Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The contamination of indoor air.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Living facilities for humans.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (1/1149)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (2/1149)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (3/1149)

The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells.  (+info)

Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (4/1149)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma.  (+info)

Toxicity of combustion products from burning polymers: development and evaluation of methods. (5/1149)

Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual-compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicomponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 m(3) facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experiments, mortality depended on the amount of material burned, i.e., fuel consumption (FC). Conventional dose (FC)/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FC(50)) was calculated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; FC(50) values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, the following FC(50) values were obtained; nylon, 7 g; acrylic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon the specific conditions employed for its thermal decomposition. Toxicity of off-gasses from pyrolysis of phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were conducted to assess the relative contributions of single materials to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent self-perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this approach permits a realistic evaluation of the contribution of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from residential fires.  (+info)

Combined effect of cigarette smoke and mineral fibers on the gene expression of cytokine mRNA. (6/1149)

To investigate which parameters are stimulated by mineral fibers and whether cigarette smoke enhanced a fiber-induced response, we examined the level of cytokine mRNA from alveolar macrophages (AMs) and lungs of rats exposed to mineral fibers and cigarette smoke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were given a single intratracheal instillation of 2 mg of Union Internationale Contre le Cancer chrysotile or refractory ceramic fiber (RF1). The animals then inhaled a side stream of smoke 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The expression of manganese superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin-1[alpha] (IL-1[alpha]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF[alpha]) mRNA from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated AMs and lungs of rats exposed to mineral fibers and/or cigarette smoke were assessed using semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Exposure only to cigarette smoke increased in IL-1[alpha] mRNA levels in AMs. Chrysotile stimulated the expression of IL-1[alpha], TNF[alpha], and IL-6 in AMs, and the expression of bFGF in lungs. RF1 resulted in increased expression of IL-1[alpha] and TNF[alpha] in AMs. Cigarette smoke stimulated the gene expression of iNOS in AMs and IL-6 and bFGF in lungs treated with chrysotile; IL-1[alpha] in AMs and bFGF in lungs did the same in lungs with RF1. Among these cytokines, message levels of IL-1[alpha], iNOS, and bFGF were increased in rats stimulated with mineral fibers, and the stimulating effects of mineral fibers were enhanced by cigarette smoke. Therefore, IL-1[alpha], iNOS, and bFGF would be the possible parameters of the lung remodeling induced by mineral fibers.  (+info)

Early alterations of lung injury following acute smoke exposure and 21-aminosteroid treatment. (7/1149)

In a simulated fire-related smoke exposure protocol, New Zealand white rabbits were utilized to investigate the potential effects of the 21-aminosteroid (lazaroid) analog U75412E on the early events of acute lung injury. Inhalation of a total of 1.6 mg/kg U75412E aerosolized at a rate of 1.53 mg/min at 0.5 hr after smoke exposure significantly attenuated the extent of lung injury at 1 hr, as evidenced by decreased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) concentration of total protein, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1-alpha, and blood gas defect. Histopathologic examination demonstrated that the lazaroid significantly attenuated smoke-induced lung injury as evidenced by a decrease in wet lung/body weight ratio, necrosis, and sloughing of airway epithelial cells. Electron microscopy showed that the lazaroid decreased smoke-induced interstitial edema and the vacuolization of alveolar type II epithelium (21.6 +/- 9.7 vs 8.5 +/- 3.6 vacuoled blebs/cell, smoke only vs smoke + lazaroid). However, U75412E did not attenuate smoke-induced changes in BAL concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total cell count, and granulocyte percentage. These observations suggest that U75412E may exert its action through cooperative mechanisms, such as the modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism, in addition to its characterized antioxidative effects.  (+info)

Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. (8/1149)

Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Inflammation plays a key role in the atherosclerotic process. As part of a study on the influence of cigarette mainstream smoke (ms) in combination with high-fat diet on the development of atherosclerosis, we investigated the inflammatory response and histopathological alterations in lungs from Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/-) mice, a classic model for atherosclerosis. Male ApoE -/- mice were whole-body exposed for 12 months (6 h/d, 5 d/wk) to diluted MS at total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/l or to filtered fresh air. Each exposure group was fed either a chow diet or a milk-fat-enriched diet. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and inflammatory cells were quantified in BAL fluid (BALF); lungs were evaluated histopathologically. Mice exposed to 100 μg TPM/l MS showed no statistically significant inflammatory and epithelial changes in the lung. Mice exposed to 200 μg TPM/l MS showed statistically significant inflammatory changes, i.e., a constant ...
