Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Phosphodiesterase I: A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Phospholipases A2, Secretory: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Erabutoxins: Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Receptors, Phospholipase A2: Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.LizardsModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Thymidine Monophosphate: 5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.

Isolation and characterization of nerve growth factor from the venom of Naja naja atra. (1/438)

Nerve growth factor was isolated from the venom of Naja naja atra by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and was found to be homogeneous by disc gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 20,000 by gel filtration and 22,000 by ultracentrifugation. This protein, which showed an isoelectric point of pH 7.02, probably consists of two subunits of equal molecular weight which are held together or interact with each other noncovalently. The biological activity survives treatment by a number of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4], chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], and pepsin [EC 3.4.23.1].  (+info)

Isolation and amino acid sequence of a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of the Australian tiger snake Notechis scutatus scutatus. (2/438)

The complete amino acid sequence of notechis 5, a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. The main fragmentation of the 119-residue peptide chain was accomplished by digesting the reduced and S-carboxymethylated derivative of the protein with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. Tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence of the four staphylococcal protease peptides. The sequence was determined by Edman degradation by means of the direct phenylthiohydantoin method. Notechis 5 differs in seven positions from the recently elucidated sequence of the presynaptic neurotoxin notexin from the same venom. Notechis 5 has a 50% higher specific prospholipase A activity than notexin when assayed against egg yolk but is only one-third as toxic.  (+info)

NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (3/438)

A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs.  (+info)

Probing the role of C-1 ester group in Naja naja phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions using butanetriol-containing phosphatidylcholine analogues. (4/438)

To understand the role of the ester moiety of the sn-1 acyl chain in phospholipase A2-glycerophospholipid interactions, we introduced an additional methylene residue between the glycerol C1 and C2 carbon atoms of phosphatidylcholines, and then studied the kinetics of hydrolysis and the binding of such butanetriol-containing phospholipids with Naja naja phospholipase A2. Hydrolysis was monitored by using phospholipids containing a NBD-labelled sn-2 acyl chain and binding was ascertained by measuring the protein tryptophan fluorescence. The hydrolysis of butanetriol-containing phospholipids was invariably slower than that of the glycerol-containing phospholipids. In addition, the enzyme binding with the substrate was markedly decreased upon replacing the glycerol residue with the 1,3,4-butanetriol moiety in phosphatidylcholines. These results have been interpreted to suggest that the sn-1 ester group in glycerophospholipids could play an important role in phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions.  (+info)

The effects of specific antibody fragments on the 'irreversible' neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom. (5/438)

Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom has been reported to produce 'irreversible' post synaptic neurotoxicity (Harris & Maltin, 1981; Barnett et al., 1980). A murine phrenic nerve/diaphragm preparation was used to study the neurotoxic effects of this venom and pre- and post-synaptic components were distinguished by varying the temperature and frequency of nerve stimulation. There were no myotoxic effects and the neurotoxicity proved irreversible by washing alone. The effects of a new Fab based ovine antivenom have been investigated and proved able to produce a complete, rapid (< 1 h) reversal of the neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake venom. A reversal was also possible when the antivenom addition was delayed for a further 60 min. We believe that this is the first time such a reversal has been shown.  (+info)

SVPD-post-labeling detection of oxidative damage negates the problem of adventitious oxidative effects during 32P-labeling. (6/438)

