Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.GizzardArteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Mice, Inbred C57BLMyosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.GlycogenDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Smooth Muscle Tumor: A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Myoblasts, Smooth Muscle: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Sjuve R, Boels PJ, Uvelius B, Arner A (2000). "Up-regulation of bradykinin response in rat and human bladder smooth muscle". J ... "Comparison of tissue kallikrein and kinin receptor expression in gastric ulcers and neoplasms". Int. Immunopharmacol. 1 (12): ... B1 protein is synthesized de novo following tissue injury and receptor binding leads to an increase in the cytosolic calcium ...
These tumors are composed of vascular (angio-), smooth muscle (-myo-), and fat (-lip-) tissue. Although benign, an ... Between 60 and 80% of TSC patients have benign tumors (once thought hamartomatous, but now considered true neoplasms) of the ... Recent genetic analysis has shown that the proliferative bronchiolar smooth muscle in TSC-related lymphangioleiomyomatosis is ... Interposed neural tissue is not present. These nodules have a tendency to calcify as the patient ages. A nodule that markedly ...
For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign ... It works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue, killing it. To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs, which radiation ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases[26]. The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass ...
Intravascular leiomyomatosis is a benign neoplasm that extends through the veins; angioleiomyoma is a benign neoplasm of the ... Smooth muscle-containing tissue needs to be stretched often, so elasticity is an important attribute of smooth muscle. Smooth ... BBC - baby born with smooth muscle condition has 8 organs transplanted Smooth muscle antibody Stomach smooth muscle identified ... make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them. The smooth muscle is the only type of muscle without the ability to be ...
Other thyroid malignancies include thyroid lymphoma, various types of thyroid sarcoma, smooth muscle tumors, teratoma, squamous ... There's still a risk of hypothyroidism though, as the remaining thyroid tissue may not be able to produce enough hormones in ... Thyroid neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the thyroid. It can be a benign tumor such as thyroid adenoma, or it can be a ... Thyroid neoplasm might be classified as benign or malignant. Thyroid adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the thyroid. Thyroid ...
Its tissues show interlaced spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells evidencing low mitotic activity with no evidence of tumor ... of all childhood renal neoplasms. This neoplasm is generally non-aggressive and amenable to surgical removal. However, a ... Its tissues show densely packed fibrosarcoma-like cells evidencing high rates of mitosis, less infiltration of normal kidney ... It shows a mixture of the classic and cellular types in different areas of the neoplasm. A study conducted in 1998 found that ...
... fibrous and/or smooth muscle tissues) and a heterologous type (made up of tissues not found in the uterus, such as cartilage, ... is a malignant neoplasm found in the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and other parts of the body that contains both ... Sarcomatous components may also mimic extrauterine tissues (e.g., striated muscle, cartilage, adipose tissue, and bone). ... connective tissue) components. It is divided into two types, homologous (in which the sarcomatous component is made of tissues ...
... may occur around a neoplasm, causing dense fibrosis around the tumor, or scar tissue (adhesions) within the abdomen ... Myofibroblastic cells in tumors are differentiated from fibroblasts for their positive staining of smooth-muscle actin (SMA). ... Desmoplasia is usually only associated with malignant neoplasms, which can evoke a fibrosis response by invading healthy tissue ... and autonomous cellular/tissue growth. Desmoplasia refers to growth of dense connective tissue or stroma. This growth is ...
These may be positive for alpha smooth muscle actin and can contract and expel the secretions of exocrine glands. They are ... Presence of myoepithelial cells in a hyperplastic tissue proves the benignity of the gland and, when absent, indicates cancer. ... Jules J. Berman (2009). Neoplasms: principles of development and diversity. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 207-. ISBN 978-0- ... These cells are generally positive for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin 5/6 and other high molecular weight ...
... s are modified smooth muscle cells that control the thermoregulatory function of dermal glomus bodies. As stated ... They account for less than 2% of all soft tissue tumors. The majority of glomus tumors are benign, but they can also show ... A glomus tumor (also known as a "solitary glomus tumor," "solid glomus tumor," or glomangioma) is a rare neoplasm arising from ... ISBN 0-07-138076-0. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and ...
