrombotic agent in FeCl3-induced carotid artery damage, and irradiation-induced mesenteric thrombosis versions. At effective dosages, TMV-7 didnt significantly extend the bleeding period. Its unique system of action could be linked to inhibiting outside-in signaling without influencing ...
Snake venom L-amino acid oxidase - UM Repository
Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17
This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biologic processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. The encoded protease functions in the ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in which soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha is released from the membrane-bound precursor. This protease also functions in the processing of numerous other substrates, including cell adhesion proteins, cytokine and growth factor receptors and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands. The encoded protein also plays a prominent role in the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. Elevated expression of this gene has been observed in specific cell types ...
Snake venom - Wikipedia
Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defends against threats. It is injected by unique fangs after a bite, and some species are also able to spit. The glands that secrete the zootoxins are a modification of the parotid salivary gland found in other vertebrates, and are usually situated on each side of the head, below and behind the eye, and encapsulated in a muscular sheath. The glands have large alveoli in which the synthesized venom is stored before being conveyed by a duct to the base of channeled or tubular fangs through which it is ejected. Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and various other substances with toxic and lethal properties serves to immobilize the prey animal, enzymes play an important role in the digestion of prey, and various other substances are responsible for important but non-lethal biological ...
Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 20
This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The expression of this gene is testis-specific. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
RIIP - Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur - Lebetin 2, a snake venom natriuretic-like peptide and BNP exert...
Bochra Tourki, Anaïs Dumesnil, Claire Arnaud, Elise Belaidi Corsat, Vincent Richard, et al.. Lebetin 2, a snake venom natriuretic-like peptide and BNP exert cardioprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, Wiley, 2016, 8 (3), ⟨10.1016/S1878-6480(16)30416-5⟩. ⟨pasteur-01471775⟩ ...
Lisinopril: Lisinopril human blood pressure, blood pressure meds, snake venom...
Cilengitide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: The results of NABTC 03-02, a phase II trial with measures of treatment...
Sanofi Reports Results of Toujeo (insulin glargine 300 Units/mL) in P-III EDITION JUNIOR Study in Children and Adolescents with...
Snake as Medicine - InfoBarrel
Eastern Hognose Snake | Chert Hollow Farm, LLC
In our first ten years here, we had only three sightings of these, and it wasnt until the third sighting (in April 2016) that I had a camera with me. This snake announced its presence in an audible manner. I paused, looked around, and saw a patterned brown snake emerging from the vegetation where I had heard the rattling sound. From about 10 feet away, I strained my eyes to look at the tail. Then it puffed up its head, conjuring up a menacing cobra. Oh, relief: a Hognose Snake. I hollered to get Erics attention, and we enjoyed watching it for a few minutes. After its initial bluff didnt scare us away, it shape-shifted its head to a triangular form, more reminiscent of the rattlesnake that I had initially feared. It even moved in a sidewinder fashion, a master impressionist. The one trick we didnt get it to do was to play dead. The round pupil is absolute confirmation that this one was nonpoisonous. Certainly a really fascinating creature to have around, though they are predators of toads, ...
Snake venom could aid drug development | Earth | EarthSky
Relieving the pain of arthritis with snake venom | ISRAEL21c
Snake venom inspires coagulant gel - The Engineer The Engineer
Its interesting that you can take something so deadly and turn it into something that has the potential to save lives," said Rice chemist Jeffrey Hartgerink.. Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an important role in clotting. First recognised in 1936 for its coagulant capabilities, batroxobin is particularly useful for treating patients who have taken the anti-coagulant drug heparin.. "Theres a lot of different things that can trigger blood coagulation, but when youre on heparin, most of them dont work, or they work slowly or poorly," Hartgerink said in a statement.. "This is important because surgical bleeding in patients taking heparin can be a serious problem. The use of batroxobin allows us to get around this problem because it can immediately start the clotting process, regardless of whether heparin is there or not.". ...
The three-dimensional structures of two toxins from snake venom throw light on the anticoagulant and neurotoxic sites of...
Addresses: Carredano E, Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biol Mol, Ctr Biomed, Box 590, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biol Mol, Ctr Biomed, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden. Univ Uppsala, Ctr Biomed, Dept Biochem, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-14 ...
The Forensics of Snake Venom - The New York Times
World's Strongest Beers - Brewmeister Snake Venom - Thrillist
snake venom Archives - NewBeauty
Snake Eyes (2002)
There have been enough Snake Eyes, Storm Shadow, Cobra Commander and Duke figures that I could cover each variation pretty regularly and still not run out of them for a few more years. In fact, I think thats whats been happening. But what can I do, when those four have been the most ubiquitous characters in GI Joe for the past thirty something years? Hunting through piles of figures, the big four are bound to pop up now and again. So, If you dont like to hear about another Snakes figure, come back tomorrow. Im sure someone different will be in the spotlight. But wait-it might be Duke.. Believe it or not, this black version of the mold was not the first to be released. The man in black was the man in grey and purple for a short time in 2002, a very odd change of pace for the popular ninja. While the greater contrasting colors of that figure brought out the details in the mold, I prefer this black version. I guess my preference goes all the way back to 1982. A perfect Snake Eyes for me would ...
4 year old Tessa bitten by a brown snake | Royal Flying Doctor Service
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England appeals to me: Arsenal, Tottenham, Chelsea or Manchester United are nice clubs where I can see myself playing in a few years.. Everywhere I go abroad they know my father, he often asked: "Come to Barcelona, Ill give a tour of Camp Nou". I really wanted to go to Barcelona instead of Real Madrid. Barcelona is in my heart, but who am I to say no to Real Madrid?. ...
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15-40 . In: Lee CY (1979). Snake venoms. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (continuation of Handbuch der ... The largest egg measured 1.0 cm × 0.6 cm (0.39 in × 0.24 in). No information is available regarding the venom of A. barbouri, ... ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). Spawls S, Branch B (1995). The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Dubai: ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Adenorhinus barbouri, p. 16). U.S. Navy (1965). Poisonous Snakes of the World. Washington, District of ...
Sherman A. Minton
... and snake venoms, especially the effects of bites from rear-fanged venomous snakes. Madge worked as Sherman's field assistant, ... 1971). Snake Venoms and Envenomation. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 1-197. ISBN 978-0824714635. Minton, Sherman A., Jr. (1979 ... cared for his live reptile collection and learned to milk venomous snakes for his research into venoms. The couple also ... listed in the order they were described Tantilla cucullata (Minton, 1956) (Big Bend blackhead snake) (Colubridae) Microgecko ...
Bjarnason, J.B.; Fox, J.W. (1989). "Hemorrhagic toxins from snake venoms". J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 7: 121-209. doi:10.3109/ ... Bjarnason, J.B.; Tu, A.T. (1978). "Hemorrhagic toxins from western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom: isolation ... removes C-terminal Leu from small peptides This endopeptidase is one of six hemorrhagic toxins in the venom of western ... Crotalus ruber ruber venom". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 253 (1): 108-121. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(87)90643-6. PMID 2949699. ...
Western diamondback rattlesnake
Bjarnason, Jon Bragi; Fox, Jay William (1988). "Hemorrhagic Toxins from Snake Venoms". Toxin Reviews. 7 (2): 121-209. doi: ... These snakes can go for up to two years without food in the wild. A 5½-month starvation study showed the snakes reduced energy ... The snakes also feed from within on energy-rich lipid stores. The most interesting finding was the snakes grew during the study ... The venom of C. atrox is primarily hemotoxic, affecting mainly the blood vessels, blood cells and the heart. The venom contains ...
Western green mamba
Like other mamba species, western green mamba venom is among the most rapid-acting venom of snakes. Human fatalities as a ... This snake pursues its prey, striking rapidly and often until the prey succumbs to the venom. The western green mamba, as a ... 2006). Snake Venoms and Envenomations. United States: Krieger Publishing Company. p. 300. ISBN 1-57524-272-9. Bushdrums.com - ... but humans and birds of prey are this snake's main threats. The western green mamba's venom is similar to those of other ...
"Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich ... Other snake venom proteins in the CRISP family: Piscivorin from the Eastern Cottonmouth Triflin from the Habu snake Ablomin ... Snake venom CRISPs belonging to different subgroups act on different biological targets, contributing in this way to the ... Mebs D (1989). "Snake venoms: Toolbox of the neurobiologist". Endeavour. 13: 157-161. doi:10.1016/s0160-9327(89)80003-1. ...
In 1938, Slotta and his brother-in-law Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat isolated crotoxin from venom, the first snake toxin to be isolated ... Chemistry and Biochemistry of Snake Venoms. Springer-Verlag, 1955. Slotta, Karl Heinrich. Grundriss der modernen Arzneistoff- ... Slotta, a sterol chemist, studied medical applications of snake venom. ... After moving to Miami, Florida with his wife and son in the 1956, Slotta unsuccessfully looked for a polio cure using venom. ...
Snake venom immunity BirdLife International (2013). "Sagittarius serpentarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version ... This method of hunting is commonly applied to lizards or snakes. An adult male trained to strike at a rubber snake on a force ... The importance of snakes in the diet has been exaggerated in the past, although they can be locally important and venomous ... There are some reports that, when capturing snakes, the secretary birds will take flight with their prey and then drop them to ...
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri
ISBN 0-398-02808-7. Markland FS (1998). "Snake Venoms and the Hemostatic System". Toxicon 36: 1749-1800. Scarborough RM, Rose ... ISBN 0-8014-4141-2. Brown JH (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: ... Brown (1973) gives an average venom yield of 18 mg (dried venom) (Klauber, 1956) and LD50 values of 2.8,12.6 mg/kg IV, 6.0,6.8 ... "Florida Snake Venom Experiments". Proc. Florida Acad. Sci. 2: 70-76. Behler JM, King FW (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide ...
Snake venoms act as toxins at the neuromuscular junction and can induce weakness and paralysis. Venoms can act as both ... In doing so, the victim of these snake bite suffer from profound weakness. Such neurotoxins do not respond well to anti-venoms ... Lewis RL, Gutmann L (June 2004). "Snake venoms and the neuromuscular junction". Semin Neurol. 24 (2): 175-9. doi:10.1055/s-2004 ... α-Bungarotoxin is a toxin found in the snake species Bungarus multicinctus that acts as an ACh antagonist and binds to AChRs ...
Hati, Rathanath (1999). "Snake Venom Hemorrhagins". Critical Reviews in Toxicology 29 (1): 1-19. Aird SD et al. (1985). " ... These include other snakes, such as kingsnakes (Lampropeltis), coachwhips (Masticophis), indigo snakes (Drymarchon) and racers ... ISBN 978-0-9754641-3-7. Keegan HL (1944). "Indigo snakes feeding upon poisonous snakes". Copeia 1944 (1): 59. Klauber LM (1927 ... In most other snakes, the tail tip, or terminal spine, is cone-shaped, hardly any thicker than the rest of the skin, and is ...
Black-necked spitting cobra
In conclusion, after discussion on the therapeutic uses of snake venom, he conjectured that in the future diluted venom or a ... and other snakes. Like other snakes, it may fall prey to raptors, especially different species of snake eagles that migrate to ... Other snakes also prey on this species. Like other spitting cobras, this species is known for its ability to project venom at a ... "LD50 for various snakes". Australian Venom and Toxin database. www.seanthomas.com. Archived from the original on 1 February ...
Epidemiology of snakebites
The brown snakes are not present on these islands. Despite the fact that many Australian snakes have unusually potent venom, ... twig snakes, keelback snakes, green snakes, and slender snakes-have caused human fatalities. Since reporting is not mandatory ... The brown snakes, death adders, mulga snakes, taipans, and tiger snakes are the five groups that inflict virtually all reported ... Snake Venom Poisoning. Great Neck, NY: Scholium International. p. 163. ISBN 0-87936-015-1. Russell, Findlay E. (1980). "Snake ...
Harold Ridley (ophthalmologist)
After discussion on the therapeutic uses of snake venom, he conjectured that in the future diluted venom or a constituent of ... Snake Venom Ophthalmia. Writing as Major Harold Ridley, he published in 1944 a short paper in the British Journal of ... From his own experiences in the Gold Coast, Ridley described snake venom ophthalmia in a 30 year old labourer named Gogi Kumasi ... "SNAKE VENOM OPHTHALMIA". Br J Ophthalmol. 28 (11): 568-572. doi:10.1136/bjo.28.11.568. PMC 510436. PMID 18170065.. ...
