An infant during the first month after birth.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
Female parents, human or animal.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The contamination of indoor air.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Living facilities for humans.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The killing of infants at birth or soon after.
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
commutatum (cluster aster), the ground blossoms are mixed with yucca suds and used to wash newborn infants to make their hair ... It is also smoked ceremonially. Oenothera albicaulis (whitish evening primrose), the chewed blossoms of which are rubbed on the ... Juniperus monosperma (oneseed juniper), poultice of chewed root applied to increase strength of newborns and infants. An ... poultice of chewed root applied to increase strength of newborns and infants. ...
Nicotine also increases the risk for miscarriages and premature births or infant mortality. There has been a link from smoking ... In turn citing: WHO Geneva, WHA20.19, WHA43.27, Article 23 Singh, Meharban (2010). Care of the Newborn. p. 7. Edition 7. ISBN ... Smoking and nicotine When a mother smokes during pregnancy the fetus is exposed to nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide. Nicotine ... and women who smoke. Young mothers are more likely to engage in high risk behaviors, such as using alcohol, drugs, or smoking, ...
... smoking and depression during pregnancy. The newborn period begins when the baby delivered. It is not specified when this ... The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal". BMJ. 324: 1063. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7372.1063. "Four important ... 59% of infants born outside of health facilities were wiped prior to the placenta being delivered. Because of Nepal's rich ...
... smoke during pregnancy, experience over two stressful life events, or who's full term infant is low-birthweight or was admitted ... PPD can also negatively affect the newborn child. While the exact cause of PPD is unclear, the cause is believed to be a ... Cigarette smoking has been known to have additive effects. Some studies have found a link between PPD and low levels of DHA (an ... Regarding gender of the child, many studies have suggested dissatisfaction in infant's gender (birth of a baby girl) is a risk ...
Examples of screenings include measuring the level of TSH in the blood of a newborn infant as part of newborn screening for ... checking for Lung cancer in non-smoking individuals who are exposed to second-hand smoke in an unregulated working environment ...
Forms of infant mortality: Perinatal mortality is late fetal death (22 weeks gestation to birth), or death of a newborn up to ... One of the most common preventable causes of infant mortality is smoking during pregnancy. Lack of prenatal care, alcohol ... a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant ... "Infant Mortality & Newborn Health". Women and Children First. Retrieved 2017-04-25. Hall ES, Venkatesh M, Greenberg JM ( ...
There has long been a debate over whether newborn infants with birth asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or normal ... The most preventable cause is maternal smoking. Cigarette smoking by expectant mothers has been shown to have a wide variety of ... Davis PG, Tan A, O'Donnell CP, Schulze A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic review ... Pipkin FB (April 2008). "Smoking in moderate/severe preeclampsia worsens pregnancy outcome, but smoking cessation limits the ...
These included eleven newborn infants in the nursery and the nurse who stayed behind with them. Many who were on the first ... The fire had been reported to Sister Groesch by Sister Mary Edmunda Hiersig, who reported that she smelled smoke in the first ...
Fumigating a newborn infant, a mother who has just given birth, or a boy who has just been circumcised, would therefore assist ... one of the plants favoured by Aboriginal people for smoking purposes, produces a smoke with significant antimicrobial effects. ... This herbal smoke is believed to have cleansing properties and the ability to ward off bad spirits. In traditional, spiritual ... Australia portal A smoking ceremony is an ancient custom among some Aboriginal Australians that involves smouldering various ...
Infants exposed to smoke during pregnancy are up to three times more likely to die of SIDS than children born to non-smoking ... reduction in newborn deaths. A recent study has proposed that maternal smoking during pregnancy can lead to future teenage ... Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... More specifically, infants born to smokers weigh on average 200 grams less than infants born to people who do not smoke. The ...
Do not allow smoking around the baby. Don't smoke before or after the birth of the baby and make sure no one smokes around the ... Infant bathing Infant nutrition "Newborn care and safety -". This article incorporates text ... Newborns and older infants are to use rear-facing car seats. These are required until age 2 or when they reach the upper weight ... Only 2 out of every 100 children live in states that require car seat or booster seat use for newborns and infants. A third of ...
Rates are higher in babies born to mothers who smoke, drink alcohol, or are younger than 20 years old. Ultrasounds during ... The condition affects about 4 per 10,000 newborns. Rates of the condition appear to be increasing. There are no signs during ... About sixty percent of infants with gastroschisis are born prematurely. At birth, the baby will have a relatively small (. ...
Medical staff may aspirate the meconium from the nose and mouth of a newborn immediately after delivery in the event the baby ... Meconium is the earliest stool of a mammalian infant. Unlike later feces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the ... August 2010). "A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and ... Meconium from 13-hour-old newborn. This image compares the appearance of meconium (from 48 hours after normal delivery at term ...
High infant mortality is exacerbated because newborns are a vulnerable subgroup that is affected by air pollution.[38] Newborns ... One of the most common preventable causes of infant mortality is smoking during pregnancy.[5] Many factors contribute to infant ... "Infant Mortality: What Is CDC Doing?". Infant Mortality , Maternal and Infant Health , Reproductive Health ,. Centers for ... Sudden infant death syndromeEdit. Main article: Sudden infant death syndrome. Sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) is a syndrome ...
"A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia. 32 (4): 260-7. ... Smoking/sex (male) Horny PAMELA: Ptosis Anhydrosis Miosis Enophthalmos Loss of ciliary-spinal reflex Anisocoria DANISH: ... used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - age, sex, history, injuries/illness, condition, ETA/extra information FAST - face, arms ... "chain smokes" Drugs causing gynaecomastia: DISCO Digitalis Isoniazid Spironolactone Cimetidine / ketoconazole Oestrogen ...
Newborns prenatally exposed to MA often experience sleep disturbances and altered behavior problems since MA mimics ... Street methamphetamine is referred to by many names, such as "speed," "meth," and "chalk". The drug can be injected, smoked, ... Also, a children's hospital in Rhode Island established the Vulnerable Infants Program to aid the court in making decisions ... Other investigations have revealed short-term neonatal outcomes to include small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function ...
Newborn infants may also require endotracheal intubation during surgery while under general anaesthesia. The vast majority of ... Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... For premature infants 2.5 mm (0.1 in) internal diameter is an appropriate size for the tracheal tube. For infants of normal ... Endotrachael suctioning is often used during intubation in newborn infants to reduce the risk of a blocked tube due to ...
Infants that sleep in the same room as their parent in their own separate bed have been found to have a decreased risk of SIDS ... Advice that has attracted controversy includes: Four-hourly feeding of newborns. This is felt by some parents and child care ... However, studies have also shown that cosleeping can increase the risk of SIDS, especially if either parent smokes. Some ... professionals to cause distress for infants and problems for mothers in establishing breastfeeding. Other parents and child ...
Smoking in Italy has decreased greatly in the past decades for men, yet women have had a less definitive pattern. From a ... Italy also has a very low rate of infant mortality, that of 5.51 out of 1000 people, the 185th lowest in the world. From 1970 ... Chickenpox shots would be required for newborns. Under this plan, government spending on vaccines would double to €620 million ... However, both infant vaccine coverage rates and influenza immunization in the elderly have been decreasing. A 2015 government ...
The lack of this surge can sometimes be used as a diagnostic tool if KS/HH is suspected in a newborn boy, but is not normally ... This lack of detectable hormones in the blood can be used as a diagnostic indicator, especially in male infants.[33] ... such as smoking are involved so the risk of developing it will vary from person to person. Bone density scans are recommended ... This surge is particularly important in infant boys as it helps with testicular descent into the scrotum. The surge of GnRH/LH/ ...
It is advised to have newborn infants with a microform cleft checked with a craniofacial team as soon as possible to determine ... Risk factors include smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, obesity, an older mother, and certain medications (such as some used ... Due to lack of suction, an infant with a cleft may have trouble feeding. An infant with a cleft palate will have greater ... Shi, M.; Wehby, G.L.; Murray, J.C. (2008). "Review on Genetic Variants and Maternal Smoking in the Etiology of Oral Clefts and ...
... nursing and infants, especially infant girls. In Brescia, Italy, bear figurines appear to have functioned as guides and ... The smoke of the burning could be sweetened with aromatic herbs, leaves and libations; the elite could use incense. The family ... Unwanted newborns could be deliberately killed if patently "unfit to live". Others, perhaps deformed, or of doubtful paternity ... Grave goods in infant burials could include toys, pets, food and images of protective childhood or birth deities, to guard the ...
Natal and neonatal teeth are an anomaly that involves teeth erupting in a newborn infant's mouth earlier than usual. The ... heavy metal intoxication or tobacco smoke, among others. Regional odontodysplasia is rare, but is most likely to occur in the ...
... as well as a newborn infant still attached to its umbilical cord, which "was intended as an anthem to life, but was one of the ... or discouraging smoking among teens). The Benetton Group has come under particular scrutiny for the use of shock advertisements ... sing into a skull-shaped microphone and set off smoke bombs. Other acts include Alice Cooper, Marilyn Manson, Rammstein, Iggy ...
Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis occurs in about 5% of newborn infants. Candida species are acquired from the mother's ... Smoking, especially heavy smoking, is an important predisposing factor but the reasons for this relationship are unknown. One ... with the lowest levels occurring in newborns, increasing dramatically in infants, and then decreasing again in adults. ... Smoking is a known risk factor. This refers to a group of rare syndromes characterized by chronic candidal lesions on the skin ...
... sauna for infants, primary prevention, smoking, vaccination). He was one of the first, who applied transfontanellar Doppler- ... "Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 155 (2): 173-80. doi: ... Ärzteblatt) on the risk of prone position in 1991 was followed by an significant drop of unexpected infant deaths in Germany ... He consults parents premature born infants by an expert webpage since 2002. He was chairman of 2 German official medical ...
Unlike some programs that advance the age of a newborn over a short period, I Love Lucy at first allowed the Little Ricky ... America saw Little Ricky as an infant in the 1952-53 season and a toddler from 1953 to 1956. However, for the 1956-57 season, ... In the early episodes, Lucy and Ricky, as well as Ethel and Fred on occasion, were shown smoking Philip Morris cigarettes. Lucy ... In addition, sponsor Philip Morris made the request that Lucy not be seen smoking during the pregnancy episodes. The episode " ...
Many of these deaths occur in the newborn period. The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant ... Older age, history of smoking, and having comorbidities are major risk factors for contracting community acquired pneumonia. ... Environmental factors such as indoor air pollution, exposure to smoke, and crowded living conditions increase susceptibility to ...
These knives were used to cut the umbilical cord of a newborn infant or to harvest sweetgrass and other sacred herbs for ... They smoked and sun-dried the meat, and also ate it fresh.[10][25] They also fished in fresh water sources, like Utah Lake. ...
