Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.RestaurantsAir Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.SmokePublic Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Tobacco Use Cessation: Ending the TOBACCO habits of smoking, chewing, or snuff use.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/22632)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (2/22632)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. (3/22632)

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (4/22632)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (5/22632)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers--cough and airways irritancy syndrome? (6/22632)

Glass bottle workers have been shown to experience an excess of respiratory symptoms. This work describes in detail the symptoms reported by a cohort of 69 symptomatic glass bottle workers. Symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years (median = 4 yrs; range = 0-28). The interval preceding the development of dysponea was longer and much more variable (median = 16 yrs; range = 3-40). Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (7/22632)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (8/22632)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

  • If you are a smoker and are ready to quit, thinking about quitting, or want to help someone else to quit, talk to your doctor or health practitioner about giving up smoking. (heartfoundation.org.au)
  • The skin of a non-smoker gets more nutrients, including oxygen, and stopping smoking can reverse the sallow, lined complexion smokers often have. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Using a smoker is one method of imparting natural smoke flavor to large cuts of meat, whole poultry, and turkey breasts. (usda.gov)
  • Because smoking uses low temperatures to cook food, the meat will take too long to thaw in the smoker, allowing it to linger in the "Danger Zone" (temperatures between 40 and 140 °F) where harmful bacteria can multiply. (usda.gov)
  • The younger the smoker is when he or she starts to smoke, the higher the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, a naturally occurring drug found in tobacco that, in the short term, can distract from unpleasant feelings. (psychologytoday.com)
  • A teen's first purchase decision isn't about becoming a smoker, but rather about which brand to smoke. (cato.org)
  • In 1998 just over half of surveyed households had home smoking bans, but in the latest survey just under three quarters of respondents to a phone survey said their household's regular smoker always or usually smoked outside. (theage.com.au)
  • If you love smoked meats, you will be happy to know it's easy to create a smoked - and safe - flavor on your smoker grill. (foodsafety.gov)
  • This anti-smoking advertisement from the New York Department of Health in the 1980s, designed to appeal to the smoker, uses sophisticated graphic design techniques to encourage the viewer to stop smoking. (nih.gov)
  • We address the endogeneity of peers by looking at the impact of workplace smoking bans on spousal and peer group smoking. (nber.org)
  • Using these bans as an instrument, we find that individuals whose spouses smoke are 40 percent more likely to smoke themselves. (nber.org)
  • We also find evidence for the existence of a social multiplier in that the impact of smoking bans and individual income becomes stronger at higher levels of aggregation. (nber.org)
  • A few states, including California and Hawaii, have passed laws incorporating e-cigarettes and other vaping products into workplace bans on smoking. (nolo.com)
  • In other states, e-cigarettes and vaping products are explicitly not included in workplace smoking bans. (nolo.com)
  • Compared with Singapore and Hong Kong, Li said that enforcement of smoking bans is not tough enough in the mainland. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Also, households in lower socio-economic areas were less likely to enforce home smoking bans. (theage.com.au)
  • Whether you believe in smoking bans or not it would seem a SWAT team is overkill. (freerepublic.com)
  • I`m not opposed to smoking bans per se, but 95 percent of my business comes from out of Skokie. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Skokie`s law would leave nearby Lincolnwood the odd village out among its near north suburban neighbors: Evanston has tight restrictions on alcohol sales, Morton Grove bans handguns, and now Skokie is trying to clamp down hard on public smoking. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The item is often hung in a dry environment first to develop a pellicle , then it can be cold smoked up to several days to ensure it absorbs the smokey flavour. (wikipedia.org)
  • with the one exception of smoked salmon, which is eaten raw, all cold smoked products are cooked before they are eaten. (fao.org)
  • More than 42 percent of U.S. adults smoked, and there was a good chance your doctor was among them. (yahoo.com)
  • After smoking for six years, the Beijing resident quit the habit two months ago. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new study may offer women one more reason to kick the smoking habit before becoming pregnant: a potentially reduced risk of early miscarriage. (reuters.com)
  • About half of all Americans who keep smoking will die because of the habit. (cancer.org)