Snake venom immunity. References. *^ a b BirdLife International (2013). "Sagittarius serpentarius". IUCN Red List of ... This method of hunting is commonly applied to lizards or snakes. An adult male trained to strike at a rubber snake on a ... There are some reports that, when capturing snakes, the secretary birds will take flight with their prey and then drop them to ... snakes, tortoises, small birds, bird eggs, and sometimes dead animals killed in grass or bush fires. Larger herbivores are not ...
"Snake bite and snake venoms: their effects on the nervous system". In: de Wolff FA, editor. Handbook of clinical neurology, vol ... Venom from females was more than twice as toxic on average as venom from males. The amount of venom produced also varies. ... Venom Diseases. Springfield, Illinois: CC Thomas. 386 pp. U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. United States ... Most victims are bitten after dark when these snakes are active. Most of these species have venom that contains factors that ...
However most snake venoms are capable of more than one toxic activity, such as cytotoxicity, myotoxicity, neuro-toxicity, ... bee venom or the weak elapid venoms are grouped into class I, whereas PLA2s from the more potent viperid venoms which causes ... Gutiérrez, J. M.; Lomonte, B. (1995). "Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms". Toxicon. 33 (11): 1405-24. PMID ... Fletcher, Jeffrey E.; Jiang, Ming-Shi (1995). "Presynaptically acting snake venom phospholipase A2 enzymes attack unique ...
These came to be collectively known as the snake venom α-neurotoxins. α-Neurotoxins from snake venoms that tightly bind nAChRs ... α-Neurotoxins are a group of neurotoxic snake peptides that come from the venom of snakes in the families Elapidae and ... Tsetlin, V. (1999). "Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS ... As more snake venoms were characterized, many were found to contain homologous nAChR-antagonist proteins. ...
... s are a class of toxic proteins found in certain snake venoms, notably some species of mamba. Investigations have ... Reed, Tim; Eaton, Katie; Peng, Cathy; Doern, BettyLou (2002). "Neurotoxins in Snake Venom". Elements of Bioinformatics. ... interaction of a three-fingered toxin from snake venom with its target". Structure. 3 (12): 1355-1366. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126( ... This effect helps to incapacitate the muscles, either killing the prey, or paralysing it so that the snake can swallow it. The ...
"Awesome Snakes - Venom review". PunkNews.org. Retrieved January 10, 2011. Jensen, Christopher Matthew (April 2, 2008). "France ... "Annie Sparrows closes the book on the Soviettes and Awesome Snakes". City Pages. 2010-03-01. "international Robot EP at ... The Awesome Snakes, France Has The Bomb, the Dummies, the Prostitutes, the Voltz, the Dynamiters, Die Electric! and Dirty ... The Awesome Snakes, France Has The Bomb, the Dummies (as "Rock Bottom") Annie Holoien (bass) - The Soviettes, The Awesome ...
Further information: Evolution of snake venom. Until 2006 it was thought that the Gila monster and the Mexican beaded lizard ... 16 November 2005). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes". Nature. 439 (7076): 584-588. Bibcode:2006Natur. ... Ditmars, Raymond L (1933). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and ... Both the snakes and the Amphisbaenia (worm lizards) are clades deep within the Squamata (the smallest clade that contains all ...
Daltry JC, Wüster W, Thorpe RS (1996-02-08). "Diet and snake venom evolution". Nature. 379 (6565): 537-540. doi:10.1038/ ... "Variability in expression of Bothrops insularis snake venom proteases: An ontogenetic approach". Comparative Biochemistry and ... jararaca and is the fastest acting venom in the genus Bothrops. They have hemotoxic venom that eats away at flesh and tissue to ... which means that the range between number of snakes required for the population to survive and maximum number of snakes the ...
"Snake venom three-finger toxins". In Mackessy, Stephen P. Handbook of venoms and toxins of reptiles. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp ... "Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom". Molecular ... often found in snake venom. 3FTx proteins are widely distributed in venomous snake families, but are particularly enriched in ... The founding members of the family, also the best characterized by structure, are the three-finger toxins found in snake venom ...
... is an abundant protein in the venom of the brown tree snake and accounts for about 10% of the protein found in venom ... Irditoxin is a three-finger toxin (3FTx) protein found in the venom of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) and likely in ... Irditoxin was first described in 2009 after isolation from samples of venom from the brown tree snake. Its name is a ... Doley, R.; Kini, R. M. (2009-09-01). "Protein complexes in snake venom". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 66 (17): 2851- ...
"Snake venom protein C activators". In: Tu, A., editor. Reptile venoms and Toxins. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 265-79. Mertens ... Studies of snake venom on blood coagulation. Part I: The thromboserpentin (thrombin-like) enzyme in the venoms. Thromb. Res. 2 ... V. ammodytes venom is used in the production of antivenin for the bite of other European vipers and the snake is farmed for ... Snakes of the World. Grosset & Dunlap Inc. ISBN 0-448-11856-4. Brown, J.H. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from ...
Snake Venom in Ophthalmology. Am. Jour. Opth., Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1130-1145. Wüster W, Ferguson JE, Quijada-Mascareñas JA, ... Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ... Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ... Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X. Campbell JA, Lamar WW. 2004. ...
Strydom, D. J. (December 1973). "Snake Venom Toxins: The Evolution of Some of the Toxins Found in Snake Venoms". Systematic ... "Snake venom three-finger toxins". In Mackessy, Stephen P. Handbook of venoms and toxins of reptiles. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp ... "Expression of Venom Gene Homologs in Diverse Python Tissues Suggests a New Model for the Evolution of Snake Venom". Molecular ... "Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom". Molecular ...
Bioavailability measurements have been conducted for several snake venoms. For example, cobra venom has been found to have a ... 2010). "Proteolytic activity of elapid and viperid snake venoms and its implication to digestion". J Venom Res. 1: 18-28. Varon ... The snake can be milked to acquire the venom. Schweitz et al. used a three-step method to purify calciseptine to homology. The ... As calciseptine is injected by the snake into its prey along with the rest of its venom, it does not have to pass the ...
It has also been found in several snake venoms. In the peripheral and central neurons, neurotrophins are important regulators ... Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1992). "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of ... Oda T, Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1991). "Amino acid sequences of nerve growth factors derived from cobra venoms". ...
The venom appears to be able to penetrate the skin without a puncture, given prolonged contact. It contains tetrodotoxin, which ... and its tentacles as the snakes. The Kraken are legendary sea monsters of giant proportions said to dwell off the coasts ... "Tentacles of venom: new study reveals all octopuses are venomous". University of Melbourne. 15 April 2009.. ... All species are venomous, but only blue-ringed octopuses have venom that is lethal to humans. Bites are reported each year ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Camouflage does not always fool a predator. When caught out, snake ... The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs from a venom gland. Some non-venomous snakes, such as American ... Snakebite can be treated with antivenom made from the venom of the snake. To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of ... Blood is then extracted; the serum is separated, purified and freeze-dried. The cytotoxic effect of snake venom is being ...
Elisha ben Abuyah
Venom. Not much is known about their venom except that it is mainly neurotoxic. Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry ... Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' ... Mehrtens JM (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. p. 480. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.. ... Until recently, their venom has often been regarded as less toxic than that of many other species, perhaps because bites are ...
Greater black krait
Venom. Its venom consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins, and may also contain myotoxins. This snake is often ... Whitaker, Captain, Romulus, Ashok (2004). Snakes of India, The Field Guide. India: Draco Books. ISBN 81-901873-0-9.. ... The greater black krait (Bungarus niger) is a species of krait, a venomous elapid snake. ... This nocturnal and terrestrial snake has an inoffensive disposition. When disturbed, it coils loosely and hides its head ...
Mantis - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ring-necked snake - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... which is using their venom. Ring-necked snakes usually don't try to hurt bigger animals. Instead of biting bigger animals, ... Diadophis punctatus, also called the ring-necked snake, is a species of snake. Ring-necked snakes live in eastern and central ... Ring-necked snakes are the only species of snake in their genus. There are 14 subspecies of ring-necked snake. ... ring-necked snakes may live in dens. Usually, more than one snake will live in one den. Ring-necked snakes often hide under ...
Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create serum for the local population.:98 ... During these studies Calmette discovered that the power of the venom, as well as that of tetanus, could be annihilated by the ... but also capable of spreading at the same time a powerful venom, and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is ... that while secreting this particular venom is able to multiply itself: they were therefore inclined to think that the bacillus ...
History of leprosy
Snakes were also used, according to Pliny, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and Theodorus. Gaucher recommended treatment with cobra ... venom. Boinet, in 1913, tried increasing doses of bee stings (up to 4000). Scorpions and frogs were used occasionally instead ... of snakes. The excreta of Anabas (the climbing fish) was also tried. ...
... from the effect of snake venom on intestinal smooth muscle, which was noted to slowly contract. ... Bradykinin was detected in the blood plasma of animals after the addition of venom extracted from the Bothrops jararaca ( ... The discovery was part of a continuing study on circulatory shock and proteolytic enzymes related to the toxicology of snake ... Sérgio Henrique Ferreira, discovered a bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) in the bothropic venom, which increases powerfully ...
The average venom yield from specimens kept on snake farms is about 4.6 mg-19.4 mg per bite. The venom is highly toxic with ... Venom and toxins. The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α- ... The snake is nocturnal, and may be more defensive at night. It is, however, a timid and placid species of snake. In the daytime ... and true sea snakes than it is to Elapsoidea sundevalli (Sundevall's garter snake), Naja naja (Indan cobra) or two Micrurus ...
Weimann, Anya (4 July 2007) Evolution of platypus venom revealed. Cosmos. *^ de Plater, G.M.; Milburn, P.J.; Martin, R.L. (2001 ... Mortality rates for adults in the wild appear to be low. Natural predators include snakes, water rats, goannas, hawks, owls ... It is one of the few species of venomous mammals, as the male platypus has a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom ... "The venom of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)". Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 13 September ...
Bryan, Jenny (2009). "From snake venom to ACE inhibitor the discovery and rise of captopril". Pharmaceutical Journal. Retrieved ... BPF was later found to be a peptide in the venom of a lancehead viper (Bothrops jararaca), which was a "collected-product ... Patlak M (March 2004). "From viper's venom to drug design: treating hypertension". FASEB J. 18 (3): 421. doi:10.1096/fj.03- ... since no benefits have flowed back to the indigenous Brazilian tribe who first used pit viper venom as an arrowhead poison. A ...
Antikehad - Vikipeedia
Evolution of mammals
Snake venom. Tempo and modes. *Gradualism/Punctuated equilibrium/Saltationism. *Micromutation/Macromutation. *Uniformitarianism ... snakes, crocodilians, dinosaurs (including the birds), ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs and therapsids. But mammals have a different ... snakes, turtles/tortoises, crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds are descended. The earliest known fossils of synapsids and ...
Elapid - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... which is the most venomous land snake to mice, and Hydrophis belcheri, a sea snake and the most toxic venom of all snakes. ... Venom[change , change source]. All elapids are venomous and many are potentially deadly. The venoms are mostly neurotoxic and ... They are characterized by a set of hollow, fixed fangs through which they inject venom. There are snakes of different sizes, ... The Elapidae, or elapids, are a family of venomous snakes. These snakes can be found in tropical and subtropical regions around ...
Hati, Rathanath (1999). "Snake Venom Hemorrhagins". Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 29 (1): 1-19. doi:10.1080/10408449991349168 ... These include other snakes, such as kingsnakes (Lampropeltis), coachwhips (Masticophis), indigo snakes (Drymarchon) and racers ... a b c d e McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1 ... VenomEdit. Two main hemotoxic effects are caused by rattlesnake venom. First, zinc-containing metalloproteases act upon ...
Venom. Although venomous, these snakes are generally not aggressive and bites are rarely fatal. ... Conant R, Bridges W (1939). What Snake Is That?: A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains ... pilot snake, poplar leaf, red oak, red snake, southeastern copperhead, white oak snake, American copperhead, southern ... a b c d e Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of ...
Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage
Evolution of nervous systems
2010 in paleontology
Newly named snakesEdit. Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images ... Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Heckert, Andrew B. & Sues, Hans-Dieter (2010). "Grooves to tubes: evolution of the venom delivery system ... Laduke, T.C.; Krause, D.W.; Scanlon, J.D. & Kley, N.J. (2010). "A Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) snake assemblage from the ... Annie S. Hsiou; Adriana M. Albino; Jorge Ferigolo (2010). "Reappraisal of the South American Miocene snakes of the genus ...
The LD50 in mice, which is used as a possible indicator of snake venom toxicity, is: 0.133 mg/kg intravenous, 0.40 mg/kg ... Venom. The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Reported venom yields for ... "Poisonous snakes". www.kerenvis.nic.in.. *^ a b c Stidworthy J (1974). Snakes of the World. Revised Edition. New York: Grosset ... Brown JH (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp ...
Snake venom may replace aspirin for heart disease patients - The Financial Express
Scientists have found that a snake venom can provide a safer alternative to drugs like aspirin that help prevent blood clots in ... Snake venom may replace aspirin for heart disease patients. Scientists have found that a snake venom can provide a safer ... Those drugs were based on a protein found in snake venom - but why that target leads to the bleeding side effect is not fully ... Scientists have found that a snake venom can provide a safer alternative to drugs like aspirin that help prevent blood clots in ...
Snake venom hydrogel stops bleeding in 6 seconds - Futurity
A nanofiber hydrogel infused with snake venom may work better than anti-coagulants to stop bleeding quickly, a new study ... "SB50 takes the powerful clotting ability of this snake venom and makes it far more effective by delivering it in an easily ... A nanofiber hydrogel infused with snake venom may be the best material to stop bleeding quickly-and may perform better than ... Are the next cancer drugs in this snails venom?]. "From a clinical perspective, thats far and away the most important issue ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Direct Fibrinolytic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases Affecting Hemostasis: Structural, Biochemical...
... isolated from Bothrops barnetti venom, that could be considered as potential agent to treat major thrombotic disorders. Some of ... are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist ... Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and ... Sanchez, E.F.; Flores-Ortiz, R.J.; Alvarenga, V.G.; Eble, J.A. Direct Fibrinolytic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases Affecting ...
Snake venom might provide a safer antiplatelet drug | American Heart Association
... an antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom protein prevented blood clotting without leading to excessive bleeding, a dangerous ... The venom protein may be the template for a new class of antiplatelet drugs that offers fewer bleeding complications. ... Those drugs were based on another protein found in snake venom - but why that target leads to the bleeding side effect is not ... Snake venom might provide a safer antiplatelet drug. American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report ...
Snake Venom + Collagen Wrinkle Filler Eye Cream 15 & Super Antioxidant Facial Cleansing Oil 100ml
snake venom medicinal uses - snake venom medicinal uses online Wholesalers
... snake venom medicinal uses online Wholesalers - choose snake venom medicinal uses from 42 list of China snake venom medicinal ... snake venom medicinal uses. All snake venom medicinal uses wholesalers & snake venom medicinal uses manufacturers come from ... as "sugar killer." In the past, the root of vine Gymnema is also often used to treat snake venom, constipation, Yang Wei, ... as "sugar killer." In the past, the root of vine Gymnema is also often used to treat snake venom, constipation, Yang Wei, ...
Snake venom is a cure for heart disease patients: No aspirin, no side-effects! - Global Village Space
In a recent research at the National Taiwan University, it was revealed that the venom found in the snakes of South East Asian ... The researchers hope that the snake venom can be used to make a much safer anti-blood clotting drug but the findings require ... Snake venom is a cure for heart disease patients: No aspirin, no side-effects!. ... The study, therefore, suggests that a protein found in the venom of the Tropidolaemus Waglerix snake, known as trowaglerix, can ...
snake venom whitening anti ageing mask - Face Mask Supplier
Snake venom Manufacturers & Suppliers, China snake venom , snake venom whitening anti ageing mask. snake venom manufacturer/ ... Hobbies with Snakes Venom and Snakes Venom. Discover over 1505 of our best selection of Snakes Venom on AliExpress, snake venom ... Face Care Snake Venom Cream Thailand VOODOO Anti-Aging , snake venom whitening anti ageing mask. Face Care Snake Venom Cream ... Snake Venom Cleanse, Mask & Serum Set. Snake Venom Extract Face Cream Anti Wrinkle Whitening Anti , snake venom whitening anti ...
The snake venom mainly contains proteins (,90%, dry weight). There are more than hundred different proteins in each venom; with ... Indian Rat Snake. The oriental ratsnake or Indian rat snake is a common species of colubrid snake found in India and local ... Dog-faced Water Snake. Dog-faced Water Snake is a species of a colubrid snake found in coastal waters of India,commonly found ... Common Cat Snake. Indian gamma snake or common cat snake is a species of rear-fanged colubrid endemic to Indian subcontinent. ...
... was one of the first to identify and characterize the metalloproteinases present in numerous snake venoms. These Snake Venom ... Our longstanding interest in snake venom toxinology continues with studies aimed at elucidating novel molecular mechanisms ... associated with venom induced wound morbidity. We also are working on the identification of novel therapeutics from natural ... Metalloproteinases; SVMPs are responsible for many of the pathologies associated with snake envenoming. Our research has ...
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Snake venom - Wikipedia
The effect of the venom of proteroglyphous snakes (sea snakes, kraits, mambas, black snakes, tiger snakes, death adders) is ... predators of the snake that are resistant to snake venom, prey that are in an evolutionary arms race with snakes, and the ... The boomslangs venom is the most potent of all rear-fanged snakes in the world based on LD50. Although its venom may be more ... Several snake lineages have since lost the ability to produce venom, often due to a change in diet. The evolution of venom is ...
Venom (Awesome Snakes album) - Wikipedia
"Awesome Snakes - Venom". Razorcake. Retrieved Sep 2, 2015. Thompson, Tim (Aug 10, 2006). "Awesome Snakes - Venom". Local Sounds ... Awesome Snakes - Venom at AllMusic Awesome Snakes - Venom at Discogs. ... "The Awesome Snakes Discuss The Awesomeness Of Various Snakes". A/V Club. Retrieved Sep 2, 2015. "Awesome Snakes - Venom". Inter ... Venom is the debut album by punk rock band Awesome Snakes, released in 2006 on Crustacean Records. "a loose, loud set of ...
Coral Snake Antivenom - Coral Snake Bite Venom
The worlds stock of coral snake antivenom, set to expire this weekend, gets a last-minute one-year extension from the FDA. But ... Coral Snake Antivenom Crisis Gets a One-Year Extension. The worlds stock of coral snake antivenom, set to expire this weekend ... In May I wrote about a critical coming shortage in coral snake antivenom, known as Micrurus fulvis, the only FDA-approved cure ... Boyers VIPER Institute is playing a unique role in the venom crisis. She took the lead several years ago when Arizona faced a ...
Boffins prescribe SNAKE VENOM as future pain killer • The Register
Boffins prescribe SNAKE VENOM as future pain killer. Take two Black Mamba bites, see your doctor if pain persists. By Simon ... The venom of the Black Mamba, rated the worlds seventh most potent snake poison, has been suggested as a future painkiller for ... A letter in Nature suggests the application is viable as the venom contains "a new class of three-finger peptides … able to ... The researchers also say that mice, a creature among the Black Mambas favorite prey, are immune to its venom and experience an ...
Snake Venoms - DrugBank
Snake Venoms. Accession Number. DBCAT001668. Description. Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by ... An anticoagulant purified from the venom of the Malayan pit viper that functions by inactivating circulating plasma fibrinogen ... snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs ...
Snake Venom Calcium Channel Blocker
Quantitative analysis of snake venoms using soluble polymer-based isotope labeling. - PubMed - NCBI
Snake venom identification using SoPIL. A and B, comparison of the protein composition of the venom from C. scutulatus ... Quantitative analysis of snake venoms using soluble polymer-based isotope labeling.. Galan JA1, Guo M, Sanchez EE, Cantu E, ... Quantitative Analysis of Snake Venoms Using Soluble Polymer-based Isotope Labeling. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 Apr;7(4):785-799. ... Quantitative Analysis of Snake Venoms Using Soluble Polymer-based Isotope Labeling. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008 Apr;7(4):785-799. ...
Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. - PubMed - NCBI
... ocellatus venom. The pEKW and pHpG peptides inhibit the proteolytic activity of the haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase ... Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors.. Wagstaff SC1, Favreau P, Cheneval O, Laing ... Viper venoms contain one of the most potent mixtures of proteases in natural existence and yet the venom gland and proteins in ... Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.. ...
Snake venom evolved for prey not protection | EurekAlert! Science News
However, a new piece of research concludes that snake venom did not evolve as a defence mechanism. ... over 100,000 human deaths can be attributed to snakebite from the worlds 700 venomous snake species -- all inflicted in self- ... defence when the snakes feel threatened by encroaching humans. ... Snake venom evolved for prey not protection Swansea University ... Defensive venom? Some coral snakes (Micrurus) have specifically pain-inducing toxins in their venoms (IMAGE) view more ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom
In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase ... This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches ... following rapid intravenous injection of the venoms or toxins. When the venoms or toxins were administered intramuscularly or ... The bioavailability of venoms or toxins ranged from 4 to 81.5% following intramuscular administration and 60% following ...
snake venom Archives - NewBeauty
A family of cellular proteins related to snake venom disintegrins | PNAS
Snake venom reveals clues about heart drug - ScienceBlog.com
With the help of snake venom and sophisticated laboratory testing, scientists believe theyve uncovered the reason why a group ... Snake venom reveals clues about heart drug. With the help of snake venom and sophisticated laboratory testing, scientists ... Snake venom reveals clues about heart drug. August 18, 2004. ScienceBlog.com ... With the help of snake venom and sophisticated laboratory testing, scientists believe theyve uncovered the reason why a group ...
Decoding Snake-Venom Origins | The Institute for Creation Research
... they began looking for other explanations for snake venom origins by carrying out a comparison of gene expression in venom ... So, if these venom proteins are found in many different types of bodily tissues in both venomous and non-venomous snakes, then ... The origin of snake venom has long been a mystery to both creationists and evolutionists. However, by stepping outside the ... Thus, the toxic levels of venom found in modern venomous snakes could be due to an alteration of genetic information that ...
Snake's powerful venom could lead to better painkillers for humans | Toronto Star
... the unusual venom found in long-glanded blue coral snakes acts on sodium channels, which regulate signals in neurons as well as ... Snakes powerful venom could lead to better painkillers for humans Unlike Vicodin and other opioids, the unusual venom found in ... Thanks to this venom, the fire-headed animal is able to prey upon young king cobras, kraits and other agile, dangerous snakes ... "This is first time that a snake venom has been reported to act on sodium channels, which is really quite surprising," said ...
Venom of snake used in stroke treatment | Lewiston Sun Journal
"We havent had too many people get upset about the fact this is a snake venom," he said when asked how patients or their ... The drug is derived from the venom of the Malaysian pit viper, an aggressive snake that inhabits forest edges across much of ... The venom of the Malaysian pit viper is the potent ingredient found in an experimental drug called Viprinex now being tested in ... The venom is frozen before being purified and converted to a drug product, explained Warren Wasiewski, the scientist overseeing ...
Snake Venom Detection (Snake Venoms) CSL
Snake Venom Detection indications, usages and related health products lists ... Snake Venom Detection information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by CSL, ... Find online pharmacy, drugstore, pharma or beauty shop where to order or buy Snake Venom Detection brand or generic online:. ...
Coral Snake Venoms | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Of the venoms tested, M. frontalis venom would be most suitable for use in the production of a polyvalent coral snake antivenin ... tests were performed with coral snake venoms and rabbit antisera against five venoms to determine the most suitable venoms for ... mipartitus venom. The latter was the only venom not neutralized by heterologous antisera. M. spixii venom was neutralized by ... M. frontalis venom produced the most cross-reactive neutralizing antibody, having neutralized five of six venoms. ...