The exploitation of oxidative DNA lesions as biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo requires techniques that allow for the precise and valid measurement of oxidative damage to DNA. Previously, endogenous levels of the oxidative lesion 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-HO-dG) in rat tissues determined by a micrococcal nuclease/calf spleen phosphodiesterase-based 32P-post-labeling protocol were found to be at least 10-fold higher than those determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. This was attributed to the adventitious oxidation of the normal nucleotides (dGp) occurring during the labeling stage of the postlabeling protocol, which could only be prevented by the introduction of additional chromatographic steps to remove the unmodified species prior to labeling. In the present study we report that an alternative snake venom phosphodiesterase-based 32P-post-labeling procedure (SVPD-postlabeling) negates the problem of adventitious oxidative damage during labeling by virtue of a unique digestion strategy. In SVPD-post-labeling, digestion yields certain lesions (thymine glycols, phosphoglycolates and abasic sites) as damage-containing dimer species which are ready substrates for labeling. In contrast, the undamaged DNA is recovered as mononucleoside species (dN) which are not substrates for labeling and so remain undetected. Furthermore, even if the mononucleosides are oxidized during labeling, they will not contribute to the level of damage detected. Indeed, we demonstrate that neither the external gamma-irradiation of the digested DNA samples nor increasing the incubation time of the labeling reaction alters the levels of damage detected by SVPD-post-labeling. The negation of adventitious oxidative effects during labeling deems that an optimized SVPD-post-labeling procedure should be well-suited for the biomonitoring of endogenous oxidative stress in vivo.  (+info)

Long-term regeneration of fast and slow murine skeletal muscles after induced injury by ACL myotoxin isolated from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broad-banded copperhead) venom. (7/438)

The aim of the present work was to analyze the regenerated muscle types I and II fibers of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of mice, 8 months after damage induced by ACL myotoxin (ACLMT). Animals received 5 mg/kg of ACLMT into the subcutaneous lateral region of the right hind limb, near the Achilles tendon; contralateral muscles received saline. Longitudinal and cross sections (10 microm) of frozen muscle tissue were evaluated. Eight months after ACLMT injection, both muscle types I and II fibers of soleus and gastrocnemius muscles still showed centralized nuclei and small regenerated fibers. Compared with the left muscle, the incidence of type I fibers increased in the right muscle (21% +/- 03% versus 12% +/- 06%, P = 0.009), whereas type II fibers decreased (78% +/- 02% versus 88% +/- 06%, P = 0.01). The incidence of type IIC fibers was normal. These results confirm that ACLMT induced muscle type fiber transformation from type II to type I, through type IIC. The area analysis of types I and II fibers of the gastrocnemius revealed that injured right muscles have a higher percentage of small fibers in both types I and II fibers (0-1,500 microm2) than left muscles, which have larger normal type I and II fibers (1,500-3,500 microm2). These results indicate that ACLMT can be used as an excellent model to study the rearrangement of motor units and the transformation of muscle fiber types during regeneration.  (+info)

Reaction of an activated complex of guinea-pig complement components, C56, with unsensitized erythrocytes and with erythrocytes carrying C3b molecule. (8/438)

During the interaction of guinea-pig complement intermediate cells, EAC423, with guinea-pig C5 and C6, an activated complex of C5 and C6, C56, was demonstrated in the fluid phase of the reaction mixture. C56 also was eluted from EAC42356 which had been generated by the interaction of EAC423 with C5 and C6. Both preparations of C56 showed quite similar characteristics and were not distinguished from one another. Both were capable of reacting with unsensitized erythrocytes (E) in the presence of C7 to form EC567. Further, they were able to react with EAC43 in the absence of C7 to form EAC43568 but did react with EAC43 pretreated with C3b inactivator, dithiothreitol or N-bromosuccinimide. These results indicate that guinea-pig C56 generated on EAC423 has a tendency to dissociate into the fluid phase. Nevertheless, the dissociated C56 can bind again to intact C3b molecule on the cells. The ability of cell-bound C3b to combine with C56 may lead to localization of C56 to the cell membrane carrying C3b, resulting in acceleration of attachment of C567 to the membrane. This assumption could be supported by the finding that the replacement of E by EAC43 increased the susceptibility of the cells to lytic action of complement induced by cobra venom factor. Thus, a new function of cell-bound C3b as localizing C56 to the membrane of sensitized cells was indicated.  (+info)

