An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
A group of painful oral symptoms associated with a burning or similar sensation. There is usually a significant organic component with a degree of functional overlay; it is not limited to the psychophysiologic group of disorders.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/22632)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (2/22632)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men. (3/22632)

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (4/22632)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (5/22632)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers--cough and airways irritancy syndrome? (6/22632)

Glass bottle workers have been shown to experience an excess of respiratory symptoms. This work describes in detail the symptoms reported by a cohort of 69 symptomatic glass bottle workers. Symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years (median = 4 yrs; range = 0-28). The interval preceding the development of dysponea was longer and much more variable (median = 16 yrs; range = 3-40). Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (7/22632)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (8/22632)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017 Sep 16;390(10100):1345-1422.. European Commission. Smoke-free environments. Available at: Last Accessed September 13, 2017.. Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Comparison fact sheet. Turkey 2008 & 2012. Available at: Last Accessed: September 13, 2017.. Global Adult Tobacco Survey.. Islami et al. Cancer deaths and cases attributable to lifestyle factors and infections in China, 2013. Annals of Oncology. 2017. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdx342. Published online 4 July 2017. Kelishadi et al. Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their ...
The Helping Young Smokers Quit (HYSQ) initiative was a multi-phase project that addressed the critical need to disseminate effective, developmentally appropriate cessation programs for young smokers. Phase I identified and described tobacco treatment programs available for youth in the United States, Phase II evaluated smoking secession programs tailored for youth to help understand what works, and Phase III identified factors associated with program sustainability. Phase II collected data from five sources: (1) program participants, (2) program providers, (3) program curricula, (4) organizational leaders, and (5) community leaders and community ordinances. Program participants were interviewed at baseline, end-of program, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Topics covered by the interviews include age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, language spoken at home, employment, income, religiosity, school enrollment, education level, school grades, height, weight, extracurricular activities, ...
The Helping Young Smokers Quit (HYSQ) initiative was a multi-phase project that addressed the critical need to disseminate effective, developmentally appropriate cessation programs for young smokers. Phase I identified and described tobacco treatment programs available for youth in the United States, Phase II evaluated smoking secession programs tailored for youth to help understand what works, and Phase III identified factors associated with program sustainability. Phase II collected data from five sources: (1) program participants, (2) program providers, (3) program curricula, (4) organizational leaders, and (5) community leaders and community ordinances. Program participants were interviewed at baseline, end-of program, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Topics covered by the interviews include age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, language spoken at home, employment, income, religiosity, school enrollment, education level, school grades, height, weight, extracurricular activities, ...
Smoking represents an important and rapidly growing global cause of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.Cigarrette smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease, unless smokers are able to quit, approximately 40% of them will die prematurely.The need of the hour is timely intervention through smoking cessation.Our study was carried out in young smokers to demonstrate the effects of smoking on lipid profile and electrocardiographic changes. We aimed to study the effect of smoking on lipid profile and electrocardiographic changes in young smokers.The study design was a cross sectional study comprising 75 male smokers and 75 healthy controls.Smoking history and physical examination was done .Fasting sample was analysed for lipid profile and electrocardiograph of all subjects were recorded.The statistical anaylsis between mean values were evaluated by studentt test. Statistical significance was assessed by chi-square test, p,0.001 was considered to be ...
We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group). Chi-square, students t-tests, mixed linear models and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis; level of significance was defined as p | 0.05. Immediately after CS, Z5Hz, R5Hz, R10Hz, R20Hz and eCO increased significantly in both subgroups(MA
Our findings that lower income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation are consistent with previous findings from a study conducted in developed countries17 and a study conducted in Mexico.18 This emphasises the need to implement tobacco prevention and cessation programmes that specifically target low-income smokers in order to reduce smoking-induced deprivation of household essentials.. Our study also found that smokers residing in Shenyang and Yinchuan were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation than smokers living in Beijing. This might be because these cities are less economically developed than Beijing.12. We found no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity and smoking-induced deprivation. This differs from the findings of two previous studies conducted by Siahpush et al.17 One of their studies found that smokers who had higher levels of nicotine dependence had higher odds of smoking-induced deprivation. Our results may differ because ...
To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study investigating the effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in smokers with COPD. The present study shows that patients with COPD and asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function respond differently to smoking cessation with respect to inflammation in sputum and bronchial biopsies. In smokers with COPD, cell concentration, neutrophils, lymphocytes, IL-8 and ECP levels increased significantly in sputum after a 1-yr smoking cessation period, and inflammation did not change in bronchial biopsies. In contrast, inflammatory markers did not significantly change or decrease in sputum (macrophages, eosinophils, IL-8) of asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. In bronchial biopsies, mast cells decreased significantly, whereas B-cells increased after smoking cessation. Together, the results suggest a perpetuation of inflammation after smoking cessation in COPD versus a reduction in some aspects of airway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetics and smoking-associated cancers. T2 - 461 families. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Kimberling, W.. AU - Markvicka, S.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The etiology of smoking-associated cancers (carcinoma of the lung, oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder) remain enigmatic despite a plethora of epidemiologic investigations. We have evaluated family histories through second degree relatives of 461 consecutively ascertained patients with histologically verified smoking-associated cancers. The genetic protocol included detailed questionnaires about genealogy, cancer of all anatomic sites, and environmental factors with major attention given to the cigarette smoking habit. Pathologic verification of cancer was vigorously sought. Our findings disclosed a lack of strong evidence for heritable control of lung cancer per se, when only lung cancer in relatives was considered. Confounding factors, most prominent of which was the effect of cigarette smoking (p ,.05), variation of ...
Downloadable! Preston, Glei, and Wilmoth (2010) recently proposed an innovative regression-based method to estimate smoking-attributable mortality in developed countries based on observed lung cancer death rates. Their estimates for females, however, differ appreciably from some published estimates. This article presents a modified version of the Preston, Glei, and Wilmoth method that includes an age-period interaction term in its model. This modified version produces improved estimates of smoking-attributable mortality that are consistent with results from a modified version of the Peto-Lopez indirect method.
The report titled Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 provides the intrinsic research study based on qualitative and the quantitative aspect of the Adult EEG Cap industry along with a complete description of top market players which will provide the thorough understanding of the market on a global scale.. The Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 delivers the current industry scenario of Adult EEG Cap market as well as the past and upcoming market trends which will fuel the development of the Adult EEG Cap market. The Adult EEG Cap report also depicts the technological advancements taking place in this industry based on market volume, sales revenue, driving forces behind the market development.. Do Inquiry Before Accessing Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 Report at: The Global Adult EEG Cap Market 2017 elaborates in detail the strategies and business tactics followed by the key players of Adult EEG Cap industry. The report is ...
A new study finds that while smoking rates are decreasing, the incidence of psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence among young smokers are rising.
Women smokers may not be at greater risk for lung cancer than their male counterparts. These results were recently published in Lancet Oncology.. Lung cancer claims more lives every year than any other type of cancer. In fact, lung cancer kills more people than breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer combined. It is well known that smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing lung cancer. However, there has been recent debate as to whether female smokers are more susceptible to developing lung cancer than male smokers.. To further explore the possible association between gender, smoking, and lung cancer risk, researchers from the National Institutes of Health analyzed data from a questionnaire sent to participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study. Participants responded to the questionnaire between 1995 and 1996 and were followed through the end of 2003. The data included nearly 280,000 men and approximately 186,000 women.. Among smokers the incidence of ...
This studys objective was to describe long-term trends and patterns in first cigarette use (cigarette initiation) and daily cigarette use (daily initiation) among youth and young adults in the U.S. We used cross-sectional survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2015, to estimate annual incidence of first cigarette use (N = 270,556) and first daily cigarette use (N = 373,464) for each year by age groups, race/ethnicity and gender, examining trends over time and the average annual change in initiation for each group. Several clear patterns emerged: 1) cigarette initiation and daily initiation significantly decreased over time among those aged 12-14 and 15-17 and these trends were consistent among nearly all racial/ethnic and gender subgroups; 2) among 18-21 year olds, cigarette initiation sharply increased through 2009, surpassing rates among 15-17 year olds, and sharply declined through 2015 while remaining higher than rates among the younger group, and this trend was
III. Background: Improving States and Territories Tobacco Prevention and Control Efforts. Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Nearly 500,000 people die prematurely each year from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 16 million have a serious illness caused by tobacco use.4 Coupled with this enormous health toll is the huge economic burden associated with tobacco use. More than $170 billion per year is spent on medical expenses and another $156 billion per year is spent on lost productivity.5,6. Though the public health community has made strides in preventing tobacco use and helping people to quit, many continue smoking, including youth. Among middle and high school students, 4.7 million report using at least one tobacco product, including e-cigarettes.7 Despite a reduction in cigarette smoking among youth, the rate of e-cigarette use is rising, with 16 percent of high school students using e-cigarettes in the ...
While the effectiveness of taxation as a tobacco control strategy is well established,1-6 there is concern that increasing the price of cigarettes could result in excess financial difficulties among smokers, particularly those from lower income groups, who continue smoking.2 ,7-9 An important aspect of the financial burden of smoking is the fact that tobacco expenditure among smokers may result in not having enough money for household essentials such as food. This notion has been referred to as smoking-induced deprivation (SID).10-12 Using representative samples of smokers from the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia, we examined the correlates of SID and found that younger age, minority status, lower income and higher nicotine dependence were associated with a higher probability of SID.10 We measured SID with the question In the past 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food? In a more recent study, we used data from the ...
Based on a Finnish study, persistent smokers may have higher risk to become depressed in comparison to never smokers. Also those smokers who quit have an elevated risk of depressive symptoms in short run. However, in long run this risk declines to the level of never smokers. In other words, both completely smoke-free life style and successful smoking cessation in long run seem to protect from depressive symptoms.
colleagues, including Ross Prentice, PhD, one of the Principal Investigators of the Womens Health Initiative. They studied smoking patterns and smoking-related deaths over a 50 year period, using data from five large studies, including the Womens Health Initiative. In total, the study included more than 2.2 million adults 55 years and older; of those, 156,701 were WHI participants who provided updated information on smoking in 2000.. This increased risk of dying from smoking-related diseases reflects the change in womens smoking habits. Compared with women in previous generations, women smokers today smoke more like men, that is, they start earlier in adolescence and until recently, smoke more cigarettes per day (smoking peaked in the 1980s). These findings strongly confirm the prediction that if women smoke like men, they will die like men.. For women who smoked in the 1960s, the risk of dying from lung cancer was 2.7 times higher than it was for women who had never smoked. In the cohort ...
The CYP1A1 I462V polymorphism was not significantly associated with lung cancer risk overall or with individual cell types, in contrast to the findings of some previous studies in Japan (4 , 6) . Consistent with previous studies in Japanese populations, the presence of a valine allele was associated with a modest but nonstatistically significant increase in lung cancer risk among smokers with lower daily cigarette consumption (4 , 18) or among those with the GSTM1-null genotype (6, 7, 8) . The presence of a valine allele was most strongly associated with lung cancer risk among smokers with both the GSTM1-null genotype and lower daily cigarette consumption, a finding consistent with data from Japan (18) . Caution is required in interpreting the finding of increased risk for carriers of the valine allele with lower cigarette consumption combined with the GSTM1-null genotype because the numbers become small on cross-classification. However, it is biologically plausible that at lower levels of ...
Anti-smoking campaigns are one of the most helpful aids in assisting former smokers to stay quit, new Cancer Council Victoria data has revealed.
Rationale: Smokers with tobacco-related disorders are more motivated to give up smoking than healthy smokers, but comparative data about the influence of each pathology type on motivation is still insufficient.. Methods: We studied the behavior of persons with a history of smoking, healthy/sick with cardiovascular (CVD)/respiratory (RD) tobacco-related disease, using 2 questionnaires-for former smokers/active smokers regarding motivation, preparation status for quitting, health status, degree of nicotin-addiction, quitting history, determinant factors for tobacco consumption. We use Excel (chi, T tests).. Results: 240 persons were interviewed: 83 women/157 men, mean age 47±16.2 years; 124 active/116 former smokers. Disease present 43.6% of active smokers (53.7% CVD, 42.6% RD, 3.7% both) and 68.1% of former (32.9% CVD, 44 3% RD, 22.8% both) (p=0.0001). Those with RD and both diseases are more former smokers (p=0.0038). Healthy smokers cannot refrain from first cigarette (55.6%, p=0.001). 69% of ...
June 11 - Microsoft founder Bill Gates and Baidu CEO Robin Li launch an anti-smoking campaign in Beijing, calling on Chinese people to say no to passive smoking. Sunita Rappai reports.}
Dimapur, November 30 (MExN): Nagaland recorded a significant drop of 14 percent in tobaccos usage for people 15 years and above of age during the last 5 years. This was revealed in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016 (GATS-2) for NE states which was declared in Guwahati on November 24. A press note from […]. ...