Tobacco smoke particles on the surface of a cigarette filter fibre, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM).The pollutants generated by the cigarette arise from the chemical process of burning organic matter or the combustion of tobacco and paper. Tobacco smoke particulate matter consists of millions of tiny particles of diverse chemical composition. Particulate matter from tobacco smoke includes many small particulates of different size that reflect light (tobacco smoke is easily seen by the naked eye). Gases are also emitted by the cigarette such as benzene and carbon monoxide. Particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres are major components of cigarette smoke and can enter deep into the lung where they can cause serious health problems, including cancer. Magnification: x575 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0063
Cigarette smoking is a common and lethal worldwide habit, with considerable mortality stemming from its deleterious effects on heart function. While current theories posit altered blood lipids and fibrinogen metabolism as likely mediators, none have explored the role of the sphingolipid ceramide in exacerbating heart function with smoke exposure. Ceramide production is a consequence of cigarette smoke in the lung, and considering ceramides harmful effects on mitochondrial function, we sought to elucidate the role of ceramide in mediating smoke-induced altered heart mitochondrial respiration. Lung cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract and heart cells were exposed to the lung-cell conditioned medium. Adult male mice were exposed sidestream cigarette smoke for 8 weeks with dietary intervention and ceramide inhibition. Ceramides and heart cell or myocardial mitochondrial respiration were determined. Lung cell cultures revealed a robust response to cigarette smoke extract in both production and
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of active and passive household cigarette smoke exposure on pregnant women with asthma. AU - Newman, Roger B.. AU - Momirova, Valerija. AU - Dombrowski, Mitchell P.. AU - Schatz, Michael. AU - Wise, Robert. AU - Landon, Mark. AU - Rouse, Dwight J.. AU - Lindheimer, Marshall. AU - Caritis, Steve N.. AU - Sheffield, Jeanne. AU - Miodovnik, Menachem. AU - Wapner, Ronald J.. AU - Varner, Michael W.. AU - OSullivan, Mary Jo. AU - Conway, Deborah L.. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - Background: The article was designed to estimate the effect of active and passive household cigarette smoke exposure on asthma severity and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. Methods: We used a secondary observational analysis of pregnant women with mild and moderate-severe asthma enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study of asthma in pregnancy and a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing inhaled beclomethasone and oral theophylline. A baseline ...
Protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) is a novel susceptibility gene for airway hyperresponsiveness, first identified in families exposed to cigarette smoke and is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells. Here, we asked how mouse Pcdh1 expression is regulated in lung structural cells in vivo under physiological conditions, and in both short-term cigarette smoke exposure models characterized by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and chronic cigarette smoke exposure models. Pcdh1 gene-structure was investigated by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Pcdh1 mRNA and protein expression was investigated by qRT-PCR, western blotting using isoform-specific antibodies. We observed 87% conservation of the Pcdh1 nucleotide sequence, and 96% conservation of the Pcdh1 protein sequence between men and mice. We identified a novel Pcdh1 isoform encoding only the intracellular signalling motifs. Cigarette smoke exposure for 4 consecutive days markedly reduced Pcdh1 mRNA expression in lung tissue (3 to 4-fold), while ...
It is difficult to study the effect of cigarette smoke on humans in a systematic way; therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiac t...
Hi Jonah James. The devices which signal the smoke in area are called smoke detectors. And in this modern world where a house, office or commercial area is full of flammable materials it is really necessary to have some detectors who can signal by detecting smoke in the area.. Choice of smoke detectors depends upon many factors, like area where you want to install it, operation of smoke detector etc.. Here I will explain different types of smoke detectors so that you can choose according to your requirement.. Photoelectric smoke detectors: These devices work on the principle of photoelectric beams, when smoke breaks the photoelectric beam of the device then it signals alarm.. Ionization smoke detectors: These devices have small ionization chamber and when smoke particles enter in that chamber it signals alarm. This is very sensitive and so chances of false alarm increases. It is little cheaper.. Air sampling smoke detectors: There is nephelometer in this which detects very small invisible smoke ...
In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of PM014 on cigarette smoke induced lung disease in the murine animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 2 weeks to induce COPD-like lung inflammation. Two hours prior to cigarette smoke exposure, the treatment group was administered PM014 via an oral injection. To investigate the effects of PM014, we assessed PM014 functions in vivo, including immune cell infiltration, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and histopathological changes in the lung. The efficacy of PM014 was compared with that of the recently developed anti-COPD drug, roflumilast. PM014 substantially inhibited immune cell infiltration (neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes) into the airway. In addition, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 were decreased in the BAL fluid of PM014-treated mice compared to cigarette smoke stimulated mice. These changes were more prominent than roflumilast treated mice. The
The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted ...