  • My laboratory, in collaboration with my colleague Dr. Jon Bjarnason, was one of the first to identify and characterize the metalloproteinases present in numerous snake venoms. (virginia.edu)
  • ElishaCoy Syn-ake Velvet Skin lotion not only cultivates smoother but also improve the skin's elasticity with peptides similar to those found in snake venom and epithelial cell growth enhancing EGF. (toktokbox.com)
  • The study, therefore, suggests that a protein found in the venom of the Tropidolaemus Waglerix snake, known as trowaglerix , can be effectively used to save the blood from clotting and that too without any side effects. (globalvillagespace.com)
  • Red sand boas is called do-muha snake in Hindi because of the resemblance of the tail to its head, found in dry, semi-desert scrub plains and rocky dry foothills. (wordpress.com)
  • Black-headed Royal Snake found in deserts and semi deserts of Northern-western India from Kutch to non-Himalayan parts of Jammu. (wordpress.com)
  • This active snake is restless and quick, both on the ground as well as in the trees, commonly found in southern India and the Himalayan foothills. (wordpress.com)
  • In preliminary research, an antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom protein prevented blood clotting without leading to excessive bleeding, a dangerous side effect of currently available antiplatelet drugs. (heart.org)
  • The venom protein may be the template for a new class of antiplatelet drugs that offers fewer bleeding complications. (heart.org)
  • Some of the various adaptations produced by this process include venom more toxic to specific prey in several lineages, proteins that pre-digest prey, and a method to track down prey after a bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May I wrote about a critical coming shortage in coral snake antivenom , known as Micrurus fulvis, the only FDA-approved cure or coral snake bite available in the U.S. By some bizarre and slightly macabre coincidence, the expiration date for the existing vials of coral snake antivenom is October 31st, Halloween. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Since the manufacturer of the antivenom, Wyeth (now owned by Pfizer) stopped making the drug back in 2003, the expiration of the existing stock would mean that there will be no drugs at all that can stop the effects of a coral snake bite in the U.S. For those who didn't read my original article , it's worth a reminder of exactly how coral snake bite works. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Corals are among the deadliest snakes native to the U.S. They are different from pit vipers (rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, etc.), which strike fast and inject hemotoxin into a bite, causing immense pain and swelling at the site. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Thumb almost completely eaten away by necrosis after snake bite. (hubpages.com)
  • A Kentucky preacher and reality TV star, whose sermons involved handling of deadly snakes, has died from a snake bite. (rt.com)
  • The Sawyer Extractor Bite and Sting Kit was also banned from sale in Australia following a complaint about the product, which was touted as the'most powerful suction available' for the safe extraction of venom and poisons including from snake bites and bee and wasp stings. (smh.com.au)
  • Clark emphasized that while San Diego County is seeing a rise in snake bite cases each year, the more alarming factor recently is the toxicity of the bite. (ucsd.edu)
  • An Australian snake venom expert will lead a new global effort to improve snake bite treatment and education. (abc.net.au)
  • These enzymes wreak havoc inside the bodies of venomous snake-bite victims by causing widespread breakdown of important proteins (proteolyisis) in the tissue surroundings blood vessels and within cells themselves. (asknature.org)
  • The venom of each species is unique, consisting of a combination of complex proteins, which act on the prey or bite victim in various ways. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • The dose of anti-venom given to a patient varies according to the species responsible for the bite and, when it can be ascertained, the amount of venom injected. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • A bite from the black mamba snake ( Dendroaspis polylepis ) can kill an adult human within 20 minutes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The venom is used by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories - better known as BioCSL Limited, to manufacture the only Australian antivenoms that save human snake bite and spider bite victims. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • This plasma contains the antibodies which, when injected into a snake bite victim, will neutralize snake venom. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • Do not attempt the following, they can cause harm and waste your valuable time getting snake bite treatment from a qualified medical professional. (reptilegardens.com)
  • These are all instances of improper snake bite treatment, will cause severe pain, permanent tissue damage, and possible amputation. (reptilegardens.com)