In the latter part of a large hospital case-control study of the relationship of type of cigarette smoked to risk of various smoking-associated diseases, patients answered questions on the smoking habits of their first spouse and on the extent of passive smoke exposure at home, at work, during trave …
The characteristics of the subjects are shown in Table 1. The average age of women was about 21 years with the range 19-26. Most females estimated their health status as good, economic status and physical activity level as moderate. Almost 12% of students applied special diet, in most cases with reduced energy value. Most of the subjects were slim (85.5%), with BMI amounted approximately 21 kg/ m2. For only 8.5% of students BMI values were lower than 18.5 kg/m2 and for almost 8% - higher than 24.9 kg/m2. Our group of females was similar to other groups of students in Poland [31,32] while surveys conducted in other population groups showed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent and concerned 17% of teenage girls [33]. In our study smoking was declared by about 10% of students while the data received within Global Adult Tobacco Survey indicated that the prevalence of daily smokers among adult women is higher and amounts 17.9% [34]. Dietary supplements usage was a common practice among ...
DIEZ-GANAN, Lucía et al. Demographic characteristics, health-related lifestyle, and history of tobacco consumption of the occasional smokers in Spain. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2002, vol.76, n.4, pp.281-291. ISSN 2173-9110.. Background. This study describes the sociodemographic characteristics, health-related lifestyle, and history of tobacco consumption of the occasional smokers in Spain, and examines whether they show differences against daily smokers. Methods. Data were obtained from the National Health Survey of Spain, carried out in 1993 through household interviews on a sample representative of the non-institutionalised population aged 16 year and older. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for sociodemographic, health-state and life-style variables. Results. Out of the 6,668 smokers in the survey, occasional smokers were 9.2%, while daily smokers of £5 cigarettes and ,5 cigarettes were 9.9% and 80.9%, respectively. As compared with daily smokers of ,5 ...
The list of diseases linked to smoking just got longer. A report from the surgeon general concludes that smoking causes a number of diseases not previously attributed to smoking.
In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), household surveys-such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)1 and WHOs Stepwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS)2-provide vital data sources to inform the health sector nationally. The methods used in these surveys have become standardised, allowing valuable comparisons in over 100 countries and over time, for ,30 years.3 However, increased population mobility and rapid and unplanned urbanisation means that an increasing proportion of urban dwellers live in unplanned, unregistered settlements, in non-standard living quarters (such as a hostel, shop or guesthouse), and in non-family living arrangements (such as a group of flat-mates or multifamily dwellings). There is an urgent need for survey methods to keep pace with these changes. Current methods used in surveys such as DHS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the WHO STEPS do not allow analysis of interurban and intraurban health differences and systematically ...
A completely new feature of our results is the greater absolute and (particularly in middle age) relative excess of mortality associated with smoking in the second half of the study compared with the first. When current cigarette smokers were compared with lifelong non-smokers, the excess mortality associated with smoking was already substantial during 1951-71, but it was considerably more extreme during 1971-91. During 1951-71, the death rates in cigarette smokers were about double those in non-smokers throughout middle age; during 1971-91, the corresponding difference was nearly treble. If, as is likely, most of the difference in mortality between smokers and non-smokers is actually caused by smoking then a threefold excess would imply that about two thirds of the deaths in middle age among the smokers were caused by tobacco. Even at older ages the excess mortality associated with tobacco was substantially greater in 1971-91 than it was during 1951-71. This difference between the apparent ...
Question - Habitual smoker, having a gland in throat like a bubble. Can this be a tumour ?. Ask a Doctor about Biopsy, Ask an ENT Specialist
A new smoke cigarettes detector is simply a device that finds smoke cigarettes. Fumes is often an illustration connected with flame. Its not often the situation and also if you have no genuine flame they could be in charge for several untrue sensors. This device generally is a community merely variety wherever they may be fitted for you to tell anyone that is at your distance from the smoke cigarettes detector. Sensors may also be associated with the handle solar panel which often enables you to noise a security within the whole developing. These types of methods may tell authorities in the event the method can be watched by some other organization.. Normally a neighborhood merely detector is a battery controlled gadget. These kind of will diagnose smoke cigarettes and also noise an indoor siren into the gadget for you to alert your occupants in the room which have been in the house. These are certainly not supposed to alert any person other than your workers which have been close by. In ...
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The policies that apply to the County of Orange Official Web Portal may not be the same as the terms of use for other web sites. The County of Orange cannot attest to the accuracy of the information provided by the linked websites. Any link to an external website is not intended as an endorsement of that external website, any product or service offered or referenced to or any views that might be expressed or referenced therein. ...
If all states supported and used a combination of proven strategies-hard-hitting education and media campaigns, smoke-free air laws, and higher cigarette prices-the nations adult smoking rate, which has stalled at around 20 percent, would begin to decline and smoking-related diseases, deaths, and health care costs would be substantially reduced. Every year, nearly 1 of 5 American deaths is caused by cigarette smoking.. Although the nation has not experienced substantial reductions in the national smoking rate over the past five years, this report shows that states know how to end the smoking epidemic, said CDC Director Thomas R. Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. Smoke-free laws, hard-hitting ads, and higher cigarette prices are among our strongest weapons in this fight against tobacco use. We must redouble efforts to bring down smoking rates, prevent suffering and premature death, and cut health care costs by reducing smoking. The report, Tobacco Control State Highlights 2010, provides a state-by-state ...
This study suggests an elevated risk of bladder cancer in lifelong nonsmokers who were exposed to ETS as compared with those who had no ETS exposure. The risk increased with increasing intensity of exposure to ETS, and reached statistically significant levels for high level of exposure to ETS. In the subgroup analysis, female lifelong nonsmokers showed higher relative risk for bladder cancer associated with ETS exposure than their male counterparts, and so did individuals possessing high CYP1A2 phenotype score and/or NAT2 slow acetylation status, both of them were risk factors for bladder cancer in the present study population (9).. Previous epidemiologic studies on ETS and bladder cancer risk reported inconsistent results. Several studies reported a null association between ETS and bladder cancer risk (21-26) including a recent meta-analysis (13), whereas a few others found a positive association (18-20). The null findings of the previous studies could be due to the following reasons. It has ...
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. To: Dr. Robert B. Seligman Date: March 31, 1981. From: Myron Johnston. Subject: Young Smokers - Prevalence, Trends, Implications, and Related Demographlc Trends. For over fifteen years certain demographic and social trends have been moving in directions favorable to industry growth. Now, one by one, these powerful social and demographic factors are turning against us, and by 1985 all will be operating against us.. The trends are:. 1. After increasing for over a decade, the prevalence of teenage smoking is now decling sharply.. 2. After increasing for over a decade, the average daily consumption of teenage smokers is declining.. 3. After increasing 18 percent from 1967 to 1976, the absolute number of 15- 19 year-olds will decline 19 percent during the 1980s, with the period of sharpest decline beginning in 1981.. 4. Beginning in 1981 the absolute number of 20-24 year-olds (the ages during which average daily cigarette consumption increases most rapidly) will begin to decline, ...
Tobacco-induced brain damage has long been cited, and can be prevented, heres how, by adopting Iowa, Tennesse, and Michigan-type laws banning cigarette sales, manufacture, and giveaway.
Prevention and cessation efforts need to target use of other forms of tobacco besides cigarettes, especially among younger men and men who are more-than-moderate drinkers of alcohol.
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Lung cancer can happen even in non smokers, doctors share the common reasons lung cancer is a leading cancer even among never-smokers.
This site is especially for teenagers who smoke. It contains images of normal lungs and of lungs damaged by diseases caused by cigarette smoking. While young smokers may have heard many verbal descriptions of the damaging effects of cigarette smoke, seeing the actual changes that can occur may motivate them to quit smoking or to stop others from beginning to smoke. One should not forget, as well, that cigarette smoking also has harmful effects, which are not illustrated here, on organs other than the lungs.. Introduction: This presentation will describe some aspects of the normal lung and then illustrate changes that occur in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema and chronic bronchitis) and lung cancer. These diseases are common occurrences in cigarette smokers. For each of the diseases, a case history will be given, followed by a description of the changes in the lung. View the site serially by clicking on Normal Lung, or click on another button to view a specific ...
Many smokers believe that light cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers use and beliefs concerning light and mild cigarettes (lights), including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376) about use and beliefs relating to light cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking lights after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Many smokers of lights
Data & statistics on Lung cancer mortality by ethnic group age group and sex: Lung cancer mortality, by ethnic group, age group and sex, 2011, Lung Cancer Mortality Rates by Sex and Ethnicity 1987-1995 Age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates by sex and ethnicity for the combined period 1990 through 1995, along with their 95% confidence intervals and the rate ratios of each group compared to White rates, are shown in Table 21. (See also Figures 6 and 7, pp. 28-29) Table 21: Lung Cancer Mortality Rates and Rate Ratios by Ethnicity and Sex, ..., That the lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver women were higher than rates in the remainder of the Metro area in all race/ethnicity groups; the differences were statistically significant for all races combined, and white non-Hispanics. For males, lung cancer mortality rates in North Denver were higher than other Metro area rates for all races combined, white non-Hispanics, and Hispanics, but ......
TY - THES. T1 - Oral health promotion and tobacco use prevention in South Africa : towards an integrated educational approach. AU - Ayo-Yusuf, O.A.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. SN - 9780620421904. PB - Maastricht University. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
quitting gradually, either by tapering or postponing. The gradual approach beats going cold turkey if youre especially anxious about quitting or lack confidence in your ability to quit. With the tapering method, set your quit date, count the number of cigarettes you typically smoke daily, and then smoke fewer cigarettes each day. If you typically smoke, say, 30 cigarettes daily, resolve to smoke 5 fewer cigarettes each day, so youll have quit completely in 6 days. Unless youre a light smoker to begin with, cut back by more than just one cigarette daily; your total tapering time should be a few days, not a few weeks. Dragging it out too long could turn into a procrastination tactic. With the postponing method, delay your first cigarette of the day by 2 hours every day. Heres a sample schedule: On day 1, smoke your first cigarette at 8:00 A.M.; on day 2, at 10 A.M.; on day 3, at noon-and so on. If you go this route, make sure to consider your work schedule; it could limit your ability to ...
To date, the sharing behaviors associated with the homemade tobacco waterpipe used in rural areas of the Western Pacific Region have not been studied. Evidence from studies of manufactured waterpipes raises the possibility of infectious disease transmission due to waterpipe sharing. The objective of our pilot study in rural Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (PDR) was to identify and measure the prevalence of waterpipe sharing behaviors. We first conducted ethnographic studies to investigate waterpipe-smoking behaviors. These findings were then used to develop an interviewer-administered household survey that was used in a sampling of waterpipe smokers from three villages of the Luang Namtha province of Lao PDR (n = 43). Sampled waterpipe smokers were predominantly male (90.7%), older (mean age 49, SD 13.79), married (95.4%), farmers (78.6%), and had completed no primary education. Pipes were primarily made from bamboo (92.9%). Almost all (97.6%) smokers were willing to share their pipe with others. At
The Institute for Global Tobacco Control is a part of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Our mission is to prevent death and disease from tobacco products by generating evidence to support effective tobacco control interventions.
The Institute for Global Tobacco Control is a part of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Our mission is to prevent death and disease from tobacco products by generating evidence to support effective tobacco control interventions.
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apr/03_0034p.htm. PEER REVIEWED. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is conducting several reviews of mass media campaigns to determine the kinds of campaign elements that contribute most to success. The purpose of the reviews is to aid states and other countries in developing their own campaigns to reduce smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The first 2 reviews (of campaigns to promote adult smoking cessation and youth tobacco use prevention) have been completed. Preliminary findings for the third review (of campaigns to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke) are available.. Media campaigns are an effective component of a comprehensive tobacco control program. Programs must determine ways to make their limited funds work most efficiently to change attitudes and behaviors related to smoking and secondhand smoke via media campaigns.. Data and results were solicited through a variety of channels, including CDC networks, GLOBALink, and the World Health Organization. Qualitative ...