For newborn infants starved of oxygen during birth there is now evidence that hypothermia therapy for neonatal encephalopathy ... Severe cerebral hypoxia and anoxia is usually caused by traumatic events such as choking, drowning, strangulation, smoke ... There has long been a debate over whether newborn infants with cerebral hypoxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or ... Davis, PG; Tan, A; O'Donnell, CPF; Schulze, A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic ...
Imamura E (1997). "Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan". Acta Paediatr Jpn. 39 (4): 403-5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200x. ... September 2005). "Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease ... and the multiple additional influences on post-neonatal circumcision rates in cultures where most newborn males are circumcised ... Medical associations advise not to retract the foreskin of an infant, in order to prevent scarring.[12][13] Some argue that non ...
Most of the infant deaths were caused by dysentery, though parental ignorance and poor hygiene were often indirectly to blame.[ ... Her fight against the damage that widespread urban poverty and ignorance caused to children, especially newborns, is perhaps ... Baker also invented an infant formula made out of water, calcium carbonate, lactose, and cow milk.[12] This enabled mothers to ... Baker and a group of nurses started to train mothers in how to care for their babies: how to clothe infants to keep them from ...
In infants, the scalp veins are sometimes used. The caliber of needles and catheters can be given in Birmingham gauge or French ... Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN). *Pediatric basic life support (PBLS) ...
Children are more jealous of the interactions between newborns and their mothers than they are with newborns and their fathers. ... These children observe parent-infant interaction closely and are less likely to approach the infant and the parent. They are ... smoking cigarettes, skipping days of school, contact with the police, and other behaviors in Caucasian sibling pairs with the ... NewbornEdit. First-borns attachment to their parents is directly related to their jealous behaviour. In a study by Volling, ...
... affects as many as 5% of infants less than three years of age[73] and 3% to 4% of adults.[74][81] The prevalence ... In the United States, food allergy affects as many as 5% of infants less than three years of age[73] and 3% to 4% of adults.[74 ... Osborn DA, Sinn JK (2013). "Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD006474. doi: ... Some children who are allergic to cow's milk protein also show a cross-sensitivity to soy-based products.[34] Some infant ...
A newborn male then has better mating prospects than a newborn female, and therefore can expect to have more offspring. ... Smoking is another important risk factor for LOY.[44] It has been found that men with a higher percentage of hematopoietic stem ... such that the infant may or may not have fully formed male genitalia internally or externally. The full range of ambiguity of ... Smoking is associated with mosaic loss of chromosome Y". Science. 347 (6217): 81-3. Bibcode:2015Sci...347...81D. doi:10.1126/ ...
Newborns (0-3 months) 14 to 17 hours Infants (4-11 months) 12 to 15 hours ... These include smoking cigarettes, and can also include a poor diet, whether it is overeating or an overly constrictive diet. ... and avoiding smoking.[23] Health and illness can co-exist, as even people with multiple chronic diseases or terminal illnesses ... abstinence from smoking, sleeping 7-8 hours a night, and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting ...
... may also be caused by allergens such as pollen, perfumes, cosmetics, smoke,[17] dust mites, Balsam of Peru,[18] ... Acute conjunctivitis is most frequently found in infants, school-age children and the elderly.[12] The most common cause of ... Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn is a conjunctivitis that may be caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and may ... Conjunctivitis in a newborn, known as neonatal conjunctivitis, may also require specific treatment.[1] ...
In human infants, the hemoglobin molecule is made up of 2 α chains and 2 γ chains. The gamma chains are gradually replaced by β ... Murray S.S. & McKinney E.S. (2006). Foundations of Maternal-Newborn Nursing. 4th ed., p. 919. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. ... The binding of oxygen is affected by molecules such as carbon monoxide (for example, from tobacco smoking, exhaust gas, and ... smoking, dehydration (artificially by concentrating Hb), advanced lung disease and certain tumors.[43] ...
Cigarette smoking is now established as a major risk factor for both incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. This may ... It has been theorized that free radicals contribute to the onset of type-1 diabetes in infants and young children, and ... relate to abnormal citrullination of proteins, since the effects of smoking correlate with the presence of antibodies to ...
Koop issued a challenge to Americans in 1984 to "create a smoke-free society in the United States by the year 2000."[22] As ... He first gained international recognition in 1957 by the separation of two female pygopagus infants (conjoined at the pelvis)[ ... Baby Doe, as he would be known, became a symbol for newborns with birth defects, children with disabilities, and the debate ... "Former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop Leaves Legacy on AIDS, Smoking". PBS. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2013.. ...
Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature ... as with smoke intoxication, or over a period of time, as with cigarette smoking. Due to physiological processes, carbon ... To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators (also known as humidicribs) ... "Carbon monoxide in breath in relation to smoking and carboxyhaemoglobin levels". Thorax. 36 (5): 366-69. doi:10.1136/thx.36.5. ...
Infant daughters were often sold by the father to men who were grown, usually for horses or mules. ... According to a legend, Lewis wraps a newborn baby in a United States flag and declares him "an American". ... agreeable sound of a fall of water and advancing a little further I saw the spray arrise above the plain like a column of smoke ... The sight of a woman and her infant son would have been reassuring to some indigenous nations, and she played an important role ...
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (also known as thrush) is a common infection that has a predilection for infants, older adults with ... such as smoking and alcohol use.[72][71] ... Palatal cysts of the newborn. *Inflammatory papillary ...
The dimensions of the lodge's smoke hole and door would be designed to allow observation of the sky, e.g. with the smoke-hole ... In June 1818, the Missouri Gazette reported a sacrifice "some time ago". The newborn of a captive Comanche woman was sacrificed ... On the final day of the ceremony, a procession of men, boys and male infants carried by their mothers accompanied the girl ...
Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen (hypoxia) to a newborn infant long enough to ... Carbon monoxide inhalation, such as that from a car exhaust and the smoke's emission from a lighted cigarette: carbon monoxide ... Davis, PG; Tan, A; O'Donnell, CPF; Schulze, A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic ... There has long been a scientific debate over whether newborn infants with asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or ...
Some parents pose threats to infants due to their behaviors and conditions, such as smoking or drinking heavily, taking drugs, ... Quillin, S.I. Interaction between feeding method and co-sleeping on maternal-newborn sleep. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. ... Products for infantsEdit. There are several products that can be used to facilitate safe co-sleeping with an infant: *special- ... Hofer, M. "The mother-infant interactionas a regulator of infant physiology and behavior", Sympiosis in Parent-Offspring ...
Humans are also at the top of the trophic pyramid, particularly newborns. Exclusively breastfed newborns were estimated to be ... "Infant exposure to dioxin-like compounds in breast milk". Environ. Health Perspect. 110 (6): A325-A332. doi:10.1289/ehp. ... "Apparent half-lives of dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls as a function of age, body fat, smoking status, and ...
Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... Mother's age over 35, smoking, drug use, use of assisted reproductive technology, first pregnancy[4]. ... "House Report 107-186 - BORN-ALIVE INFANTS PROTECTION ACT OF 2001". Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. ... To claim an exemption, the birth must be certified as live, even if the infant only lives for a very brief period. ...
... usually through first or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a non-smoking ... Newborn screening tests were introduced in the early 1960s and initially dealt with just two disorders. Since then tandem mass ... Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ...
... is more common in people who smoke,[6][9][unreliable medical source] and there is also a correlation ... "Nipple trauma in infants? Bednar aphthae". American Journal of Otolaryngology. 33 (6): 756-7. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2012.06.009 ... Palatal cysts of the newborn. *Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia. *Stomatitis nicotina. *Torus palatinus ... Starting smoking again does not usually lessen the condition.[11] Trauma can be reduced by avoiding rough or sharp foodstuffs ...
... or second-hand tobacco smoke. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the infant born to a nonsmoking mother is around 2%, and ... Main article: Newborn screening. Newborn screening tests were introduced in the early 1960s and initially dealt with just two ... Smoking[edit]. Paternal smoking prior to conception has been linked with the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in ... Smoking causes DNA mutations in the germline of the father, which can be inherited by the offspring. Cigarette smoke acts as a ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn:[9] This disease occurs when a newborn's red blood cells are being attacked by antibodies from ... Tobacco: tar in the smoke from tobacco products (and also smokeless tobacco products) tends to form a yellow-brown-black stain ... Dean, Laura (2005). Hemolytic disease of the newborn. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).. ... It is recommended to avoid smoking, drinking red wine, eating or drinking any deeply coloured foods after this as the teeth may ...
In-utero smoke exposure, a family history of asthma, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy are associated with reduced ... Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants Lancet. ... in newborn infants soon after birth to examine the effects of a family history of asthma and in-utero cigarette-smoke exposure ... Introduction: Infants of mothers who smoke have reduced respiratory function and are more likely to develop wheezing. Little ...
... and Ti/w of the newborns of those smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day were significantly lower than those smoking less than ... The thymic index (Ti) and thymic index/weight ratio (Ti/w) of the newborns of the smoking group were lower than in the controls ... Material and Method:A group of 50 pregnant women who smoked throughout pregnancy and a control group of 92 non-smoking pregnant ... These results show that smoking while pregnant has a significant effect on the general involution of the newborn and size of ...
Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smoking Women and Pulmonary Function in Their Newborn Infants: A Randomized Clinical ... Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smoking Women and Pulmonary Function in Their Newborn Infants: A Randomized Clinical ... The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor ( ... translates into significant benefits for newborns of smoking mothers. ...
Infant Deaths from Conditions Causally Linked to Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy: Infant deaths from conditions ... Other respiratory--newborn; Deaths: 117; Percentage of total deaths: 0.03; Years of potential life lost (YPLL): 8,793; ... For example, an infant who died as a result of maternal cigarette smoking would likely have had a greater life expectancy than ... Infant deaths from maternal smoking; Deaths: 1,007; Percentage of total deaths: 0.23; Years of potential life lost (YPLL): ...
A new study examines the association between tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and the risk for severe bronchiolitis in ... Newborn and parents characteristics. Total. Prenatal smoking exposure. Postnatal smoking exposure. None. Passive maternal ... Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure Increases Hospitalizations for Bronchiolitis in Infants. Marcello Lanari; Silvia Vandini; ... Conclusions: These results confirm the detrimental effects of passive TSE and active heavy smoke during pregnancy for infants ...
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a decrease in the risk of RDS in very preterm babies. Although antenatal ... Infant, Newborn * Infant, Premature * Male * Odds Ratio * Pregnancy * Prenatal Care / methods* * Prenatal Exposure Delayed ... Conclusions: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a decrease in the risk of RDS in very preterm babies. ... Does smoking in pregnancy modify the impact of antenatal steroids on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? Results of the ...
Care guide for Prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment ... Smoke-Free Zone: You should not allow anyone including yourself to smoke around your baby. Your house should be a smoke-free ... Premature or low birth weight newborn.. *The infant has or had a recent infection. ... Although infants who sleep on their back or side are much safer, these infants can die of SIDS too. African American and some ...
Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet ... Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet ... Altogether, 95 healthy infants and 47 infants with CF of similar age, sex, ethnicity and proportion exposed to maternal smoking ... Healthy infants and infants with CF were r ...". Abstract - Cited by 2 (0 self) - Add to MetaCart ABSTRACT: Simple methods are ...
Snus worse than smoking for infant apnea. Pregnant mothers in for a long wait: report. ... Air pollution worse than smoking mother: study. Mothers on antidepressants pose risk for newborns: Swedish study. ...
... in infants was evaluated and the association between respiratory symptoms and F(eNO) in the first 2 months of life was ... and post-natal smoke exposure on exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) ... Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Diseases / diagnosis*, etiology*. Male. Maternal Exposure. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Pregnancy. ... Infants exposed pre- and post-natally to smoke showed lower F(eNO) than infants exposed only after birth (geometric mean ...
Newborn babies dont yet have a sense of day and night. They wake often to eat - no matter what time it is. ... While room-sharing is safe, putting your infant to sleep in bed with you is not. Bed-sharing increases the risk of SIDS (sudden ... Keep your baby away from smokers. Secondhand smoke increases the risk of SIDS. ... Some newborns may sleep up to 18-19 hours a day.. Newborns wake every couple of hours to eat. Breastfed babies feed often, ...
We investigated the possible influence of adenylate kinase genetic variability on the effect of maternal smoking on ... Infant, Newborn. Isoenzymes / genetics*. Male. Polymorphism, Genetic. Reproduction / genetics*. Smoking / adverse effects*, ... The proportion of newborns carrying AK1*2 allele was analyzed in relation to smoking and maternal age. The effect of smoking on ... Three hundred forty-five newborn consecutive infants from the Caucasian population of Rome and 360 consecutive infants from the ...
Newborn - 5T). Find the perfect Christmas gift ideas with eBay. ... Zutano Infant Unisex Stripe Pants 12-18M & Green Check Shirt 6- ... Ships from a smoke and pet free environment. Returns: accepted within 30 days; item must be in unused,unopened, and original ... Zutano Newborn 3 Piece Set. Zutano Newborn 3 Piece Set for Sale 2 EUC Kimono Tops and 1 VGUC Pants Kimono Tops have only been ... ZUTANO Baby 0-3 Mos Boy or Girl Button Down L/S Shirt Pant Set Unisex Infant NWT. Get ready for the cooler weather! This cute ...
Infant and Child Health. *. Mens Health. *. Senior Health. *. Womens Health. *. Youth and Young ... Quit Smoking. *. Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing. . **. Health Facilities. *. File a Complaint. *. ... DPH-16-015E Newborn Screening Fee Increase. Information and documentation pertaining to this regulatory proposal are listed ... Privacy Office and Office of Regulations , Pages , DPH-16-015E-Newborn-Screening-Fee-Increase ...
Pulmonary Function; Newborn, Abnormal Infant Wheeze In-utero Nicotine Second Hand Smoke Dietary Supplement: Vitamin C +prenatal ... Vitamin C to Decrease Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP). The safety and scientific validity of ... The incidence of wheezing through 12 months of age will be compared in the infants delivered to smoking pregnant women who were ... Pulmonary function testing at 3 months of age in infants born to smoking pregnant women randomized to daily vitamin C versus ...
Find out more about oral care and oral health for infants, including when to start brushing baby teeth, baby toothpaste, and ... Secondhand Smoke May Lead to Tooth Decay in Infants A study showed that infants who are exposed to cigarette smoke are more ... Study Shows Saliva Can Screen Newborns for Potential Hearing Loss Find out more about oral care and oral health for infants, ... Does Your Newborn Have Teeth? We dont usually think of a newborn as having teeth. However, at birth the crowns of the 20 baby ...
Smoking Early In Pregnancy Raises Risks Of Heart Defects In Newborns ... Mothers who smoke early in pregnancy are more likely to give birth to infants with heart defects, according to a study funded ... Smoking during and after pregnancy is one of the causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). ... Smoking makes it harder for a woman to get pregnant.. *Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely than other women to ...
Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet. ... ETS, environmental tobacco smoke, SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome, OM, otitis media, EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, ... Bed-sharing (infant co-sleeping with the mother) seems to be a risk for SIDS only when the mother also smokes, even after ... Kallen K. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and infant head circumference at birth. Early Hum Dev.2000;58 :197- 204. ...
... s largest selection and best deals for Columbia Newborn-5T Boys' Outerwear. Shop with confidence on eBay! ... Kids Infant Tiny Bear II Bunting. Only worn a few times on vacation. (Smoke and pet free house) ... Infant Boy Columbia 12 Month Fleece Jacket. You are bidding on a infant boy Columbia 12 month fleece jacket. The blue is ... Columbia Infant Double Trouble Jacket Green Size 12-18 MO. Columbia Infant Double Trouble™ Jacket. You can reverse the look ...
Two-tailed students ttest was used to compare groups, eg, gender, smoking, and supplementation of fatty acids. Paired t test ... The purpose of the present study was to measure leptin levels in plasma of pregnant women and their newborn infants, and relate ... The aim of the present study was to examine plasma concentration of leptin in pregnant women and their newborn infants during ... Leptin Levels in Pregnant Women and Newborn Infants: Gender Differences and Reduction During the Neonatal Period. Ingrid B. ...
It is shocking to know that there are about ten people who die from smoking every single minute, and nobody seems to have any ... an estimated 430 newborns from sudden infant death syndrome." (HHS 2006). Smoking in public should not be allowed to be done ... Persuasive Essay on Smoking. 883 Words , 4 Pages. The Adversities of Smoking. Smoking and even second hand smoking can lead to ... Smoking should be banned! First of all, as almost everyone knows, smoking is bad for people. When people smoke their chances of ...
Types of jaundice; causes and treatment in newborns. * DP902 - Kids and Smoking. How your smoking may affect your childs ... IN204 - Infant Nutrition. Babys nutrition needs including how to tell baby is getting enough to eat. ... WV1001 - Newborn Well Visit. This series emphasizes the importance of regular doctor visits. Each Tip explains what to expect ...
Caring for a newborn baby is a big responsibility. So here we talk about baby care basics like how to hold your baby, change ... Some newborn babies like to be swaddled and there is some evidence to suggest swaddling calms infants and helps them sleep ( ... [Accessed 8th September 2018] ... Ten tips for caring for a newborn baby:. 1. Holding your newborn baby safely. Newborn babies often like to be cuddled and need ...
Expanded Newborn Screening Could Save Premature Infants Lives Expanding routine newborn screening to include a metabolic ... Parents Less Aware When Their Kids Vape Than When They Smoke Most parents know or suspect when their child smokes, but they are ... Most Infants Are Well Even When Moms are Infected by COVID-19 Infants born to women with COVID-19 showed few adverse outcomes, ... DNA Test Identifies Genetic Causes of Severe Fetal and Newborn Illness A new study by University of California researchers ...
Anyone whose raised a newborn would probably give this the Chris Rock treatment. "Im not saying its RIGHT. Im just saying, I ... Guy asks liquor store clerk to watch his infant, while he runs out for a smoke. Hours later, he finally returns, drunk. Clerk ...
For infants born in winter-spring, the infants of MD mothers had significantly reduced concentrations of 25(OH) D (adjusted β ... D for infants born in winter-spring (adjusted β = −0.158; 95% CI: −0.259, −0.057). The significant, inverse linear relationship ... compared with the infants of NMD mothers. A significant, inverse linear relationship was noted between maternal depression ... had lower vitamin D levels than newborns of non-MD (NMD) mothers and identify the potential mechanism underlying this ...
Not only can smoking affect the mother, it can also affect the unborn baby. ... Smoking cigarettes during the first few weeks of pregnancy and throughout the first trimester can lead to an array of ... SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome. A child born to a mother who smoked during her first few weeks of pregnancy is ... According to, a healthy weight for a newborn 19 and 21 inches long is 6 to 9 pounds. Many babies born to mothers ...
Smoking and tobacco. *. Economics of tobacco use and control. *. Health effects of tobacco use ... Growth and morbidity of extremely preterm infants after early full enteral nutrition Christoph Maas, Axel R Franz, Stefanie von ... A randomised crossover study of low-flow air or oxygen via nasal cannulae to prevent desaturation in preterm infants Conor C ...
Nicolas J Pejovic, Daniele Trevisanuto, Clare Lubulwa, Susanna Myrnerts Höök, Francesco Cavallin, Josaphat Byamugisha, Jolly Nankunda, Thorkild Tylleskär ...