  • The body temperature, even mood, of a particular snake in addition to the toxicity and quantity of venom delivered by that snake can all make a very big difference in the outcome of the bite. (reptilegardens.com)
  • Snakes have complete control over how much venom they inject anytime they bite. (reptilegardens.com)
  • So one could get a "dry" bite, with no venom in it whatsoever. (reptilegardens.com)
  • Add in the potential for a severe infection, and it is safe to say there are many variables that will affect the outcome of a snake bite. (reptilegardens.com)
  • If pain occurs long after the bite, it may simply be a side effect of other venom properties, such as tissue damage. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The ideal organism on which to test this idea is a species that is regularly exposed to venomous snakebites from a wide variety of snakes and can communicate precisely the effects of a bite. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • By far the most common experience involved relatively low pain levels after a bite within the first five minutes, when the pain might deter a predator in time for the snake to escape injury or death. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Vance G. Nielsen, professor and vice chair for research in the Department of Anesthesiology at the UA College of Medicine - Tucson, has confirmed that, if given soon enough after a snake bite, the carbon monoxide-iron-based therapy directly can inhibit snake venom's ability to block blood clotting in laboratory animals for as long as an hour. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • As I mentioned in my original article, Wyeth stopped making the antivenom because, with fewer than 100 bites per year, treating coral snake bites just wasn't a good business, but before the company shut down its factory, they made a five year supply. (popularmechanics.com)
  • His survey, which gained nearly 400 responses world-wide, asked people working with snakes about the time-course of pain after bites they had sustained. (eurekalert.org)
  • Image 2: Caption: Many snakes, like this Indian cobra (Naja naja) will use their venoms in self-defence, causing millions of bites every year. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Stiletto Snake has another alarming characteristic and one that has caused the quite high incidence of bites on humans. (hubpages.com)
  • The dangerous practice, which is based on Bible passages referring to apostles' immunity to snake bites, is illegal in most places. (rt.com)
  • Snake bites are a major health concern, especially in tropical countries. (novapublishers.com)
  • There have been reports of people in India enduring actual snake bites to get high . (nytimes.com)
  • Snake bites kill more than 120,000 people a year, more than a third of them in India. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • Snake bites cause 400,000 amputations a year, almost seven times as many as the number of amputations performed in the U.S. Civil War. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • For the second year in a row, UC San Diego Medical Center toxicologists are reporting unusually powerful snake bites and unusually extreme patient reactions to those bites. (ucsd.edu)
  • With some rattlesnake bites, no venom is injected into the wound, but because it is impossible to know if venom has or has not been injected, getting medical treatment quickly is important. (ucsd.edu)
  • Venom may be injected with each of a possible series of consecutive bites. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • Remain calm - death from most snake bites is not instantaneous. (reptilegardens.com)
  • The survey asked 368 people who had collectively received 584 bites from 192 different snake species. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • VENOM LOCC™ is the only commercially available snakebite kit that follows current medical guidelines for field-based first aid treatment of snake bites. (tongs.com)
  • Around 100,000 people around the world die from snake bites every year, and another 250,000 are permanently disabled, but these statistics don't seem to scare Steve Ludwin. (odditycentral.com)
  • More than 100,000 people die from snake bites every year, mostly in developing countries. (faunaclassifieds.com)
  • Our results suggest little evidence for widespread evolution of venoms driven by their use in defence, though interesting exceptions likely exist such as the defensive use of venom 'spitting' in some cobras, and these specific cases deserve further study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thanks to this venom, the fire-headed animal is able to prey upon young king cobras, kraits and other agile, dangerous snakes without killing itself on the hunt. (thestar.com)
  • Cobras are quick to strike and deadly, too, so blue coral snakes must be quicker. (thestar.com)
  • Where the venom of mambas and cobras relax their prey into paralysis, the fast-acting calliotoxin jams open sodium channels, causing muscles to hyper-contract into what scientists call "spastic" paralysis. (thestar.com)