RATIONALE: Pathogenic T cells drive, or sustain, a number of inflammatory diseases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease associated with the accumulation of activated T cells. We previously demonstrated that chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure causes oligoclonal expansion of lung CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells in a mouse model of COPD, thus implicating these cells in disease pathogenesis.. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether T cells are pathogenic in a CS-induced mouse model of COPD.. METHODS: We transferred lung CD3(+) T cells from filtered air (FA)- and CS-exposed mice into Rag2(-/-) recipients. Endpoints associated with the COPD phenotype were then measured.. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate that chronic CS exposure generates pathogenic T cells. Transfer of CD3(+) T cells from the lungs of CS-exposed mice into Rag2(-/-) recipients led to substantial pulmonary changes pathognomonic of COPD. These changes included monocyte/macrophage ...
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Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer; however, it has been difficult to reproduce the tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke in preclinical animal models. Increased lung tumorigenicity has been reported in A/J mice exposed for 5 months to an environmental tobacco smoke surrogate or to cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) followed by 4 months without further exposure. Here, we report on MS-induced lung tumor formation in male a/j mice after 18 months of exposure to a continuous flow of MS (6 H/day, 5 D/wk) at total particulate matter concentrations of 150 and 300 mg/m(3). Animal health, housing conditions, test atmosphere characterization, and markers for MS exposure (e.g., carboxyhemoglobin) were carefully monitored over the 18-month period to ensure the stability of the experimental conditions. Body weight gain was reduced dose-dependently in MS-exposed groups. An influx of neutrophils (up to 33% of leukocytes) and lymphocytes (up to 21%) into the bronchoalveolar space, indicating severe ...
In May 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule deeming cigar products within scope of their regulatory authority. Under this regulation the FDA will require manufacturers to report the quantities of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) in cigar filler and smoke. Currently, FDA has not indicated that the list of constituents for cigars would differ from that of the list of constituents provided for tobacco smoke, and thus would require the analysis of ammonia in cigar smoke. We previously showed that the CORESTA Recommended Method No.
Many ventilating systems do not function properly due to the fouling of ducts and components. There is a need to study a wide range of different duct systems, in order to reduce the deposition rate in absolute terms, thus arriving at a more efficient system. A preliminary study is conducted in the laboratory to determine the flow behaviour of aerosol particles in relation to the airflow for ducts of various aspect ratios. A constant-injection tracergas technique is used to determine the airflow rate in the ductwork. SF6 tracer gas and smoke particles were injected at a constant rate into the inlet of each duct and their tracer-gas concentrations in ppm and smoke-particle concentration in mg m-3 were monitored at various points downstream. Algorithms were established for the deposition rate of smoke particles in various ducts. The results showed that the deposition rate of smoke particles was strongly influenced by the airflow rate and size of the duct. © 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd ...
Every year there are thousands of house fires in the United Kingdom. The emergency services are actually called out to around 140 house fires every single day. It is almost impossible to completely fireproof a house, so it is highly important that homeowners do everything in their power to minimise the damage if there is an incident. The small price that you pay for your smoke alarm will be well-worth it. Installing a smoke alarm in your house may be one of the most important things that you ever do.. About 500 people per year die in house fires in the United Kingdom and over 10,000 people are injured. Some of these injuries are life-changing. Many of these deaths and injuries could have been avoided if these homes had had working smoke detectors.. A smoke alarm is set up to detect relatively small amounts of smoke in the air. Ionisation alarms are better at detecting the smoke that is produced by fast-spreading fires, whereas optical alarms are better at detecting larger smoke particles such as ...
In vitro biological studies on cigarette smoke have usually been made using either cigarette smoke condensate--obtained by trapping the particulate phase of smoke on a filter, or soluble smoke components--obtained by trapping cigarette smoke in buffer solution. However, these approaches may not trul …
4275 Alterations in signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage are often observed in cells exposed to complex chemical mixtures including cigarette smoke. Our laboratory previously reported that smoke condensate from cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco produce less change in p21, GADD45, COX-2, IL-8, HO-1 and HSP70 mRNA levels in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells than smoke condensate from tobacco-burning cigarettes. The NFκB signal transduction pathway is reported to mediate in part the response of bronchial epithelial cells to cigarette smoke through the activation of several genes; including genes coding for COX-2, HO-1, and HSP-70. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the effect of smoke condensates from tobacco-heating and tobacco-burning cigarettes on NF-κB promoter activation. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) was prepared from Kentucky reference 2R4F cigarettes, a tobacco-burning product designed to represent ...