  • Hide Your Habit Never light up around your infant, and make your home and car smoke-free environments. (parents.com)
  • In the first half of the twentieth century, cigarette smoking became a widespread habit firmly engrained in American culture. (nih.gov)
  • Here's One Way To Kick The Smoking Habit. (businessinsider.com)
  • And peer pressure: Some researchers find that a youngster's social group and the influence of friends, particularly for girls, is the single most important factor in the decision to smoke. (cato.org)
  • Even if this 20-year-old woman quits smoking, she'll be at greater risk for peripheral artery disease than women who never start smoking, researchers reported Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (chicagotribune.com)
  • When the researchers combined alcohol and smoking, they found no excess deaths among subjects who drank fewer than four drinks per day. (reuters.com)
  • A study by University of Buffalo researchers found that smokers who incorporated a heavy diet of fruits and vegetables were three times as likely to not smoke for 30 days than people who didn't consume a produce-heavy diet , HealthDay reported. (businessinsider.com)
  • We interviewed researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago in the Health Media Collaboratory about their use of DiscoverText and the Gnip-enabled Power Track for Twitter to study smoking behavior. (screencast.com)
  • In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between smoking and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • All fish for hot smoking are brined to give them flavour. (fao.org)
  • Sawdust for smoking should contain a high proportion of hardwood to impart a pleasant flavour to the fish. (fao.org)
  • Half of all long-term smokers die early from smoking-related diseases, including heart disease , lung cancer and chronic bronchitis . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Smoking and tobacco use can harm every body system and lead to health problems such as heart disease, stroke, emphysema (breakdown of lung tissue), and many types of cancer - including lung, throat, stomach, and bladder cancer. (kidshealth.org)
  • Smoking is associated with cancer, heart disease and stroke, gum disease, asthma, and other chronic lung conditions, and Type-2 diabetes as well as serious complications of diabetes. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 2 The lung cancer potential of cigarettes, pipes, and cigars is similar when similar amounts of smoke are inhaled. (britannica.com)
  • However, many pipe and cigar smokers do not regularly inhale the smoke and thus the overall risk of lung cancer is lower for pipes and cigars. (britannica.com)
  • NHL patients who smoked tobacco and/or drank alcoholic beverages could be more vulnerable to the complications and side effects of cancer treatments," he noted. (reuters.com)
  • Perhaps they could add a list of which characters died as a direct result of smoking: "Edward R. Murrow -- died at age 57 of lung cancer," and so on for emphysema and other smoking-related diseases. (latimes.com)
  • You can help reduce your risk of cancer by making healthy choices like eating right, staying active and not smoking. (cancer.org)
  • Smoking not only causes cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Smoking accounts for about 30% of all cancer deaths in the United States, including about 80% of all lung cancer deaths. (cancer.org)
  • New research released today by the Cancer Council Victoria found significant improvement in the efforts of parents to keep tobacco smoke away from their kids. (theage.com.au)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, more stop-smoking drugs (and possibly even a vaccine that makes nicotine unappealing) could hit the market within five years. (cnn.com)
  • Concerned with the harmful effects of smoking, the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) created this poster of a skeletal hand holding a cigarette. (nih.gov)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that up to 5,000 nonsmokers die each year from inhaling the smoke of the 30 percent of the adult population that smokes. (chicagotribune.com)
  • And the study didn't take into account other smoking-related problems, such as atherosclerosis and lung cancer, that might have further tipped the cost-benefit scales toward the quitters. (slate.com)
  • German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the stress of withdrawal feels the same as other stresses, it's easy to confuse normal stress with nicotine withdrawal, so it can seem like smoking is reducing other stresses. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Clinicians are more likely to treat symptoms of nicotine withdrawal when smoking is restricted. (rand.org)
  • Doctors and anti-smoking campaigners have given a mixed reaction to the White Paper on tobacco, with some expressing disappointment that it does not go far enough. (bbc.co.uk)