12]. Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms that may arise from any structure or organ containing smooth muscle. The majority of ... CT and MR imaging are more specific, as they can easily recognize fatty component along with other soft tissue component more ... The appendix testis is a mullerian duct remnant and consists of fibrous tissue and blood vessels within an envelope of columnar ... Patients usually present with a painless scrotal mass that is smooth, round and well circumscribed on palpation. They are ...
"The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (1 ... Neoplasm is an abnormal growth of tissue which, if it forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor.[1][2][3] This abnormal ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... A neoplasm can be caused by an abnormal proliferation of tissues, which can be caused by genetic mutations. Not all types of ...
"The association of Epstein-Barr virus with smooth-muscle tumors occurring after organ transplantation". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (1 ... Neoplasm is an abnormal growth of tissue which, if it forms a mass, is commonly referred to as a tumor. This abnormal growth ( ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology. Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as ...
Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW (Dec 2005). "Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue ... PEComas are rare and can have myriad features; therefore, they can be confused with carcinomas, smooth muscle tumours, ... Folpe, AL; Kwiatkowski DJ (2009). "Perivascular epitheloid cell neoplasms: pathology and pathogenesis". Human Pathology. 41 (1 ...
GISTs arise in the smooth muscle pacemaker interstitial cell of Cajal, or similar cells. They are defined as tumors whose ... Among imaging studies, MRI has the best tissue contrast, which aids in the identification of masses within the GI tract ( ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. ... For example, some previous diagnoses of stomach and small bowel leiomyosarcomas (malignant tumor of smooth muscle) would be ...
... smooth muscle (bronchiole and capillary) dilation, and increased metabolism, all of which are characteristic of the fight-or- ... Neoplasms include: Pheochromocytoma (most common), a catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla Neuroblastoma, a ... neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system Ganglioneuroma, a tumor in the nerve cells of ...
... anti-smooth muscle antibodies, and positive rheumatoid factor. The normal architecture of a lymph node is partially effaced by ... and NK-cell neoplasms: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma". WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid ... Tissues. IARC WHO Classification of Tumours. 2 (4th ed.). IARC. ISBN 9283224310. James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al ...
Also, the structural support from the smooth muscle is hindered, causing leakage into the surrounding tissue. It is the leakage ... This neoplasm is usually located within the muscle cone, which is lateral to the optic nerve. It is not usually treated unless ... Seizures due to the compression of the brain tissue or hemorrhaging of angioma scarring surrounding tissue Stroke or ... If the lesion caused by the cavernous hemangioma is destroying healthy tissue around it or if the patient is experiencing major ...
... neoplasms, muscle tissue MeSH C04.557.450.590.350 --- granular cell tumor MeSH C04.557.450.590.450 --- leiomyoma MeSH C04.557. ... smooth muscle tumor MeSH C04.557.450.795 --- sarcoma MeSH C04.557.450.795.135 --- adenosarcoma MeSH C04.557.450.795.290 --- ... sebaceous gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.805.776 --- sweat gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.839.500 --- muscle neoplasms MeSH C04.588 ... nose neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.656 --- orbital neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.828 --- skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ...
For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign ... large B cell lymphoma Multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm Myelodysplastic syndromes Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ... However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the ... Sarcoma: Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develop from cells ...
... smooth muscle actin) → + The intensity of immunoreactivity was scored as follows: - (absent), + (weak/focal), ++ (moderate), ... The cells of the tumor will often grow into nearby normal brain tissue. Grade III tumors tend to recur as higher-grade tumors. ... Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently described neoplasm that has been formally recognized in the 2007 ... These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells and muscle cells. These tumors, papillary tumors in this case, have no ...
The molecular structure of the smooth muscle of myometrium is very similar to that of smooth muscle in other sites of the body ... more predominant layer of the myometrium appears to originate from non-Müllerian tissue, and is the major contractile tissue ... Benign neoplasms of the myometrium are very common, termed uterine leiomyomata or fibroids. Their malignant version, ... The excitation-contraction coupling of uterine smooth muscle is also very similar to that of other smooth muscle in general, ...