Smoking also tends to leave an oily residue on other surfaces, which can contribute to a lingering smoke smell even if you vacuum and use absorbent materials like baking soda and activated charcoal. HEPA: This type of air filter is rated to use mechanical filtration to capture 99.97% of particles 0.3 microns in size, which includes some smoke particles. Leave them for a day and replace them if the smell lingers. Carpet is a sponge for odors and should be replaced, along with any furniture that is still in the house. Luckily, there are ways to fix this. Smelling Cigarette Smoke (Phantosmia): What could it mean? Find a smoke remediation specialist through websites such as Yelp, or ask for referrals from your local home improvement center. The smells vary from person to person but are usually unpleasant, such as burnt toast, metallic, or chemical smells. The smell of cigarette smoke, when there is no odor present, can be an indication that a persons olfactory nerve has been damaged in some way. If ...
The invention relates to a mixture of two particulate phases which is used in the production of a green compact that can be sintered at higher temperatures. According to the invention, A) the first phase contains particles that consist of a metal and/or a metal alloy and/or a metal compound, and B) the second phase contains particles from the group of the inorganic compounds which do not release any decomposition products at temperatures of more than 400 °C that are interstitially soluble in the sintering metal phase and/or that react with said phase to stable compounds. The inventive mixture, by providing the second phase, is effective in supporting the fine structure of the first phase against the forces of surface tension during the sintering process. During sintering, the second phase remains thermally stable and substantially chemically inert with respect to the first phase.
Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to cigarette smoke-associated cardiovascular disease remain elusive. With functional and molecular methods, we demonstrate for the first time that lipid-soluble cigarette smoke
There is a lot of interest in the health benefits of dietary carotenoids and on the relationship of these compounds with smoke. In particular, it is unknown if the enhanced cancer risk observed in smokers following beta-carotene supplementation can be also found using other carotenoids. Here, we stu …
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Some effects of experimentally-produced cigarette smoke on the growth, vitamin C metabolism and organ weights of guinea-pigs. by Robert E. Hughes et al.
As early as the 15th century Leonardo da Vinci commented at length on the difficulty of assessing smoke, and distinguished between black smoke (carbonized particles) and white smoke which is not a smoke at all but merely a suspension of harmless water particulates.[26] Smoke from heating appliances is commonly measured in one of the following ways: In-line capture. A smoke sample is simply sucked through a filter which is weighed before and after the test and the mass of smoke found. This is the simplest and probably the most accurate method, but can only be used where the smoke concentration is slight, as the filter can quickly become blocked.[27] The ASTM smoke pump is a simple and widely used method of in-line capture where a measured volume of smoke is pulled through a filter paper and the dark spot so formed is compared with a standard. Filter/dilution tunnel. A smoke sample is drawn through a tube where it is diluted with air, the resulting smoke/air mixture is then pulled through a ...
The are some controversy regarded to cigarette smoke cause of allergic reaction. In a study of Cigarette smoke suppresses in vitro allergic activation of mouse mast cells. by Mortaz E, Folkerts G, Engels F, Nijkamp FP, Redegeld FA. (Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. [email protected]) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that Our study suggests that exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to a reduced allergic activation of mast cells without affecting their response to activation via e.g. bacterial-derived LPS., but cigarette can cause over aggression of immune system, triggering allergic symptoms to certaim peoples such as watery eyes, coughing and sneezing.Some researchers argue that cigarette smoking may elevate symptoms of allergy but not the allergy itself, according to the article of Smoke Allergies: 4 Reasons Why ...
Buy AS 4323.2-1995 (R2014) Stationary source emissions Determination of total particulate matter - Isokinetic manual sampling - Gravimetric method from SAI Global
The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types
The study recreated the effects of cigarette smoke on cancerous cells of the mouth. Half the cells were exposed to cigarette smoke only, while the other half were exposed to a saliva and cigarette smoke mixture. The researchers then studied the cells to assess whether the saliva and smoke mixture would speed up the cancers development.. The longer the mouth cells were exposed to the contaminated saliva, the more they were damaged. The researchers also found that the cigarette smoke destroyed various salivary components, including protective ones such as peroxidase, the most important antioxidant contained in saliva. Antioxidants are molecules that help protect the body against cancer.. Nagler said the reaction between certain components of saliva and the low reactive free radicals contained in cigarette smoke results in the production of highly active hydroxyl free radicals. Free radicals, oxygen by-products created by normal cell metabolism, possess unpaired electrons. In a process called ...
Although many studies have investigated the toxicity of PM2.5 on airway cells and other cell types [33-35], the biological mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 on the NF-κB pathway in cell apoptosis to understand the implications of PM2.5 in Beijings air.. The cell viability rate was 72.28% at 200 μg/ml of PM2.5 in our study, and this concentration level was used as the main exposure concentration for testing other endpoints. This concentration was higher than previous studies that used total particulate matter (TPM) from mainstream cigarette smoke with CHO cell lines [36-38]. Cigarette smoke is a dynamic aerosol composed of more than 4000 chemical components. The main components include nicotine, alkaloids, tar, CO, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxyl compounds, and heavy metals [39, 40]. Particle matter is a complex mixture with a physical nucleus that is composed of elemental carbon, nitrates, sulfates, various metals and organic compounds [41]. ...