Databases of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD) from 1999 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare with permission for analytical use. The SDD, which involved the same sample population as that of the NNS, is conducted every six years. Data were collected from persons aged 1 year or older from approximately 5000 households in 300 districts. The background and general procedure of the surveys were described previously [11].. Smoking status was defined in the questionnaires of the NNS as: current smoker, an individual who currently smokes cigarettes daily or occasionally; former smoker, an individual who has smoked cigarettes at some point in their life, but who currently does not smoke; non-smoker, an individual who was an experimental smoker or who has never smoked cigarettes. Current smokers were asked about cigarette consumption in terms of the number of cigarettes per day and duration of smoking.. In the SDD, calibrated ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed last Tuesday that menthol-flavored cigarettes pose greater damaging effects to public health, because they are more addictive than regular cigarettes.. The findings were published by the FDA, menthol cigarettes pose a public health risk above that seen with non-menthol cigarettes. The study explains that menthol-flavored cigarettes are not more harmful than regular ones, in terms of toxicity, however, menthol´s freshness and anesthetic properties tend to reduce the unpleasant flavor of tobacco; as result, the number of young smokers increases. In the U.S., menthol-flavored cigarettes account for about a quarter of the total market.. Also, the FDA explained, Menthol smokers show greater signs of nicotine dependence and are less likely to successfully quit smoking.. Menthol-flavored cigarettes are consumed, mostly, by African Americans and teenagers. Nonetheless, the FDA didn´t proposed any specific restriction or ban on the subject for ...
On World Head and Neck Cancer Day held on July 27, the experts urged Indian citizens to stay away from tobacco use, as its a major cause of cancer. Head and neck cancer occurs mainly in the mouth, larynx, throat or nose.. Dr. Harit Chaturvedi, cancer surgeon, Chairman Max Oncology, and Voice of Tobacco Victims (VoTV) patron said, Head & neck cancers are the biggest sources of the cancer burden in India. Nearly half of the newly diagnosed head & neck cancers die within 12 months of diagnosis. Paradoxically, two-thirds of head & neck cancers are related to known agents such as tobacco, areca nut, and alcohol.. Unfortunately, these causative agents are freely available either due to a weak policy implementation or absence of it. India witnesses 1.75 lac new cases of head and neck cancers every year. Of these 76% are males and 24% are females.. In India, tobacco chewing is more as compared to smoking. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2017, of the 28.6% of overall prevalence of ...
Understanding the trends in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youths enables policy makers to target prevention resources more effectively. Every 2 years, CDC analyzes data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to evaluate trends in cigarette use among high school students in the United States. This report updates a previous report (1) and describes results of CDCs 2010 analysis of YRBS data from 1991--2009 for three measures: ever smoked cigarettes, current cigarette use, and current frequent cigarette use. For ever smoked cigarettes, the prevalence did not change from 1991 (70.1%) to 1999 (70.4%), declined to 58.4% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 46.3% in 2009. For current cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 27.5% in 1991 to 36.4% in 1997, declined to 21.9% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 19.5% in 2009. For current frequent cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 12.7% in 1991 to 16.8% in 1999, declined to 9.7% in 2003, and then ...
The specific objectives of the present study are to analyze the differentials in prevalence; progression of use of tobacco and major determinants of quitting of smoking as well as use of smokeless tobacco. The rationale behind this study is to spread the awareness about the disease and deaths due to tobacco consumption. This study utilized the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS India).The prevalence is high in Bihar (54%), Chhattisgarh (53%), and Jharkhand (50%) and the lowest in Goa (9 %), Punjab (12 %).the probability of quitting tobacco among females is 1.35 times (p
TY - JOUR. T1 - Salivary antioxidants status following progressive aerobic exercise. T2 - What are the differences between waterpipe smokers and non-smokers?. AU - Arazi, Hamid. AU - Taati, Behzad. AU - Sajedi, Forough Rafati. AU - Suzuki, Katsuhiko. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in stressful conditions. We, therefore, compared the responses of salivary flow rate (SFR), uric acid (UA) concentration, and peroxidase (POX) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) activities between WPT smokers and non-smokers following a bout of exhaustive aerobic exercise (AE). Twenty-three sedentary young women (age: 22.95 ± 2.83 years) participated in this study, including 11 smokers (7.00 ± 1.41 uses/week) and 12 non-smokers. All ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. T2 - A prospective cohort study. AU - Ota, Atsuhiko. AU - Masue, Takeshi. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Tsutsumi, Akizumi. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Ohara, Hiroshi. AU - Ono, Yuichiro. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Background: Smokers nonsmoking partners may be expected to encourage the smokers to quit smoking. However, there is little evidence regarding whether this expectation is applicable to the cases of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. Objective: We examined the relationship between living with a nonsmoking partner and smoking cessation of middle-aged Japanese male smokers. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Five hundred seventy nine male smokers were observed for two years during which no intensive smoking cessation interventions were offered to either the subjects or their partners. The smoking status of the subjects and their partners was assessed based on ...
Tobacco, a legal product worldwide, killed 100 million people in the 20th century, and could kill as many as a billion human beings in the current century.1 Efforts to prevent tobacco-related morbidity and premature mortality depend on prevention programs, policies protecting people from tobacco smoke exposure, and effective cessation programs. Over a decade ago, Peto and Lopez showed that cessation will contribute quickly to lowering the burden of smoking-induced disease, because of the immediate health benefits of quitting and the long lag time for the development of many smoking-related diseases.2 Cessation has the additional benefit of the prevention of exposure of others to tobacco smoke. Yet, cessation for many smokers remains an elusive goal,3(p.15) with most quitters returning to their habit over time.4. Principles of behavior assume that the provision of knowledge works to change behavior when motivation for change is present. Increased perception of risk has been shown to be associated ...
Links to the Government of Canadas Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS), Health Canadas Tobacco Control Programme (TCP) and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
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ANY cigarette smoker can easily make a menthol inhaler to fight his winter colds. All that is necessary is a small bottle of menthol crystals, some absorbent cotton, a cigarette holder, a smoke instead of a sweet, and the habit. Several of the menthol crystals should be lightly wrapped in the cotton and inserted in the holder before the cigarette is inserted. The smoker will find that he has a much cooler smoke and that the menthol tends to clear the throat and nose when inhaled and expelled through the nose. It will also tend to extract the nicotine from the smoke. ...
Were encouraged by the continued decline in youth tobacco use in Minnesota, said Minnesota Commissioner of Health Dr. Sanne Magnan. Many local public health departments, tobacco prevention organizations and other partners contributed to this decline. We have more work to do, however, because tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in this country.. The new Freedom to Breathe Act is likely helping to discourage youth tobacco use, according to Dr. Jane Korn, a chronic disease epidemiologist with MDH. Smoke-free laws create a positive example for young people and lead to decreased smoking, said Korn. She noted that nearly 90 percent of the middle school students surveyed believe that smoking should never be allowed inside their homes, their vehicles, at workplaces and in indoor public places. Support among high school students ranges from 71 percent for vehicles to 81 percent for indoor public places.. Korn expressed concern about several findings in the survey.. * ...
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The aim of the study: The aim of the study was clinical and cytological examination of gingival changes in smokers and non-smokers. was higher than in non-smokers group, but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The values of examined indices showed buy 213261-59-7 higher values in smokers group. This finding could show that the level of oral hygiene is higher in the non smokers group. The size of nucleus (area, Ferrets diameter and perimeter) was higher in the group of smokers, but differences were not statistically significant. Teamwork of many different speciality experts is required for better periodontal health of smokers. Key words: smoking, periodontal disease, gingival, cytological investigation. 1.?INTRODUCTION Periodontal disease is chronic, inflammatory disease followed by destruction of periodontal tissues. Oral biofilm with anaerobic microorganisms represents main etiological factor for occurrence of periodontal disease, buy 213261-59-7 but cigarette smoking is ...
Outbreak of Lung Injury Associated with the Use of E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products. CDC has identified vitamin E acetate as a chemical of concern among people with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI). Recent CDC laboratory testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples (fluid samples collected from the lungs) from 29 patients with EVALI submitted to CDC from 10 states found vitamin E acetate in all of the samples. Vitamin E acetate might be used as an additive, most notably as a thickening agent in THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products.. CDC recommends that people should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, particularly from informal sources like friends, or family, or in-person or online dealers. Until the relationship of vitamin E acetate and lung health is better understood, vitamin E acetate should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products. In addition, people should not add any substance to e-cigarette or vaping ...
PubMed journal article: Smoking-associated interstitial lung disease: update and review. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Background: Genotype announcements related to susceptibility to hazardous effects of smoking may be effective ‍to induce smoking cessation. ‍Methods: Subjects were municipal government employees, 63 young smokers employed in the previous year and ‍59 smokers with more than 45 pack-years, who were invited to educational sessions against smoking held in December ‍2003 and February 2004, respectively. In the session, those who wished genetic susceptibility tests (GSTM1, GSTT1, ‍and NQO1 C609T) were enrolled in the study. The smoking habit was ascertained three times: at the session, one ‍month later, just before the genotype announcement, and at the follow-up three months after the announcement. ‍Results: Fifty eight (92.1%) and 49 (83.1%) smokers participated in the study, respectively. One out of 58 smokers ‍was not a habitual smoker, so was not included in the analysis. The smoking cessation rates were 15.8% (9 participants) ‍and 6.1% (3 participants) just before the genotype
COPD is a disease in which the lung airways are damaged and partly obstructed, making it difficult to breathe. Millions of people in the United States have COPD, and it is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Symptoms include coughing, excess mucus production, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. Emphysema and long-term bronchitis are the two most common manifestations of the disease. The most common risk factor for developing COPD is cigarette smoking; however, only 15% to 20% of smokers develop COPD in their lifetimes. It is not known why some smokers develop COPD and some do not, but certain genetic factors, combined with exposure to cigarette smoke, may increase the likelihood of developing COPD. This study will analyze DNA from current and former cigarette smokers to identify genetic factors and markers that may indicate a predisposition to developing COPD.. This study will enroll African-American and white cigarette smokers and former cigarette smokers both ...
Pre-cessation reduction is associated with quitting smoking. However, many smokers reduce the amount consumed but may not quit altogether. Using a representative sample of adult current daily smokers, this project explored future intentions of smokers regarding cigarette consumption. This information is important because it can provide a framework within which to plan tobacco cessation initiatives. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. The response rate was 65% (of households with a smoker in residence, 65% agreed to participate). Analyses focused on the 825 respondents who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day at some point in their lives. As part of this survey, respondents were asked their future plans about their smoking (maintain, increase, reduce, quit). Of these 825 respondents, the majority of respondents had plans to change their cigarette use, with 55% planning to quit, 18.8% to reduce and 22.5% to maintain the amount
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Longtime women smokers are two-and-a-half times more likely to suffer sudden cardiac death than non-smokers, a researcher in Canada says.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), smoking tobacco is the top risk factor for lung cancer, with 90 percent of cases attributed to tobacco use. People who smoke cigarettes are 15 to 30 times more likely to get lung cancer or die from lung cancer than those who do not. The 2014 U.S. Surgeon Generals Report stated that women smokers were 25.7 times more likely than women who never smoked to develop lung cancer. Male smokers were 25 times more at risk than men who never smoked. Smoke from others cigarettes, pipes, or cigars (secondhand smoke) also causes lung cancer. Quitting smoking at any age can lower the risk of lung cancer ...
SEOUL, June 2 (Korea Bizwire) - A recent study showed that smokers or those exposed to second-hand smoke require more anesthetic and painkillers during surgical operations than non-smokers, hinting that exposure to smoking can hinder anesthesia and pain control.. According to a May 30 report by Science Daily, Erdogan Ozturk of Bezmialem Vakif University in Turkey arrived at the conclusion after dividing 90 women who underwent surgery to remove their uterus through abdominal hysterectomy into three groups: smokers, those who were exposed to secondhand smoke, and non-smokers. Doses of propofol and remifentanil were monitored for the three groups of 30 patients each.. Doctor Ozturks team compared the total amounts of anesthetic and painkillers among the three groups to maintain the Bispectral index value (BIS) from 40 to 60.. The amount of propofol used for the induction of anesthesia was 102.76mg for the smoker group, 84.53mg for the passive smoker group and 119.37mg for the non-smoker ...
Vogue apparently doesnt care that 178,000 women die every year due to lung cancer and other smoking-related disease. Their latest response to your faxes about light and luscious Camel No. 9s -- Could you stop? Youre killing trees. R.J. Reynolds doesnt care either. Death is literally being marketed - and sold - to our daughters, mothers, and sisters through Camel No.9 ad campaigns. Thats why our Youth Advocates of the Year - the YAYAs - are taking the fight against Big Tobacco and Camel No.9 straight to Washington, DC. Will you help the YAYAs wage this most important battle on Capitol Hill and sponsor their training at this summers Youth Advocacy Symposium? At the six-day symposium, YAYAs from across the country will learn how to lobby our nations lawmakers for passage of life-saving FDA legislation that will spell the end for pretty and pink Camel No.9 ads and other sinister marketing that attracts youth. ... Your gift will give the YAYAs the tools and training they need to influence ...