A lineage relationship to other cell types has been proposed, including smooth muscle cells, neural cells, NG2 glia, muscle ... "Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle". AJP: Cell Physiology. 305 (11): C1098. doi: ... Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm, or abnormal growth, that may either be benign or malignant. In its malignant ... The vascular markers CD 31, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and smooth muscle actin (pericyte marker) are present during the ...
... and a deeper vestigial layer of muscle, the panniculus carnosus. The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, ... classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: an overview with emphasis on the myeloid neoplasms". Chem. ... Congenital malformations of the dermatoglyphs Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma Cystic lymphatic malformation Dermoid cyst ... The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying fascia. This tissue may be further divided into two ...
... of the uterus that also contain smooth muscle tissue. Fibroids may be single or multiple. Most fibroids start in the muscular ... Fibroids can be mistaken for ovarian neoplasms. An uncommon tumor which may be mistaken for a fibroid is Sarcoma botryoides. It ... Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Most women have ... They can also grow outward from the surface and remain attached by a small piece of tissue and then are called pedunculated ...
... refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. Vascular smooth muscle is innervated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system through adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors). The three types of adrenoceptors present are: α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} , α 2 {\displaystyle \alpha _{2}} and β 2 {\displaystyle \beta _{2}} . The main endogenous agonist of these cell receptors is norepinephrine (NE). The adrenergic receptors exert opposite physiologic effects in the vascular smooth muscle under activation: α 1 {\displaystyle \alpha _{1}} receptors. ...
Smooth muscle within the GI tract causes the involuntary peristaltic motion that moves consumed food down the esophagus and towards the rectum.[1] The smooth muscle throughout most of the GI tract is divided into two layers: an outer longitudinal layer and an inner circular layer.[1] Both layers of muscle are located within the muscularis externa. The stomach has a third layer: an innermost oblique layer. The physical contractions of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system, or by receptor mediated calcium influx.[1] These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons.[2] The inner circular layer is innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons, while the outer longitudinal layer is innervated ...
Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL9 gene. Myosin, a structural component of muscle, consists of two heavy chains and four light chains. The protein encoded by this gene is a myosin light chain that may regulate muscle contraction by modulating the ATPase activity of myosin heads. The encoded protein binds calcium and is activated by myosin light chain kinase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000101335 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000067818 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Kumar CC, Mohan SR, Zavodny PJ, Narula SK, Leibowitz PJ (May 1989). "Characterization and differential expression of human vascular smooth muscle myosin light chain 2 isoform in nonmuscle ...
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue. Its main function is to induce uterine contractions. The myometrium is located between the endometrium (the inner layer of the uterine wall), and the serosa or perimetrium (the outer uterine layer). Myometrium has 3 layers: outer longitudinal smooth muscles, middle crisscrossing (figure of eight) muscle fibres, and inner circular fibres. Middle crisscross fibres act as living ligature during involution of the uterus and prevent blood loss. The inner one-third of the myometrium (termed the junctional or sub-endometrial layer) appears to be derived from the Müllerian duct, while the outer, more predominant layer of the myometrium appears to originate from non-Müllerian ...
The arrector pili muscles are small muscles attached to hair follicles in mammals. Contraction of these muscles causes the hairs to stand on end, known colloquially as goose bumps. Each arrector pili is composed of a bundle of smooth muscle fibres which attach to several follicles (a follicular unit), and is innervated by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The contraction of the muscle is then involuntary-stresses such as cold, fear etc. may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, and thus cause contraction. Contraction of the muscles has a number of different purposes. Its principal function in the majority of mammals is to provide insulation: air becomes trapped between the erect hairs, helping the animal retain heat. Erection of the porcupine's long, thick hairs ...
The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ions) within vascular smooth muscle cells.[2] However, the specific mechanisms for generating an increased intracellular concentration of calcium depends on the vasoconstrictor. Smooth muscle cells are capable of generating action potentials, but this mechanism is rarely utilized for contraction in the vasculature. Hormonal or pharmacokinetic components are more physiologically relevant. Two common stimuli for eliciting smooth muscle contraction are circulating epinephrine and activation of the sympathetic nervous system (through release of norepinephrine) that directly innervates the muscle. These compounds interact with cell surface adrenergic receptors. Such stimuli result in a signal transduction cascade that leads to ...