  • As a result, anti-smoking campaigners since the 1960s have been compelled to challenge the perception that the behavior is commonplace and integral to everyday life. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, farms in the Western world included a small building termed the " smokehouse ", where meats could be smoked and stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold smoking does not cook foods, and as such, meats should be fully cured before cold smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold smoking can be used as a flavor enhancer for items such as cheese or nuts , along with meats such as chicken breasts, beef , pork chops , salmon , scallops , and steak . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold smoking meats should only be attempted by personnel certified in HACCP , or H azard A nalysis and C ritical C ontrol P oints, to ensure that it is safely prepared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obviously more research is needed, and it would be interesting to see results of lung tests in communities such as Jamaica and the Himalayas where smoking pot is endemic and done in larger daily volumes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People breathe more easily and cough less when they give up smoking because their lung capacity improves by up to 10% within 9 months. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In your 20s and 30s, the effect of smoking on your lung capacity may not be noticeable until you go for a run, but lung capacity naturally diminishes with age. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In the last five years, facilities like stadiums, outdoor public markets and parks have gone smoke-free in response to people's desires,' said Paul Knepprath, vice president of government relations for the American Lung Assn. of California. (latimes.com)
  • Then this spring, a large study from Europe looked at the net effect on lung function of stopping smoking (good) and concomitant weight gain (bad). (slate.com)
  • About 460 million Chinese are also believed to suffer from the harmful smoke of those who light up, while more than 1 million in the country die every year from smoking-related diseases. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Are there any alternatives to smoking which are not harmful? (selfgrowth.com)
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a smoking composition which is suitable for aerosoling flavours and drugs but which contains a minimum amount of combustible organic material or smokeproducing fuel which on burning inevitably gives rise to some harmful products. (google.com)
  • In 5 to 15 years, your risk of stroke and coronary heart disease returns to that of someone who has never smoked. (heartfoundation.org.au)
  • Although refinements in technique and advancements in technology have made smoking much easier, the basic steps involved remain essentially the same today as they were hundreds if not thousands of years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being smoke-free not only adds years to your life, but also greatly improves your chances of a disease-free, mobile, happier old age. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Ireland and other European countries have also banned smoking indoors, while some parts of Canada and a number of U.S. states have had strict controls on smoking for years. (ibtimes.com)
  • Most people who smoke start young, in their teenage years, often because they have friends or family members who also smoke. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Beijing implemented a smoking ban in public areas 12 years ago. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Within 15 years, Minnesota could expect 30,000 young people would not start smoking if the age of sale is raised to 21. (minnpost.com)
  • i have been smoking cigarettes for 13 years, i recently quit at 24, and now i am 26. (medhelp.org)
  • The IOM estimates 25% decline in smoking initiation among 15-17 years olds as well as a 12% reduction in smoking prevalence in the long term. (prnewswire.com)
  • That zoo, where about half of the 500,000 annual visitors are children, banned smoking four years ago. (latimes.com)
  • Smoking shortens male smokers' lives by about 12 years and female smokers' lives by about 11 years. (cancer.org)
  • I say this because it wasn't the last time I smoked, that was a few years later in 2008, but it was the last time I smoked every day. (washington.edu)
  • Outside the home, there has been an increase over the last 11 years in the proportion of smokers who do not smoke at all when they are around children: from 45 per cent in 1998 to 56 per cent in 2008. (theage.com.au)
  • Beulah "Billy" Toombs, shown with her dog Chauncy, has been smoking since she was 16 but now she either has to quit or move from her apartment building in Milford, after nine years of occupancy. (usatoday.com)
  • Toombs - her friends call her Billie - is 89 years old, and she is still smoking. (usatoday.com)
  • Michael Fennell, 43, became interested in smoke as an art tool around 15 years ago, having initially become intrigued by the marks carbon made on his studio floor. (yahoo.com)
  • After an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • While smoking may be used, in part, as a coping behavior, it is not a valid treatment for any mental health condition. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The most persuasive explanation of youth smoking focuses on what we know about young people's risk factors for problem behavior. (cato.org)
  • Smoking topography is a representation of the physical characteristics of smoking behavior, such as puff count, puff volume, average flow, puff duration, and interpuff interval. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, he has a genuine understanding of the devastation and heartbreak that mouth cancers and other smoking related diseases can cause to a family. (prweb.com)