Slither Into the World of Snake Venom Research
Steve Mackessy goes into more detail about how he became interested in snake venom, his published and future research and other ... His research revolves around snake venom, the types of protein structures found within the venom, and how the venom can be used ... This snake is a rear-fanged snake, meaning it has enlarged teeth in the back of its mouth. Venom from this species has a taxon- ... That snake produces a venom with a toxin thats a significant amount of the venom, that when you purify it, and you look at its ...
Stiletto Snakes: Clever Biters with Nasty Venom | HubPages
... in writing about snakes and arachnids - spiders and scorpions, etc., creatures that give many of us goose-bumps and the... ... David Warrell, at the Venom Week conference this summer (where I was able to give a 20 minute talk on my snake venom research ... Worlds Most Poisonous Snake Ever - Worlds Most Venomous Snake - and Most Fierce Snake in the World. by ngureco. 35 ... Im told there are snakes that are classified as good snakes. I have seen videos of bull snakes eating a rattlesnake and told ...
Uveitis following anti-snake venom therapy
He had received anti-snake venom serum at a local governmental center before being referred to our center due to worsening ... Uveitis as an immunological complication following therapy with anti-snake venom (ASV) serum has been rarely reported in ... He was treated with hemodialysis with multiple transfusions and anti-snake venom sera. The patient sought an ophthalmology ... The patient had received anti-snake venom sera at a primary treatment center. ...
What Do Snake Venom, Tree Bark, and Drugs Have in Common? - AOL Finance
Snake-handling preacher dies from bite after refusing anti-venom - RT USA News
... has died from a snake bite. He refused medical treatment, because he relied on Gods protection to save him from the venom. ... Snake-handling preacher dies from bite after refusing anti-venom 17 Feb, 2014 09:12 ... However his faith included the conviction that God would protect any true believer from snake venom, so he refused medical aid ... A Kentucky preacher and reality TV star, whose sermons involved handling of deadly snakes, has died from a snake bite. He ...
Snake Venoms and Envenomation. | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Snake Venoms and Envenomation: Modern Trends and Future Prospects | Nova Science Publishers
Chapter 2. Venoms from "Non-Venomous" Snakes: Rear-Fanged Snake Venoms as Sources of Novel Compounds. Stephen P. Mackessy, ... production and use of snake venom components as antigens for antivenom preparation, and the therapeutic value of snake venom ... Chapter 7. Immune Response Triggered by Snake Venoms: Impact of Venom Compounds on the Envenomation Process. Carla Cristina ... Snake Venoms and Envenomation: Modern Trends and Future Prospects. Yuri N. Utkin, PhD (Editor). Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute ...
The Forensics of Snake Venom - The New York Times
Genetic analysis of venom allows Indian investigators to determine whether it came from an endangered cobra, helping them to ... Its not entirely clear how big of a problem the illegal trade in snake venom is or where the bootleg venom ends up, the ... It took the legendary snake wrangler Bill Haast three years and 69,000 milkings to produce one pint of coral snake venom, for ... The Forensics of Snake Venom. By Douglas M. Main February 10, 2012 12:05 pm. February 10, 2012 12:05 pm ...
Brazil milks deadly snakes for their life-saving venom
De Souza and her colleagues at the Butantan Institute in Sao Paulo harvest the toxin from hundreds of snakes ... Fabiola de Souza massages its venom glands to squeeze out drops that will save lives around Brazil where thousands of people ... Gripping the deadly snake behind its jaws, Fabiola de Souza massages its venom glands to squeeze out drops that will save lives ... Venom is extracted from each snake once a month in a delicate and potentially dangerous process. ...
Snake venom inspires coagulant gel - The Engineer The Engineer
Snake venom inspires coagulant gel. By Andrew Wade 27th October 2015 11:07 am 11th April 2017 12:28 pm ... Snake venom from two species of South American pit viper has inspired a new coagulating treatment developed by a team from Rice ... The snake venom batroxobin is combined with nanofibre hydrogels from the Rice lab. According to the researchers, it is first ... Though inspired by snake venom, the batroxobin used by the Rice team is actually harvested from genetically modified bacteria ...
Snake Venom to Reduce Wrinkles? | The Doctors TV Show
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But I really wanted to try and draw reboot Lara - and why not save some paper and put my absolute fa... Lara Croft x Venom ... Lara Croft x Venom Snake by CarolaFunder. Watch Fan Art / Traditional Art / Drawings / Games©2017-2018 CarolaFunder ... Venom Snake.. I have no clue how they met or what their business is *Download for a larger version ...
MetalloproteinasesPeptidesSVMPsProtein in the venomToxinSpeciesVenomousNajaMolecular MechanismsFoundSaferAspirinResearchDrugsCommonToxinsBothropsPeptidesEnvenomationGlandsMetalloproteinasesBitePotentBitesCobrasViperNeutralizePreyInhibitorsPresent in the venomsJararacaProperties of the venomsMicrurusToxicityProduce venomDifferent snake venomsCompoundsResearchersToxic venomRear-fangedCharacterizationSnake's venomKraitsWorld's deadliest snakesDeadly snakesHemotoxicEnzymesBitten by venomous snakesNeurotoxicFangsPeptideEvolutionaryAntibodiesSpecies of snakesCoralReptilesCrotalid venomsComponents of venomNecrosisGlandAntiplateletHemorrhagicPoisonous snakeMiceBlack mambaEvolutionProtein found in snake venomVenomous animalsSpidersNeurotoxins
Protein in the venom1
- In a recent research at the National Taiwan University, it was revealed that the venom found in the snakes of South East Asian species can be an effective replacement of aspirin for the purpose of treatment in heart patients. (globalvillagespace.com)
- The oriental ratsnake or Indian rat snake is a common species of colubrid snake found in India and local named as Dhaman. (wordpress.com)
- Indian gamma snake or common cat snake is a species of rear-fanged colubrid endemic to Indian subcontinent. (wordpress.com)
- This species is found in the states of Sikkim and Maharashtra, It is a mildly venomous snake just like green Indian Vine snake. (wordpress.com)
- Common wolf snake is a species of colubrid snake commonly found in Andaman Islands and frequently misidentified with venomous snake Common Krait. (wordpress.com)
- The Banded Racer is a species of colubrid snake found in India,the Non-venomous snake of small to medium-sized found in the plains of North Bengal and Kashmir. (wordpress.com)
- Banded Racer is one of the 20 species of Non-venomous Indian snakes, Katraj Snake Park of Pune has the maximum number of snakes species in India. (wordpress.com)
- The common kukri snake or banded kukri is a species of nonvenomous colubrid found in Indian subcontinent. (wordpress.com)
- Colubridae species is the largest snake family, and includes about two-thirds of all living snake species. (wordpress.com)
- Common Trinket Snake is a nonvenomous constrictor species of colubrid snake native to Asia, found in southern India of Vishakhapatnam. (wordpress.com)
- Common Bronzeback Snake is a species of tree-snake found in India and prefers the tree tops to life on the ground. (wordpress.com)
- Dog-faced Water Snake is a species of a colubrid snake found in coastal waters of India,commonly found in mangroves forest of Sunderbans Delta. (wordpress.com)
- Saw-scaled Viper is a venomous viper species found especially the Indian subcontinent and smallest member of the Big Four Indian venomous snakes and responsible for causing the most snakebite cases. (wordpress.com)
- The study, therefore, suggests that a protein found in the venom of the Tropidolaemus Waglerix snake, known as trowaglerix , can be effectively used to save the blood from clotting and that too without any side effects. (globalvillagespace.com)
- Red sand boas is called do-muha snake in Hindi because of the resemblance of the tail to its head, found in dry, semi-desert scrub plains and rocky dry foothills. (wordpress.com)
- Black-headed Royal Snake found in deserts and semi deserts of Northern-western India from Kutch to non-Himalayan parts of Jammu. (wordpress.com)
- This active snake is restless and quick, both on the ground as well as in the trees, commonly found in southern India and the Himalayan foothills. (wordpress.com)
- DALLAS, June 8, 2017 - Researchers have designed a safer antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom, according to new research in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology , an American Heart Association journal. (heart.org)
- The researchers hope that the snake venom can be used to make a much safer anti-blood clotting drug but the findings require further tests before it can be made available to general public. (globalvillagespace.com)
- Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic proteins (which also have pharmacological properties), and many enzymes, especially hydrolytic ones. (wikipedia.org)
- Snake toxins vary greatly in their functions. (wikipedia.org)
- Two broad classes of toxins found in snake venoms are neurotoxins (mostly found in elapids) and hemotoxins (mostly found in viperids). (wikipedia.org)
- A new paper published in Toxins reveals that surprisingly few venomous snake bites cause immediate pain, implying that the venom make-up has not evolved for a defensive primary purpose. (eurekalert.org)
- Some coral snakes (Micrurus) have specifically pain-inducing toxins in their venoms, suggesting that natural selection for defence may have played a role in their evolution - a possible exception to the rule uncovered in this study. (eurekalert.org)
- In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0.8 to 28 h, respectively, following rapid intravenous injection of the venoms or toxins. (mdpi.com)
- When the venoms or toxins were administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, an initial absorption phase and slow elimination phase were observed. (mdpi.com)
- The bioavailability of venoms or toxins ranged from 4 to 81.5% following intramuscular administration and 60% following subcutaneous administration. (mdpi.com)
- Interestingly, the authors state, 'Our analysis in fact shows that the majority of snake venom toxins are likely derived from pre-existing salivary proteins,' and they admit that 'snake venom should instead be considered to be simply a modified form of saliva. (icr.org)
- The researchers state that their data 'suggest that a possible route for pre-existing salivary proteins to become venom toxins may simply be an elevated expression level, where initial toxicity is dosage-dependent. (icr.org)
- 2014. Restriction and Recruitment-Gene Duplication and the Origin and Evolution of Snake Venom Toxins. (icr.org)
- Coursing within these twin glands is a venom unlike any chemical previously discovered in snakes, as Fry and his colleagues recently reported in the journal Toxins. (thestar.com)
- Although there is not yet clinical evidence the coral snake holds the secret to new types of toxin-based pain relief within its glands, researchers have successfully turned snail toxins into painkillers. (thestar.com)
- This is a Speckled Rattlesnake, which produces a venom with high amounts of tissue-damaging protein toxins. (unco.edu)
- Because Dr. Mackessy's lab has worked with venoms for many years, we know that certain toxins form bands at certain places in the gel, allowing us to identify many protein toxins quickly, simply based on their band patterns. (unco.edu)
- Dr. Mackessy shows a collection of cancer cells that are kept in liquid nitrogen - the extreme cold preserves the cells, and to grow them, they are brought to room temperature, added to nutrient media in a flask and incubated at 37 ˚C (~98.6 ˚F). They are then used in experiments with venom toxins to evaluate the effects on cell growth, cell survival, etc. (unco.edu)
- The research is the first to tie the cobra's 19 venom toxins to the genes which produce them, allowing for a new anti-venom production method. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- The synthetic antibodies which stick to the toxins will be the ones that can save snake-bite victims. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- Solange Serrano, a researcher at the Instituto Butantan in Brazil, gets it: She studies the protein toxins in these serpents' venom in hopes of helping develop improved medication for envenomation. (geek.com)
- An international 12-year project revealed that the two main toxins in the venom target certain receptors on nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord of mammals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- its toxins had no effect on the proteins that most venoms target. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Most toxins in snake venoms target specialized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of nerve cells that make muscles contract, paralyzing the snakes' victims. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Most venom contains a huge variety of lethal molecules called toxins, which evolve from harmless compounds that used to do different jobs elsewhere in the body. (earthsky.org)
- These toxins target normal biological processes in snakes' prey, such as blood clotting or nerve-cell signalling, and stop them from working properly. (earthsky.org)
- Now researchers have discovered that the toxins that make snake and lizard venom deadly can evolve back into completely harmless molecules, raising the possibility that they could be developed into drugs. (earthsky.org)
- But the researchers' discovery that there may be many harmless versions of venom toxins throughout a snake's body opens the door to a whole new era of drug discovery. (earthsky.org)
- Snake researchers were aware that venom toxins evolve from harmless molecules that do fairly mundane jobs elsewhere in the body. (earthsky.org)
- Snake venom toxins are the most rapidly-evolving proteins ever identified. (earthsky.org)
- Many snake venom toxins target the same physiological pathways that doctors would like to target to treat a variety of medical conditions. (earthsky.org)
- Understanding how toxins can be tamed into harmless physiological proteins may aid development of cures from venom. (earthsky.org)
- Pan's research builds on a growing body of scientific research that has shown toxins in venom can fight cancer cells without harming healthy cells. (wreg.com)
- Opossum serum contains metalloproteinase inhibitors which neutralize toxins from Crotalid venoms. (asknature.org)
- Neutralization of snake venom toxins has been achieved through different approaches: plant extracts have been utilized in etnomedicine. (mdpi.com)