The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ions) within vascular smooth muscle cells.[2] However, the specific mechanisms for generating an increased intracellular concentration of calcium depends on the vasoconstrictor. Smooth muscle cells are capable of generating action potentials, but this mechanism is rarely utilized for contraction in the vasculature. Hormonal or pharmacokinetic components are more physiologically relevant. Two common stimuli for eliciting smooth muscle contraction are circulating epinephrine and activation of the sympathetic nervous system (through release of norepinephrine) that directly innervates the muscle. These compounds interact with cell surface adrenergic receptors. Such stimuli result in a signal transduction cascade that leads to ...
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state. It helps to maintain posture and declines during REM sleep. If a sudden pull or stretch occurs, the body responds by automatically increasing the muscle's tension, a reflex which helps guard against danger as well as helping maintain balance. Such near-continuous innervation can be thought of as a "default" or "steady state" condition for muscles. Both the extensor and flexor muscles are involved in the maintenance of a constant tone while at rest. In skeletal muscles, this helps maintain a normal posture. Resting ...
Each arrector pili is composed of a bundle of smooth muscle fibres which attach to several follicles (a follicular unit), and is innervated by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The contraction of the muscle is then involuntary-stresses such as cold, fear etc. may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, and thus cause contraction.. Contraction of the muscles has a number of different purposes. Its principal function in the majority of mammals is to provide insulation: air becomes trapped between the erect hairs, helping the animal retain heat. Erection of the porcupine's long, thick hairs causes the animal to become more intimidating, scaring predators. Pressure exerted by the muscle may cause sebum to be forced along the hair follicle towards the surface, protecting the hair.. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNN2 gene. The CNN2 gene is located at 19p13.3 in the human chromosomal genome, encoding the protein calponin 2. Calponin 2 is one of the three isoforms of calponin and an actin filament-associated regulatory protein with wide tissue distributions. Human calponin 2 is a 33.7-kDa protein consisting of 309 amino acids with an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.23. Accordingly, it is also known as neutral calponin. Calponin isoforms are conserved proteins whereas calponin 2 has diverged from calponin 1 and calponin 3 mainly in the C-terminal variable region. Phylogenetic lineage of calponin 2 showed that calponin 2 is conserved among mammalian species but more diverged among amphibian, reptile and fish species (Fig 1). CNN2 is expressed in a broader range of tissue and cell types, including developing and remodeling smooth muscle as well as adult mature smooth ...
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant. Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation. Most often observed in (although not necessarily restricted to) smaller resistance arteries, this 'basal' tone may be useful in the regulation of organ blood flow and peripheral resistance, as it positions a vessel in a preconstricted state that allows other factors to induce additional constriction or dilation to increase or decrease blood flow. The smooth muscle of the blood vessels reacts to the stretching of the muscle by opening ion channels, which cause the muscle to depolarize, leading to muscle contraction. This significantly reduces the volume of ...
രേഖാശൂന്യ പേശികളിലും(smooth muscles) രേഖാങ്കിത പേശികളിലും(striated muscles) ആണു് ഇത്തരം അന്തർദ്രവ്യജാലിക കാണപ്പെടുന്നതു്. സാർക്കോ എന്നാൽ മാംസം എന്നർത്ഥം. വിവിധ സന്ദർഭങ്ങളിൽ കായികമായി ആവശ്യാനുസരണം വികസിക്കുകയും ചുരുങ്ങുകയും ചെയ്യേണ്ട മാംസളപേശികളാണു് ഈ വിഭാഗത്തിൽ പെടുന്നതു്. രക്തക്കുഴലുകളിലും വികാസസങ്കോചപ്രാധാന്യമുള്ള പ്രധാന അവയവങ്ങളിലും രേഖാശൂന്യ (മിനുസ)പേശികളും അസ്ഥികൾ, ഹൃദയകലകൾ, ...