PubMed journal article Parental smoking behavior and passive smoke exposure in children with asthm were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
PURPOSE; To test whether differences in smoking-related lung cancer risks in blacks and whites can explain why lung cancer incidence is greater in black males than in white males but about equal in black and white females, given that a greater proportion of blacks are smokers, but smoke far fewer cigarettes per day than do whites. METHODS; A hospital-based case-control study was conducted between 1984 and 1998 that included interviews with 1,710 white male and 1,321 white female cases of histologically confirmed lung cancer, 254 black male and 163 black female cases, and 8,151 controls. Relative risks were estimated via odds ratios using logistic regression, adjusted for age, education, and body mass index. RESULTS; We confirmed prior reports that smoking prevalence is higher but overall dosage is lower among blacks. Overall ORs were similar for blacks and whites, except among the heaviest smoking males (21+ cigarettes per day or 37.5 pack-years), in whom ORs for blacks were considerably greater than
cigarette use, and current frequent cigarette use. For ever smoked cigarettes, the prevalence did not change from 1991 (70.1%) to 1999 (70.4%), declined to 58.4% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 46.3% in 2009. For current cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 27.5% in 1991 to 36.4% in 1997, declined to 21.9% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 19.5% in 2009. For current frequent cigarette use, the prevalence increased from 12.7% in 1991 to 16.8% in 1999, declined to 9.7% in 2003, and then declined more gradually, to 7.3% in 2009. For all three measures, rates began to decline in the late 1990s, but the rate of decline slowed during 2003-2009. (Cigarette Use Among High School Students - United States, 1991-2009, MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vol. 59 / No. 26, 7/9/2010 ...
There is a strong relationship between the length of time a person smokes, the number of cigarettes a person smokes each day, and the development of smoking-related diseases. Simply put, the more one smokes, the more one is likely to suffer ill effects. Cigarette smoke weakens blood vessel walls and increases the level of cholesterol in the blood, which can lead to atherosclerosis (a disease in which fatty material is deposited in the arterial walls). It can cause the coronary arteries to narrow, increasing the risk of heart attack due to impaired blood flow to the heart. Smoking also increases the risk of stroke (a blood clot or rupture in an artery of the brain). In addition to lung cancer, smoking can cause cancers of the mouth, throat, voicebox, esophagus, stomach, cervix, and bladder. Drinking alcohol while smoking causes 75 percent of all mouth and throat cancers. ...
The Marlboro-makers Hold My Light campaign claims to be a new way to give up cigarettes, and links to a website where smokers can create a profile and have friends commit to help them quit. Charity Cancer Research U.K. criticized the move, calling it staggering hypocrisy.
In 2000-04, a pilot project in East Texas sought to find out what is needed to encourage grade schools children not to use tobacco. The pilot project spent $3 per person, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This program demonstrated that by using $3 per person, a comprehensive tobacco control and prevention program can make a difference. It demonstrated a significant 37-percent drop in grade 6-12 smokers and a 26-percent reduction in smoking in adults aged 18-22. Only a concerted effort throughout the state, with an expenditure of at least $3 per person on a comprehensive tobacco control program, can maintain these impressive numbers ...
NOTES 1. Cigarette Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-- United States, 1990, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42 (Aug. 27, 1993): 645-49. (Return to text.) 2. On average, an adult cigarette smoker (current or former) spends 20 percent more on health care than an adult who has never smoked. This excess rate of spending varies from 10 to 30 percent, depending on the source of data and the methods used by researchers to compare smokers and nonsmokers, but in some studies it runs as high as 100 percent. See, for example: J. Paul Leigh and James F. Fries, Health Habits, Health Care Use and Costs in a Sample of Retirees, Inquiry 29 (Spring 1992): 44-54; Thomas A. Hodgson, Cigarette Smoking and Lifetime Medical Expenditures, Milbank Quarterly 70 (1992): 81-125; Willard G. Manning, Emmett B. Keeler, Joseph P. Newhouse, et al., The Costs of Poor Health Habits (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991); Dorothy P. Rice, Thomas A. Hodgson, et al., The ...
Interested candidates should forward their resume/cover letter, quoting this File #98-NY-009 to Human Resources, City of Toronto, North York Civic Centre, 5100 Yonge Street, North York, Ontario, M2N 5V7 or by Fax to: (416) 395-6985 by the closing date of May 7, 1998 ...
There is a strong link between cigarette smoking and socio-economic group. Smoking has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in death rates between rich and poor in the UK. Smoking accounts for over half of the difference in risk of premature death between social classes.. Death rates from tobacco are two to three times higher among disadvantaged social groups than among the better off.. Long-term smokers bear the heaviest burden of death and disease related to their smoking. Long-term smokers are disproportionately drawn from lower socio-economic groups. People in poorer social groups who smoke, start smoking at an earlier age: of those in managerial and professional households about one third start smoking before age 16 compared with almost half of those in routine and manual household.. Below is a recording of a webinar by Martin Dockrell from Public Health England and Amanda Amos from the University of Edinburgh. (A on the topics that arose during the webinar is ...
Secondhand tobacco smoke[edit]. Many of the flight attendants working today were exposed to second-hand in-flight smoke until ... "Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross- ... Checks must also be done on the lavatory to ensure the smoke detector hasn't been disabled or destroyed and to restock supplies ... The long-term effects of this historical secondhand smoke exposure have not been well characterized.[61] ...
... and water-pipe smoke, also confer a risk.[9] Water-pipe smoke appears to be as harmful as smoking cigarettes.[49] Problems from ... In those who smoke, stopping smoking is the only measure shown to slow down the worsening of COPD.[90][91] Even at a late stage ... Smoking cessation[edit]. Keeping people from starting smoking is a key aspect of preventing COPD.[88] The policies of ... The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking.[9] Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD,[44] and of those ...
Smoking[edit]. Smoking is possibly associated with ALS. A 2009 review concluded that smoking was an established risk factor for ... but that smoking might be associated with a higher risk of ALS in women.[76] A 2011 meta-analysis concluded that smoking ... neither the number of years smoked nor the number of cigarettes smoked per day affected their risk of developing ALS.[77] ... Possible associations for which evidence is inconclusive include military service and smoking.[36] Although studies on military ...
The Ruby in the Smoke[edit]. Main article: The Ruby in the Smoke ... Frederick appears in The Ruby in the Smoke and The Shadow in ... Holland in The Ruby in the Smoke. Once Mrs. Holland dies, she is still not found until the later books. She appears in The Tin ... Sally Lockhart is first introduced in The Ruby in the Smoke, the first of the four novels in the Sally Lockhart Quartet. The ... Ah Ling/Hendrik van Eeden/Tzaddik is in The Ruby in the Smoke and The Tiger in the Well. ...
Smoking[edit]. Substance use is likely not attributed to peer pressure alone. Evidence of genetic predispositions for substance ... For instance, in a study of nicotine use Johnson and colleagues found that peer smoking had a lower effect on nicotine ... Programs that targeted students in grades 8-9 reduced smoking, but not alcohol and other drug abuse, and programs that targeted ... Urberg, Kathryn A.; Shiang-Jeou, Shyu; Liang, Jersey (1990). "Peer influence in adolescent cigarette smoking". Addictive ...
Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ... Little is currently known about how paternal smoking damages the fetus, and what window of time in which the father smokes is ... usually through first or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a non-smoking ...
Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ... Little is currently known about how paternal smoking damages the fetus, and what window of time in which the father smokes is ... Not enough folic acid, drinking alcohol or smoking, poorly controlled diabetes, mother over the age of 35[6][7]. ...
Second-hand smoke is a mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe or cigar, and the smoke exhaled from the ... "Health effects of smoking" and "Dangers of smoking" redirect here. For cannabis, see Effects of cannabis. For smoking crack ... The effects depend on the number of years that a person smokes and on how much the person smokes. Starting smoking earlier in ... Risks vary according to the amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk. Smoking so-called "light" ...
Smoke sauna[edit]. Smoke sauna (Finnish savusauna, Estonian suitsusaun, Võro savvusann) is one of the earliest forms of the ... which eliminates the smoke odour and eye irritation of the smoke sauna. A heat storage stove does not give up much heat in the ... The smoke deposits a layer of soot on every surface, so if the benches and back-rests can be removed while the fire is alight ... The first Finnish saunas are what nowadays are called savusaunas, or smoke saunas.[7] These differed from present-day saunas in ...
Smoking[edit]. Tobacco smoking is by far the main contributor to lung cancer.[4] Cigarette smoke contains at least 73 known ... Marijuana smoke contains many of the same carcinogens as those in tobacco smoke.[35] However, the effect of smoking cannabis on ... Passive smoking-the inhalation of smoke from another's smoking-is a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. A passive smoker can be ... "Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking" (PDF). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. WHO ...
Volume Three (In the Smoke and Din)[edit]. Creators[edit]. Dark Horse launched a third series, In the Smoke and Din, consisting ... Ghost - In The Smoke And Din 4-issue mini-series (written by Kelly Sue Deconnick, art by Phil Noto; serialized since October ...
Smoked[edit]. The total short-term duration of cannabis use when smoked is based on the potency, method of smoking - e.g. ... Related to smoking[edit]. A 2007 study found that while tobacco and cannabis smoke are quite similar, cannabis smoke contained ... Smoking any substance could possibly carry similar risks as smoking tobacco due to carcinogens in all smoke,[8] [9][10] and the ... smoke emitted from a smouldering 'joint' or 'cone') smoke.[30] Mainstream cannabis smoke was found to contain higher ...
Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and smoked ... A technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire. ... Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States. ...
Smoking cessation[edit]. In low-risk pregnancies, the association between cigarette smoking and a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia ... the damaging effects of smoking on overall health and pregnancy outcomes outweighs the benefits in decreasing the incidence of ... "Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Angiogenic Factors in Pregnancy and Preeclampsia". Am. J. Hypertens. 21 (8): 943-47. doi:10.1038/ ... pre-eclampsia.[10] It is recommended that smoking be stopped prior to, during and after pregnancy.[50] ...
Wood smoke from wildfires produces particulate matter that has damaging effects to human health.[158] The primary pollutants in ... The health effects of wildfire smoke exposure include exacerbation and development of respiratory illness such as asthma and ... Burns and smoke inhalation from the increasing number of fires lead to a decline in physical health, which leads to mental ... wildfire smoke releases other toxic and carcinogenic compounds, such as formaldehyde and hydrocarbons.[159] These pollutants ...
Smoking Cessation[edit]. Independent pharmacies provide tobacco cessation counseling including recommendations for over-the- ...
"a woman smoking crack" I believe that this is, indeed, a MAN smoking crack. However, he is wearing womenly garb, as would often ... Smoking cocaine. Maybe I missed it but is it possible to smoke cocaine the 'chasing the dragon' way? ... Picture of Prostitute Smoking Crack. This is a great picture. However, I am not convinced of the statement reflected when one ... Hi there, according the "The Book of Useless Information" crack gets its name because it crackles when you smoke it. Thanks, 12 ...
Health, CDC's Office on Smoking and (26 April 2018). "CDC - Electronic Cigarettes - Smoking & Tobacco Use". Smoking and Tobacco ... National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. "Electronic cigarettes: A briefing for stop smoking services". ... Electric smoking system. Notes. *^ Electronic cigarettes are variously known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs, EC,[1] electronic ... "Smoking in England. Retrieved 6 December 2015.. *^ a b Carroll Chapman, SL; Wu, LT (18 March 2014). "E-cigarette prevalence and ...
Smoke screens[edit]. It has been used to produce smoke screens since it produces a heavy, white smoke that has little tendency ... This smoke is however corrosive. Alcohols react with TiCl4 to give the corresponding alkoxides with the formula [Ti(OR)4]n (R ...
Smoke grenades[edit]. The zinc chloride smoke mixture ("HC") used in smoke grenades contains zinc oxide and hexachloroethane, ... Sample, B. E. (1997). Methods for Field Studies of Effects of Military Smokes, Obscurants, and Riot-control Agents on ... which, when ignited, react to form zinc chloride smoke, an effective smoke screen.[43] ... Zinc chloride is extremely detrimental to the lungs, and pulmonary exposure to zinc chloride smoke resulted in ten fatalities.[ ...
Smoking cessation[edit]. Further information: Smoking cessation. To help the bronchial tree heal faster and not make bronchitis ... Prevention is by not smoking and avoiding other lung irritants.[5] Frequent hand washing may also be protective.[5] Furthermore ... Prevention is by not smoking and avoiding other lung irritants.[5] Frequent hand washing and flu vaccination may also be ... Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[2] A small number of cases are due to high ...
Health, CDC's Office on Smoking and (26 April 2018). "CDC - Electronic Cigarettes - Smoking & Tobacco Use". Smoking and Tobacco ... National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. "Electronic cigarettes: A briefing for stop smoking services". ... "Smoking in England. Retrieved 6 December 2015.. *^ a b Carroll Chapman, SL; Wu, LT (18 March 2014). "E-cigarette prevalence and ... rather than cigarette smoke.[24] The aerosol provides a flavor and feel similar to tobacco smoking.[95] ...