Let us assume a situation similar to the figure above. The smoker produces a cloud of positive charged particles and, because previous clouds have also charged the smokers clothes positively, the particle cloud is repelled. Because the TV screen is also charged positively, it also repels the cloud. On the other hand, the non-smoker is not charged, being more or less neutral. The repelled smoke particles will thus indeed flow in the direction of the non-smoker. When the non-smoker wears clothing containing polyethylene or rayon fibers, then it is likely that he/she is charged negatively according to the triboelectric series. He/she will then attract the smoke particles ...
|p>1.1* Scope. This standard shall apply to the design, installation, acceptance testing, operation, and ongoing periodic testing of smoke control systems. A.1.1 This standard incorporates methods for applying engineering calculations and reference models to provide a designer with the tools to develop smoke control system designs. The designs are based on select design objectives presented in Section 4.1. This standard addresses the following topics: (1) Basic physics of smoke movement in indoor spaces (2) Methods of smoke control (3) Supporting data and technology (4) Building equipment and controls applicable to smoke control systems (5) Approaches to testing and maintenance methods This standard does not address the interaction of sprinklers and smoke control systems. The cooling effect of sprinklers can result in some of the smoke losing buoyancy and migrating downward below the design smoke layer interface. This standard also does not provide methodologies to assess the effects of smoke exposure
Introduction: The highly sensitive Ceasefire Smoke Detector 1L is equipped with Dual Chamber Ionization Detectors that detect even the smallest smoke particle. The very second smoke is detected, a loud 85db alarm is activated. Whats more, being battery-operated, the SD-1L works even when theres no electricity. ...
Natural News) People may be unaware of being exposed to smoke, and children whose parents do are at risk. A study from Tel Aviv University shows that many smoking parents make false assumptions and have a lack of awareness when it comes to where and when children are exposed to second-hand smoke.. According to lead researcher Dr. Lauren Rosen of TAUs School of Public Health and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, many parents who smoke believe that they take adequate measures to protect their children from the damages that cigarette smoke can cause. However, the study found that most of these parents are not aware of some of the exposure. The study, published in Nicotine and Tobacco Research, reports that parents believe that if they did not see or smell the smoke, their children were not exposed.. Previous studies show that 85 percent of smoke is invisible, and many components of smoke are odorless. Furthermore, a smokers sense of smell is unreliable, since the effects of tobacco and nicotine damage ...
We already know that smoking cigarettes harms human respiratory and immune cells, and now weve shown that, on the flipside, smoke can also stress out invasive bacteria and make them more aggressive, said senior author Laura E. Crotty Alexander, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine at UC San Diego and staff physician at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.. Crotty Alexander is a pulmonologist who sees many patients who smoke cigarettes. She also sees many MRSA infections, and that got her wondering if one might influence the other. To test the hypothesis, Crotty Alexander and her team infected macrophages, immune cells that engulf pathogens, with MRSA.. Some of the bacteria were grown normally and some were grown with cigarette smoke extract. They found that while the macrophages were equally able to take up the two bacterial populations, they had a harder time killing the MRSA that had been exposed to cigarette smoke extract.. Read the rest of the UC San Diego news release ...
For me personally, it was useless, said Georges Touaichi, a 22-year-old San Diego hotel worker who tried e-cigarettes but went back to smoking after a day or two.. But when the cessation aids were coupled with cash, the success rates tripled.. Among 6,006 employees at 54 USA -based companies, the six-month smoking abstinence rates for all the strategies were less than 3 percent. Over time, we have come to know the real dangers of smoking, and I think raising the age to purchase cigarettes from 18 to 21 will help to get cigarettes away from high-school aged children. In other words, none of these strategies were much more effective than the others.. These data suggest that cigarette smoke components may impair hind limb muscle vascular structure, fatigue resistance and myofiber calcium handling, and these changes ultimately affect contractile efficiency of locomotor muscles independent of a change in lung function, researchers said.. One theory is that certain types of lung cancer are more ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study compares frequency of PH in the subjects exposed to biomass and tobacco smoke, and describes the possible causes of PH in these patients groups. In the present study, the most relevant findings were that patients exposed to BS had more frequent PH presence and less FVC %, whereas TS group had less frequent PH presence and FEV1 %. Finally, biomass smoke exposed group had more frequent PH especially in the moderate level COPD cases.. BS is composed of a relatively equal mixture of gases and particles and can penetrate deeply into the lung, producing a variety of morphologic and biochemical changes (10, 11). A recent meta-analysis, which reviewed risk of COPD from exposure to BS, concluded that BS exposure is a clear risk factor for COPD (12). It has reported that BS related COPD cases clinical characteristics, quality of life, and mortality rate were similar in degree to that of tobacco smokers (13). To date, the frequency of PH was not compared in these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sphingolipid regulation of lung epithelial cell mitophagy and necroptosis during cigarette smoke exposure. AU - Mizumura, Kenji. AU - Justice, Matthew J.. AU - Schweitzer, Kelly S.. AU - Krishnan, Sheila. AU - Bronova, Irina. AU - Berdyshev, Evgeny V.. AU - Hubbard, Walter C.. AU - Pewzner-Jung, Yael. AU - Futerman, Anthony H.. AU - Choi, Augustine M.K.. AU - Petrache, Irina. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - Themechanismsbywhich lung structural cells survive toxic exposures to cigarettesmoke (CS) are notwell defined but may involve proper disposal of damagedmitochondria bymacro-Autophagy (mitophagy), processes that may be influenced by pro-Apoptotic ceramide (Cer) or its precursor dihydroceramide (DHC).Human lung epithelial and endothelial cells exposed to CS exhibitedmitochondrial damage, signaled by phosphatase and tensin homologinduced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) phosphorylation, autophagy, and necroptosis.Although cells responded toCS by rapid inhibition of DHC desaturase, which ...