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexpected death of an infant under 1 years old. (
  • SIDS is the most common cause of death in infants after 1 month of age. (
  • Most SIDS deaths occur while an infant is sleeping face down. (
  • Although infants who sleep on their back or side are much safer, these infants can die of SIDS too. (
  • African American and some American Indian infants are more likely to die of SIDS than white infants are. (
  • SIDS can occur in normal, healthy infants. (
  • There are no warning signs that an infant may die of SIDS. (
  • Bed-sharing increases the risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) and other sleep-related deaths. (
  • Secondhand smoke increases the risk of SIDS. (
  • Smoking during and after pregnancy is one of the causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (
  • 3 A similarly large, although generally newer body of work, clearly links both prenatal maternal smoking and ETS exposure to ear infections, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), behavioral problems, and neurocognitive deficits. (
  • SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome. (
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexpected death of a seemingly normal, healthy infant under one year of age that remains unexplained after a thorough postmortem investigation, including an autopsy and a review of the case history. (
  • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2,234 infants in the United States died of SIDS in 2001, or 8.1 percent of total infant deaths. (
  • The rate of SIDS in African-American infants is twice as high as that of Caucasians, a fact often attributed to the lower quality of prenatal care received by many African-American mothers. (
  • Although investigators are still not sure whether the immediate cause of SIDS deaths is due to respiratory failure or cardiac arrest , patterns of infant sleep , breathing, and arousal are a major focus of research in the early 2000s. (
  • Premature infants and low birth weight babies in general are known to be at increased risk of developing SIDS, as are infants born to teenage mothers, poor mothers, and mothers who for any reason have had inadequate prenatal care. (
  • Other risk factors include maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to smoking in the home after birth, formula feeding rather than breastfeeding, and prior death of a sibling from SIDS (although this is thought to be due to shared environmental risk factors rather than genetic predisposition). (
  • Studies have reported that anywhere from 28 percent to 52 percent of infants who die of SIDS are found lying face down. (
  • Another finding reinforcing the connection between SIDS and prone-sleeping is the fact that SIDS rates are higher in Western cultures, where women have traditionally placed children on their stomachs, than in Eastern ones, where infants usually sleep on their backs. (
  • However, it is known that when infants sleep on their backs they are more prone to arousal, and SIDS is often thought to involve a failure to rouse from sleep. (
  • Which one of the following is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? (
  • 1. C. Exposure to cigarette smoke is considered to be a risk factor for the development of SIDS. (
  • And although death is a topic most people don't want to talk about, we thought it's best to educate parents about the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and its causes so they would also know if there's anything they can do to prevent these deaths from happening. (
  • What is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)? (
  • On the other hand, Native American infants are three times more likely to experience SIDS than Caucasians. (
  • The American Association of Pediatrics recommended in 1992 that infants be placed on the sides or on their back as this has some evidence of reducing the rate of SIDS in some areas. (
  • And remember that SIDS is not a common occurrence � of every 1000 babies born, 998 infants will NOT become SIDS victims. (
  • How do you prevent a newborn from SIDS? (
  • When newborns are placed to sleep on their back instead of their stomach, the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS) is reduced. (
  • Fetal exposure to tobacco smoke in utero is associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and cardiac arrhythmias in newborns. (
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexplained death of a baby younger than 1 year old. (
  • SIDS and other types of sleep-related infant deaths have similar risk factors. (
  • Infants exposed to secondhand smoke after birth have significantly higher risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (
  • Infants who die from SIDS have higher concentrations of nicotine in their lungs and higher levels of cotinine than infants who die from other causes. (
  • Can Breastfeeding Really Prevent SIDS in Newborns? (
  • Lowering an infant's risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is at the top of every parent's list. (
  • SIDS causes infants to die unexpectedly, often in their sleep and without any warning signs. (
  • While there's no known cause of SIDS, experts have identified numerous risk factors, such as stomach-sleeping, co-sleeping , and exposure to secondhand smoke. (
  • They've also found that certain parental actions lower the odds of SIDS-including nursing your infant. (
  • Because the underlying causes of SIDS remain unknown, all newborn infants are potentially at risk for SIDS. (
  • Babies not exposed to cigarette smoke still die of SIDS. (
  • For the past several years, he has established probably the best controlled and most accurate study of infant mortality (including SIDS) in the world. (
  • In the absence of prone sleeping, parental cigarette smoking has emerged as the next greatest risk factor for SIDS. (
  • Clearly, Professor Fleming is not saying that cigarette smoking is the cause of SIDS. (
  • Like with prone sleeping, babies of families where there has been no cigarette smoking continue to die from SIDS, and most babies born into families where one or both parents smoke will not die. (
  • So, cigarette smoking is not the cause of SIDS. (
  • Such problems include respiratory disease and SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome). (
  • Incidentally you may have come across S.I.D.S. Sids is Sudden infant death syndrome. (
  • We collected respiratory-function data from 500 healthy infants of mothers taking part in the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort Study. (
  • In-utero smoke exposure, a family history of asthma, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy are associated with reduced respiratory function after birth. (
  • A group of 50 pregnant women who smoked throughout pregnancy and a control group of 92 non-smoking pregnant women were studied. (
  • Vitamin C in pregnant smokers may be an inexpensive and simple approach to decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function and respiratory morbidities. (
  • These results confirm the detrimental effects of passive TSE and active heavy smoke during pregnancy for infants' respiratory health, since the exposure significantly increases the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first year of life. (
  • Does smoking in pregnancy modify the impact of antenatal steroids on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? (
  • To assess the relation between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very preterm birth, and to analyse the differential effect of antenatal steroids on RDS among smokers and non-smokers. (
  • The odds ratio for RDS in relation to smoking in pregnancy was estimated using a logistic regression to control for gestational age. (
  • The odds ratio for RDS in relation to smoking in pregnancy adjusted for gestational age (aOR) was 0.59 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 0.79). (
  • Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a decrease in the risk of RDS in very preterm babies. (
  • The mother smoked during or after her pregnancy. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy remains a major public health problem as at least 12% of pregnant women cannot quit smoking during pregnancy. (
  • This addiction is the largest preventable cause of childhood respiratory illness, including asthma, and children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy show lifetime decreases in pulmonary function. (
  • Teen pregnancy, low income, low education, and living with another smoker are important factors increasing the odds of smoking during pregnancy. (
  • Pulmonary function tests done shortly after birth in babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy show decreased pulmonary function as measured by decreased respiratory flows and respiratory compliance and altered tidal breathing patterns. (
  • The primary aim of this double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized, multi-site study is to demonstrate improved pulmonary function testing at 3 months of age, in infants delivered to smoking mothers who are randomized to 500 mg/day of supplemental vitamin C versus placebo at less than or equal to 22 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • The success of this study is also supported by animal models showing the effectiveness of vitamin C to preserve pulmonary function and genetic and epidemiologic studies linking the effects of smoking during pregnancy to oxidant mechanisms. (
  • Mothers who smoke early in pregnancy are more likely to give birth to infants with heart defects, according to a study funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The study, published in the April issue of Pediatrics, shows that women who smoked anytime during the month before pregnancy to the end of the first trimester were more likely to give birth to infants with certain congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared to women who did not smoke during this time period. (
  • The indisputable fact is that women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their unborn babies at risk for other health problems. (
  • Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely than other women to have a miscarriage. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy causes major health problems for both mother and baby. (
  • For example, smoking is one of the causes of problems with the placenta â€" the source of the baby's nutrition and oxygen during pregnancy. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy can cause a baby to be born too early and have low birth weight â€" making it more likely the baby will become sick or die. (
  • The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on children's birth weight has been recognized since 1957, 1 and the first report concerning the adverse effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's health was published in 1967. (
  • 21 Smoking during pregnancy seems to add an additional risk to that associated with postnatal exposure to ETS. (
  • 22 Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an odds ratio of 3.8 for infant death as a result of respiratory disease (excluding conditions related to prematurity). (
  • Little is known about variation in leptin levels during pregnancy or the level or function of leptin in the growing fetus and infants. (
  • Blood samples were taken from the mothers during pregnancy in weeks 18 and 35, and from the umbilical cord and from 4- and 14-week-old infants. (
  • Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and concentrations of cord blood 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in 1491 mother-infant pairs. (
  • Smoking cigarettes during the first few weeks of pregnancy and throughout the first trimester can lead to an array of complications. (
  • It is important to stop smoking, avoid second-hand smoke and attend routine pre-natal checkups throughout the entire course of the pregnancy for a safe delivery and a healthy baby. (
  • One of the most profound effects of smoking during the first weeks of pregnancy is to have the baby too early. (
  • One effect of smoking during the first few weeks of pregnancy is a premature birth. (
  • A child born to a mother who smoked during her first few weeks of pregnancy is considered at high risk for sudden death under the age of one year. (
  • BABIES whose mothers smoke during pregnancy are born with a carcinogen in their bodies, say chemists in the US. (
  • It was already known that babies born to mothers who smoke during pregnancy tend to be small and may have chromosomal irregularities (New Scientist, Science, 1 April 1995, p 20). (
  • 4. Drug Addiction and Pregnancy: The Newborn. (
  • 5. Marijuana and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy: Neonatal Effects. (
  • 14. AIDS in Pregnancy and the Newborn. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy may impair pulmonary function in infants and children. (
  • Key to understanding the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on lung development is understanding the balance between the nicotine addiction that drives continued smoking and the direct effects of nicotine on the developing lung. (
  • The epigenetic mechanisms underlying how maternal smoking during pregnancy causes life-long changes in offspring lung function are also being investigated. (
  • Because so many of the effects of smoking during pregnancy are mediated by nicotine, the Spindel laboratory is also interested in potential harms of e-cigarette use during pregnancy on offspring respiratory health. (
  • Not only do you endanger your own life when you smoke, but you are also harming your unborn child if you smoke during pregnancy. (
  • Women who smoke during their pregnancy have an increased risk factor for many pregnancy complications. (
  • [4] One of the most common preventable causes of infant mortality is smoking during pregnancy. (
  • The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy exposes the baby to dangerous chemicals that can rob oxygen from the blood, retarding growth and endangering the baby's lungs as they develop. (
  • As mentioned previously, second hand smoke can negatively affect the chromosomes in both mother and father, can affect the uterine lining, and can potentially affect the ability of the woman to maintain a pregnancy. (
  • Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. (
  • Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. (
  • Furthermore, adolescents and children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are particularly vulnerable to the effects of cigarette smoking. (
  • 2008). Moreover, estimates of women who smoke during pregnancy indicate an overall prevalence of 11.4%, with a range of 6.3% to as high as 26.2% when state-specific data are evaluated (CDC, 2004). (
  • Smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. (
  • This was a prospective study of the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior, including dose-response relationships using self-report and a bioassay of nicotine exposure. (
  • Research directed at understanding the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infants can lead to improved public health outcome. (
  • Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior: neonatal nicotine withdrawal syndrome. (
  • Lack of prenatal care, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and drug use also cause complications which may result in infant mortality. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy is a significant health concern, especially since 20% to 30% of pregnant women smoke. (
  • Fortunately, many women quit during pregnancy or at least reduce how much they smoke. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy harms both the mother's and the unborn baby's health, and can even be fatal to the baby. (
  • The effects of second-hand smoke exposure during and after pregnancy can also cause long-term problems for a child. (
  • In addition, women should not smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs during pregnancy. (
  • A poor diet during pregnancy can affect how much a newborn weighs and how the infant grows. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy results in more than 1,000 infant deaths annually. (
  • Adults exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have newborns with lower birth weight, increasing the risk of health complications. (
  • In the group of transient early wheezers, frequent lower respiratory tract infections early in life and maternal smoking during pregnancy were significant but weak determinants of impaired lung function. (
  • There are reports that low birthweight and maternal smoking during pregnancy may influence lung growth and therefore be associated with lower forced vital capacity (FVC) 3 - 5 and later asthma or respiratory disease 6 - 8 . (
  • Remley, a pediatric emergency doctor, said grandmothers will be urged to deliver some common-sense advice to daughters long before pregnancy: "Don't smoke, use drugs or drink. (
  • The effects of cigarette smoking of women during their first pregnancy on the somatic outcome of their newborn children is evaluated. (
  • Over all the rate of hypotrophic newborns is doubled if the mother smokes during pregnancy. (
  • It is vital to understand the ramifications that smoking has on a pregnancy, on the fetus, and on the mother. (
  • Recent national government surveys show that 14 to 20 percent of women smoke during pregnancy. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy also increases the risk that the child will smoke as a teenager and it often creates developmental problems in children. (
  • RESULTS Two hundred and fifty mothers smoked during pregnancy (20.5%) and 307 (25.2%) after childbirth. (
  • Maternal smoking in pregnancy may increase fetal IgE production 1 2 and early life respiratory infections. (
  • A recent meta-analysis concluded that maternal smoking during pregnancy or parental smoking during early childhood is unlikely to increase the risk of allergic sensitisation. (
  • 11 It is difficult to dissociate the influences of maternal smoking in pregnancy from those of smoking after delivery as most mothers who smoke while pregnant continue their habit after childbirth. (
  • 3 On the other hand, many women quit smoking for pregnancy and resume after childbirth. (
  • 12 13 Smoking in pregnancy has been linked to low birth weight and an increased risk of perinatal complications including stillbirth. (
  • What the study found was an increased relative risk of reported asthma and use of asthma medications at age 7 years when the grandmother smoked during pregnancy with the study mother. (
  • The effect estimates were consistent for both the reported and registry-based outcomes but attenuated somewhat when they were adjusted for maternal variables, including her own pregnancy smoking history. (
  • Interestingly, when the results were stratified according to whether or not the mother had smoked when pregnant, there was little difference in adjusted risks and the grandmaternal effect was at least as strong as when only the mother had smoked during pregnancy with no grandmaternal exposure. (
  • For instance, she might have an incompetent cervix meaning her cervix is not going to aid the infant till the very end of the pregnancy. (
  • Because incense smoke contains harmful components similar to those in cigarette smoke, we also estimated the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth outcomes. (
  • We used data from the first-wave interview, which contained information on pregnancy inputs, infant birth outcomes, parental health conditions before and during pregnancy, parental education, religion, and other demographics. (
  • There has been limited research addressing whether behavioural change in relation to smoking is maintained throughout pregnancy and the effect on perinatal outcomes. (
  • Of the 907 women, 270 (30%) reported smoking in the six months prior to pregnancy, and of those 160 (59%) had stopped smoking and 110 (41%) continued to smoke at the time of the first antenatal visit. (
  • There was virtually no change in smoking behaviour between the first antenatal visit and the third trimester of pregnancy. (
  • Public Health campaigns emphasise the health benefits of quitting smoking in pregnancy. (
  • Smoking is one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes, and is associated with increased risks of maternal, fetal and infant morbidity and mortality across populations [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Smoking in pregnancy is strongly associated with poverty, low educational attainment, poor social support and psychological stress, factors that are in themselves associated with adverse perinatal outcomes [ 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Many women continue to smoke in pregnancy, despite recommendations that they should quit in order to minimise potential risks to the fetus and newborn infant [ 8 ]. (
  • Intervention-based studies have demonstrated success in reducing maternal smoking later in pregnancy but limited success in relapse prevention [ 5 ]. (
  • Few population-based studies have addressed smoking behaviour prospectively from pre-pregnancy up until delivery outcome. (
  • The aim of this study was to use a cohort of women booking for antenatal care and delivering in a Dublin maternity hospital to investigate the behavioural changes reported in relation to smoking pre-pregnancy, at the time of the first antenatal visit and in the third trimester of pregnancy and whether this affects adverse perinatal outcomes. (
  • The full-term newborn babies' length, weight, and head circumference were measured. (
  • Babies born to women who smoke are more likely to have a cleft lip or cleft palate â€" types of birth defects. (
  • Newborn babies often like to be cuddled and need to be held in a safe way that supports their head. (
  • Newborn babies feed little and often. (
  • Many babies born to mothers who smoke or are exposed to excessive second-hand smoke can have babies that are much smaller-some weighing only a few pounds. (
  • only that women who smoke have babies who are at the highest risk. (
  • But in 22 of 31 babies born to smoking mothers, they found levels as high as a tenth of those found in adult smokers. (
  • Vaginal seeding" is growing in popularity because it's thought that babies born through Cesarean-section miss out on certain "helpful" vaginal microbes that might shield the infant from asthma , allergies and immune disorders. (
  • That contact doesn't happen for babies born via C-section , however, so in vaginal seeding, a cotton swab with vaginal fluids from the mother is used to transfer vaginal bacteria to a newborn. (
  • The research team is the first to confirm differences in the fibrous structure of the 10 tracts between healthy, full-term infant brains and those of premature babies. (
  • Compared to fetus' in women who don't smoke, babies exposed to cigarette smoke while in the womb tend to receive less food and oxygen. (
  • Babies exposed to cigarette smoke in the womb, whether directly or from second-hand smoke, are more likely to be born with a low birth weight, shorter length and smaller head circumference. (
  • Tobacco use reduces the birthweight of babies in direct proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked, with pack-a-day smokers 30% more likely to give birth to a low birthweight child than a nonsmoker. (
  • As the leading cause of death in babies between one month and one year of age, it's good to be aware of sudden infant death syndrome, its risk factors and some of the things you can do to reduce your child's risk. (
  • How does smoking affect unborn and newborn babies? (
  • Premature babies generally are smaller and lighter than other newborns. (
  • Babies are born with some extra fluid, so it is perfectly normal for a newborn to drop a few ounces when that fluid is lost in the first few days of life. (
  • Its goal: cutting Virginia's infant mortality rate, the 30th highest in the country, from 7.7 deaths to 7.0 deaths per 1,000 babies per year by the end of 2010. (
  • Healthier mothers make healthy babies, and this will reduce the infant mortality rate," Dei said. (
  • Some studies have indicated that babies born in a home where there is secondhand smoke have a birth weight of 25-50 grams less than normal. (
  • The difference in breast feeding duration was partly due to a higher proportion of smoking mothers who never breast fed their babies. (
  • Especially in the premature baby's and newborn babies first year of life. (
  • Smoking when pregnant is unbelievably dangerous to the newborn infant as premature babies tend to be born with small birth weight. (
  • Studies have linked babies born prematurely with a low birth weight to their mothers' smoking habits, and her ethnicity. (
  • Little evidence is available on the effect of in-utero cigarette-smoke exposure as opposed to postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. (
  • We used a previously validated non-invasive method to measure the time to peak tidal expiratory flow (tPTEF) as a proportion of expiratory time (tE) in newborn infants soon after birth to examine the effects of a family history of asthma and in-utero cigarette-smoke exposure on the infants' respiratory function. (
  • Prenatal exposure to tobacco can have significant effects on infants. (
  • Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is a worldwide health problem and it is considered a risk factor for pregnant women's and children's health, particularly for respiratory morbidity during the first year of life. (
  • Smoke exposure, airway symptoms and exhaled nitric oxide in infants: the Generation R study. (
  • The effect of pre- and post-natal smoke exposure on exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)) in infants was evaluated and the association between respiratory symptoms and F(eNO) in the first 2 months of life was investigated. (
  • In conclusion, the nature of the association between smoke exposure and exhaled nitric oxide fraction is dependent on timing and intensity of exposure. (
  • Key genetic polymorphisms shown to increase sensitivity to in-utero smoke exposure will also be measured. (
  • Children's exposure to tobacco constituents during fetal development and via environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is perhaps the most ubiquitous and hazardous of children's environmental exposures. (
  • A large literature links both prenatal maternal smoking and children's ETS exposure to decreased lung growth and increased rates of respiratory tract infections, otitis media, and childhood asthma, with the severity of these problems increasing with increased exposure. (
  • Studies of each of these problems suggest independent effects of both pre- and postnatal exposure for each, with the respiratory risk associated with parental smoking seeming to be greatest during fetal development and the first several years of life. (
  • Aligne and Stoddard 4 estimated the annual excess in deaths in children younger than 5 years as a result of tobacco smoke exposure at close to 6000, exceeding deaths as a result of all injuries combined. (
  • How toxicants enter the body - the routes of exposure - will be considered in the context of some health effects in newborns, infants, and toddlers. (
  • 8. The Effects of Perinatal Cocaine Exposure on Infant Neurobehavior and Early Maternal - Infant Interactions. (
  • The Upstate KIDS Study, which represents a collaborative effort among the DIPHR Epidemiology and Biostatistics & Bioinformatics Branches, the New York State Department of Health, and the University at Albany School of Public Health, implemented a matched-exposure cohort design, recruiting infants who were born between 2008 and 2010 in New York State (exclusive of New York City). (
  • Additionally, prenatal exposure to cigarettes can lead to long-term physical and intellectual problems in children, especially if you continue to smoke around them. (
  • We know that the majority of early miscarriages are the result of abnormal chromosomes and men who smoke heavily or heavy exposure of the mother to smoke (whether she smokes or receives it second hand) have chromosomal abnormalities. (
  • Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. (
  • At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant's exposure were associated with the infant's salivary cotinine concentration. (
  • Although hearing impairment statistics in newborns, children, and adolescents associated with prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to cigarette smoking is not available, several epidemiological studies over the years have indicated an increase in the prevalence of hearing loss as a function of age. (
  • Although deleterious effects of cigarette smoking on adult health have been well documented, only recently have clinical studies linked adverse neurodevelopmental problems to prenatal exposure associated with maternal smoking. (
  • Studies have correlated the presence of cotinine, a chemical that has been identified as a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure, with upper respiratory tract problems and increased risk for middle ear problems (CDC, 2006). (
  • These findings suggest neurotoxic effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on newborn neurobehavior. (
  • Epidemiologic data were collected using a questionnaire regarding medical history, breast-feeding, exposure to cigarette smoke and household information. (
  • A brief intervention to advise parents of asthmatic children about the risks from passive smoking was ineffective in reducing their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. (