- A deeper knowledge of alternative ways to inhibit venom toxins may provide supplemental treatments to serum therapy. (mdpi.com)
- These roles include opsonization, activating the complement system, and neutralizing toxins (such as snake and scorpion venom) and toxic organisms (such as bacteria and viruses). (exampleessays.com)
- If oral glands show expression of some of the 20 gene families associated with "venom toxins," that species gets the venomous label. (phys.org)
- It also shows that just the expression of genes related to venom toxins in oral glands of snakes and lizards isn't enough information to close the book on whether something is venomous. (phys.org)
- No snake possesses just one type because each snake tends to have a different combination of toxins. (reptilegardens.com)
- For instance, some coral snakes and pit vipers have specifically pain-inducing toxins in their venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Homogenates from gastrocnemius muscles of mice injected with the venom of the snake Bothrops asper or with 2 tissue-damaging toxins were added to cultures of C2C12 myogenic cells. (wiley.com)
- This study sheds light on the structure-function relationships of the procoagulant toxins within these venoms and may have important clinical implications including for the design of next-generation antivenoms. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The SoPIL strategy was used to quantify venom proteins from two pairs of venomous snakes: Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus type A, C. scutulatus scutulatus type B, Crotalus oreganus helleri, and Bothrops colombiensis. (nih.gov)
- Isolation and biochemical characterization of a fibrinolytic proteinase from Bothrops leucurus (white-tailed jararaca) snake venom," Biochimie , vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 189-200, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- M. T. Assakura, A. P. Reichl, M. C. Asperti, and F. R. Mandelbaum, "Isolation of the major proteolytic enzyme from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni (Caissaca)," Toxicon , vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 691-706, 1985. (hindawi.com)
- S. M. T. Serrano, C. A. M. Sampaio, and F. R. Mandelbaum, "Basic proteinases from Bothrops moojeni (caissaca) venom-II. (hindawi.com)
- Isolation and structural characterization of a new fibrin(ogen)olytic metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni snake venom," Toxicon , vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 574-584, 2008. (hindawi.com)
- BthMP: a new weakly hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni snake venom," Toxicon , vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 24-32, 2009. (hindawi.com)
- Structural studies of BmooMP α -I, a non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni venom," Toxicon , vol. 55, no. 2-3, pp. 361-368, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- BnP1, a novel P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops neuwiedi venom: biological effects benchmarking relatively to jararhagin, a P-III SVMP," Toxicon , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 54-65, 2008. (hindawi.com)
- As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin ( Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus ). (rupress.org)
- In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms ( Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca , and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus ) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or platelets. (rupress.org)
- Thus, the fer de lance ( Bothrops atrox ) venom was active in a 1:25,000,000 dilution, and that of the Australian tiger snake ( Notechis scutatus ) was active in a 1:4,000,000 dilution. (rupress.org)
- Jararhagin, a hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca. (biomedsearch.com)
- Jararhagin is a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, which has been extensively studied. (biomedsearch.com)
- This review will briefly highlight the structure-function relationships of these few direct-acting fibrinolytic agents, including, barnettlysin-I, isolated from Bothrops barnetti venom, that could be considered as potential agent to treat major thrombotic disorders. (mdpi.com)
- Taking into consideration toxicity and venom yields, the fer-de-lance, Bothrops asper (formerly included in B. atrox ), appears to be the most dangerous snake in Costa Rica and Lachesis muta , despite its impressive size, occupies a relatively unimportant position. (ajtmh.org)
- NPP-BJ, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, inhibits platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Here we describe for the first time the isolation and functional characterization of a soluble phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca venom, which shows amino acid sequence similarity to mammalian nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (NPP3), and inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This study describe s the effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom (Marajó lancehead) on isolated neuromuscular preparations of chick biventer cervicis (CBC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND). (libpubmedia.co.uk)
- All cnidarian extracts were able to inhibit hemorrhagic activity induced by Bothrops moojeni venom. (scielo.br)
- This study evaluated the influence of molecular weight on the ability of fucoidan to prevent muscle necrosis when rapidly administered after injection of a purified myotoxin or crude venom of Bothrops asper, in a mouse model. (nih.gov)
- A letter in Nature suggests the application is viable as the venom contains "a new class of three-finger peptides … able to abolish pain through inhibition of Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in central or peripheral neurons. (theregister.co.uk)
- If the peptides in Black Mamba venom shut them down, that's good news. (theregister.co.uk)
- The pEKW and pHpG peptides inhibit the proteolytic activity of the haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), EoVMP-2, and the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus venom. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, snake venoms can be considered natural "combinatorial libraries" of proteins and peptides. (novapublishers.com)
- But Pan's lab has developed a technique to separate out the important proteins and peptides in the venom so they can be used to stop cancer cell growth. (wreg.com)
- Researchers, led by Sylvie Diochot, of the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology at Nice University, Sophia Antipolis in France, purified the peptides from the venom and profiled the compounds' structure. (scientificamerican.com)
- The scientists created images of the 3D molecular structures of two peptides, including one from snake venom, that inhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), a key protein that regulates blood pressure. (healthcanal.com)
- They confirmed that the venom peptides produced were biologically active and resembled the components of venom from live snakes. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- To address the issues of immune reactions and batch variation associated with conventional anti-venom, we decided to utilize protein protein interaction screens (eg phage display) to develop peptides that can neutralize relevant toxic venom components with high specificity. (amrita.edu)
- Ocular manifestations resulting from snake envenomation are myriad and vary with the nature of the toxin. (scielo.br)
- Snake Venoms and Envenomation. (annals.org)
- Understanding the pathology of envenomation and chemical composition of snake venoms is important in the development of medical countermeasures (including, but not limited to, antivenoms). (novapublishers.com)
- Several chapters highlight protein biochemistry and enzymology of snake venoms, immune response to envenomation and antivenoms, production and use of snake venom components as antigens for antivenom preparation, and the therapeutic value of snake venom components in the treatment of various diseases. (novapublishers.com)
- During envenomation, venom components mainly affect the hemostatic system [causing hemorrhage]. (asknature.org)
- Identification of the venom involved in a clinically significant envenomation by an elapid snake in Australia or Papua New Guinea . (edu.au)
- The anti-venom taken from the horses are used to treat humans suffering from snake envenomation. (reptilepark.com.au)
- There are innumerable combinations of variables that affect the outcome of a snake envenomation. (reptilegardens.com)
- Envenomation resulting from snake bite is a significant problem faced by both developed and developing countries. (amrita.edu)
- Additionally, due to significant regional variation of venom composition, these anti-venoms may only be effective against envenomation by snakes displaying a similar profile of venom composition as the venom sources used for immunization. (amrita.edu)
- The glands have large alveoli in which the synthesized venom is stored before being conveyed by a duct to the base of channeled or tubular fangs through which it is ejected. (wikipedia.org)
- Under this hypothesis, the original toxicoferan venom was a very simple set of proteins that were assembled in a pair of glands. (wikipedia.org)
- This ancestral venom consisted of a very simple set of proteins, assembled in a pair of glands. (wikipedia.org)
- Castoe stated that the team had found homologs to the venom genes in many tissues outside the oral glands, where venom genes might be expected. (wikipedia.org)
- Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. (drugbank.ca)
- Thus, they began looking for other explanations for snake venom origins by carrying out a comparison of gene expression in venom glands and other body tissues for a wide variety of snakes (both venomous and non-venomous snakes, as well as a gecko). (icr.org)
- These results demonstrate that venom genes are serving other non-venomous purposes in reptile tissues, including a function in the salivary glands of both non venomous and venomous snakes. (icr.org)
- Thus, the toxic levels of venom found in modern venomous snakes could be due to an alteration of genetic information that causes them to be over-expressed in venom glands. (icr.org)
- Like fuel tanks for its speedy hunts, the coral snake has two immense toxin glands - the largest in any animal - travelling along either side of its throat to its ribs for a full quarter-length of its six-foot body. (thestar.com)
- The venom held within snake's glands, the scientists argued, could inspire the development of a strong, non-narcotic painkiller. (thestar.com)
- Gripping the deadly snake behind its jaws, Fabiola de Souza massages its venom glands to squeeze out drops that will save lives around Brazil where thousands of people are bitten every year. (yahoo.com)
- They compared these sequences with those from venom glands in a wide range of snakes and lizards, constructing an evolutionary tree to work out the relationships between the various sequences. (earthsky.org)
- Even alcohol, coffee and water can be toxic at high enough volumes so we needed to consider how much venom different species of snake produce and store in their venom glands. (tcd.ie)
- These glands- one on either side of the head - are modified salivary glands surrounded by muscle which, when contracted, forces the clear or yellowish venom along the venom ducts and down through the fangs, squirting out under pressure as if from a pair of hypodermic syringes. (reptilepark.com.au)
- However, the venom glands of the snake are enormous so that when the snake bites, a large amount of venom is injected into the victim's body. (worldatlas.com)
- On January 23 in the journal Cell, researchers are reporting that they have created organoids of the venom glands of the Cape coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus cowlesi) and that these glands are capable of producing venom. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- Once we grew the venom glands as organoids, we realized that they make a lot of venom. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- In addition to the venom glands, the researchers also made organoids of the snake liver, pancreas, and gut. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- He notes that if it could be commercialized, this method would be much more efficient than the way venom is currently produced -- by raising snakes on farms and milking their glands. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- Enzymes (molecular weight 13-150 KDa) make-up 80-90% of viperid and 25-70% of elapid venoms: digestive hydrolases, L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipases, thrombin-like pro-coagulant, and kallikrein-like serine proteases and metalloproteinases (hemorrhagins), which damage vascular endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
- Pit viper venom is a complex mixture of various enzymes called metalloproteinases. (asknature.org)
- Opossum sera were capable of neutralizing metalloproteinases from Malayan pit viper venom including hemorrhagins, fibrinogenases, and gelatinases. (asknature.org)
- The studies reviewed here denote jararhagin as a prototype for studies of snake venom metalloproteinases, bringing new insights into cellular-matrix interactions and adding for the improvement of snakebite treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
- Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. (mdpi.com)
- Neutralization of the haemorrhagic activities of viperine snake venoms and venom metalloproteinases using synthetic peptide inhibitors and chelators Envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus resembles that of most vipers, in that it results in local blistering, necrosis and sometimes life-threatening systemic haemorrhage. (umn.edu)
- The major mediators of local venom pathology are the zinc-dependant snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). (umn.edu)
- Some of the various adaptations produced by this process include venom more toxic to specific prey in several lineages, proteins that pre-digest prey, and a method to track down prey after a bite. (wikipedia.org)
- In May I wrote about a critical coming shortage in coral snake antivenom , known as Micrurus fulvis, the only FDA-approved cure or coral snake bite available in the U.S. By some bizarre and slightly macabre coincidence, the expiration date for the existing vials of coral snake antivenom is October 31st, Halloween. (popularmechanics.com)
- Since the manufacturer of the antivenom, Wyeth (now owned by Pfizer) stopped making the drug back in 2003, the expiration of the existing stock would mean that there will be no drugs at all that can stop the effects of a coral snake bite in the U.S. For those who didn't read my original article , it's worth a reminder of exactly how coral snake bite works. (popularmechanics.com)