Forray C; Bard JA; Wetzel JM; et al. (1994). „The alpha 1-adrenergic receptor that mediates smooth muscle contraction in human prostate has the pharmacological properties of the cloned human alpha 1c subtype.". Mol. Pharmacol. 45 (4): 703-8. PMID 8183249 ...
Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences * Smooth Muscle Tumor Medicine & Life Sciences View full fingerprint ... Further studies revealed a few infiltrating CD56+ NK cells in human uterine LMS tissues. This review aims at summarizing recent ... The majority of smooth muscle tumors found in the uterus are benign, but uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are extremely malignant ... N2 - The majority of smooth muscle tumors found in the uterus are benign, but uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are extremely ...
The morphology and immunophenotype of smooth muscle tumors in deep soft tissue are similar to their counterparts irrespective ... It is interesting to note that leiomyomas of deep soft tissue (extremity and retroperitoneum) are often hyalinized/sclerosed ... Leiomyomas of deep soft tissue in the extremity should be devoid of mitoses and ... mitotic activity are acceptable when making a diagnosis of leiomyoma in deep soft tissue sites is controversial. ...
The Adequacy of Core Biopsy in the Assessment of Smooth Muscle Neoplasms of Soft Tissues: Implications for Treatment and ... it appears less reliable for tumors of smooth muscle. We assessed the pathologic findings for smooth muscle neoplasms diagnosed ... leiomyosarcoma smooth muscle neoplasm soft tissue sarcoma core biopsy grade pathology POSTOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY RETROSPECTIVE ... The Adequacy of Core Biopsy in the Assessment of Smooth Muscle Neoplasms of Soft Tissues: Implications for Treatment and ...
Lipoma: most common benign soft tissue neoplasm. Subcutaneous tissues of trunk and proximal limbs (thighs). Frequently solitary ... Smooth Muscle Tumors[edit]. *Leiomyoma: Mostly in uterus, GI tract, and extensor surfaces of extremities. Painful, frequently ... Smooth muscle cells staining for desmin and actin. Grading can be difficult, and mitotic activity is used ... Arise from primitive mesenchyme of the mesoderm, which gives rise to muscle, fat, fibrous tissues, blood vessels, and ...
Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CD34, and claudin-1. Smooth muscle actin (SMA), ... a rare benign neoplasm typically occurring in soft tissue. A 53-year-old nonsmoking female presented with a three-month history ... Finally, plexiform soft tissue perineurioma is a very rare variant which must be distinguished from multiple neoplasms having a ... The majority of perineuriomas express EMA with variable expression of CD34 and smooth muscle actin (SMA). Glut-1 is a human red ...
Smooth muscle tumors (leiomyomas). These benign neoplasms may originate in the cervix and account for approximately 8% of all ... Heterologous tissue. Heterologous tissue includes cartilage, glia, and skin with appendages. This type of tumor rarely occurs ... The stroma is devoid of smooth muscle, and mitoses are rare. Similar growths occur in the endometrium and the fallopian tubes. ... Microscopically, leiomyomas resemble the typical smooth muscle tumor found in the uterine corpus. Treatment is required only ...
This text is constructed to educate clinicians on the general classification and diagnostic approach to soft tissue tumors, ... and smooth muscle neoplasms. Each entity is presented in a consistent and organized manner, first discussing the clinical ... Soft Tissue Pathology for Clinicians. Authors. * Kyle Perry Series Title. Pathology for Clinicians. Copyright. 2017. Publisher ... Soft Tissue Pathology for Clinicians will further patient care by concisely educating the clinician on the relevant aspects of ...
LMS is a type of sarcoma which is a neoplasm of smooth muscle. Smooth muscle cells make up the involuntary muscles, which are ... It spreads through the blood stream and can affect the lungs, liver, blood vessels, or any other soft tissue in the body. ... Leiomyosarcoma is a form of cancer that affects the smooth muscle of the body. ... It makes up 7% of soft tissue sarcomas; in all, LMS affects 4 out of 1,000,000 people. Presently there is no cure. Remission ...
Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive type of soft tissue neoplasm that originates from smooth muscle cells; it is typically found in ...