  • 4 Exposure mainly depends on proximity to smokers, and young children who spend much of their time with parents that smoke are particularly vulnerable. (
  • 6 It is not clear whether this advice encourages parents to reduce their children's exposure to tobacco smoke. (
  • The data supporting this, however, rely primarily on self-reporting to gauge secondhand smoke exposure , which many researchers consider unreliable. (
  • The UCSF researchers took a fresh approach by basing their numbers on a chemical called cotinine in the blood, which is a byproduct of smoking proportional to the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke. (
  • Studies show that even small amounts of secondhand smoke exposure may have a negative impact on health, particularly for people who are vulnerable for various reasons. (
  • In utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor in 85 percent of cases. (
  • I. The Effect of Prenatal and Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Child Health;II. (
  • Secondhand smoke exposure causes more than 7,300 deaths from lung cancer among people who do not smoke. (
  • Measurements of blood serum cotinine (as a measure of secondhand exposure among people who do not smoke) show that exposure to secondhand smoke steadily decreased in the United States between 1988-2014. (
  • Although the number of people who do not smoke but are exposed to secondhand smoke has declined, disparities in secondhand smoke exposure persist. (
  • These studies give mixed results as to the effect of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the development of respiratory allergic symptoms and allergen sensitisation in children. (
  • a Defined as regular and steady gestational exposure to other person s cigarette smoke, either at home or in the workplace. (
  • For example, intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking is associated with low lung function 2 and increased respiratory symptoms 3 in infancy and, through reduced birth weight, low FEV 1 and COPD in adulthood. (
  • The authors with appropriate circumspection have suggested that these results could be explained by transgenerational effects mediated through epigenetic changes associated with tobacco smoke exposure. (
  • Sudden infant death syndrome, behavioral problems, neurocognitive decrements, and increased rates of adolescent smoking also are associated with such exposures. (
  • an estimated 430 newborns from sudden infant death syndrome. (
  • The first published research about sudden infant death appeared in the mid-nineteenth century. (
  • Smoking around a newborn baby also significantly increases their chances of respiratory disease and cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) . (
  • Causes of infant mortality that are related to medical conditions include: low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome , malnutrition,congenital malformations, and infectious diseases, including neglected tropical diseases . (
  • A recent study found that breastfeeding for two months could nearly halve your baby's risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (
  • April 1997 British analysis results conclude 'maternal smoking doubles the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (
  • Childhood disorders associated with mothers smoking when pregnant include low birth weight, sudden unexplained death in infancy, asthma 1 and a number of neurobehavioural outcomes, although whether all these reported associations are truly causal has been questioned. (
  • Does vitamin C supplementation to pregnant smokers improve pulmonary function for their newborns? (
  • A total of 159 newborns of pregnant smokers (76 received vitamin C and 83 placebo) were included. (
  • The investigators concluded that supplemental vitamin C taken by pregnant smokers improved newborn PFT results and decreased wheezing through 1 year in the offspring. (
  • Cigarette smokers are exposed to nicotine directly, as well as a number of additional chemicals including formaldehyde, benzene, arsenic, vinyl chloride, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide via secondhand smoke inhalation (CDC, 2006). (
  • Nakanishi, Okamoto, Nakamura, Suzuki, and Tatara (2000) showed that male office workers in the 30-59 year age range who smoked were at a greater risk for hearing loss at 4 kHz than at 1 kHz compared to nonsmokers and ex-smokers. (
  • Even so, according to a Gallup poll conducted July 9-12, many smokers and nonsmokers are unaware of secondhand smoke danger, with just 28 percent of smokers saying secondhand smoke is very harmful to adults, compared with 63 percent of nonsmokers. (
  • Nearly one in four smokers said secondhand smoke is not too harmful or not harmful at all. (
  • Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers. (
  • Most smokers make many attempts to stop smoking before they achieve stable, long-term abstinence from smoking. (
  • Most people with COPD are long-term smokers, and research shows that smoking cigarettes increases the risk of getting COPD. (
  • Fetal lung, infant lung, mature lung and lung cancer are all direct targets of nicotine because of the high expression of nicotinic receptors in normal, developing and diseased lung. (
  • Although these still have nicotine in them to help with cravings, you are not getting the other harmful substances associated with smoking. (
  • Nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, all emitted from cigarettes when a person smokes, filter down to the unborn baby in the womb. (
  • The sample included 27 nicotine exposed and 29 unexposed full-term newborn infants with no medical problems from comparable social class backgrounds. (
  • It therefore seems logical to prescribe nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) to pregnant women who wish to quit smoking. (
  • Tobacco smoke contains over 3,000 toxic compounds identified so far, but out of all the toxic compounds found in smoke, only nicotine is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in newborns. (
  • Results showed that isoproterenol, an analog of epinephrine (adrenaline) and a potent beta-adrenergic agonist, increased INa by 50 percent in newborn rabbits in the control group but had no effect in newborn rabbits that were exposed to nicotine in utero . (
  • Mothers who smoke while pregnant are exposing their unborn baby to nicotine (a highly addictive substance), carbon monoxide, and thousands of other chemicals (including cancer-causing agents) that are found in tobacco. (
  • Efficacy and safety of varenicline given in conjunction with other smoking cessation therapies (e.g., bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy) not established. (
  • Many effective treatments for nicotine dependence are available to help you manage withdrawal and stop smoking for good. (
  • When you quit smoking, you cut off the brain's pleasure response because the receptors don't get nicotine, triggering nicotine withdrawal symptoms. (
  • If you stick it out and use stop-smoking products to help with withdrawal symptoms and cravings, the number of nicotine receptors returns to normal, helping you quit smoking for good. (
  • Nicotine is the chemical in tobacco that keeps you smoking. (
  • Nicotine is very addictive when delivered by inhaling tobacco smoke into the lungs, which quickly releases nicotine into the blood allowing it to get into the brain within seconds of taking a puff. (
  • We'll also explain how nicotine works and why this stimulant makes it so hard to kick a smoking habit. (
  • How much nicotine is in other smoking products? (
  • When you stop smoking and your nicotine levels go down, your body craves it because your brain isn't making enough acetylcholine on its own. (
  • As cocaine has become the drug of choice for millions of Americans, including pregnant women, as AIDS has become more commonly recognized in women and infants, and as legal cases have begun to raise the question of fetal abuse, no professional group has come forward to serve as advocate for this special population of substance abusers. (
  • Perinatal mortality is late fetal death (22 weeks gestation to birth), or death of a newborn up to one week postpartum. (
  • Instead, those infants display a slowing of heart rate when lacking oxygen, as if their postnatal cardiac development had been delayed and still in a fetal state. (
  • Such outcomes could be ascribed to direct toxic effects of tobacco smoke constituents on the fetoplacental unit with consequences for fetal organ development which might manifest through the life course. (
  • These results suggest that supplementation with vitamin C, which is affordable to most adults, translates into significant benefits for newborns of smoking mothers. (
  • While peer pressure is accountable for provoking teenagers to smoke just for the sake of it, advertisement is more responsible for initiating young adults to just puff their lives away for acceptance. (
  • To successfully combat smoking or to eliminate tobacco companies altogether, hopefully sometime soon in the future, an ideal student must learn to recognize and to resist the many elements tobacco companies use in advertisement to hook young adults. (
  • For example, calcium transport in newborns and infants is about five times the rate in adults. (
  • Although the imaging technology is regularly used in adults, the tiny head size and lack of benchmark measurements in healthy infants meant that the use of DTT in premature infants was previously uncharted territory. (
  • In the 20th century, the U.S. reduced the rate of adults who smoke from 42%in 1965 to 25%in 1997. (
  • Rates continue to drop-in 2010, 19%of adults smoked. (
  • Thus, this overview will address the effects of cigarette smoking on the auditory system from both perspectives: the effects of smoking in adults and the effects associated with maternal smoking. (
  • The vulnerable include newborns, either exposed in the womb or after birth, and adults with existing heart and lung problems. (
  • Just like adults, newborns come in a range of healthy sizes. (
  • For adults who do not smoke, breathing secondhand smoke has immediate harmful effects on the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Secondhand smoke causes nearly 34,000 premature deaths from heart disease each year in the United States among adults who do not smoke. (
  • Healthy infants and infants with CF were recruited from two maternity units and five specialist CF hospitals, respectively. (
  • Altogether, 95 healthy infants and 47 infants with CF of similar age, sex, ethnicity and proportion exposed to maternal smoking were recruited. (
  • There was no difference in TPTEF:TE and tidal volume between healthy infants and those with CF. Minute ventilation was significantly greater in infants with CF due to a mean (95 % confidence interval) increase in respiratory rate of 5.8 (3.2-8.4) min-1. (
  • Because the first trimester is important for the baby's growth and development, smoking can easily lead to irreversible complications that pose a serious risk to the fetus. (
  • One major factor that can influence the baby's health is smoking. (
  • At study entry, 41% of the vitamin C group and 36% of the placebo group reported smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day. (
  • Policymakers at both the state and federal levels have relied on estimates like these in considering bans on smoking in public places, taxes on cigarettes, litigation to recoup medical expenditures, and other matters concerning tobacco. (
  • Prenatal passive TSE and maternal active smoking of more than 15 cigarettes/daily are associated to a significant increase of the risk of offspring children hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with an adjHR of 3.5 (CI 1.5-8.1) and of 1.7 (CI 1.1-2.6) respectively. (
  • One of the elements that often appears in the media is the association of young, attractive individuals with cigarettes to convey to the youth that smoking is appealing. (
  • There are many resources to help you give up cigarettes, check out this site for information to help you stop smoking . (
  • 2008) indicates that approximately 10% of students in grades 9 through 12 currently smoke more than 10 cigarettes per day. (
  • In their study, they controlled for age and a number of health factors like body mass index, alcohol consumption, triglyceride levels, etc., and showed that as numbers of cigarettes smoked per day and pack years of smoking increased, the risk for high-frequency hearing loss increased in a dose dependent manner, whereas low-frequency hearing loss remained unchanged. (
  • The primary outcome of interest was newborn pulmonary function (ratio of the time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time [TPTEF:TE] and passive respiratory compliance per kilogram [Crs/kg]) within 72 hours of age. (
  • Vitamin C supplementation (500 mg per day) given to pregnant women who can not quit smoking will improve the pulmonary function tests in their offspring measured at 3 months of age. (
  • The infants will also be followed through one year of age with monthly validated respiratory questionnaires and a follow-up pulmonary function test at 12 months of age. (
  • Success of this study is supported by strong pilot data showing statistically significant improvements at about 48 hours of age in pulmonary function tests in infants born to smoking mothers who received vitamin C versus placebo, and preliminary data showing a lower incidence of wheezing at 12 months of age in these infants. (
  • 2) to demonstrate improved pulmonary function tests at 12 months of age in these infants. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 2 million deaths in the 5-year period from 1995 through 1999 were attributable to cigarette smoking. (
  • Footnote 1] CDC reported that, on average, over 440,000 deaths, 5.6 million years of potential life lost, $82 billion in mortality-related productivity losses, and $76 billion in medical expenditures were attributable to cigarette smoking each year from 1995 through 1999. (
  • Specifically, we examined CDC's estimates of (1) deaths and years of potential life lost and (2) mortality-related productivity losses and medical expenditures attributable to cigarette smoking. (
  • In summary, CDC's estimates of the average number of deaths and years of potential life lost each year due to cigarette smoking were reasonable. (
  • The estimates were based on the increases in deaths from 23 causes that were linked to cigarette smoking. (
  • That makes it about five million deaths worldwide each year, according to "Statistics about Smoking. (
  • This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( IMR ), which is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. (