  • Read more about the dangers of passive smoking . (www.nhs.uk)
  • This symbolic representation of the dangers and deadliness of smoking warns the viewer, "Even the best cigarettes can be your tomb. (nih.gov)
  • Educating our patients about good oral health and the dangers of smoking is a task I am committed to. (prweb.com)
  • He is already known for his excellent work educating people on the dangers of smoking. (prweb.com)
  • He went on to say, "By educating people about oral health, good hygiene practices, and by teaching them about the dangers of mouth cancers, I feel certain we can help to prevent even more patients from developing this horrific disease, and other smoke related health problems. (prweb.com)
  • Graphic warning labels' pair gruesome images with warnings about the dangers of smoking, covering anywhere from 30 to 80 percent of cigarette pack 'faces' (the front and back). (rand.org)
  • Both female and male smokers have lower fertility levels, while adults who were born to mothers who smoked have less chance of becoming a parent themselves. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • While using an e-cigarette (vaping) is a lot safer than smoking, it isn't completely risk free. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Smoking materials caused 5% of reported home fires, 21% of home fire deaths, 10% of home fire injuries, and 6% of the direct property damage. (nfpa.org)
  • The place where we feel safest - at home - is where most smoking-materials structure fires, deaths, and injuries occur. (nfpa.org)
  • Smoking materials are the leading cause of fire deaths. (nfpa.org)
  • Cigarette smoking is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths in the United States each year, including 41,000 from second-hand smoke. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Moreover, because of the rapid increase in smoking in developing countries in the late 20th century, the number of smoking-related deaths per year was projected to rise rapidly in the 21st century. (britannica.com)
  • The primary cause of the escalation in the number of deaths and incidents of disease from tobacco is the large increase in cigarette smoking during the 20th century. (britannica.com)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that in developed countries, roughly a quarter of male deaths and nearly a tenth of female deaths can be attributed to smoking. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This means each year smoking causes about 1 out of 5 deaths in the US. (cancer.org)
  • BEIJING, Jan. 5 (UPI) -- Health experts, noting a worsening smoking problem in China, Thursday raised their estimates of tobacco-related deaths to 3.5 million annually by 2030. (upi.com)
  • The new estimate was sharply higher than the previous estimate of 3 million deaths by 2050, pointing to the spreading smoking epidemic. (upi.com)
  • A heart patient who is suing a hospital for negligence admits there is no firm evidence he was discriminated against because he smoked. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In this paper, we examine the evidence for peer effects in smoking. (nber.org)
  • There's an easy way to check this: If easier retail access to tobacco were a cause of increased smoking, then you'd expect to find less youth smoking where access to tobacco was more tightly controlled - but the real-world evidence says otherwise. (cato.org)
  • The research evidence about adolescent smoking is full of powerful explanations for why some kids smoke and others do not. (cato.org)
  • Regardless of these findings, there is overwhelming evidence that nicotine use through tobacco smoking is one of the most dangerous drug problems in the world," says Michael Bloomfield, MD, clinical lecturer in psychiatry at University College London. (webmd.com)
  • New evidence from a Danish study shows that smoking can also harm babies emotionally. (popsci.com)
  • Yet perversely enough, evidence suggests that the rush to stamp out cigarette smoking has brought health problems along with clean lungs and wide-open arteries. (slate.com)
  • Tobacco smoke harms babies before and after they are born. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco smoke also contains other chemicals that can harm unborn babies. (cdc.gov)
  • Mothers who smoke are more likely to deliver their babies early. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,2,3 Babies whose mothers smoke are about three times more likely to die from SIDS. (cdc.gov)
  • Everyone knows that expectant moms who smoke risk damaging their babies' physical health. (popsci.com)
  • Reduce Your Baby's Risk "Babies born to mothers who smoke are at greater risk for pneumonia, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and acute ear infections," says Carol Anderson, R.N., a lactation consultant at Rose Medical Center in Denver. (parents.com)
  • Encourage kids to get involved in activities that prohibit smoking, such as sports. (kidshealth.org)
  • However, several states have passed laws to prohibit smoking at work, in one way or another. (nolo.com)
  • prohibit smoking in only certain types of workplaces, such as hospitals and restaurants. (nolo.com)
  • Disneyland, Six Flags Magic Mountain and Universal Studios Hollywood prohibit smoking near waiting lines, eating areas, pools and children's areas. (latimes.com)