Second-hand smoke[edit]. According to David Biello and John Pavlus in Scientific American, Singer is best known for his denial ... That's not my business."[8] In December 2010 he wrote in American Thinker that he is nonsmoker who finds second-hand smoke an ... According to Singer, he serves on the advisory board of an anti-smoking organization, and has never been paid by Philip Morris ... The public debates in which Singer has received most criticism have been about second-hand smoke and global warming. He has ...
... there were no effects from factors such as smoking, alcohol, the level of education, a history of appendectomy or familiarity ...
Smoking. Diagnosis[edit]. In regards to the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia the body requires oxygenated blood for survival. ...
"Smoking... but not so hot: Lady Gaga poses as a scruffy-looking man on cover of new single". Daily Mail. August 6, 2011. ... The other image is of Jo Calderone in silhouette exhaling a cloud of smoke.[11] ... smoking and drinking a beer. As Calderone pulls up his sleeves, present day Gaga is still walking through the desert. ... It features two black-and-white images of Gaga's male alter ego Jo Calderone smoking a cigarette and sporting sideburns.[9] The ...
There he was taught by a teacher wearing clogs in a classroom heated by a smoking stove.[2] ...
Smoking. Higher risk for smokers. Lower risk for smokers[33] Age. Usual onset between 15 and 30 years[34]. Peak incidence ... A study of heritability and the influence of smoking". Gut. 29 (7): 990-6. doi:10.1136/gut.29.7.990. PMC 1433769. PMID 3396969. ... Calkins BM (December 1989). "A meta-analysis of the role of smoking in inflammatory bowel disease". Digestive Diseases and ... Furthermore, it has been suggested that the protective benefit of smoking in ulcerative colitis is due to the hydrogen cyanide ...
Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, food, vomitus and less common foreign ...
The Tips From Former Smokers campaign features real people suffering as a result of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. ... FDA 101: Smoking Cessation Productsexternal icon. How FDA-approved medicines can help you quit smoking.. YouCanQuit2external ... Quitting smoking now improves your health and reduces your risk of heart disease, cancer, lung disease, and other smoking- ... Information and resources for quitting smoking.. American Lung Associationexternal icon. Information on how to quit smoking, ...
For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness. Smoking causes ... Secondhand smoke causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults. Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke ... Surgeon Generals Reports on Smoking and Tobacco Useplus icon*2020 SGR-Smoking Cessation ... Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body.. More than 16 million Americans are living ...
Smokers often start smoking because friends or family do. But they keep smoking because they get addicted to nicotine, one of ... If you smoked in your car, clean that out, too.. Think about your triggers. Youre probably aware of the times when you tend to ... Break the link. If you smoke when you drive, get a ride to school, walk, or take the bus for a few weeks so you can break the ... If you normally smoke after meals, do something else after you eat, like go for a walk or talk to a friend. ...
Quit Smoking Now. Download Smoke Free - Quit Smoking Now and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Smoke Free - ... This is next level, Ive been smoking for YEARS & havent ever felt so happy being smoke-free. This app makes your new, smoke- ... This is next level, Ive been smoking for YEARS & havent ever felt so happy being smoke-free. This app makes your new, smoke- ...
... views on smoking, stopping smoking, and smoking cessation resources and services. Health Soc Care the Community2006;14:572-82. ... Ascertainment of smoking status. Eleven studies did not report continuous abstinence, classification of smoking status was not ... Ascertainment of smoking status. Some studies might misclassify exposure by using point prevalence smoking abstinence. This ... West R, McEwen A, Bolling K, Owen L. Smoking cessation and smoking patterns in the general population: a 1 year follow-up. ...
Smoking increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and angina. ... Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and ... Second-hand smoke. Second-hand smoke can cause heart disease in non-smokers. Breathing in second-hand smoke damages your ... What smoking does to your heart. Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and other parts of your body. It ... If you smoke, you are:. Four times more likely to die of heart disease (i.e. heart attack and stroke) and three times more ...
Journal of the American Medical Association put a dent in the arguments against Marijuana smoking today, with release of a new ... In fact, smoking accounts for 30 percent of all cancer deaths in the U.S. Learn exactly why smoking is so bad for the health, ... The reasons why smoking is bad for you Smoking damages nearly every organ in the body. It is directly responsible for a range ... Smoking every day can increase psychosis risk, study finds Smoking at least 10 cigarettes every day or using marijuana at least ...
Fact sheet on smoking materials (PDF). *Changes in Origin in Home Structure Fires Started by Smoking Materials fact sheet (PDF) ... Smoking & home fire safety tip sheet. The place where we feel safest - at home - is where most smoking-materials structure ... In this presentation, safety tips are provided for the precautions that should be taken by people who smoke, where to smoke ... Smoking materials are the leading cause of fire deaths. Smoking material fires are preventable. ...
Smoking bans are generally acknowledged to reduce rates of smoking; smoke-free workplaces reduce smoking rates among workers,[ ... Smoke-free laws may move smoking elsewhere[edit]. Restrictions upon smoking in offices and other enclosed public places often ... Montana Gaming Group, effect of public smoking ban on Montana businesses , smoking ban in public areas,Helena Montana smoking ... "Smoking ban up in smoke in Kolkata".. *^ "The Official Website of Joe Jackson". Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. ...
Smoking can be done in four ways: cold smoking, warm smoking, hot smoking, and through the employment of "liquid smoke".[6] ... Smoke roasting[edit]. Smoke-roasting refers to any process that has the attributes of both roasting and smoking. This smoking ... a b c Briefing: Smoked Food The Herald, 2/19/2002 *^ Janes, Hilly Smoked food; ...on a plate The intense yet subtle taste of ... Hot smoking[edit]. Hot smoking exposes the foods to smoke and heat in a controlled environment such as a smoker oven or ...
Public say passive smoking is dangerous. The public believes passive smoking is a risk to health, despite split scientific ... SMOKING Smoker drops discrimination claim. A heart patient who is suing a hospital for negligence admits there is no firm ... Smoking cities. Children are having to breathe in so much air pollution in some major cities in the developing world that they ... Controversy on passive smoking measures. The hospitality industry has welcomed the governments choice of a voluntary code ...
... : n.. [ITS] A display hack originally due to Bill Gosper. Many convergent lines are drawn on a color monitor in ...
Zyban: In Mondays Health section, an article on quitting smoking said that the smoking-cessation medication Zyban might act by ... All smoking cessation aids ultimately hinge on one necessity: the desire to quit. Motivation can come from concerns about the ... Some employers refuse to hire a job candidate who smokes. If those arent reason enough, a Feb. 12 study in the New England ... Varenicline, marketed in the U.S. since 2006 as Chantix by New York-based Pfizer Inc., was the first new smoking-cessation drug ...
Find out about the benefits of quitting smoking, including more money, better health, increased fertility, less stress, more ... A smoke-free home protects your loved ones. By stopping smoking, youll be protecting the health of your non-smoking friends ... Read about how stopping smoking helps banish bad breath.. Quit smoking to live longer. Half of all long-term smokers die early ... Stopping smoking lets you breathe more easily. People breathe more easily and cough less when they give up smoking because ...
... The health risks of smoking are well known, but kids and teens continue to smoke and use chewing tobacco. ... The Facts About Smoking and Tobacco. One reason that smoking and chewing tobacco are major health hazards is because they ... Stick to the smoking rules youve set up, and dont let a child smoke at home just to keep the peace. ... If You Smoke. Kids are quick to spot any contradiction between what their parents say and what they do. Despite what you might ...
... including 41,000 from second-hand smoke. That makes tobacco the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the U. ... Cigarette smoking is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths in the United States each year, ... Most people who smoke have friends or family members who also smoke. The younger a person is when he or she starts to smoke, ... What Is the Most Effective Way to Quit Smoking? Quitting smoking at any age can improve a persons health, and the earlier a ...
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Is It OK To Pay Pregnant Women To Stop Smoking? January 28, 2015 Its notoriously hard to get people to quit smoking. Pregnant ... How Hospitals Can Help Patients Quit Smoking Before Surgery. August 22, 2013 Doctors often tell patients to stop smoking before ... A woman smokes an electronic cigarette at a store in Miami. Joe Raedle/Getty Images hide caption ... State public health departments have added Web tools to their stop-smoking aids. Eric Audras/PhotoAlto/Corbis hide caption ...
Is It OK To Pay Pregnant Women To Stop Smoking? January 28, 2015 Its notoriously hard to get people to quit smoking. Pregnant ... How Hospitals Can Help Patients Quit Smoking Before Surgery. August 22, 2013 Doctors often tell patients to stop smoking before ... To Quit Smoking, Its Best To Go Cold Turkey. Listen · 3:30 3:30 ... Would Californias Proposed Tobacco Tax Hike Reduce Smoking?. Listen · 3:34 3:34 ...
Smoking is on the decline, but some people are still lighting up. Why? The answer is addiction. Find out more in this article ... Smoking can affect sexual health in both men and women. Girls who smoke and are on hormone-based birth control methods like the ... and often if theyre just around people who smoke). Teens who smoke as a way to manage their weight often light up instead of ... Staying smoke-free will give you more energy, better looks, more money in your pocket, and in the long run, more life to live! ...
... Cutler and Glaeser. w11100 What Explains Differences in Smoking, Drinking and Other Health- ... We address the endogeneity of peers by looking at the impact of workplace smoking bans on spousal and peer group smoking. Using ... Social Interactions and Smoking. David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser. NBER Working Paper No. 13477. Issued in October 2007. NBER ... we find that individuals whose spouses smoke are 40 percent more likely to smoke themselves. We also find evidence for the ...
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Thaw Meat Before Smoking. Completely thaw meat or poultry before smoking. Because smoking uses low temperatures to cook food, ... What is smoking?. Smoking is slowly cooking food indirectly over a fire. This can be done by using a "smoker," which is an ... Smoking Meat and Poultry. Where theres smoke, theres well-flavored meat and poultry. Using a smoker is one method of ... Use Two Thermometers to Smoke Food Safely. To ensure meat and poultry are smoked safely, youll need two types of thermometers ...
England slammed the door on smoking in bars, workplaces and public buildings on Sunday in what campaigners hail as the biggest ... Deborah Arnott, director of charity Action on Smoking and Health, welcomed the ban. She said: Smoking is the single most ... Workers have a right to a safe environment and the harm done by tobacco smoke is now known to be significantly dangerous. ... Ireland and other European countries have also banned smoking indoors, while some parts of Canada and a number of U.S. states ...
Stress and Smoking Stress is part of life, so a key part of quitting smoking for many people is finding ways to handle stress ... Stop Smoking: Quitlines Looking for a quick, easy, and free way to get help with smoking cessation? Find toll-free telephone ... Quitting Smoking: Conversation Starters Use these tips to start a conversation with a loved one about quitting smoking. ... Smoking Cessation Products The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a variety of smoking cessation products. These ...
Pages in category "hi:Smoking". This category contains only the following page. ... Retrieved from "" ...
... , Check out answers, plus 228 reviews and 88 candid photos Ranked #3 of 12 hotels in Monroeville and ... No smoking at all within the building. I think there is an area behind the motel designated for smoking, otherwise there are ...
A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish, but the act is most commonly associated... ... smoking: The act of inhaling and exhaling the fumes of burning plant material. ... or secondhand smoke-that is, the smoke exhaled by the smoker (mainstream smoke) and the smoke that rises directly from the ... Cigar smoking and pipe smoking tend to be taken up later in life than cigarette smoking, and cigar smokers and pipe smokers are ...
Smoking and surgery risks are linked, with smokers who undergo surgery more likely to have complications or die shortly after ... The underlying trigger? "Your body chronically gets attacked by the smoke," Turan says. "Smoking increases inflammation." The ... Smoking Raises Surgery Risks. Smokers Nearly 40% More Likely Than Nonsmokers to Die After Surgery, Study Finds ... Ready to Quit Smoking?. 14 tips to get you through the first hard days. ...
The research evidence about adolescent smoking is full of powerful explanations for why some kids smoke and others do not. None ... having brothers or sisters who smoke; having parents who smoke; living with a lone parent, and not staying in full-time ... The risks of smoking are also higher for teens not living with both biological parents, such as those living with single ... Theres an easy way to check this: If easier retail access to tobacco were a cause of increased smoking, then youd expect to ...
  • Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year. (
  • Secondhand smoke causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults. (
  • Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth. (
  • Breathing in secondhand smoke increases the risk of lung cancer , heart disease and stroke . (
  • Secondhand smoke may also have health effects for those exposed. (
  • Both cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke are associated with chronic hay fever and sinus infections, although the underlying reason is not completely understood. (
  • Concerns about the impact of secondhand smoke and the health of nonsmokers have prompted most states to enact laws that severely restrict smoking in the workplace. (
  • Unfortunately, many low-income renters are still exposed to secondhand smoke on a daily basis, putting them at higher risk for cancer, heart disease and asthma. (
  • Secondhand smoke can be even worse and can harm those who do not smoke themselves but are around smokers. (
  • Growing Cloud of Damning Evidence : Secondhand smoke. (
  • They are at risk for lung cancer and other diseases caused by secondhand smoke . (
  • Thirty years ago, we were blind to the dangers of secondhand smoke. (
  • The association was stronger for kids with one or more hours of secondhand smoke exposure every day, the authors found. (
  • We showed a significant and substantial dose-response association between (secondhand smoke) exposure in the home and a higher frequency of global mental problems," the authors write in Tobacco Control. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, two of every five children in the US are exposed to secondhand smoke regularly. (
  • Alicia Padron of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida and colleagues in Spain analyzed data from the 2011 to 2012 Spanish National Health Interview Survey, in which parents of 2,357 children ages four to 12 reported the amount of time their children were exposed to secondhand smoke every day. (
  • About seven percent of the kids were exposed to secondhand smoke for less than one hour per day, and 4.5 percent were exposed for an hour or more each day. (
  • After taking the parent's mental health, family structure and socioeconomic status into consideration, children who were exposed to secondhand smoke for less than one hour per day were 50 percent more likely to have some mental disorder compared to kids not exposed at all. (
  • And children who were habitually exposed to secondhand smoke for an hour or more each day were close to three times more likely to have a mental disorder. (
  • The association between secondhand smoke and global mental problems was mostly due to the impact of secondhand smoke on the attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder," the authors write. (
  • The study looks at a single point in time and cannot prove that secondhand smoke exposure causes mental health problems, the study team cautions. (
  • We need to sort it out more, so we're not sure yet, but just as a precaution, I don't think parents should smoke at home - they should keep their kids away from secondhand smoke," Bandiera said. (
  • Lucy Popova, from the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco, said there is a lot of evidence about the harms of secondhand smoke on physical wellbeing. (
  • But research on effects of secondhand smoke on mental health have been really just emerging and this study really contributes to this growing body of evidence that exposure to secondhand smoke in children might be responsible for cognitive and behavioral problems," she said. (
  • Popova, who wasn't involved in the study, said no amount of secondhand smoke is safe - any exposure is bad. (
  • And this will not only not expose their children to the secondhand smoke, but will also let them enjoy their life with their children longer. (
  • Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 Dec 20]. (
  • September 27, 2016 When New York increased its cigarette tax, smoking rates declined. (
  • In 2016, approximately 37.8 million American men and women reportedly smoked cigarettes, with more than 75 percent of them smoking every day. (
  • HI all, I am new here and joined because I quit smoking on January 10, 2016. (
  • De Jesus S. (2016) Smoking Topography. (
  • Journal of the American Medical Association put a dent in the arguments against Marijuana smoking today, with release of a new report showing casual pot smokers might even have stronger lungs than non smokers. (
  • Its not known exactly why tobacco appears to be so much more harmful than marijuana, especially considering the contents of the smoke are similar. (
  • With many teens believing that smoking marijuana isn't dangerous, more and more youth are lighting up - and some may be doing so at home. (
  • A survey of students conducted by RAND Health researchers at 16 California middle schools shows Hispanic kids are more likely to smoke, drink, or use marijuana than their peers in other ethnic or racial groups. (
  • A variety of plant materials are smoked, including marijuana and hashish , but the act is most commonly associated with tobacco as smoked in a cigarette , cigar , or pipe . (
  • Accutane and Smoking Marijuana? (
  • i was just wondering if smoking marijuana while taking accutane would cause it to becom. (
  • An individual's interaction with a substance (e.g., tobacco, marijuana) or object (e.g., pipe, e-cigarette) used for smoking is highly complex, multifaceted, and distinct. (
  • colloquial , uncountable ) Anything to smoke (e.g. cigarettes, marijuana, etc. (
  • And the most frequent gripe I've heard-well, up until the cops who shot Amadou Diallo were acquitted-is that someone's buddy, sweetheart, or uncle got locked up for smoking a little harmless marijuana. (
  • It's not that I think that you, smoking a little marijuana in the privacy of your own living room, are committing a wrong against society that must be righted. (
  • If you smoke alone or with a close friend then marijuana can be a very intimite and comforting experience. (
  • Yes, smoking marijuana is extremely bad for you. (
  • Many people say it is good for you, but the truth is, smoking marijuana is extremely bad for you. (
  • Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains the very addictive chemical nicotine. (
  • After smoking for six years, the Beijing resident quit the habit two months ago. (
  • The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. (
  • Everyone knows that smoking is a gross and unhealthy habit, yet millions of people around the world still do it. (
  • Smoking is a nasty habit that can cause yellow teeth, brittle nails and a variety of horrible health problems. (
  • Discover the best products and methods to help you to kick the smoking habit for good. (
  • About half of all Americans who keep smoking will die because of the habit. (
  • Hide Your Habit Never light up around your infant, and make your home and car smoke-free environments. (
  • In the first half of the twentieth century, cigarette smoking became a widespread habit firmly engrained in American culture. (
  • The image of the cigarette superimposed on a shattered sheet of ice metaphorically illustrates the need to "break the habit" of smoking -- a common mantra in smoking cessation campaigns. (
  • Here's One Way To Kick The Smoking Habit. (
  • However, pipe or cigar smokers who are former-cigarette smokers might retain a habit of smoke inhalation. (
  • About 14 percent of U.S. adults smoked cigarettes in 2017, according to the CDC, and it was recently estimated that nearly 7 in 10 wanted to stop smoking. (
  • If you or your partner smokes, it's important not to share a bed with your baby (co-sleep). (
  • Smoking makes it harder to conceive, irrespective of which partner smokes. (
  • Smoking bans , or smoke-free laws , are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in certain areas, usually in enclosed workplaces and other public spaces . (
  • Smoking bans are usually enacted in an attempt to protect people from the effects of second-hand smoke , which include an increased risk of heart disease , cancer , emphysema , and other diseases. (
  • Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries and other jurisdictions as public knowledge about the health effects of second-hand smoke increased. (
  • In the US state of Indiana , the economic development agency included in its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth encouragement for cities and towns to adopt local smoking bans as a means of promoting job growth in communities. (
  • The World Health Organization considers smoking bans to have an influence on reducing demand for tobacco by creating an environment where smoking becomes increasingly more difficult and to help shift social norms away from the acceptance of smoking in everyday life. (
  • Along with tax measures, cessation measures, and education, smoking bans are viewed by public health experts as an important element in reducing smoking rates and promoting positive health outcomes. (
  • [19] The CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which also showed substantially improved indoor air quality after smoking bans were instituted. (
  • We address the endogeneity of peers by looking at the impact of workplace smoking bans on spousal and peer group smoking. (
  • Using these bans as an instrument, we find that individuals whose spouses smoke are 40 percent more likely to smoke themselves. (
  • We also find evidence for the existence of a social multiplier in that the impact of smoking bans and individual income becomes stronger at higher levels of aggregation. (
  • A few states, including California and Hawaii, have passed laws incorporating e-cigarettes and other vaping products into workplace bans on smoking. (
  • In other states, e-cigarettes and vaping products are explicitly not included in workplace smoking bans. (
  • Compared with Singapore and Hong Kong, Li said that enforcement of smoking bans is not tough enough in the mainland. (
  • Whether you believe in smoking bans or not it would seem a SWAT team is overkill. (
  • Why do we not follow the suit of most of our European counterparts who have quickly realised the dire economic impact of smoking bans? (
  • Meat, fish, and lapsang souchong tea are often smoked. (
  • Tobacco is often smoked, generally for ceremonial purposes, though other mixtures of sacred herbs are also common. (
  • This damage starts early in smokers, and lung function continues to worsen as long as the person smokes. (
  • When a person smokes, some of the oxygen in their blood is replaced by carbon monoxide. (
  • The item is often hung in a dry environment first to develop a pellicle , then it can be cold smoked up to several days to ensure it absorbs the smokey flavour. (
  • with the one exception of smoked salmon, which is eaten raw, all cold smoked products are cooked before they are eaten. (
  • A woman smokes an electronic cigarette at a store in Miami. (
  • Patricia Brennan of Atlanta's Emory University has found that the more cigarettes a woman smokes in the third trimester of pregnancy, the more likely her children are to be arrested for a crime or hospitalized for substance abuse. (
  • If a pregnant woman smokes, her blood and therefore her child's blood will contain less oxygen than normal. (
  • More than 42 percent of U.S. adults smoked, and there was a good chance your doctor was among them. (
  • stopping smoking substantially reduces these health risks. (
  • Research on their safety indicates there are risks for heart health and the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in helping people to quit smoking has not been proven. (
  • Most food scientists cannot recommend cold-smoking methods because of the inherent risks. (
  • The health risks of smoking are well known, but kids and teens continue to smoke and use chewing tobacco. (
  • Learn about the health risks associated with cigar smoking. (
  • Includes information on the differences between cigars and cigarettes, how the health risks differ between cigar smoking and cigarette smoking, the hazards for nonsmokers, the benefits to quitting, and more. (
  • The risks of smoking are also higher for teens not living with both biological parents, such as those living with single mothers. (
  • In National Cancer Institute (Ed.), Risks associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine (pp. 39-64). (
  • The health risks associated with passive smoking are generally less well known than those of direct smoking - but they have been proved beyond a doubt. (
  • Talk to your doctor, because this trick risks exposing your body to a dangerous amount of nicotine if you smoke a lot while wearing the patch. (
  • Regular pipe smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased danger of various forms of cancer as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular illnesses. (
  • Research has generated evidence that second-hand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer , cardiovascular disease , and lung ailments such as emphysema , bronchitis , and asthma . (
  • [7] Specifically, meta-analyses show that lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20-30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. (
  • Half of all long-term smokers die early from smoking-related diseases, including heart disease , lung cancer and chronic bronchitis . (
  • The link between cigarette smoke and disease, particularly lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, is well known. (
  • 2 The lung cancer potential of cigarettes, pipes, and cigars is similar when similar amounts of smoke are inhaled. (
  • However, many pipe and cigar smokers do not regularly inhale the smoke and thus the overall risk of lung cancer is lower for pipes and cigars. (
  • Perhaps they could add a list of which characters died as a direct result of smoking: "Edward R. Murrow -- died at age 57 of lung cancer," and so on for emphysema and other smoking-related diseases. (
  • Smoking accounts for about 30% of all cancer deaths in the United States, including about 80% of all lung cancer deaths. (
  • Lung cancer, heart disease, asthma and other respiratory problems, infertility and impotence have been particularly strongly linked to passive smoking. (
  • Several studies have indicated that second-hand smoke can cause lung cancer in non-smoking spouses of heavy smokers as well as in non-smokers exposed to smoke in the workplace. (
  • Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke have a 18-32% higher risk of developing lung cancer than those not exposed. (
  • Smoking tobacco is among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attack, COPD, erectile dysfunction, and birth defects. (
  • Diseases related to tobacco smoking have been shown to kill approximately half of long-term smokers when compared to average mortality rates faced by non-smokers. (
  • Individuals lighting up against the law face fines of up to 200 pounds while businesses can be charged up to 1,000 pounds for failing to display no smoking signs in affected areas which also include minicabs, company cars and churches. (
  • One of my friends once was fined more than HK$1,000 ($128) for smoking in public places in Hong Kong. (
  • I realized that by then I would have smoked 1,000 cigarettes. (
  • It never had occurred to me that I would have smoked 1,000s of cigarettes, much less having smoked 1,000 cigarettes in less than two months, every less than two months. (
  • Quitting smoking now improves your health and reduces your risk of heart disease, cancer, lung disease, and other smoking-related illnesses. (
  • A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens on account of tobacco smoke as active smokers. (
  • Smoking and tobacco use can harm every body system and lead to health problems such as heart disease, stroke, emphysema (breakdown of lung tissue), and many types of cancer - including lung, throat, stomach, and bladder cancer. (
  • Smoking is associated with cancer, heart disease and stroke, gum disease, asthma, and other chronic lung conditions, and Type-2 diabetes as well as serious complications of diabetes. (
  • We all know that smoking is dangerous and can lead to a number of health problems including cancer. (