See tips for reducing indoor air pollution.. Cigarette smoke. One of the most common and toxic indoor air pollutants is cigarette smoke. Experts believe about 85% of lung cancers are caused by cigarette smoke.footnote 2 Smoking, or even inhaling second-hand smoke, increases your risk of heart attack and stroke.. Tobacco smoke contains many chemicals, some of which can cause cancer. If you are a non-smoker and household members or co-workers will not stop smoking around you, ask that they smoke only in well-ventilated or isolated areas. Never smoke around children or allow them to be exposed to cigarette smoke, especially if they have asthma or allergies.. Exposure to cigarette smoke causes wheezing, coughing, and extra mucus (phlegm) in many children. Second-hand smoke also can cause fluid to build up in the inner ear, which can cause ear infections. Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, are also risks. Sometimes these types of infections become serious enough to ...
Read more about Wound healing goes up in cigarette smoke on Business Standard. When it comes to wound healing, vaping may be better than cigarette smoking, according to a recent research.The laboratory study reveals that cigarette smoke completely prevented wound healing at concentrations over 20% in a wound healing assay,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic exposure to sidestream smoke adversely alters 14C-(AA) arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and aortas from rats. AU - Lubawy, W. C.. AU - Valentovic, M. A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021149080. VL - 43. SP - no. 2785. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
Canada has already had its share of wildfires this season, and the smoke from these wildfires is slowly drifting south over the United States Midwest. The drifting smoke can be seen in this Terra satellite image over Lake Michigan, as well as parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana and Ohio. The smoke released by any type of fire (forest, brush, crop, structure, tires, waste or wood burning) is a mixture of particles and chemicals produced by incomplete burning of carbon-containing materials. All smoke contains carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter (PM or soot). Smoke can contain many different chemicals, including aldehydes, acid gases, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, styrene, metals and dioxins.
Leukocytosis is one of the well-recognized side effects of cigarette smoking. The dose of smoking plays a major role in causing smoke-induced leukocytosis. Immunopharmacology bases most of their test results based on cigarette drug test, though the exact mechanism of smoke-induced variations in the immune response is poorly understood, frequent cigarette smoke test positive in many cases has lead to change in the primary immune response of the smoker. It is also reported to cause tangible effects on the secondary antibody response of the smoker! It is due to this concept cotinine blood test is being an important part in determining the medical insurance limitations.. Cigarette smoking is a dangerous mix of complex substances and most of them can potentially influence the immune system. The B cell membrane signal transduction pathway is greatly affected by nicotine which is present in cigarette smoke. The levels of these harmful substances can be studied at random using the Cotinine saliva ...
Description. Build your own BBQ Smokehouse. The Bradley Smokers Smoke Generator allows you to make your own food smoking cabinet very easily. The Bradley Smoke Generator is a highly adaptable unit that allows you to retrofit almost any small structure into a smoke house. The unit consists of two parts. The Smoke Generator is fabricated from powder-coated steel, and fulfills the same purpose as the smoke generator which is fitted to the Original Bradley Smoker - advancing the bisquettes onto the heat element at a rate of one every twenty minutes. The Smoke Generator design is reminiscent of the older models of Bradley Smoker, now superceded. This is of no consequence as the controls are limited to a power on / off switch, and a bisquette advance button, used to position the first bisquette on the burner. Thereafter, bisquettes feed automatically. The second part of the apparatus consists of a stainless steel face-plate, with an adjustable collar onto which the smoke generator fits by means of two ...