... hamartomatous polyps are benign and have a specific branched structure consisting of a smooth muscle and stromal tissue core ... and various neoplasms (reviewed in ref. 1). PJS-associated ... as all analyzed normal adult and embryonic tissues have ... CLONTECH Multiple Tissue Northern Blot (7757-1) was hybridized according to standard protocols (16). The Raji (Burkitts ... we performed Northern blotting analyses on a panel of human tumor cell lines originating from various tissues. As described (4 ...
A malignant neoplasm affecting the skeletal or smooth muscles. Malignant neoplasms arising from the skeletal muscles are called ... C49 Malignant neoplasm of other connective and soft tissue C49.0 Malignant neoplasm of connective and soft tissue of head, face ... Malignant neoplasms arising from the smooth muscles are called leiomyosarcomas.. *A malignant neoplasm arising from the blood ... Malignant neoplasm of ectopic tissue. *Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ...
MIR143-NOTCH2 fusions have been previously described in 52% of glomus tumors, which are neoplasms of perivascular smooth muscle ... Tumor tissue targeted NGS.. Tumor tissue targeted NGS was attempted for 29 patients and yielded valid results for 22 (76%). The ... Of interest, seen patients had valid results for the BRAFV600E mutation from both tissue PCR and tissue NGS and although all ... Molecular profiling with tumor tissue targeted NGS and/or tumor tissue PCR sequencing and/or plasma-derived cfDNA targeted NGS ...
... this seems to be an infrequent neoplasm in Australian parakeets. The immunopositivity of the neoplastic cells for smooth muscle ... immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the neoplastic tissue are consistent with a granular cell tumour, which has ... Some groups of neoplastic cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. There was no immunopositivity for S-100 ... actin and desmin, as well as slight positivity for muscle with Massons trichrome, suggest that this is a tumour of myogenic ...
Smooth muscle neoplasms are the most common muscle neoplasm reported in captive and free-ranging birds. (3,4) However, ... Smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels within the pheasant tissue showed cytoplasmic labeling for SMA, which was used as an ... and one of the very few reports of smooth muscle neoplasms affecting the limb of a bird. Key words: leiomyosarcoma, smooth ... Photomicrograph of the neoplasm showing interlacing bundles (arrows) of neoplastic smooth muscle cells. Hematoxylin and eosin, ...
Leiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft ... Leiomyosarcoma of the lungs, it may originate in the arteriolar walls, muscle tissue in the interstitial plane of the alveolar ... They are among the most frequent pulmonary sarcomas and originate from the smooth muscle of the bronchi, bronchioles or ... Immunhistochemical studies help to rectify the diagnosis by showing positive reactions mostly for smooth muscle actin or desmin ...
sections show dense fibrous tissue, and some additional tissue resembling benign smooth muscle. As with prior biopsy, we do not ... no evidence of a renal epithelial neoplasm. Due to persistent concern about biopsy sampling error, the patient later underwent ... A smooth muscle actin immunostain highlighted vascular smooth muscle. *no evidence of malignancy. Re-biopsy may be indicated if ... The mass has smooth margins and is capsular or cortically-based. No associated perinephric stranding. The dynamic ...
Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign clonal neoplasm that consists of varying amounts of mature adipose tissue, smooth muscle, and ...
Purely mesenchymal tumors, such as those derived from smooth muscle and endometrial stroma, are... ... This chapter deals with neoplasms of the uterus in which there is mesenchymal differentiation. ... Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW (2005) Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and ... Brown DC, Theaker JM, Banks PM, Gatter KC, Mason DY (1987) Cytokeratin expression in smooth muscle and smooth muscle tumours. ...
A punch biopsy demonstrated a dermal spindle-cell neoplasm with variable smooth muscle actin positivity and negative staining ... Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) is a rare and recently described neoplasm of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lineage. ... and absence of staining with smooth muscle actin features diagnostic of FCTN. Our case allowed the opportunity to see this ... Over the course of the next year, the remaining lesional tissue exhibited clinical softening and a surgical excisional specimen ...
sar·co·mas also sar·co·ma·ta A malignant tumor arising from bone or from soft tissues such as muscle, cartilage, fat, or blood ... sarcoma of muscle tissue. malignant neuroma, neurosarcoma - a malignant neoplasm of nerve tissue and fibrous tissue and ... leiomyosarcoma - sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate ... sarcoma - a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer ...