  • The ordinance up for consideration would restrict smoking in offices, hotels, transportation waiting areas, theater lobbies and restaurants seating 40 or more patrons, and prohibit smoking in retail stores, reception areas and public restrooms, hallways and meeting rooms. (chicagotribune.com)
  • England slammed the door on smoking in bars, workplaces and public buildings on Sunday in what campaigners hail as the biggest boost to public health since the creation of the National Health Service in 1948. (ibtimes.com)
  • Federal law does not regulate smoking in private workplaces. (nolo.com)
  • Some states have a total ban on smoking in indoor workplaces, public and private. (nolo.com)
  • She said: Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death. (ibtimes.com)
  • Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S., Gibbons says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Of course, the study shows only a statistical association between maternal smoking and delinquency. (popsci.com)
  • Maternal smoking has been linked to lower milk supply and early weaning . (parents.com)
  • One reason that smoking and chewing tobacco are major health hazards is because they contain the chemical nicotine . (kidshealth.org)
  • They coordinated a letter-writing campaign to local newspapers, posted handbills and mailed letters encouraging people to rally at the trustees` meeting, presented a plaque to the owners of Skokie`s Quartet Plaza--the Chicago area`s first large, smoke-free office building--and trotted out health experts at press conferences, where they testified to the health hazards of secondary smoke. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Smoking materials, including cigarettes, pipes, and cigars, started an estimated 17,200 home structure fires reported to U.S. fire departments in 2014. (nfpa.org)
  • anyone who lives here smoke cigarettes, cigars, or pipes anywhere inside this home? (cdc.gov)
  • A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item and would often smoke it in Ceremonial pipes, either in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sacred ceremonial pipes are not used for smoking intoxicants, but rather to offer prayers in a spiritual or religious ceremony. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking Popes' first album with their original lineup since 1998 is called 'Into the Agony' and it comes out on Asian Man Records this fall. (brooklynvegan.com)
  • Discuss ways to respond to peer pressure to smoke. (kidshealth.org)
  • When asked what factors led them to start smoking, adolescents mention peer pressure, expressing their individualism and making a statement vis-á-vis their parents or other authority figures. (cato.org)
  • Smoking became more of a way to flavor than to preserve food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smokehouse temperatures for cold smoking are typically done between 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F). In this temperature range, foods take on a smoked flavor, but remain relatively moist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most satisfactory smoke flavor is obtained by using hickory, apple, or maple wood chips or flakes. (usda.gov)
  • You can also then plan your 'stopping smoking journey' and place certain milestones along the route so that you gradually reduce the number of cigarettes you smoke to zero by the time your ultimate deadline date arrives. (selfgrowth.com)
  • See how much money you've saved, how many cigarettes you've not smoked, how long you've been smoke free, how much life you've regained and how your health is improving. (apple.com)
  • Large quantities of salt were used in the curing process and smoking times were quite long, sometimes involving days of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and material intensive heavy salting and smoking declined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking is not a valid treatment for any mental health condition, however, and won't make anyone feel better in the long run. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The smoking of tobacco, long practiced by American Indians , was introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and other explorers. (britannica.com)
  • The days when smoking cigarettes in the workplace was as accepted as drinking coffee are long gone. (nolo.com)
  • Anti-smoking measures might take more time to be effective, particularly for smokers who have been lighting up for a long time," Zhang was quoted by China Youth Daily as saying. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The prices certainly wouldn't ever come down, and I knew that long-term I didn't want to be smoking. (washington.edu)
  • Smoke Free tracks how much money you have saved, how long you have been smoke-free, and how many cigarettes you have avoided. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The National Smoking Control Programme, a comprehensive long-term plan for smoking control spearheaded by the Ministry of Health in Singapore in 1986, created this poster in response to pro-tobacco forces that emphasized the First Amendment personal freedom of smokers to smoke and tobacco companies to advertise their products. (nih.gov)
  • MILFORD, Ohio - Beulah Toombs started smoking a long time ago. (usatoday.com)
  • I lit a pipe and had a good long smoke , and went on watching. (wiktionary.org)