  • NHL patients who smoked tobacco and/or drank alcoholic beverages could be more vulnerable to the complications and side effects of cancer treatments," he noted. (
  • You can help reduce your risk of cancer by making healthy choices like eating right, staying active and not smoking. (
  • Smoking not only causes cancer. (
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, more stop-smoking drugs (and possibly even a vaccine that makes nicotine unappealing) could hit the market within five years. (
  • Concerned with the harmful effects of smoking, the World Health Organization and the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) created this poster of a skeletal hand holding a cigarette. (
  • Smoking also increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Smoking only increases the risk of developing tobacco-related diseases. (
  • About 460 million Chinese are also believed to suffer from the harmful smoke of those who light up, while more than 1 million in the country die every year from smoking-related diseases. (
  • But, he said, since secondhand hand smoke has been related to a lot of physical diseases, parents should avoid smoking around their kids. (
  • Consequently, he has a genuine understanding of the devastation and heartbreak that mouth cancers and other smoking related diseases can cause to a family. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of premature birth, stillbirth and infant death. (
  • If you are a smoker and are ready to quit, thinking about quitting, or want to help someone else to quit, talk to your doctor or health practitioner about giving up smoking. (
  • The skin of a non-smoker gets more nutrients, including oxygen, and stopping smoking can reverse the sallow, lined complexion smokers often have. (
  • Using a smoker is one method of imparting natural smoke flavor to large cuts of meat, whole poultry, and turkey breasts. (
  • Because smoking uses low temperatures to cook food, the meat will take too long to thaw in the smoker, allowing it to linger in the "Danger Zone" (temperatures between 40 and 140 °F) where harmful bacteria can multiply. (
  • The younger the smoker is when he or she starts to smoke, the higher the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, a naturally occurring drug found in tobacco that, in the short term, can distract from unpleasant feelings. (
  • A teen's first purchase decision isn't about becoming a smoker, but rather about which brand to smoke. (
  • If you love smoked meats, you will be happy to know it's easy to create a smoked - and safe - flavor on your smoker grill. (
  • Passive smoking occurs when anyone (including the smoker) inhales tobacco smoke from the environment, as opposed to directly inhaling from a cigarette. (
  • This environmental or 'second-hand' smoke comprises two parts: smoke exhaled by a smoker (mainstream smoke) and smoke produced from the tip of a burning cigarette (side-stream smoke). (
  • Second-hand smoke contains all the same carcinogenic and toxic chemicals that the smoker inhales, but at even greater levels. (
  • It is estimated that a non-smoker in a smoke-filled room for eight hours will inhale the equivalent amount of carcinogens to smoking 36 cigarettes. (
  • This anti-smoking advertisement from the New York Department of Health in the 1980s, designed to appeal to the smoker, uses sophisticated graphic design techniques to encourage the viewer to stop smoking. (
  • Information and resources for quitting smoking. (
  • So do yourself a favour by quitting smoking. (
  • Zyban: In Monday's Health section, an article on quitting smoking said that the smoking-cessation medication Zyban might act by blocking the brain chemicals norepinephrine and dopamine. (
  • Quitting smoking improves the lining of the womb and can make men's sperm more potent. (
  • Quitting smoking at any age can improve a person's health, and the earlier a person quits, the better. (
  • How might your personality affect your chances of successfully quitting smoking? (
  • With More People Quitting Smoking, Do We Need E-Cigarettes? (
  • Use these tips to start a conversation with a loved one about quitting smoking. (
  • They increase your chances of quitting smoking, especially if you also have support from your local NHS stop smoking service . (
  • New mums are advised to use licensed NRT products for help with quitting smoking and staying smokefree. (
  • Quitting smoking can be challenging due to effects caused by nicotine withdrawal. (
  • Gamification helps to keep quitting smoking fun and is used as a tool to help people stick to their decision, stop smoking, and change their behavior. (
  • Quitting smoking will increase your ability to conceive and your likelihood of success with IVF. (
  • Mood changes are common after quitting smoking. (
  • Changes in mood from quitting smoking may be part of withdrawal . (
  • For more information on quitting smoking with hypnosis and to find out when our next available spot is so you can book in your session. (
  • They considered quitting smoking achievable and desirable," according to a report of focus groups with youth conducted as part of the project. (
  • As the stress of withdrawal feels the same as other stresses, it's easy to confuse normal stress with nicotine withdrawal, so it can seem like smoking is reducing other stresses. (
  • Clinicians are more likely to treat symptoms of nicotine withdrawal when smoking is restricted. (
  • Pick a day that you'll stop smoking. (
  • People can't stop smoking with cigarettes around to tempt them. (
  • You may find it's better for you to go "cold turkey" and stop smoking all at once. (
  • This is the stop smoking app that science built. (
  • The government attempt to stop people smoking includes the controversial ban on sponsorship and advertising. (
  • In another study, published this month in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Shiffman and colleagues showed that use of nicotine gum before quitting also helps people stop smoking. (
  • Here are 10 ways your health will improve when you stop smoking. (
  • In fact, scientific studies show people's stress levels are lower after they stop smoking. (
  • Men who stop smoking may get better erections. (
  • When you stop smoking, your senses of smell and taste get a boost. (
  • Read about the stop smoking treatments available on the NHS and find out how to get started with stopping smoking . (
  • Which means that once a person starts to smoke, it's very hard to stop. (
  • Sometimes even the best foundation isn't enough to stop kids from experimenting with smoking. (
  • Is It OK To Pay Pregnant Women To Stop Smoking? (
  • State public health departments have added Web tools to their stop-smoking aids. (
  • August 22, 2013 Doctors often tell patients to stop smoking before surgery, but precious few help out with that. (
  • Learn about products that can help you cope with feelings of withdrawal as you commit to stop smoking: nicotine gum, lozenges, nasal spray, patches and more. (
  • Counseling to help you stop smoking or using tobacco. (
  • However, if you're finding it hard to quit smoking, it's important not to stop breastfeeding. (
  • If you or your partner can't stop smoking, making your home completely smokefree will help protect your baby's health. (
  • You're up to 4 times more likely to stop smoking successfully with NHS support. (
  • Your midwife, health visitor or GP can give your details of your local NHS stop smoking service. (
  • The stop smoking medicines Champix and Zyban are not recommended for breastfeeding women. (
  • It's never easy to stop smoking, and if you are trying to quit during the holidays, you could face some additional challenges. (
  • One of the best techniques to use when trying to stop smoking is to set a deadline, and to then work towards meeting it (i.e. to stop smoking altogether by a certain date). (
  • Why do people find it so hard to stop smoking? (
  • How can I stop smoking? (
  • When you try to stop smoking, the craving is intensified and the need to smoke can become almost unbearably intense. (
  • Ask yourself why you want to stop smoking and then make a list of all the (aforementioned) benefits. (
  • They are popular because not only can they be effective - making a massive contribution to an individual's eventual cessation of smoking cigarettes - but also they can allow you to stop smoking gradually: the most effective approach to complete smoking cessation (rather than trying a unrealistic 'overnight' cessation approach which rarely works). (
  • The results should strongly encourage patients with NHL "to stop smoking and lower alcohol consumption in order to obtain a general health benefit and improvements in the course of treatment," Talamini advised. (
  • Stop smoking helper is an app meant to help you in your smoking cessation period. (
  • I had tried to stop smoking before, but had always gone back. (
  • Want to stop smoking? (
  • Each day a new stop smoking task, known as a mission, is set to help you on the road to recovery. (
  • It is never too late to stop smoking. (
  • Try Your Best to Stop "I encourage all smoking mother to breastfeed and try to quit. (
  • More stop-smoking drugs (and possibly even a vaccine) could hit the market within five years. (
  • Chantix, the newest stop-smoking drug, short-circuits nicotine's ability to activate the pleasure centers in the brain, so lighting up is less enjoyable. (
  • In this case, the textual message contrasts with the negative connotation of the image by recommending, "Stop smoking, improve your health. (
  • Tariq Drabu is also highly respected for his tireless dedication to helping as many people as possible to stop smoking. (
  • The British Heart Foundation has asked British dentists to help by promoting 'quit aids' within their surgeries and by helping to promote local services which are available to support people who want to stop smoking, but who need some help and guidance in order to achieve their goal. (
  • Tariq Drabu continued by saying, "I understand how difficult it is to stop smoking. (
  • My staff and I are dedicated to doing all we can to promote this worthwhile and important campaign, and to helping our patients to stop smoking. (
  • E-cigarette aerosol contains fewer chemicals than the 7,000 found in regular cigarette smoke, but it is potentially harmful nonetheless. (
  • As well as nicotine, e-cigarette liquid and vapour can contain toxic substances, although these are mostly at much lower levels than in cigarette smoke. (
  • Even short-term exposure to passive cigarette smoke has a significant impact on the hearts of non-smokers. (
  • November 25, 2013 Everybody knows that you're not supposed to smoke while you're pregnant because it's bad for the baby. (
  • And if a woman wants to get pregnant, smoking can make that harder. (
  • By stopping smoking before - or as soon as - you get pregnant, you can have a safer pregnancy and a healthier baby. (
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke and smoking while pregnant are both linked to miscarriage, low birth weight and stillbirths. (
  • In addition, pregnant women who smoke increase their risk of early miscarriage. (
  • Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) should not ideally be used by pregnant women as an aid to stopping smoking. (
  • Doctors and anti-smoking campaigners have given a mixed reaction to the White Paper on tobacco, with some expressing disappointment that it does not go far enough. (
  • As a result, anti-smoking campaigners since the 1960s have been compelled to challenge the perception that the behavior is commonplace and integral to everyday life. (
  • How many cigarettes per day {do you/does PERSON} usually smoke anywhere inside the home? (
  • Patients who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day had a 70 percent higher risk of dying than those who never smoked. (
  • NicVAX was evaluated in a recent study in the American Journal of Psychiatry , in a small cohort of 11 smokers who smoked an average of 19 cigarettes per day, smoked for an average of 10 years, thereby meeting criteria for nicotine dependence. (
  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), smoking cigarettes comes out on top as "the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. (
  • Historically, farms in the Western world included a small building termed the " smokehouse ", where meats could be smoked and stored. (
  • Cold smoking does not cook foods, and as such, meats should be fully cured before cold smoking. (
  • [11] Cold smoking can be used as a flavor enhancer for items such as cheese or nuts , along with meats such as chicken breasts, beef , pork chops , salmon , scallops , and steak . (
  • [12] Cold smoking meats should only be attempted by personnel certified in HACCP , or H azard A nalysis and C ritical C ontrol P oints, to ensure that it is safely prepared. (
  • This is known to raise the risk of SIDS, particularly if you smoke, you recently drank alcohol, or you're taking medication that makes you sleep more heavily. (
  • When the researchers combined alcohol and smoking, they found no excess deaths among subjects who drank fewer than four drinks per day. (
  • I've never smoked, drank , or done any kind of synthetic neurotransmitter / facilitator /stimulant strong er than caffeine . (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a variety of smoking cessation products. (
  • Ask About The Patch "Smoking cessation products, particularly nicotine patches, are always preferable to smoking," Anderson says. (
  • In three of the studies, patch users were smoking fewer cigarettes even before their planned quit day, though they had not been told to do so. (
  • You may be tempted just to cut down, but many smokers find they inhale more deeply when smoking fewer cigarettes. (
  • Measuring dependence and abstinence, they found that higher fruit and vegetable consumption led to fewer cigarettes being smoked and a longer period of time between lighting up , according to the study in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research . (
  • A website dedicated to helping you quit smoking with tailored resources for women, veterans, teens, Spanish speakers, and people over 60 years old. (
  • In 5 to 15 years, your risk of stroke and coronary heart disease returns to that of someone who has never smoked. (
  • Although refinements in technique and advancements in technology have made smoking much easier, the basic steps involved remain essentially the same today as they were hundreds if not thousands of years ago. (
  • Men who quit smoking by the age of 30 add 10 years to their life. (
  • Being smoke-free not only adds years to your life, but also greatly improves your chances of a disease-free, mobile, happier old age. (
  • Ireland and other European countries have also banned smoking indoors, while some parts of Canada and a number of U.S. states have had strict controls on smoking for years. (
  • Most people who smoke start young, in their teenage years, often because they have friends or family members who also smoke. (
  • Beijing implemented a smoking ban in public areas 12 years ago. (
  • Within 15 years, Minnesota could expect 30,000 young people would not start smoking if the age of sale is raised to 21. (
  • i have been smoking cigarettes for 13 years, i recently quit at 24, and now i am 26. (
  • The IOM estimates 25% decline in smoking initiation among 15-17 years olds as well as a 12% reduction in smoking prevalence in the long term. (
  • In the last five years, facilities like stadiums, outdoor public markets and parks have gone smoke-free in response to people's desires,' said Paul Knepprath, vice president of government relations for the American Lung Assn. of California. (
  • That zoo, where about half of the 500,000 annual visitors are children, banned smoking four years ago. (
  • Smoking shortens male smokers' lives by about 12 years and female smokers' lives by about 11 years. (
  • I say this because it wasn't the last time I smoked, that was a few years later in 2008, but it was the last time I smoked every day. (
  • The age limit is much higher in New Zealand , in comparison to Cyprus, as in June 2020, the country banned smoking in any vehicle carrying a person under 18 years old. (