  • [9] This study was conducted across 135 countries over the course of 11 years, with the continent of Africa having the highest infant mortality rate of any other region studied with 68 deaths per 1,000 live births. (
  • 99% of infant deaths occur in developing countries, and 86% of these deaths are due to infections , premature births , complications during delivery, and perinatal asphyxia and birth injuries. (
  • Supplemental newborn screening can absolutely prevent 5% of Suddent Infant Deaths. (
  • More than 42,000 people a year, including 900 infants, according to a new, thorough analysis of secondhand smoke deaths by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco. (
  • The early deaths disproportionately affect African-Americans, especially black infants. (
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that secondhand smoke causes about 49,000 deaths annually. (
  • Furthermore, given the poor air quality in most large American cities, calculating the number of deaths among nonsmokers due to secondhand smoke - as opposed to diesel fumes and coal burning, for example - has been difficult for researchers. (
  • This is the first estimate of secondhand smoking deaths and economic impact based on serum cotinine, said the study's lead author, Wendy Max, professor of health economics at the UCSF School of Nursing. (
  • Blacks accounted for 13 percent of all deaths, but up to 36 percent of infant deaths. (
  • Clinicians often prescribe NRTs to pregnant women who wish to quit smoking in order to reduce the number of crib deaths," explained lead investigator Robert Dumaine, PhD, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. (
  • Until 2015, this number has almost halved to 4.6 million infant deaths. (
  • Over the same period, the infant mortality rate declined from 65 deaths per 1,000 live births to 29 deaths per 1,000. (
  • Each year, more than 8,000 deaths from stroke can be attributed to secondhand smoke. (
  • A leading cause of infant deaths is low birth weight. (
  • The effect of maternal smoking on newborn lung function was associated with maternal genotype for the α5 nicotinic receptor (rs16969968) (p (
  • ABSTRACT: Simple methods are needed to assess lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study determined the relationship between simple measurements obtained from tidal breathing with those from more complicated forced expiratory manoeuvres. (
  • Being small for gestational age (SGA), a condition often overlapping with IUGR, has been associated not only with BPD in pre-term infants but also, irrespectively of being born pre-term, to poorer lung function in childhood [ 18 ], thus suggesting another "causative" link in the case of IUGR: the association of infant size and lung or airway size. (
  • How your smoking may affect your child's health and how to keep your kids from picking up the habit. (
  • Parents were told about the impact of passive smoking on asthma and were advised to stop smoking or change their smoking habits to protect their child's health. (
  • If a clinician believes that a child's health is being affected by parental smoking, the parent's smoking needs to be addressed as a separate issue from the child's health. (
  • However, the mechanisms explaining how a mother's smoking is linked to a child's low birth weight status are underexplored. (
  • Another notable observation was that there was no difference in birth weights according to whether or not the grandmother had smoked when pregnant with the child's mother. (
  • A depressed mother may fail to bond emotionally with her newborn, raising the child's risk of later cognitive delays and emotional and behavior problems. (
  • Birth defects (something the infant is born with). (
  • Most people know that smoking causes cancer, heart disease and other major health problems," said Margaret Honein, Ph.D., MPH, CDC's National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, one of the researchers. (
  • The findings from the study, "Maternal Smoking and Congenital Heart Defects," were based on the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, which is the largest population-based study ever done on the causes of birth defects in the United States. (
  • This research included 3,067 infants with CHDs and a comparison group of 3,947 infants with no major birth defects. (
  • For information about birth defects, please visit, for more information about smoking please visit or call 1-800-CDC-INFO. (
  • In 2013, the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States was birth defects. (
  • F(eNO) was reduced in infants with severe upper respiratory symptoms compared with infants with nonsevere symptoms (1.6 (1.0-2.4) ppb). (
  • Infants with symptoms of the lower respiratory tract had lower F(eNO) than asymptomatic infants (1.2 (1.0-1.50) ppb). (
  • 13 , 14 Even when controlling for parental symptoms, birth weight, and family size, bronchitis and pneumonia are more common during the first year of life in smoking households. (
  • Fortunately, this is not necessary in the vast majority of cases because the previously listed symptoms are typically an indicator of nothing more than newborn congestion. (
  • Maternal smoking is believed to increase asthmatic symptoms but its influence on the development of allergen sensitisation is debatable. (
  • However, maternal smoking was a significant risk factor in a subgroup of children with asthmatic symptoms but negative skin prick test. (
  • 8 No association of parental smoking with atopic symptoms in infancy was found in a feeding trial of 468 children in South Wales. (
  • There were 94 admissions of infants for bronchiolitis, yielding a rate of 306 admissions to hospital per 1000 infants. (
  • This compares to the UK and the US where only seven in every 1000 infants die within the first four weeks of life. (
  • This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-03-942R entitled 'CDC's April 2002 Report On Smoking: Estimates of Selected Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking Were Reasonable' which was released on August 18, 2003. (
  • July 16, 2003: The Honorable Richard Burr: House of Representatives: Subject: CDC's April 2002 Report On Smoking: Estimates of Selected Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking Were Reasonable: Dear Mr. Burr: Despite a recent decline in the population that smokes, smoking is considered the leading cause of preventable death in this country. (
  • CDC, part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is a primary source of information on the health consequences of smoking tobacco. (
  • CDC reported its most recent estimates of selected health consequences of cigarette smoking in an April 2002 issue of its publication Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (
  • In recognition of this, you asked us to review CDC's April 2002 report and determine whether its estimates of selected health consequences of cigarette smoking were reasonable. (
  • The infants were weighed and measured at local health care centers. (
  • Did you know that smoking has an impact on your health and can affect your whole body? (
  • Principles of Pediatric Environmental Health: How Are Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers Exposed To and Affected by Toxicants? (
  • Meanwhile, however, physicians, nurses, social service agencies and public health officials have all been faced with increasing numbers of infants showing the detrimental effects of their mothers' drug use. (
  • [6] Improving sanitation , access to clean drinking water, immunization against infectious diseases , and other public health measures can help reduce high rates of infant mortality. (
  • Throughout the world, infant mortality rate (IMR) fluctuates drastically, and according to Biotechnology and Health Sciences, education and life expectancy in the country is the leading indicator of IMR. (
  • Our findings suggest that maternal weight status plays a role in understanding how maternal smoking affects low birth weight outcome, indicating that maintaining a proper weight status for women who plan to give birth may be a possible policy to promote infant health. (
  • From your newborn\'s first day, health care providers will keep track of your baby\'s weight, length, and head size. (
  • Because growth is a good indicator of a newborn\'s general health. (
  • 1,2,6 Comprehensive smokefree policies have been successful in protecting those who do not smoke, and are the only way to fully protect their health. (
  • Regardless of how long you've smoked, stopping smoking can improve your health. (
  • You keep smoking despite health problems. (
  • It's important to understand that even passive smoking can affect the health of the fetus and newborn. (
  • There can be few readers of Thorax who remain unaware of the body of evidence that supports a detrimental effect of tobacco smoking by pregnant women on the subsequent health and development of their offspring. (
  • Grandmaternal smoking was reported by the mother, with clear potential for recall bias, and in the absence of direct data about grandparental lifestyle and health status, the possible confounding of associations was modelled on maternal characteristics as a proxy for these. (
  • It usually takes around 1-1.5 hr to burn a stick of incense, during which time, the incense stick emits smoke containing particulate matter (PM), gas products such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (S[O.sub.2]), nitrogen dioxide (N[O.sub.2]), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are potentially harmful to health (Lin et al. (
  • Respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation and the tidal breathing ratio (TPTEF:TE) were measured in sedated infants and compared with forced expiratory volume in 0.4 seconds (FEV0.4) measured by the raised volume technique. (
  • During behaviourally defined quiet sleep, measurements were obtained a median of 58 h (range 26-159) after the infants were born. (
  • Serum cotinine measurements were available to validate self-reported smoking history in a subset of mothers (238). (
  • Successful off-line F(eNO) measurements during tidal breathing were obtained in 187 infants (median age 6.9 weeks). (
  • Columbia jacket 12-18 Months Infant Toddler Boys Blue Condition: Good used condition Flaw: Small hole on top right hand side (refer to pictures for detail) Measurements: Chest: 14 inches Middle of the back to back bottom hem: 13 1/4 inches Front top of shoulder to bottom hem: 12 7/8 inches All bids are final. (
  • Few significant birth cohort studies on the effect of prenatal TSE via passive and active maternal smoking on the development of severe bronchiolitis in early childhood have been carried out worldwide. (
  • From November 2009 to December 2012, newborns born at ≥33 weeks of gestational age (wGA) were recruited in a longitudinal multi-center cohort study in Italy to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal TSE, among other risk factors, on bronchiolitis hospitalization and/or death during the first year of life. (
  • This mechanism would not explain why parental smoking increases the risk and severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants. (
  • This was documented in a retrospective chart review 6 of admissions to the Baffin Regional Hospital between March 1995 and February 1996, which revealed a high rate of bronchiolitis among infants under the age of 12 months. (
  • 13. Jones LL, Hashim A, McKeever T, Cook DG, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Certain viruses, such as group B strep and herpes, can cause serious illnesses such as meningitis in newborns. (
  • Certain illnesses and habits can affect the weight of a newborn. (
  • 0.01 when compared to newborns of active smoking women and newborns of nonsmokers. (
  • Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood asthma, albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. (
  • 24 - 26 In a meta-analysis, the risk of developing asthma was 1.37 if either parent smoked. (
  • Asthma, respiratory problems, learning disorders and cancers are all the "gifts" of second and third hand smoke. (
  • We aimed to investigate whether a brief intervention informing parents about the harmful effects of smoking on childhood asthma encouraged them to stop smoking or to modify their smoking habits to protect their children. (
  • Children with asthma who encounter secondhand smoke have more severe and more frequent asthma attacks. (
  • Smoking history was recorded at birth and updated at each follow up and its impact on the development of asthma and allergen sensitisation in the children was assessed. (
  • No effect of paternal smoking on asthma was observed in the children. (
  • 4 5 An additional effect of passive smoking after birth on the development of asthma and atopy remains unclear. (
  • 7 A study of allergen avoidance in 120 high risk infants in the Isle of Wight showed a marginally increased risk of physician assessed eczema and food intolerance but not asthma in those whose mothers smoked. (
  • 10 There was a significantly higher prevalence of aeroallergen sensitisation (odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.7) but not asthma among the children who were regularly exposed to smoking at home. (
  • The sins of the mothers: does grandmaternal smoking influence the risk of asthma in children? (
  • In this issue of Thorax , Maria Magnus and colleagues report an association between grandmothers' smoking when pregnant and an increased risk of asthma in their grandchildren even when the mother herself did not smoke when pregnant with the index child. (
  • The combination of asthma, a chronic airway disease, and smoking increases the risk of COPD even more. (
  • On the occasion of World Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease day, the Indian Asthma Care Society revealed that smoking huqqa can be 10 times more harmful than smoking beedi. (
  • Newborn Care-Long term respiratory problems in infants is known as chronic lung disease. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics and many other organizations recommend placing infants on their back to sleep. (
  • This protocol opens the field to far greater use of the methodology for targeting and assessing therapies in these infants," said Dr. Parikh, who also is an associate professor of pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants need multiple doses of vaccines such as diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and pneumococcal vaccine (PCV). (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants sleep close to the parent's bed, but in a separate crib or bassinet for infants. (
  • In 1997, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement on breast feeding, summarising the benefits of breast feeding to the infant, the mother, and the nation, and set forth principles to guide the paediatrician. (