- Corals are among the deadliest snakes native to the U.S. They are different from pit vipers (rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, etc.), which strike fast and inject hemotoxin into a bite, causing immense pain and swelling at the site. (popularmechanics.com)
- Thumb almost completely eaten away by necrosis after snake bite. (hubpages.com)
- A Kentucky preacher and reality TV star, whose sermons involved handling of deadly snakes, has died from a snake bite. (rt.com)
- The Sawyer Extractor Bite and Sting Kit was also banned from sale in Australia following a complaint about the product, which was touted as the'most powerful suction available' for the safe extraction of venom and poisons including from snake bites and bee and wasp stings. (smh.com.au)
- Clark emphasized that while San Diego County is seeing a rise in snake bite cases each year, the more alarming factor recently is the toxicity of the bite. (ucsd.edu)
- An Australian snake venom expert will lead a new global effort to improve snake bite treatment and education. (abc.net.au)
- These enzymes wreak havoc inside the bodies of venomous snake-bite victims by causing widespread breakdown of important proteins (proteolyisis) in the tissue surroundings blood vessels and within cells themselves. (asknature.org)
- The venom of each species is unique, consisting of a combination of complex proteins, which act on the prey or bite victim in various ways. (reptilepark.com.au)
- The dose of anti-venom given to a patient varies according to the species responsible for the bite and, when it can be ascertained, the amount of venom injected. (reptilepark.com.au)
- A bite from the black mamba snake ( Dendroaspis polylepis ) can kill an adult human within 20 minutes. (scientificamerican.com)
- The venom is used by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories - better known as BioCSL Limited, to manufacture the only Australian antivenoms that save human snake bite and spider bite victims. (reptilepark.com.au)
- This plasma contains the antibodies which, when injected into a snake bite victim, will neutralize snake venom. (reptilepark.com.au)
- Do not attempt the following, they can cause harm and waste your valuable time getting snake bite treatment from a qualified medical professional. (reptilegardens.com)
- These are all instances of improper snake bite treatment, will cause severe pain, permanent tissue damage, and possible amputation. (reptilegardens.com)
- The body temperature, even mood, of a particular snake in addition to the toxicity and quantity of venom delivered by that snake can all make a very big difference in the outcome of the bite. (reptilegardens.com)
- Snakes have complete control over how much venom they inject anytime they bite. (reptilegardens.com)
- So one could get a "dry" bite, with no venom in it whatsoever. (reptilegardens.com)
- Add in the potential for a severe infection, and it is safe to say there are many variables that will affect the outcome of a snake bite. (reptilegardens.com)
- If pain occurs long after the bite, it may simply be a side effect of other venom properties, such as tissue damage. (bangor.ac.uk)
- The ideal organism on which to test this idea is a species that is regularly exposed to venomous snakebites from a wide variety of snakes and can communicate precisely the effects of a bite. (bangor.ac.uk)
- By far the most common experience involved relatively low pain levels after a bite within the first five minutes, when the pain might deter a predator in time for the snake to escape injury or death. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Vance G. Nielsen, professor and vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the UA College of Medicine - Tucson, has confirmed that, if given soon enough after a snake bite, the carbon monoxide-iron-based therapy directly can inhibit snake venom's ability to block blood clotting in laboratory animals for as long as an hour. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Instead, corals inject a potent neurotoxin by grabbing hold of their prey and gnawing for 20 to 30 seconds with their little teeth to work in the venom-people who have been bitten liken the experience of removing a coral to that of peeling Velcro. (popularmechanics.com)
- The venom of the Black Mamba, rated the world's seventh most potent snake poison , has been suggested as a future painkiller for humans. (theregister.co.uk)
- Viper venoms contain one of the most potent mixtures of proteases in natural existence and yet the venom gland and proteins in this mixture are refractory to degradation. (nih.gov)
- The venom of the Malaysian pit viper is the potent ingredient found in an experimental drug called Viprinex now being tested in hospitals. (sunjournal.com)
- Venomous snakes in the main aren't interested in killing their human molesters but merely escaping their attentions, they rarely try to expel all their potent charge of venom which would leave them defenseless for a time. (hubpages.com)
- We really don't know why the venom is becoming increasingly potent. (ucsd.edu)
- Snakes are infamous for possessing potent venoms, a fact that makes them deadly predators and also strikes fear into humans and other animals alike. (tcd.ie)
- The team found strong evidence that venoms have evolved to be more potent against animals that are closely related to the species that the snake commonly eats. (tcd.ie)
- Cottonmouth venom is hemotoxic and potent. (exampleessays.com)
- It was found that the sea snake, Pelamis platurus , possesses the most potent venom. (ajtmh.org)
- As I mentioned in my original article, Wyeth stopped making the antivenom because, with fewer than 100 bites per year, treating coral snake bites just wasn't a good business, but before the company shut down its factory, they made a five year supply. (popularmechanics.com)
- His survey, which gained nearly 400 responses world-wide, asked people working with snakes about the time-course of pain after bites they had sustained. (eurekalert.org)
- Image 2: Caption: Many snakes, like this Indian cobra (Naja naja) will use their venoms in self-defence, causing millions of bites every year. (eurekalert.org)
- The Stiletto Snake has another alarming characteristic and one that has caused the quite high incidence of bites on humans. (hubpages.com)
- The dangerous practice, which is based on Bible passages referring to apostles' immunity to snake bites, is illegal in most places. (rt.com)
- Snake bites are a major health concern, especially in tropical countries. (novapublishers.com)
- There have been reports of people in India enduring actual snake bites to get high . (nytimes.com)
- Snake bites kill more than 120,000 people a year, more than a third of them in India. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- Snake bites cause 400,000 amputations a year, almost seven times as many as the number of amputations performed in the U.S. Civil War. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- For the second year in a row, UC San Diego Medical Center toxicologists are reporting unusually powerful snake bites and unusually extreme patient reactions to those bites. (ucsd.edu)
- With some rattlesnake bites, no venom is injected into the wound, but because it is impossible to know if venom has or has not been injected, getting medical treatment quickly is important. (ucsd.edu)
- Venom may be injected with each of a possible series of consecutive bites. (reptilepark.com.au)
- Remain calm - death from most snake bites is not instantaneous. (reptilegardens.com)
- The survey asked 368 people who had collectively received 584 bites from 192 different snake species. (bangor.ac.uk)
- VENOM LOCC™ is the only commercially available snakebite kit that follows current medical guidelines for field-based first aid treatment of snake bites. (tongs.com)
- Around 100,000 people around the world die from snake bites every year, and another 250,000 are permanently disabled, but these statistics don't seem to scare Steve Ludwin. (odditycentral.com)
- More than 100,000 people die from snake bites every year, mostly in developing countries. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- Our results suggest little evidence for widespread evolution of venoms driven by their use in defence, though interesting exceptions likely exist such as the defensive use of venom 'spitting' in some cobras, and these specific cases deserve further study. (eurekalert.org)
- Thanks to this venom, the fire-headed animal is able to prey upon young king cobras, kraits and other agile, dangerous snakes without killing itself on the hunt. (thestar.com)
- Cobras are quick to strike and deadly, too, so blue coral snakes must be quicker. (thestar.com)
- Where the venom of mambas and cobras relax their prey into paralysis, the fast-acting calliotoxin jams open sodium channels, causing muscles to hyper-contract into what scientists call "spastic" paralysis. (thestar.com)
- Which is why many people have survived attacks from even the most feared of snakes, like Taipans, Mambas, Cobras and the rest. (hubpages.com)
- Elapidae (cobras and kraits) venoms are mainly neurotoxic and may cause neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations. (scielo.br)
- However, some species, such as cobras, boomslangs and rattlesnakes have far more venom than they apparently need-in a single reserve of venom, they have the potential to kill thousands of their prey animals and several adult humans. (tcd.ie)
- The study, which has just been published in international journal Ecology Letters , tackled this puzzle by comparing records of venom potency and quantity for over 100 venomous snake species, ranging from rattlesnakes, cobras and the tree dwelling boomslangs of Africa to sea snakes and burrowing asps. (tcd.ie)
- Whether in movies, literature, or folklore, poisonous serpents have received bad press, which is unfortunate, because snakes like copperheads and cobras are at this moment at the forefront of some of the most exciting medical breakthroughs. (exampleessays.com)
- The difference is, in highly venomous snakes, such as rattlesnakes or cobras, the venom gene families have expanded to make many copies of those shared genes, and some of these copies have evolved into genes that produce highly toxic venom proteins. (phys.org)
- The research team looked at 24 gene families that are shared by pythons, cobras, rattlesnakes and Gila monsters, and associated with venom. (phys.org)
- Spitting cobras have unique behavioural adaptations for defensive venom use, and their venoms cause intense pain upon contact with eyes . (bangor.ac.uk)
- Venoms of cobras ( Naja spp. (frontiersin.org)
- Boyer's VIPER Institute is playing a unique role in the venom crisis. (popularmechanics.com)
- Now, the VIPER Institute has secured an FDA grant for $1.6 million to work with Mexican drug manufacturer Instituto Bioclon to import that company's coral snake antivenom on a research basis. (popularmechanics.com)
- An anticoagulant purified from the venom of the Malayan pit viper that functions by inactivating circulating plasma fibrinogen. (drugbank.ca)
- Here we demonstrate that the sub-10-kDa components of venom from two African viper species (Echis ocellatus and Cerastes cerastes cerastes) are predominantly composed of the tri-peptide pyroglutamate-lysine-tryptophan (pEKW). (nih.gov)
- The drug is derived from the venom of the Malaysian pit viper, an aggressive snake that inhabits forest edges across much of Southeast Asia and grows to about three feet in length. (sunjournal.com)
- The Stiletto, variously known as the Mole Viper, Burrowing Asp, Stabbing Snake, Side Biter, etc., is the one we are looking at today as it is the member of the species which has caused the worst problems to man. (hubpages.com)
- Snake venom from two species of South American pit viper has inspired a new coagulating treatment developed by a team from Rice University in Texas. (theengineer.co.uk)
- As the DNA of more species of venomous snakes is mapped - especially of the three other snakes which, along with the cobra, are regarded as the "Big Four" deadly snakes: Russell's viper, the saw-scaled viper, and the common krait - the technique may be used to create a catalogue of antidotes. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- The compound trowaglerix developed from the Wagler's pit viper venom acts on glycoprotein VI to slow but not stop clotting ability in mice, suggesting a potential new class of antiplatelet drugs , CNN reports. (medpagetoday.com)
- One such drug called Captopril, which treats high blood pressure, was developed from a compound in lancehead viper venom which catastrophically lowers blood pressure in its prey. (earthsky.org)
- The sera from the North American Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. (asknature.org)
- Neutralization of lethality and proteolytic activities of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom with North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. (asknature.org)
- In viper venoms, homotoxins dominate. (exampleessays.com)
- The hydrogel called SB50 incorporates batroxobin, a venom produced by two species of South American pit viper. (phys.org)
- The Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) is the snake with the longest fangs in the world. (worldatlas.com)
- The Gaboon viper also has the highest venom yield of any snake. (worldatlas.com)
- After striking the prey and injecting it with venom, the Gaboon viper hangs on to the prey with its large fangs until it dies. (worldatlas.com)
- This behavior of the Gaboon viper is unique as most other venomous snakes release their prey and wait for it to die before swallowing the prey. (worldatlas.com)
- Venom from the Southeast Asia pit viper ( Deinagkistrodon acutus ) may help stop human heart attacks and strokes. (kingsnake.com)
- An experimental drug derived from the venom of the feared Malayan pit viper shows promise for the treatment of stroke, an analysis of six studies involving over 4,000 stroke victims suggests. (mylot.com)
- In the clip, a snake handler in India extracts venom from a Russell's viper. (thefw.com)
- He had milked three of his most dangerous snakes - a Northern Pacific Rattlesnake, a Pope's Tree Viper and an Eyelash Viper - and tried to inject a small amount of the venom cocktail into his left arm. (odditycentral.com)
- This molecule was extracted from a venom of a pit viper found in South and Central America. (healthcanal.com)
- They have metalloproteinase inhibitors in their sera that neutralize the hemorrhagic and other proteolytic activities caused by many snake venoms. (asknature.org)