  • Beulah "Billy" Toombs, shown with her dog Chauncy, has been smoking since she was 16 but now she either has to quit or move from her apartment building in Milford, after nine years of occupancy. (
  • Toombs - her friends call her Billie - is 89 years old, and she is still smoking. (
  • People who already lived there, such as Toombs, who has been a resident for 10 years, were given a full year to quit smoking on the property. (
  • Michael Fennell, 43, became interested in smoke as an art tool around 15 years ago, having initially become intrigued by the marks carbon made on his studio floor. (
  • These latest proposals to reduce smoking prevalence to 10% are totally unattainable for you only have to see that smoking rates, after years of decline, have now increased since the implementation of our smoking ban in 2007. (
  • The mayor, who stopped smoking more than 25 years ago, said he hoped other parts of the nation would follow New York City's lead. (
  • Fumigation (dhupa) and fire offerings (homa) are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes, and have been practiced for at least 3,000 years while smoking, dhumrapana (literally "drinking smoke"), has been practiced for at least 2,000 years. (
  • All fish for hot smoking are brined to give them flavour. (
  • Sawdust for smoking should contain a high proportion of hardwood to impart a pleasant flavour to the fish. (
  • According to a UK health agency, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are about 95% less harmful than smoking, according to its best estimate. (
  • Are there any alternatives to smoking which are not harmful? (
  • Also, because side-stream smoke is formed at lower temperatures, it gives off even larger amounts of some harmful substances. (
  • Why is it so harmful to smoke during pregnancy? (
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a smoking composition which is suitable for aerosoling flavours and drugs but which contains a minimum amount of combustible organic material or smokeproducing fuel which on burning inevitably gives rise to some harmful products. (
  • Find out what smoking can do to you and your baby during pregnancy. (
  • Pregnancy is about creating a new life, but ultimately it is the mother's decision whether or not to continue smoking. (
  • Your pregnancy can be a powerful motivation to give up smoking, because you're making this choice on behalf of your unborn child who is completely dependent on you. (
  • Babies born to women who smoked 15 cigarettes or more a day during pregnancy are taken into hospital twice as often during the first eight months of life. (
  • In later pregnancy, smoking mothers are at increased risk of the baby's placenta coming away from the womb before the baby is born (placental abruption). (
  • Women who stopped smoking at the halfway point in their pregnancy gave birth to babies with the same average weight as women who had not smoked at all during pregnancy. (
  • Quitlines provide free coaching-over the phone-to help you quit smoking. (
  • How FDA-approved medicines can help you quit smoking. (
  • BecomeAnEX, a free, online plan to help you quit smoking. (
  • This page offers five steps to help you quit smoking, including how to prepare, get support, and handle relapse and difficult situations. (
  • These top quit smoking apps have been selected based on the usability of their interface, their design, user ratings, how frequently they are updated, and their ability to help you quit smoking. (
  • Such policies are usually enacted to protect people from the negative health effects of passive smoking or second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. (
  • The public believes passive smoking is a risk to health, despite split scientific opinion on the issue, a survey has found. (
  • Read more about the dangers of passive smoking . (
  • See more about the effects of passive smoking on children . (
  • What is passive smoking? (
  • How dangerous is passive smoking? (
  • Passive smokers are also at increased risk for nearly all the medical conditions associated with smoking. (
  • Conception will be even harder for a woman who smokes and is exposed to passive smoke. (
  • Children with asthma are especially at risk as the side-effects of passive smoking affect their airways faster. (
  • If you already have heart disease, you are at greater risk from exposure to second-hand smoke than people who don't. (
  • People who smoke also have an increased risk of infections like bronchitis and pneumonia . (
  • The younger a person is when he or she starts to smoke, the higher the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, a drug found in tobacco. (
  • Girls who smoke and are on hormone-based birth control methods like the Pill , the patch , or the ring have a higher risk of serious health problems, like heart attacks. (
  • Smoking increases your risk of many major health problems. (
  • While using an e-cigarette (vaping) is a lot safer than smoking, it isn't completely risk free. (
  • The most persuasive explanation of youth smoking focuses on what we know about young people's risk factors for problem behavior. (
  • That is why the risk factors that lead to experimental smoking by adolescents include living in areas of high social and economic deprivation. (
  • Even if this 20-year-old woman quits smoking, she'll be at greater risk for peripheral artery disease than women who never start smoking, researchers reported Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (
  • The risk of COPD goes up the more you smoke and the longer you smoke. (
  • Everyone knows that expectant moms who smoke risk damaging their babies' physical health. (
  • Middle-aged men who are heavily exposed to second-hand smoke have nearly twice the risk of impotence. (
  • Reduce Your Baby's Risk "Babies born to mothers who smoke are at greater risk for pneumonia, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and acute ear infections," says Carol Anderson, R.N., a lactation consultant at Rose Medical Center in Denver. (
  • If you smoke pot, you are at risk for getting bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial asthma. (
  • In many cases the gas assembly was added to a wood burning fireplace, and if so, it's fine to go back to wood but the gas logs and piping must be removed first, and the chimney inspected to make sure it's clean and cle … ar to allow the smoke to draft out or you could be in risk of fire or asphyxiation. (
  • The combined use of nicotine patches and sprays is the best way to quit smoking, researchers find. (
  • And peer pressure: Some researchers find that a youngster's social group and the influence of friends, particularly for girls, is the single most important factor in the decision to smoke. (
  • A study by University of Buffalo researchers found that smokers who incorporated a heavy diet of fruits and vegetables were three times as likely to not smoke for 30 days than people who didn't consume a produce-heavy diet , HealthDay reported. (
  • Encourage kids to get involved in activities that prohibit smoking, such as sports. (
  • However, several states have passed laws to prohibit smoking at work, in one way or another. (
  • prohibit smoking in only certain types of workplaces, such as hospitals and restaurants. (
  • Disneyland, Six Flags Magic Mountain and Universal Studios Hollywood prohibit smoking near waiting lines, eating areas, pools and children's areas. (
  • Both female and male smokers have lower fertility levels, while adults who were born to mothers who smoked have less chance of becoming a parent themselves. (
  • This isn't always easy, especially if everyone around you is smoking or vaping. (
  • Asthma sufferers who are exposed to second-hand smoke are more likely to experience wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. (
  • Moreover, because of the rapid increase in smoking in developing countries in the late 20th century, the number of smoking-related deaths per year was projected to rise rapidly in the 21st century. (
  • The primary cause of the escalation in the number of deaths and incidents of disease from tobacco is the large increase in cigarette smoking during the 20th century. (
  • In the last decade of the 20th century, smoking came to be viewed in a decidedly negative light, especially in Western countries. (
  • Similarly, methamphetamine has gained popularity in a crystalline form which when smoked in a pipe lets the user avoid the painful nasal irritation of snorting. (
  • The Committee may provide recommendations to the Secretary regarding any regulations to be promulgated under the act and may review any applications for new tobacco products or petitions for exemption under Section 906(e) of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. (
  • The illegal smuggling of tobacco products will be encouraged by an increase in taxation on packets of cigarettes, the pro-smoking lobby warns. (
  • Some smokers use e-cigarettes or "vapes" as a substitute for regular cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products. (
  • The study found that after a year, 18 percent of the e-cigarette users had stopped smoking traditional tobacco products compared to 9.9 percent of the users of the nicotine replacement products. (
  • If the draft EU Tobacco Products Directive is approved, it will allow the continued sale of pharmaceutical products sold as aids to smoking cessation, which have been shown over and over again to be largely ineffective, says Gilbert Ross. (
  • The health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products, publish advertisements to discourage use, limit advertisements that promote use, and provide help with quitting for those who do smoke. (
  • January 28, 2015 It's notoriously hard to get people to quit smoking. (
  • We hope to inspire people to quit smoking for good. (
  • Large quantities of salt were used in the curing process and smoking times were quite long, sometimes involving days of exposure. (
  • Even smokers who don't inhale are breathing in large amounts of smoke that comes from their mouths and the lit end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe. (
  • Smokers only inhale about 15% of the smoke from a cigarette. (
  • Discuss ways to respond to peer pressure to smoke. (
  • When asked what factors led them to start smoking, adolescents mention peer pressure, expressing their individualism and making a statement vis-á-vis their parents or other authority figures. (
  • She said: Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death. (
  • You can quit smoking for good and live a healthy, smokefree life. (
  • You can also visit the Smokefree website or call the NHS smoking helpline on 0300 123 1044. (
  • For example, one study listed on the website of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places substantially reduced RSP (respirable suspended particles) levels in western New York hospitality venues. (
  • England slammed the door on smoking in bars, workplaces and public buildings on Sunday in what campaigners hail as the biggest boost to public health since the creation of the National Health Service in 1948. (
  • Federal law does not regulate smoking in private workplaces. (
  • Some states have a total ban on smoking in indoor workplaces, public and private. (
  • The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved medicines to reduce withdrawal symptoms and the urge to smoke. (
  • Chantix, or varenicline, appears to soothe withdrawal symptoms related to quitting while reducing the urge to smoke. (
  • According to new research, a novel nicotine vaccine reduces the amount of nicotine that reaches the brain that binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), helping to decrease the urge to smoke and potentially helping to reduce bothersome cravings. (
  • Although nicotine can be poisonous at very high dosages, its toxic effect as a component of tobacco smoke is generally considered modest compared with that of many other toxins in the smoke. (
  • The toxins in second-hand smoke aren't filtered as they are when inhaled directly from the cigarette. (
  • Smoking not only exposes the foetus to toxins in tobacco smoke, but it also damages placental function. (
  • See how much money you've saved, how many cigarettes you've not smoked, how long you've been smoke free, how much life you've regained and how your health is improving. (
  • The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and material intensive heavy salting and smoking declined. (
  • Smoking is not a valid treatment for any mental health condition, however, and won't make anyone feel better in the long run. (
  • The smoking of tobacco, long practiced by American Indians , was introduced to Europe by Christopher Columbus and other explorers. (
  • The days when smoking cigarettes in the workplace was as accepted as drinking coffee are long gone. (
  • Anti-smoking measures might take more time to be effective, particularly for smokers who have been lighting up for a long time," Zhang was quoted by China Youth Daily as saying. (
  • This means that you are best to take a gradual, long term approach to complete smoking cessation, and not to be too hard on yourself or to be in despair if you fail in your first few attempts. (
  • The prices certainly wouldn't ever come down, and I knew that long-term I didn't want to be smoking. (
  • Smoke Free tracks how much money you have saved, how long you have been smoke-free, and how many cigarettes you have avoided. (
  • The National Smoking Control Programme, a comprehensive long-term plan for smoking control spearheaded by the Ministry of Health in Singapore in 1986, created this poster in response to pro-tobacco forces that emphasized the First Amendment personal freedom of smokers to smoke and tobacco companies to advertise their products. (
  • MILFORD, Ohio - Beulah Toombs started smoking a long time ago. (
  • I lit a pipe and had a good long smoke , and went on watching. (
  • One day not long ago, my father was telling me that once he'd quit smoking cigarettes, he never smoked again for fear that he'd fall off the wagon entirely. (
  • A number of Native American cultures have pipe-smoking traditions, which have been part of their cultures since long before the arrival of Europeans. (
  • According to Alfred Dunhill, Africans have had a long tradition of smoking hemp in gourd pipes, asserting that by 1884 the King of the Baluka tribe of the Congo had established a "riamba" or hemp-smoking cult in place of fetish-worship. (
  • A part of the increased capacity was put down to the way pot smokers usually take deep breaths when they smoke, but one joint per day is hardly giving your lungs great exercise. (
  • What can I do to clean and rebuild my lungs after smoking? (
  • Smoking damages the airways and small air sacs in your lungs. (
  • MARLBORO LIGHTS: These boys could be smoking purely to make themselves look cool, hardened smokers trying to quit or may simply love the thought of getting silicone in their lungs from this brand's dubious filters. (
  • Smoking is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. (
  • Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice , sugar , and tea , heated at the base of a wok . (
  • Tobacco substitute based smoking mixture containing a minimum amount of organic combustible material and a maximum amount of harmless inorganic filler, the composition of the filler having been selected so as to impart a commercially acceptable burning rate to the mixture. (
  • Primary Examiner-Melvin D. Rein Attorney, Agent, or F irmCushman, Darby & Cushman [5 7] ABSTRACT Tobacco substitute based smoking mixture containing a minimum amount of organic combustible material and a maximum amount of harmless inorganic filler, the composition of the filler having been selected so as to impart a commercially acceptable burning rate to the mixture. (
  • 9 Claims, No IDrawings SMOKING MIXTURE This invention relates to smoking mixtures and to methods of producing such mixtures. (
  • As we approach the new year, a number of Americans will make it a resolution to quit smoking for good. (
  • We have identified 10 of the best apps to help you take charge and quit smoking for good. (