  • Which is why many people have survived attacks from even the most feared of snakes, like Taipans, Mambas, Cobras and the rest. (hubpages.com)
  • Elapidae (cobras and kraits) venoms are mainly neurotoxic and may cause neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations. (scielo.br)
  • However, some species, such as cobras, boomslangs and rattlesnakes have far more venom than they apparently need-in a single reserve of venom, they have the potential to kill thousands of their prey animals and several adult humans. (tcd.ie)
  • The study, which has just been published in international journal Ecology Letters , tackled this puzzle by comparing records of venom potency and quantity for over 100 venomous snake species, ranging from rattlesnakes, cobras and the tree dwelling boomslangs of Africa to sea snakes and burrowing asps. (tcd.ie)
  • Whether in movies, literature, or folklore, poisonous serpents have received bad press, which is unfortunate, because snakes like copperheads and cobras are at this moment at the forefront of some of the most exciting medical breakthroughs. (exampleessays.com)
  • The difference is, in highly venomous snakes, such as rattlesnakes or cobras, the venom gene families have expanded to make many copies of those shared genes, and some of these copies have evolved into genes that produce highly toxic venom proteins. (phys.org)
  • The research team looked at 24 gene families that are shared by pythons, cobras, rattlesnakes and Gila monsters, and associated with venom. (phys.org)
  • Spitting cobras have unique behavioural adaptations for defensive venom use, and their venoms cause intense pain upon contact with eyes . (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Venoms of cobras ( Naja spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Boyer's VIPER Institute is playing a unique role in the venom crisis. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Now, the VIPER Institute has secured an FDA grant for $1.6 million to work with Mexican drug manufacturer Instituto Bioclon to import that company's coral snake antivenom on a research basis. (popularmechanics.com)
  • An anticoagulant purified from the venom of the Malayan pit viper that functions by inactivating circulating plasma fibrinogen. (drugbank.ca)
  • Here we demonstrate that the sub-10-kDa components of venom from two African viper species (Echis ocellatus and Cerastes cerastes cerastes) are predominantly composed of the tri-peptide pyroglutamate-lysine-tryptophan (pEKW). (nih.gov)
  • The drug is derived from the venom of the Malaysian pit viper, an aggressive snake that inhabits forest edges across much of Southeast Asia and grows to about three feet in length. (sunjournal.com)
  • The Stiletto, variously known as the Mole Viper, Burrowing Asp, Stabbing Snake, Side Biter, etc., is the one we are looking at today as it is the member of the species which has caused the worst problems to man. (hubpages.com)
  • Snake venom from two species of South American pit viper has inspired a new coagulating treatment developed by a team from Rice University in Texas. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • As the DNA of more species of venomous snakes is mapped - especially of the three other snakes which, along with the cobra, are regarded as the "Big Four" deadly snakes: Russell's viper, the saw-scaled viper, and the common krait - the technique may be used to create a catalogue of antidotes. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • The compound trowaglerix developed from the Wagler's pit viper venom acts on glycoprotein VI to slow but not stop clotting ability in mice, suggesting a potential new class of antiplatelet drugs , CNN reports. (medpagetoday.com)
  • One such drug called Captopril, which treats high blood pressure, was developed from a compound in lancehead viper venom which catastrophically lowers blood pressure in its prey. (earthsky.org)
  • The sera from the North American Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ) were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. (asknature.org)
  • Neutralization of lethality and proteolytic activities of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom with North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum. (asknature.org)
  • In viper venoms, homotoxins dominate. (exampleessays.com)
  • The hydrogel called SB50 incorporates batroxobin, a venom produced by two species of South American pit viper. (phys.org)
  • The Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica) is the snake with the longest fangs in the world. (worldatlas.com)
  • The Gaboon viper also has the highest venom yield of any snake. (worldatlas.com)
  • After striking the prey and injecting it with venom, the Gaboon viper hangs on to the prey with its large fangs until it dies. (worldatlas.com)
  • This behavior of the Gaboon viper is unique as most other venomous snakes release their prey and wait for it to die before swallowing the prey. (worldatlas.com)
  • Venom from the Southeast Asia pit viper ( Deinagkistrodon acutus ) may help stop human heart attacks and strokes. (kingsnake.com)
  • An experimental drug derived from the venom of the feared Malayan pit viper shows promise for the treatment of stroke, an analysis of six studies involving over 4,000 stroke victims suggests. (mylot.com)