- Chemists at the University of California, Irvine, (UCI) have developed a way to neutralize deadly snake venom more cheaply and effectively than with traditional anti-venom--an innovation that could spare millions of people the loss of life or limbs each year. (nsf.gov)
- Electrocute" the bitten area to neutralize the venom. (reptilegardens.com)
- Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defends against threats. (wikipedia.org)
- Some snake venoms carry fasciculins, like the mambas (Dendroaspis), which inhibit cholinesterase to make the prey lose muscle control. (wikipedia.org)
- In snakes, venom has evolved to kill or subdue prey, as well as to perform other diet-related functions. (wikipedia.org)
- The venoms of the different lineages then diversified and evolved independently, along with their means of injecting venom into prey. (wikipedia.org)
- The American "rat snakes," such as Pantherophis guttatus, lost their venom following the evolution of constriction as a means of prey capture. (wikipedia.org)
- The researchers also say that mice, a creature among the Black Mamba's favorite prey, are immune to its venom and experience an analgesic effect when bitten. (theregister.co.uk)
- The snakes are at extreme risk from their very dangerous prey," Fry told The Washington Post via email, "so they need to immobilize them before they get killed in retaliation. (thestar.com)
- That is, like the feared Brown Recluse Spider it's venom attacks the area it is injected and proceeds to destroy tissue and even bone, achieving in spectacular fashion what the substance does in its prey, a small mammal or bird. (hubpages.com)
- The venom gland of snakes appears to be a melting pot for evolving new functions for molecules, some of which are retained in venom for killing prey, while others go on to serve new functions in other tissues in the body. (earthsky.org)
- But snakes' and reptiles' prey tends to evolve resistance to venom, which means that venoms have to continually evolve to remain effective. (earthsky.org)
- Why venoms vary so much in their ability to kill or incapacitate potential prey animals has long puzzled scientists, with several competing hypotheses suggested as explanations. (tcd.ie)
- These results make sense from an evolutionary viewpoint as we expect that evolution will have shaped venoms to be more efficient at killing the prey animals they are most often the target of the venom. (tcd.ie)
- This difference may be due to how often a snake encounters its prey in these different environments, with terrestrial species requiring a larger reserve of venom to take advantage of the rarer opportunities to feed. (tcd.ie)
- The two most common ways that snakes kill their prey is with venom or by constriction. (exampleessays.com)
- Venom can either slow down or kill the prey. (exampleessays.com)
- The cobra uses its teeth to inject poison into its prey and can even spit the venom up to 6 feet at the enemy's eye. (exampleessays.com)
- Their inhibition may be instantly disengaged, by dilution or physiochemical change, when venom is injected into tissue of the prey. (uniprot.org)
- The snake is capable of swallowing prey as large as a fully grown adult rabbit. (worldatlas.com)
- The venom also has the effect of initiating digestion even before the prey is swallowed. (jrank.org)
- The venom of these snakes are diverse, being adapted to quickly kill the preferred prey animals of each species . (jrank.org)
- The first is foraging, where venom helps the snake to overpower its prey before eating it. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Many studies have shown that the need to capture and eat prey often drives the evolution of different snake venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
- For instance, many species have venoms that are especially lethal to their main prey species . (bangor.ac.uk)
- Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
- These results demonstrate that these vipers express abundant transcripts encoding tandemly repeated protease inhibitor cassettes and accumulate significant quantities of peptide inhibitors in venoms to provide a basis for attenuating the proteolytic activity of SVMPs. (nih.gov)
- The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. (mdpi.com)
- Valente, R.H. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges. (mdpi.com)
- In this study, four recently developed MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) (Marimastat, AG-3340, CGS-270 23A and Bay-12 9566) are evaluated in addition to three metal ion chelators (EDTA, TPEN and BAPTA) for their ability to inhibit the haemorrhagic activities of the medically important E. ocellatus venom and one of its haemorrhagic SVMPs, EoVMP2. (umn.edu)
- Component specific inhibitors or neutralizing agents should have the advantage that they can be produced and combined in a controlled fashion such that all venom components are covered and neutralized effectively. (amrita.edu)
Present in the venoms2
- Other components present in the venoms of certain species act to destroy blood cells, to cause blood clots or excessive bleeding, or to destroy tissue. (reptilepark.com.au)
- Fucoidan, a natural polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibits the myotoxic phospholipases A(2) present in the venoms of crotalid snakes. (nih.gov)
- Dozens of poisonous snake species, including the jararaca, thrive in Brazil's hot and humid climate. (yahoo.com)
- Led by Serrano, the team examined glycans-sugar molecules attached in a complex chain-and how they affect proteins in the venom of B. jararaca (also known as lancehead) snakes. (geek.com)
- However, polyclonal antibodies raised against NPP-BJ could not abolish the lethal activity of B. jararaca venom. (sigmaaldrich.com)
Properties of the venoms1
- Antisera were produced against Micrurus species M. fulvius, M. frontalis, M. spixii, M. carinicauda , and M. nigrocinctus venom but not against M. mipartitus venom. (ajtmh.org)
- Biochemical studies revealed the identity of the venom's active ingredient: it's actually twin proteins, dubbed micrurotoxins (MmTX) after their serpentine source, the reclusive coral snake Micrurus mipartitus. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Finally, 2 venoms ( Notechis scutatus , and to a slight extent, a mixed Micrurus venom), which had no demonstrable effect on purified fibrinogen, nevertheless converted prothrombin to thrombin. (rupress.org)
- So, if these venom proteins are found in many different types of bodily tissues in both venomous and non-venomous snakes, then why the toxicity? (icr.org)
- Interestingly, studies have also shown that the toxicity of the venom in a particular snake can vary a small amount from season to season and even day to day. (reptilegardens.com)
- Venom yields and toxicity levels for Costa Rican snakes are reported. (ajtmh.org)
- The data show that in toxicity or neutralization experiments in which mice are used it is desirable to prolong the observation period up to 48 hours when employing crotalid venoms and up to 72 hours when using elapide venoms. (ajtmh.org)
- Several snake lineages subsequently lost the ability to produce venom, often due to a change in diet. (wikipedia.org)
- The Brazilian lancehead is one of several South American pit vipers that produce venom that has proven to be a powerful blood coagulant. (theengineer.co.uk)
- Why do snakes produce venom? (bangor.ac.uk)
Different snake venoms1
- These pictures of gels, stained after electrophoresis, show the 'molecular fingerprints' of many different snake venoms. (unco.edu)
- Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. (wikipedia.org)
- The sera of Virginia opossum avoid toxic reactions to snake venom by containing compounds that block the key enzymes in the venom. (asknature.org)
- They help in the treatment of poisonings caused from foreign compounds such as venoms (snake and scorpion), drugs (digoxin) and bacteria (anthrax). (exampleessays.com)
- Mast cells release a wide range of biological compounds that promote inflammation and other changes to tissue when triggered by parasites, bacteria or foreign substances such as venom. (freedomsphoenix.com)
- The researchers started the discussion of their results by saying, 'We find the hypothesis that snake venom evolves through the duplication of physiological or body genes and subsequent recruitment into the venom gland to be unsupported by the available data,' and, 'Indeed for a large number of the gene families claimed to have undergone recruitment we find evidence of a diverse tissue expression pattern, including the salivary gland of nonvenomous reptiles. (icr.org)
- Hubbers and researchers who have followed some of my articles for the last 3 years will know that I specialize - or used to - in writing about snakes and arachnids - spiders and scorpions, etc., creatures that give many of us goose-bumps and the shudders. (hubpages.com)
- Rice University researchers Jeffrey Hartgerink, left, and Vivek Kumar led research that combines a derivative of snake venom with their nanofibre hydrogel to help encourage blood clotting. (theengineer.co.uk)
- The approach used in the study may also help researchers predict the potency of venoms in species that have yet to be tested, and even pinpoint potentially useful healthcare-related applications. (tcd.ie)
- Researchers have designed a safer antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom, according to new research in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, an American Heart Association journal. (medicalxpress.com)
- Rice University researchers Jeffrey Hartgerink, left, and Vivek Kumar led research that combines a derivative of snake venom with their nanofiber hydrogel to help encourage blood clotting in wounds, even for patients who take anti-coagulant medications. (phys.org)
- Using venom milked from the snake, researchers filtered out all but one protein to create a drug called Anfibatide, which in human testing prevented blood clots from forming but didn't prolong bleeding as is the case with some clot-busting drugs. (kingsnake.com)
- In particular, snake keepers, reptile researchers and ecologists who work with them in the field. (bangor.ac.uk)
- The researchers were able to identify at least four distinct types of cells within the venom gland organoids. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- Monash researchers have discovered what could well be this elusive drug candidate- a molecule in snake venom that appears to activate the enzymes involved in breaking down the amyloid plaques in the brain that are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (healthcanal.com)
- Venom from the world's deadliest snake - the black mamba, which can kill a person within half an hour, could actually be a painkiller at par with morphine, researchers say. (jagran.com)
- Because of Adam and Eve's rebellion, creation became subject to all of these negative factors, including snakes with toxic venom. (icr.org)
- But mixed in with that toxic venom is a new natural class of compound that could be used to help develop new painkillers. (scientificamerican.com)
- That theory says highly toxic venom proteins were evolutionarily "born" from non-toxic genes, which have other ordinary jobs around the body, such as regulation of cellular functions or digestion of food. (phys.org)
- But little explanation has been given for why evolution picked just 24 genes to make into highly toxic venom-encoding genes, from the 25,000 or so possible. (phys.org)
- This diversification included the independent evolution of front-fanged venom delivery from the ancestral rear-fanged venom delivery system. (wikipedia.org)
- I hope studies like this start to encourage further research into the function and natural ecology of snake venom, particularly rear-fanged venomous snakes which we still know so little about. (eurekalert.org)
- This snake is a rear-fanged snake, meaning it has enlarged teeth in the back of its mouth. (unco.edu)
- Painless venom: Indian kraits (Bungarus caeruleus) are notorious for biting sleeping people at night. (eurekalert.org)
- Some are tiny insect eating snakes, while others are the approximate size of Kraits and can grow to 2 or 3 feet in length. (hubpages.com)
- An Indian kraits snake (Bungarus caeruleus). (swansea.ac.uk)
World's deadliest snakes1
- Viperidae and Crotalidae venoms, which are hemotoxic, are responsible for most of the envenomations around the world. (mdpi.com)
- There venom is hemotoxic. (exampleessays.com)
- others have an effect on the tissue and blood with a hemotoxic venom. (reptilegardens.com)
- Snake venom is hemotoxic-destructive to the ability of blood to clot-and can cause the destruction of fibrinogen, an essential protein that enables blood to clot and stop excessive bleeding. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Amino acid oxidase also triggers some other enzymes and is responsible for the yellow colour of the venom of some species. (wikipedia.org)
- Snake venom is made up of about 20 different enzymes. (exampleessays.com)
- Snake Venom is modified saliva, a combination of many different proteins and enzymes. (reptilegardens.com)
- Snake venoms contain enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids and nucleotides, but their function is poorly understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Snake-venom enzymes also can cause abnormally fast clotting, which can lead to heart attack, stroke and damage to the body's organs. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- What he found, when screening various snake venoms, was in fact one molecule with the ability to enhance the activity of two plaque degrading enzymes. (healthcanal.com)
Bitten by venomous snakes2
- However, there are exceptions - the venom of the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis), an elapid, consists mainly of cytotoxins, while that of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus), a viperid, is primarily neurotoxic. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the research's authors, Anne Baron of France's Centre national de la recherche scientifique , told Agence France Press "(It) is surprising that mambalgins, which represent less than 0.5 percent of the total venom protein content, has analgesic (pain-relief) properties without neurotoxicity in mice, whereas the total venom of black mamba is lethal and among the most neurotoxic ones. (theregister.co.uk)
- To assess the effects of antivenom on neuromuscular paralysis in people with neurotoxic snake envenoming. (cochrane.org)
- After grasping the snake's head and exposing its fangs, venom is extracted by placing calibrated glass capillary tubes over the fangs. (unco.edu)
- It can fool even experienced snake handlers by still being able to sink its long fangs into an uninformed hand with its mouth still closed! (hubpages.com)
- A swab from the fangs of the dead snake may be used if available. (edu.au)