A clinical trial of voiding will be translated by the radiologist or a lack of smooth muscle of the tal, loop diuretics and ... On the other elements of my prostate tissue and organs, the prostate can occur at a younger age group of drugs used together ... The transrectal ultrasound demonstrates changes concerning for neoplasm. This drain is removed intact in an abnormal urethral ... The outer muscle layer normal anatomy or neural elements of the legs and feet, and examination are the side effects related to ...
PROBLEMATIC UTERINE SMOOTH-MUSCLE NEOPLASMS - A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 213 CASES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY ... Soft tissue. Pathology (Philadelphia, Pa.) Kempson, R. L. 1996; 3 (2): 545-553 View details for PubMedID 8795835 ... In furtherance of this goal, we assessed a variety of histopathologic features of 213 problematic smooth muscle neoplasms for ... A recent trend in the classification of uterine smooth muscle neoplasms (USMNs) into clinically benign and clinically malignant ...
Histologically, a monoclonal proliferation of smooth muscle cells occurs. ... are benign tumors that arise from the overgrowth of smooth muscle and connective tissue in the uterus. ... are benign tumors that arise from the overgrowth of smooth muscle and connective tissue in the uterus. Histologically, a ... 1, 2, 3, 4] The radiologic characteristics of these neoplasms are shown in the images below. ...
... meaning a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that contains collagenous fibrous tissue. As many as 1-in-5 women may have fibroids ...
Intravascular leiomyomatosis is a benign neoplasm that extends through the veins; angioleiomyoma is a benign neoplasm of the ... Smooth muscle-containing tissue needs to be stretched often, so elasticity is an important attribute of smooth muscle. Smooth ... BBC - baby born with smooth muscle condition has 8 organs transplanted Smooth muscle antibody Stomach smooth muscle identified ... make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them. The smooth muscle is the only type of muscle without the ability to be ...
  • This text is constructed to educate clinicians on the general classification and diagnostic approach to soft tissue tumors, such that they feel more empowered to discuss the relevant features of particular cases with their pathology colleagues. (springer.com)
  • Soft Tissue Pathology for Clinicians will further patient care by concisely educating the clinician on the relevant aspects of soft tissue diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • The tumorigenic role of EBV in smooth *Correspondence: [email protected] Kristin Teiken and Mark Kuehnel contributed equally to this work muscle neoplasms is not clear because particularly HIV- Institute of Pathology, Hannover Medical School (MHH), SMT can be EBV negative, indicating that the virus is not Carl-Neuberg-Str. (deepdyve.com)
  • My research interests include nerve and muscle pathology, mitochondrial diseases, pediatric neurooncology, and transgenic mouse pathology. (stanford.edu)
  • Detailed Pathology section describes common neoplasms in horses, cites research literature, and describes what is generally known about each condition. (elsevier.com)
  • This drain is removed intact in an abnormal urethral support mechanism include congenital weakness and shortness of breath, back pain and ischemia to tissues. (iahf.com)
  • They have a slightly abnormal microscopic appearance and can spread into nearby normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Morel-Lavallée lesion is an infrequently described, post-traumatic closed de-gloving wound that results from separation of the skin and subcutaneous tissues from the underlying deep fascia as a result of shearing forces that tear perforating vessels and lymphatics. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Microscopic examination (figure 3 ) showed a lesion composed of lobules of mature fatty tissue harbouring multiple variable sized nodules of smooth muscle fibres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dendritic fibromyxolipoma (DFML) is a rare benign soft tissue lesion that most commonly arises in the subcutis or muscular fascia of the head and neck, shoulders, calf, foot, or back in adult male patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This lesion has been always considered as a benign neoplasm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm contains branching clefts and papillary excrescences lined by mucinous epithelium with foci of squamous metaplasia. (dp.ua)
  • Histological examination of resected breast tissue showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma (grade III). (bmj.com)