  • In the clip, a snake handler in India extracts venom from a Russell's viper. (thefw.com)
  • He had milked three of his most dangerous snakes - a Northern Pacific Rattlesnake, a Pope's Tree Viper and an Eyelash Viper - and tried to inject a small amount of the venom cocktail into his left arm. (odditycentral.com)
  • This molecule was extracted from a venom of a pit viper found in South and Central America. (healthcanal.com)
  • Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defends against threats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some snake venoms carry fasciculins, like the mambas (Dendroaspis), which inhibit cholinesterase to make the prey lose muscle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In snakes, venom has evolved to kill or subdue prey, as well as to perform other diet-related functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venoms of the different lineages then diversified and evolved independently, along with their means of injecting venom into prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American "rat snakes," such as Pantherophis guttatus, lost their venom following the evolution of constriction as a means of prey capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers also say that mice, a creature among the Black Mamba's favorite prey, are immune to its venom and experience an analgesic effect when bitten. (theregister.co.uk)
  • The snakes are at extreme risk from their very dangerous prey," Fry told The Washington Post via email, "so they need to immobilize them before they get killed in retaliation. (thestar.com)
  • That is, like the feared Brown Recluse Spider it's venom attacks the area it is injected and proceeds to destroy tissue and even bone, achieving in spectacular fashion what the substance does in its prey, a small mammal or bird. (hubpages.com)
  • The venom gland of snakes appears to be a melting pot for evolving new functions for molecules, some of which are retained in venom for killing prey, while others go on to serve new functions in other tissues in the body. (earthsky.org)
  • But snakes' and reptiles' prey tends to evolve resistance to venom, which means that venoms have to continually evolve to remain effective. (earthsky.org)
  • Why venoms vary so much in their ability to kill or incapacitate potential prey animals has long puzzled scientists, with several competing hypotheses suggested as explanations. (tcd.ie)
  • These results make sense from an evolutionary viewpoint as we expect that evolution will have shaped venoms to be more efficient at killing the prey animals they are most often the target of the venom. (tcd.ie)
  • This difference may be due to how often a snake encounters its prey in these different environments, with terrestrial species requiring a larger reserve of venom to take advantage of the rarer opportunities to feed. (tcd.ie)
  • The two most common ways that snakes kill their prey is with venom or by constriction. (exampleessays.com)
  • Venom can either slow down or kill the prey. (exampleessays.com)
  • The cobra uses its teeth to inject poison into its prey and can even spit the venom up to 6 feet at the enemy's eye. (exampleessays.com)
  • Their inhibition may be instantly disengaged, by dilution or physiochemical change, when venom is injected into tissue of the prey. (uniprot.org)
  • The snake is capable of swallowing prey as large as a fully grown adult rabbit. (worldatlas.com)
  • The venom also has the effect of initiating digestion even before the prey is swallowed. (jrank.org)
  • The venom of these snakes are diverse, being adapted to quickly kill the preferred prey animals of each species . (jrank.org)
  • The first is foraging, where venom helps the snake to overpower its prey before eating it. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Many studies have shown that the need to capture and eat prey often drives the evolution of different snake venoms. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • For instance, many species have venoms that are especially lethal to their main prey species . (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that these vipers express abundant transcripts encoding tandemly repeated protease inhibitor cassettes and accumulate significant quantities of peptide inhibitors in venoms to provide a basis for attenuating the proteolytic activity of SVMPs. (nih.gov)
  • The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. (mdpi.com)
  • Valente, R.H. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, four recently developed MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) (Marimastat, AG-3340, CGS-270 23A and Bay-12 9566) are evaluated in addition to three metal ion chelators (EDTA, TPEN and BAPTA) for their ability to inhibit the haemorrhagic activities of the medically important E. ocellatus venom and one of its haemorrhagic SVMPs, EoVMP2. (umn.edu)
  • Component specific inhibitors or neutralizing agents should have the advantage that they can be produced and combined in a controlled fashion such that all venom components are covered and neutralized effectively. (amrita.edu)