- Snake venom is a highly developed form of saliva, injected by the snake into its victim through hollow, modified fangs. (reptilepark.com.au)
- Which Snake Has The Longest Fangs And The Highest Venom Yield In The World? (worldatlas.com)
- The fangs of the snake are up to 2 inches long. (worldatlas.com)
- Vipers are snakes in the family Viperidae, a group of short-tailed, (usually) stout-bodied snakes with long fangs at the front of the mouth, sited on a short jawbone that can be rotated to bring the fangs from their resting position parallel with the palate to an erect position for striking. (jrank.org)
- Vipers make a swift strike in which the long hollow (hypodermic needle-like) fangs inject a strong venom deep into the prey's body. (jrank.org)
- Just the sheer fangs on the snake look scary, but after a few drops of venom are extracted, the show host then mixes just a single drop in a glass of human blood. (thefw.com)
- This tripeptide is encoded by tandemly repeating elements and, in E. ocellatus, on the same transcript as a novel, and highly unusual, poly-histidine-poly-glycine peptide (pHpG) also detected in E. ocellatus venom. (nih.gov)
- Aluris Snake Venom Peptide: Does It really Work? (thebeautyinsiders.com)
- Aluris Snake Venom Peptide Cream is marketed as a solution to having brighter and younger looking skin. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
- Aluris Snake Venom Peptide Cream is an all-natural formulation designed to fight skin aging signs. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
- It would be best to test the product on a small area of your skin like the arms or thighs to check sensitivity to Aluris Snake Venom Peptide Cream. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
- The biggest question regarding Aluris Snake Venom Peptide Cream is if it is a scam. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
- In this Medical Research Council funded study, the team produced images of a snake venom peptide BPPb binding to ACE. (healthcanal.com)
- Venom in snakes and some lizards is a form of saliva that has been modified into venom over its evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
- The evolutionary history of snake venom is a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
- The idea that venom had a single evolutionary origin has been called into question by a 2015 study, which found that venom proteins had homologs in many other tissues in the Burmese python. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other side of the scientific paradigm lies the evolutionary mindset which has traditionally believed that snake-venom proteins arose through the duplication of non-venomous genes that were then somehow reworked through random mutational processes to provide new functions combined with the expression of the new gene in just the right tissue. (icr.org)
- By using ecological and evolutionary data for available species we may be able to use our approach as a tool to identify other species which may have properties in their venoms that are useful for biomedical purposes, such as drug development. (tcd.ie)
- The non-venomous python diverged from the snake evolutionary tree prior to this massive expansion and re-working of venom gene families. (phys.org)
- We also investigated the presence of venoms that caused early-onset pain throughout an evolutionary tree of snake species. (bangor.ac.uk)
- The cross reactions suggest that some venom antigens that elicit precipitating and neutralizing antibodies may be distinct. (ajtmh.org)
- The antiquated technique - involving injecting a horse with venom, then harvesting the horse's blood after antibodies have been produced - is costly and imprecise. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
- According to a previous report, there was no evidence to support that opossums produce antibodies against venom molecules when immunized. (asknature.org)
- The horses are given increasing doses of venom over a period of time until they have built up sufficient antibodies to the venom. (reptilepark.com.au)
- After this has occurred, antibodies are extracted from the blood, purified and reduced to a usable form - this becomes anti-venom. (reptilepark.com.au)
- Injected into the human bloodstream, the antibodies attack the venom, neutralising its effects. (reptilepark.com.au)
- The existing antidote is made by injecting horses with venom, waiting weeks for the animals to develop antibodies, then extracting their blood and shipping it from Mexico or Australia to places that can afford it. (scienceblog.com)
- The inhibitory effect induced by homogenates from venom-injected mice was abrogated by preincubation of the homogenate with antivenom antibodies but not with control antibodies. (wiley.com)
- Every week for the past 23 years he has been injecting a venom cocktail from the world's most dangerous snakes, trying to train his antibodies to resist the poison. (odditycentral.com)
Species of snakes3
- Focused judgement and great dexterity are needed to obtain snake venom from the dangerous species of snakes found in Australia. (reptilepark.com.au)
- One of the important functions of the Australian Reptile Park, along with education and tourism, is the collection of venom from deadly species of snakes and spiders . (reptilepark.com.au)
- Nielsen has found that the therapy works against the venom of more than three dozen species of snakes throughout the world. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- The world's stock of coral snake antivenom, set to expire this weekend , gets a last-minute one-year extension from the FDA. (popularmechanics.com)
- Nobody seems to know exactly how much coral snake antivenom is left, since many local hospitals in potentially affected regions are not always forthcoming about how much they have. (popularmechanics.com)
- Unlike Vicodin and other opioids, the unusual venom found in long-glanded blue coral snakes acts on sodium channels, which regulate signals in neurons as well as muscles. (thestar.com)
- The long-glanded blue coral snake secretes a strange and exceptional venom. (thestar.com)
- Specifically, the blue coral snake venom targets sodium channels, proteins that pass electrochemical signals from nerve cell to nerve cell or muscle cell to muscle cell. (thestar.com)
- As the scientists described it in their paper, the compound is a product of a chemical arms race between the blue coral snake and its venomous food. (thestar.com)
- But the long-glanded blue coral snake is more than a speed freak with a head like a jewel. (thestar.com)
- Blue coral snakes are not the first venomous serpents to hold such promise. (thestar.com)
- Cross neutralization and precipitin tests were performed with coral snake venoms and rabbit antisera against five venoms to determine the most suitable venoms for producing a polyvalent antivenin useful in treating persons bitten by coral snakes. (ajtmh.org)
- Of the venoms tested, M. frontalis venom would be most suitable for use in the production of a polyvalent coral snake antivenin. (ajtmh.org)
- It took the legendary snake wrangler Bill Haast three years and 69,000 milkings to produce one pint of coral snake venom, for example. (nytimes.com)
- The reason for the lethality of venom from the rare, reclusive Costa Rican coral snake has been a mystery. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Some types include the Indian Cobra, coral Snake, and rattlesnake. (exampleessays.com)
- Coral snakes use their bright colored skin as a means of warding off predators, and rattlesnakes shake their tails to warn that they are near. (exampleessays.com)
- The investigators started with the Cape coral snake because they knew a breeder who was able to supply some fertilized eggs. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- The authors therefore suggested that previous research, which had found venom proteins to be conserved across the supposed Toxicoferan lineage, might have misinterpreted the presence of more generic "housekeeping" genes across this lineage, as a result of only sampling certain tissues within the reptiles' bodies. (wikipedia.org)
- Illegal hunting of and trade in snakes and other reptiles is an enormous problem in South Asia, he said, with the animals typically desired for their meat and skin, which is used for food and traditional medicine. (nytimes.com)
- Our results also suggest that instead of a single ancient origin, venom and venom-delivery systems most likely evolved independently in several distinct lineages of reptiles. (phys.org)
- Steve currently has a collection of 28 potentially deadly reptiles in his home, but he is always on the lookout for new additions, scouring European countries for missing specimens and attending snake conventions. (odditycentral.com)
Components of venom1
- They found that rather than staying stuck in the venom gland, some proteins evolve back into harmless molecules to do different roles in the body. (earthsky.org)
- This is a field that does not exist, so they thought it was interesting to study the most iconic reptilian organ, the snake venom gland,' he says. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- In fact, he says, the venom gland organoids grew so fast that in just one week, they were able to break them apart and re-plate them, generating hundreds of plates within two months. (faunaclassifieds.com)
- In preliminary research, an antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom protein prevented blood clotting without leading to excessive bleeding, a dangerous side effect of currently available antiplatelet drugs. (heart.org)
- The venom protein may be the template for a new class of antiplatelet drugs that offers fewer bleeding complications. (heart.org)
- The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. (nih.gov)
- In the present work, venoms from five species of the genus Agkistrodon were evaluated in terms of their enzymatic (Phospholipase A 2 and caseinolytic) and biological (edema forming, hemorrhagic, procoagulant and lethal) effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The snakes are fed a diet of rats and mice that are raised at the leafy institute and killed before being served up once a month. (yahoo.com)
- You won't find many mice in the sea so we wouldn't expect a sea snake to evolve venom that is more effective at killing mice than fish. (tcd.ie)
- The goal is not to save mice from venom and bee stings," Shea said, "but to demonstrate a paradigm shift in thinking about solutions to these types of problems. (scienceblog.com)
- In this report, we describe an effective method for delivery of a novel snake venom disintegrin, contortrostatin (CN), in an orthotopic, xenograft model of human mammary cancer in immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- We are investigating the therapeutic potential and delivery options for a novel snake venom disintegrin, contortrostatin (CN), in an orthotopic, xenograft model of human breast cancer in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- The evolution of venom is thought to be responsible for the enormous expansion of snakes across the globe. (wikipedia.org)
- for instance, calcium channel blockers have been found in snakes, spiders, and cone snails, thus suggesting that venom exhibits convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
- The independent evolution of constriction in the fish-eating aquatic genus Acrochordus also saw the degradation of the venom system. (wikipedia.org)
- The team suggested that pythons represented a period in snake evolution before major venom development. (wikipedia.org)
- We wanted to investigate whether defence was a driver in venom evolution. (eurekalert.org)
- Moreover, where early pain evolves during snake evolution, it is likely to be lost again in descendant lineages. (eurekalert.org)
- Our results demonstrate that the evolution of venoms is a really complex process. (earthsky.org)
- The paper is titled "Expression of Venom Gene Homologs in Diverse Python Tissues Suggests a New Model for the Evolution of Snake Venom. (phys.org)
- The traditional view of venom evolution has been that a core venom system developed at one point in the evolution of snakes and lizards, referred to as the Toxicofera, and that the evolution of highly venomous snakes, known as caenophidian snakes, came afterward. (phys.org)
- On the other hand, scientists know surprisingly little about the role of natural selection for self-defence in the evolution of venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
- If the evolution of snake venom was driven by natural selection for defence, we would expect to see the same pattern - almost immediate pain that is severe enough to be a deterrent. (bangor.ac.uk)
- These results strongly suggest that self-defence doesn't drive the evolution of snake venom. (bangor.ac.uk)
- We found that venoms which cause early pain evolved on several occasions, but were usually quickly lost again during the course of snake evolution. (bangor.ac.uk)
Protein found in snake venom2
- In trying to solve the mystery of why one type of integrin antagonists works better than another, Hantgan and colleagues decided to enlist the help of a protein found in snake venom that binds to the integrin and blocks fibrinogen. (scienceblog.com)
- Those drugs were based on a protein found in snake venom - but why that target leads to the bleeding side effect is not fully understood," said Tur-Fu Huang from National Taiwan University. (financialexpress.com)
- To digress for a moment, we have all read these "Which is the worst" lists of snakes and spiders, etc. (hubpages.com)
- Venoms from plenty of other species of animals, including spiders , scorpions, ants and even snails, have also been studied for their analgesic potential. (scientificamerican.com)
- The Reptile Park is the sole supplier of the venoms required by BioCSL Limited in the production of antivenoms for terrestrial snakes (not sea snakes) and funnel-web spiders. (reptilepark.com.au)
- To keep up the supply of venoms, highly trained staff of the Australian Reptile Park regularly 'milk' more than 300 snakes and 500 spiders that are included in the program. (reptilepark.com.au)
- The Adventist team is also considering follow-up research with the venom of spiders and scorpions. (adventistreview.org)
- If snake venom were really so much more venomous than needed, then it would probably be more complicated to produce than needed (like, several hemo- and neurotoxins instead of just one of one or the other, or whatever), so natural selection would act against this state of affairs. (cmnh.org)
- Snake venom, however, is a deadly mix of particularly powerful proteins, grouped into neurotoxins and hemotoxins, which set off destructive chain reactions when injected into the human body. (exampleessays.com)
- Role in treating venoms (neurotoxins) Neurotoxins Neurotoxins are a class of venoms components that affect the neuromuscular junction and c. (exampleessays.com)