  • Smoking is a unique morbidity in that it is addictive, heavily advertised and recent genome studies show there are genotypes that significantly increase the likelihood of being unable to quit. (
  • Your GP will be able to provide advice and treatment to help you quit smoking. (
  • Giving up smoking can be quite difficult but if you are pregnant it is necessary to quit the habit. (
  • Women need support and assistance to quit smoking, which is why there are special programs available to pregnant women and those thinking about conceiving to help quit smoking. (
  • Here are some more tips on how to quit smoking. (
  • If you are pregnant and smoking - quit. (
  • If you are living with a smoker, ask that person to quit or, if that isn't going to happen, remove yourself from the presence of the smoke. (
  • If you are pregnant and smoke, talk to your doctor about ways you can cut down or quit. (
  • 1 Alternatively, patients may begin treatment with varenicline and then quit smoking between days 8 and 35 of treatment. (
  • Encourage patients who are motivated, but unable to quit smoking during 12 weeks of initial treatment (for reasons other than intolerability due to adverse events) or those who have relapsed after varenicline therapy to make another attempt to quit smoking once factors responsible for such failure have been identified and addressed. (
  • In patients who are unwilling or unable to abruptly quit smoking, consider a gradual approach to smoking cessation. (
  • These policies also can help prevent youth initiation and help those who currently smoke to quit. (
  • If you're pregnant or of childbearing age, quit smoking and maintain a healthy weight. (
  • We investigated the possible influence of adenylate kinase genetic variability on the effect of maternal smoking on intrauterine selection and development. (
  • Infants of mothers who smoke have reduced respiratory function and are more likely to develop wheezing. (
  • Also, mothers who smoke can alter the lining of the uterus to where it becomes hostile to an embryo that is trying to implant. (
  • Mothers who smoke while pregnant may experience reproduction-related effects, such as low estrogen levels (this can lead to early menopause) and infertility. (
  • After a baby is born, mothers who smoke while breast-feeding can still expose their baby to harmful chemicals through breast milk. (
  • MD appears to significantly attenuate the vitamin D concentrations and birth weight of infants born in winter-spring. (
  • Using medications and working with a counselor specially trained to help people stop smoking (a tobacco treatment specialist) will significantly boost your chances of success. (
  • The odds ratio for RDS in relation to antenatal steroids was estimated taking into account an interaction between antenatal steroids and cigarette smoking, using multiple logistic regression to control for gestational age, birthweight ratio, main causes of preterm birth, mode of delivery, and sex. (
  • This review assessed the effects of telephone support on smoking, preterm birth, low birth weight, breastfeeding and post-partum depression. (
  • To assess the effects of telephone support on smoking, preterm birth, low birth weight, breastfeeding and post-partum depression. (
  • A global report on preterm birth and stillbirth reported evidence for only two interventions that prevent preterm birth, one of which was smoking cessation [ 2 ]. (
  • If your newborn is fussy it's OK to rock, cuddle, and sing as your baby settles down. (
  • Caring for a newborn baby is a big responsibility. (
  • It's always a good idea to ask visitors to wash their hands before holding your newborn baby. (
  • Not only can smoking affect the mother, it can also affect the unborn baby. (
  • If the baby continues to develop week-by-week, she can still be affected from the mother smoking early on. (
  • Newborn Toddlers Baby Girls Boys Costume. (
  • JLIKA Newborn Baby Photography Photo Pro. (
  • Jastore® Newborn Infant Baby Boy Photogr. (
  • This happens because when you smoke your baby and the placenta are deprived of oxygen and nutrients. (
  • Smoking can also lead to preterm labor or a premature rupturing of the membranes because the body feels that the baby can no longer be fed properly. (
  • Studies that looked at the link between smoking and miscarriage where the baby had normal chromosomes found that blood oxygen starvation to the uterus diminished the capacity of the placenta to transport oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. (
  • Smoking causes blood vessels to constrict and reduces the amount of life-giving oxygen to organs, and to a developing baby. (
  • It isn't only the mother's smoking habit that can potentially damage or even kill the unborn baby. (
  • Second hand smoke can result in a low birth weight baby. (
  • Mothers should not nurse their baby while smoking or immediately after. (
  • The time the infant has missed being in the womb was growing time, so the baby has to do that growing in the outside world. (
  • In the old days, a \'strapping\' baby with chubby cheeks and dimpled thighs was many people\'s picture of a healthy newborn. (
  • On being pregnant and keeping healthy (avoiding alcohol, smoking and drugs), labour and giving birth, the first few weeks after the birth of your baby, and the roles and responsibilities of LMCs (Lead Maternity Carers). (
  • These numbers indicate that it is vitally important for women to understand the risks of smoking to themselves and their baby - and of being exposed to constant secondhand smoke. (
  • Smoking has many adverse effects on the woman's body and her ability to carry a baby in a healthy way. (
  • When both the mother and another person in the home smoke, research shows even greater increases in baby mortality issues and in birth weight problems. (
  • In order for women to increase their chances of becoming pregnant, and of having a healthy baby, it is vitally important not to smoke and not to be exposed to constant secondhand smoke. (
  • According to new research newborn, baby boys are likely to face life threatening results than baby girls. (
  • The Study also conducted linkages to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS), NYS Congenital Malformations Registry, Cancer Registry, Newborn Screening Program, and the EIP, among others. (
  • 6- 8 Part of the improved outcome of infants fed human milk especially with regard to necrotising enterocolitis may be related to its antioxidant activity. (
  • 12 Household smoking increases the frequency of attacks, 27 the number of emergency department visits, 28 and the risk of intubation. (
  • Choice (D), folate deficiency, increases the risk of spina bifida in the newborn. (
  • These prevalence numbers indicate that not only does cigarette smoking place an individual at risk for hearing loss, but that as pack years of smoking increase accompanying hearing loss also increases and that the effects of smoking may be exacerbated in younger individuals. (
  • Smoking increases the risk that the fetus will be born with malformations such as a cleft lip or a cleft palate. (
  • It also increases the risk of delivering a smaller infant or a still born infant. (
  • A single agent was identified for 14 infants: 8 had respiratory syncytial virus, 2 adenovirus, 1 rhinovirus, 1 influenza A, 1 parainfluenza 3 and 1 had cytomegalovirus. (
  • For 4 infants, 2 infectious agents were identified: these were enterovirus and Bordetella pertussis , adenovirus and enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, and respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus. (
  • but those who are exposed to lots of secondhand smoke at home or, for example, at a bar, will have higher levels. (
  • Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals, of which hundreds are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. (
  • People who do not smoke, but are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work, experience a 25-30% increase in their risk of developing heart disease. (
  • Chemicals in secondhand smoke appear to affect the brain in ways that interfere with its regulation of infants' breathing. (
  • Many people who do not smoke are still exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • During 2013-2014, 58 million people who do not smoke were exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • One of the most common causes of newborn congestion is dry air that makes their nasal secretions harden. (
  • The causes of newborn encephalopathy are heterogeneous and many of the causal pathways start before birth. (
  • Interventions had to focus on reducing adverse outcomes related to smoking, premature birth (less than 37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (less than 2,500g), breastfeeding duration or post-partum depression. (
  • Significant heterogeneity was found for smoking outcomes. (
  • Maternal smoking has been found to adversely affect birth outcomes, such as increasing the odds of having low birth weight infants. (
  • She said this program will underscore the importance of prenatal care for the soon-to-be mom and the best care for her newborn. (
  • Every day more than 3,800 children in the US under the age of eighteen smoke their first cigarette, not knowing the risks they are taking. (
  • The harmful effects of active smoking are now well known through campaigns, 5 but whether the risks from passive smoking are appreciated is unproved. (
  • In addition to the smoking risks for the woman, smoking also puts the fetus at risk. (
  • The linkages of cigarette smoking to increased mortality due to the included causes, such as lung cancer or cardiovascular disease, had been well established by the Surgeon General. (
  • Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. (
  • The under-five mortality rate is also an important statistic, considering the infant mortality rate focuses only on children under one year of age. (
  • [2] Other leading causes of infant mortality are birth asphyxia, pneumonia, congenital malformations, term birth complications such as abnormal presentation of the foetus umbilical cord prolapse, or prolonged labor, [3] neonatal infection , diarrhea, malaria, measles and malnutrition. (
  • [5] Many factors contribute to infant mortality, such as the mother's level of education, environmental conditions, and political and medical infrastructure. (
  • Infant mortality rate was an indicator used to monitor progress towards the Fourth Goal of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations for the year 2015. (
  • Neonatal mortality is newborn death occurring within 28 days postpartum. (
  • This accounts for 40-60% of infant mortality in developing countries. (
  • Causes of infant mortality directly lead to the death. (
  • [10] Greatest percentage reduction of infant mortality occurs in countries that already have low rates of infant mortality. (
  • In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality. (
  • [16] congenital malformations have had a significant impact on infant mortality. (
  • Grandmothers Campaign to Reduce Virginia Infant Mortality, March of Di. (
  • Newborn encephalopathy is an important clinical problem associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and is central in the assignment of blame in obstetric litigation. (
  • Recurrent Wheezing in Infants: Risk Factors and Prevention With Probiotics. (
  • We therefore carried out a prospective study aimed at confirming the high rate of LRTI among Inuit infants on Baffin Island and identifying pathogens and other risk factors. (
  • It has been suggested that parental smoking might be associated with respiratory infections in children because the parents themselves are more likely to bring home a respiratory infection. (
  • In smoking households, children are at greater risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness. (
  • According to Martin, about eighty percent of American advertising executives believe that advertising is very effective because it makes smoking more appealing and socially acceptable to children. (
  • If a person who smokes does so with their children around that child could possibly look up to that person and look at smoking as something that is popular. (
  • It is also extremely dangerous to newborns, infants, and young children. (
  • To investigate whether parents of asthmatic children would stop smoking or alter their smoking habits to protect their children from environmental tobacco smoke. (
  • Salivary cotinine concentrations in children, and changes in reported smoking habits of the parents 1 year after the intervention. (
  • The adverse effects of passive smoking on the respiratory system of children has been shown in infancy 1 and throughout childhood. (
  • 2 Asthmatic children have more severe disease if their parents smoke. (
  • Clinicians have been advised to counsel parents about the harmful effects of passive smoking on their children. (
  • Smoking ceremonies were traditionally performed following either childbirth or initiation rites involving circumcision . (
  • The study found that septal heart defects â€" a hole in the heart between the left and right heart chambers, which disrupts the flow of blood and oxygen to the body â€" were the most common defect found among infants who were born with a cardiac defect. (
  • It is known that young infants often stop breathing for short periods of time, then gasp and start again. (
  • But physicians may now be able to identify the premature infants most at risk for deficits as well as the type of deficit, enabling them to quickly initiate early neuroprotective therapies, by using highly reliable 3-D MRI imaging techniques developed by clinician scientists at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital . (
  • The Spindel laboratory is also interested in clinical aspects of lung development in terms of better approaches to clinical care of premature infants. (
  • Towards that end, in collaboration with OHSU neonatologists and pediatricians we have developed NHP models of premature infant care and modes of CPAP delivery and are studying the potential beneficial effects of supplementary CPAP in moderatley premature infants. (
  • In a subgroup, residual newborn blood spot samples (punches) from the Guthrie cards were retrieved by the NYS Newborn Screening Program for analysis of inflammatory and immune markers that may indicate an intrauterine infection and be predictive of later disease or delays in development. (
  • The proportion of newborns carrying AK1*2 allele was analyzed in relation to smoking and maternal age. (
  • The effect of smoking on birth weight was also analyzed in relation to AK1 phenotype and maternal age. (
  • The risk of newborn encephalopathy increased with increasing maternal age and decreased with increasing parity. (