  • These pictures of gels, stained after electrophoresis, show the 'molecular fingerprints' of many different snake venoms. (unco.edu)
  • The researchers started the discussion of their results by saying, 'We find the hypothesis that snake venom evolves through the duplication of physiological or body genes and subsequent recruitment into the venom gland to be unsupported by the available data,' and, 'Indeed for a large number of the gene families claimed to have undergone recruitment we find evidence of a diverse tissue expression pattern, including the salivary gland of nonvenomous reptiles. (icr.org)
  • Hubbers and researchers who have followed some of my articles for the last 3 years will know that I specialize - or used to - in writing about snakes and arachnids - spiders and scorpions, etc., creatures that give many of us goose-bumps and the shudders. (hubpages.com)
  • Rice University researchers Jeffrey Hartgerink, left, and Vivek Kumar led research that combines a derivative of snake venom with their nanofibre hydrogel to help encourage blood clotting. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The approach used in the study may also help researchers predict the potency of venoms in species that have yet to be tested, and even pinpoint potentially useful healthcare-related applications. (tcd.ie)
  • Researchers have designed a safer antiplatelet drug based on a snake venom, according to new research in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, an American Heart Association journal. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Rice University researchers Jeffrey Hartgerink, left, and Vivek Kumar led research that combines a derivative of snake venom with their nanofiber hydrogel to help encourage blood clotting in wounds, even for patients who take anti-coagulant medications. (phys.org)
  • Using venom milked from the snake, researchers filtered out all but one protein to create a drug called Anfibatide, which in human testing prevented blood clots from forming but didn't prolong bleeding as is the case with some clot-busting drugs. (kingsnake.com)
  • In particular, snake keepers, reptile researchers and ecologists who work with them in the field. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The researchers were able to identify at least four distinct types of cells within the venom gland organoids. (faunaclassifieds.com)
  • Monash researchers have discovered what could well be this elusive drug candidate- a molecule in snake venom that appears to activate the enzymes involved in breaking down the amyloid plaques in the brain that are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Venom from the world's deadliest snake - the black mamba, which can kill a person within half an hour, could actually be a painkiller at par with morphine, researchers say. (jagran.com)
  • Because of Adam and Eve's rebellion, creation became subject to all of these negative factors, including snakes with toxic venom. (icr.org)
  • But mixed in with that toxic venom is a new natural class of compound that could be used to help develop new painkillers. (scientificamerican.com)
  • That theory says highly toxic venom proteins were evolutionarily "born" from non-toxic genes, which have other ordinary jobs around the body, such as regulation of cellular functions or digestion of food. (phys.org)
  • But little explanation has been given for why evolution picked just 24 genes to make into highly toxic venom-encoding genes, from the 25,000 or so possible. (phys.org)
  • A peptide originally isolated from this snake's venom is being used to combat Type II diabetes. (unco.edu)
  • It is because the snake's venom has such a profound effect on small mammals, such as mice, that is it predisposed to affect all mammals, even large ones like us. (hubpages.com)
  • Steve Ludwin, a 42-year-old snake obsessed rocker from California, is one of a just a handful of people who regularly inject venom from the world's deadliest snakes into their bloodstream, in the belief that it will make them immune to it. (odditycentral.com)
  • However, there are exceptions - the venom of the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis), an elapid, consists mainly of cytotoxins, while that of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus), a viperid, is primarily neurotoxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the research's authors, Anne Baron of France's Centre national de la recherche scientifique , told Agence France Press "(It) is surprising that mambalgins, which represent less than 0.5 percent of the total venom protein content, has analgesic (pain-relief) properties without neurotoxicity in mice, whereas the total venom of black mamba is lethal and among the most neurotoxic ones. (theregister.co.uk)
  • To assess the effects of antivenom on neuromuscular paralysis in people with neurotoxic snake envenoming. (cochrane.org)
  • After grasping the snake's head and exposing its fangs, venom is extracted by placing calibrated glass capillary tubes over the fangs. (unco.edu)
  • It can fool even experienced snake handlers by still being able to sink its long fangs into an uninformed hand with its mouth still closed! (hubpages.com)
  • A swab from the fangs of the dead snake may be used if available. (edu.au)
  • Snake venom is a highly developed form of saliva, injected by the snake into its victim through hollow, modified fangs. (reptilepark.com.au)
  • Which Snake Has The Longest Fangs And The Highest Venom Yield In The World? (worldatlas.com)
  • The fangs of the snake are up to 2 inches long. (worldatlas.com)
  • Vipers are snakes in the family Viperidae, a group of short-tailed, (usually) stout-bodied snakes with long fangs at the front of the mouth, sited on a short jawbone that can be rotated to bring the fangs from their resting position parallel with the palate to an erect position for striking. (jrank.org)
  • Vipers make a swift strike in which the long hollow (hypodermic needle-like) fangs inject a strong venom deep into the prey's body. (jrank.org)
  • Just the sheer fangs on the snake look scary, but after a few drops of venom are extracted, the show host then mixes just a single drop in a glass of human blood. (thefw.com)
  • The authors therefore suggested that previous research, which had found venom proteins to be conserved across the supposed Toxicoferan lineage, might have misinterpreted the presence of more generic "housekeeping" genes across this lineage, as a result of only sampling certain tissues within the reptiles' bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illegal hunting of and trade in snakes and other reptiles is an enormous problem in South Asia, he said, with the animals typically desired for their meat and skin, which is used for food and traditional medicine. (nytimes.com)
  • Our results also suggest that instead of a single ancient origin, venom and venom-delivery systems most likely evolved independently in several distinct lineages of reptiles. (phys.org)
  • Steve currently has a collection of 28 potentially deadly reptiles in his home, but he is always on the lookout for new additions, scouring European countries for missing specimens and attending snake conventions. (odditycentral.com)
  • These animals are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. (asknature.org)
  • This machine is a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus that is used to analyze the venom and to separate the various components of venom from one another. (unco.edu)
  • The Stiletto Snake attacks are often spectacular, as is the Recluse Spider, because of the horrifying after-effects of the necrosis which can spread from a thumb, say, all the way up the arm, take years to resolve and involve major surgery and plastic surgery. (hubpages.com)
  • They found that rather than staying stuck in the venom gland, some proteins evolve back into harmless molecules to do different roles in the body. (earthsky.org)
  • This is a field that does not exist, so they thought it was interesting to study the most iconic reptilian organ, the snake venom gland,' he says. (faunaclassifieds.com)
  • In fact, he says, the venom gland organoids grew so fast that in just one week, they were able to break them apart and re-plate them, generating hundreds of plates within two months. (faunaclassifieds.com)
  • The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In the present work, venoms from five species of the genus Agkistrodon were evaluated in terms of their enzymatic (Phospholipase A 2 and caseinolytic) and biological (edema forming, hemorrhagic, procoagulant and lethal) effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The snakes are fed a diet of rats and mice that are raised at the leafy institute and killed before being served up once a month. (yahoo.com)
  • You won't find many mice in the sea so we wouldn't expect a sea snake to evolve venom that is more effective at killing mice than fish. (tcd.ie)
  • The goal is not to save mice from venom and bee stings," Shea said, "but to demonstrate a paradigm shift in thinking about solutions to these types of problems. (scienceblog.com)
  • In this report, we describe an effective method for delivery of a novel snake venom disintegrin, contortrostatin (CN), in an orthotopic, xenograft model of human mammary cancer in immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We are investigating the therapeutic potential and delivery options for a novel snake venom disintegrin, contortrostatin (CN), in an orthotopic, xenograft model of human breast cancer in nude mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In trying to solve the mystery of why one type of integrin antagonists works better than another, Hantgan and colleagues decided to enlist the help of a protein found in snake venom that binds to the integrin and blocks fibrinogen. (scienceblog.com)
  • Those drugs were based on a protein found in snake venom - but why that target leads to the bleeding side effect is not fully understood," said Tur-Fu Huang from National Taiwan University. (financialexpress.com)
  • Understanding how venom evolves may help us better identify the risks to humans from different snake groups, and also potentially from other venomous animals such as spiders, scorpions, centipedes and jellyfish. (tcd.ie)