My husband is trying to kill me. Slowly, like the way he smokes ribs on the barbecue. He loves smoke flavor and he has mastered the art of smoking and slow cooking meat. I find a touch of smoke flavor good, but I am certain too much is bad for you. Smoke flavor is made on a large scale and sold to bacon, ham, hot dog, rib, cheese, sauce and flavor manufacturers. Besides imparting flavor and color, smoke flavor is functional. It creates the skin of the hot dog, it is an antioxidant and an antimicrobial. Smoke flavor manufacturers buy lots of sawdust and burn it. They control the burn and capture the essence generated by the smoke. Sawdust is from wood which is about 40-60% cellulose and 2-30% lignin. Cellulose will produce carbonyls, … [Read more...] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smoke Movement and Evacuation Time in the Arcade of a Traditional Market using Numerical Simulation. AU - Kim, Taeyeon. AU - Kim, Byungseon Sean. AU - Kim, Kwangho. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - This study proposes to analyze the smoke exhausting performance and evacuation time in an arcade of a Korean traditional market. The effect of three types of ventilation opening on smoke exhausting performance was analyzed using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method. The ventilation opening delayed the spread of smoke efficiently, and is an important design factor to control smoke movement in arcades. Also the evacuation time was analyzed according to the height of the building and increased significantly with the increase in the number of floors. Given the conditions of the study, the arcade building had to be less than three-stories considering the spread of smoke.. AB - This study proposes to analyze the smoke exhausting performance and evacuation time in an arcade of a Korean ...
World Health Organization estimates that at least 3 million people die prematurely each year from smoking related diseases, and the National Center for Health Statistics estimated about 9,000 Americans die prematurely due to smoke related disease from inhaling secondhand smoke alone!. Cigarette smoke contains over 63 different chemicals which we inhale if we smoke or are near someone who is smoking, or if we are in a smoke filled environment. Lets keep in mind that even if were not close to someone who is smoking, the chemicals are still emitted into the air, which we will inhale. An example would be if we are in a restaurant that has smokers at the bar area only, we will still be affected by their smoke. If the restaurant is large and well ventilated, we will inhale less of these toxic chemicals.. What are these chemicals and their effect? Lets start with ammonia, arsenic, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, benzene and of course nicotine (sound like were standing behind a bus?). These are just ...
This study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke. Multiple genes encoding enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, AKRs, ALDH3A1, NQO1, and UGTs) involved in carcinogen metabolism were overexpressed in the oral mucosa of smokers. PAHs, an important class of tobacco carcinogen, are likely to mediate some of these expression changes. The AHR, a ligand-activated transcription factor, binds with high affinity to PAHs. Following ligand binding, the AHR translocates to the nucleus where it forms a heterodimer with ARNT. The AHR-ARNT heterodimer then binds to xenobiotic-responsive elements in the upstream regulatory region of target genes, resulting in the transcriptional activation of a network of genes, including CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (33). The activation of AHR-mediated signaling leading to induction of xenobiotic metabolism provides a first line of defense against environmental carcinogens. However, the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ...
A new study by researchers at Yale School of Medicine could explain why the cold and flu virus symptoms that are often mild and transient in non-smokers can seriously sicken smokers. Published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, the study also identified the mechanism by which viruses and cigarette smoke interact to increase lung inflammation and damage. Until recently, scientists havent been able to explain why smokers have more exaggerated responses to viral infections. Smokers have been more likely than non-smokers to die during previous influenza epidemics and are more prone to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, children who are exposed to second-hand smoke have more severe responses when infected with respiratory synctial virus.. The prevailing view has been that cigarette smoke decreases anti-viral responses. But the Yale researchers-lead author Jack A. Elias, M.D., the Waldermar Von Zedtwitz Professor of Medicine and chair of internal medicine at Yale School ...
Mannam P, Rauniyar N, Lam TT, Luo R, Lee PJ, Srivastava A: MKK3 influences mitophagy and is involved in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Dec; 2016 Oct 4. PMID: 27717867 Lindow JC, Wunder EA Jr, Popper SJ, Min JN, Mannam P, Srivastava A, Yao Y, Hacker KP, Raddassi K, Lee PJ, Montgomery RR, Shaw AC, Hagan JE, Araújo GC, Nery N Jr, Relman DA, Kim CC, Reis MG, Ko AI: Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Nov; 2016 Nov 3. PMID: 27812211 Miner B, Tinetti ME, Van Ness PH, Han L, Leo-Summers L, Newman AB, Lee PJ, Vaz Fragoso CA: Dyspnea in Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Multifactorial Geriatric Health Condition. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Oct; 2016 Aug 22. PMID: 27549914 Zhang Y, Shan P, Srivastava A, Jiang G, Zhang X, Lee PJ: An Endothelial Hsp70-TLR4 Axis Limits Nox3 Expression and Protects Against Oxidant Injury in Lungs. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016 Jun 10; 2016 Apr 22. PMID: 26905942 Crothers K, Petrache I, Wongtrakool C, ...
OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize alterations seen on HRCT scans in nonsmoking females with COPD due to wood smoke exposure. METHODS We evaluated 42 nonsmoking females diagnosed with wood smoke-related COPD and 31 nonsmoking controls with no history of wood smoke exposure or pulmonary disease. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic data, symptoms, and environmental exposure. All of the participants underwent spirometry and HRCT of the chest. The COPD and control groups were adjusted for age (23 patients each). RESULTS Most of the patients in the study group were diagnosed with mild to moderate COPD (83.3%). The most common findings on HRCT scans in the COPD group were bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal bands, tree-in-bud pattern, and laminar atelectasis (p | 0.001 vs. the control group for all). The alterations were generally mild and not extensive. There was a positive association between bronchial wall thickening and hour
Although there are several choices to make in selecting the right smoke alarms to buy, the most important thing to remember is that smoke alarms save lives. For that reason, you should install a smoke alarm if your home does not have one.. Smoke alarms may contain different or multiple sensors. There are two main types of smoke alarms, which are categorized by the type of smoke detection sensor, ionization and photoelectric, used in the alarm. A smoke alarm uses one or both methods, sometimes with a heat detector, to warn of a fire.. Ionization detectors contain a chamber with two plates that generate a small, continuous electric current. When smoke enters the ionization chamber, the smoke particles disrupt the current flow, which triggers the alarm.. Photoelectric detectors use a light beam and light receptor (photocell). When smoke is present between the light and receptor, depending on the type of smoke chamber configuration, the reduction or increase of light on the photocell sensor triggers ...
Cigarette smoke exposure is the key initiator of chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and the loss of alveolar blood vessels that lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is comprised of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is the major risk factor for non-smokers to develop emphysema. While the first-hand smoke is directly inhaled by smokers, passive smoking occurs when non-smokers are involuntary exposed to environmental tobacco smoke also known as second hand smoke (SHS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco: side stream smoke (smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and mainstream smoke (smoke that is exhaled by a smoker). These two types of smoke have basically the same composition, however in SHS many toxic components are more concentrated than in first-hand smoke, therefore more hazardous for peoples health. Several pathological events have been implicated in the
In spite of the major role played by cigarette smoking in the epidemiology of lung cancer, it is very difficult to reproduce the carcinogenicity of this complex mixture in animal models. We implemented a series of pilot experiments in three mouse strains, exposed either to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) or mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or its condensate (MCSC). The whole-body exposure of Aroclor-treated A/J mice to ECS resulted in a rapid and potent induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes. After 6 months of exposure, 6 h a day, followed by 4 months of recovery in filtered air, both lung tumor incidence and multiplicity were significantly increased as compared to sham-exposed mice (77.8% vs. 22.2%, and 1.11±0.26 vs. 0.22±0.15, means ± SE). Multiple i.p. injections of butylated hydroxytoluene did not significantly enhance the tumor yield. Another experiment confirmed the responsiveness of A/J mice exposed to ECS for 5 months, followed by 4 months of recovery in air ...
This case-control analysis presents odds ratios for active and passive cigarette smoke exposure and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of levels II and III (CIN II and CIN III) while controlling for confounders. From 1987 to 1988, 103 biopsy-conformed incident cases of CIN II or III and 268 controls with normal cervical cytology were enrolled. Seventy % of cases were cigarette smokers, while only 30% of controls had ever smoked. The adjusted odds ratio for current cigarette smoking was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). The following confounders were included in logistic regression models: age, race, education, number of sex partners, contraceptive use, sexually transmitted disease history, and Pap smear history. The risk of CIN II/III increased with increasing years of cigarette smoking and with increasing pack-years of exposure. Smoking was associated more strongly with CIN III than CIN II. The effect of passive cigarette smoke exposure was explored separately for smokers and nonsmokers and was
Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with chronic and enhanced pulmonary inflammation characterized by increased cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known to mediate toxic effects of environmental contaminants, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of acute cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia. As there is currently no information on the AhR prevention of lung inflammation due to varied and prolonged exposure regimes, we exposed control and AhR-/- mice to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks (sub-chronic exposure) utilizing low and high exposure protocols and evaluated pulmonary inflammation. Sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure increased pulmonary neutrophilia dose-dependently in AhR-/- mice. There was no difference between smoke-exposed AhR+/- and AhR-/- mice in the expression of cytokines associated with neutrophil recruitment. However, expression of pulmonary intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an adhesion molecule ...
Description: Fire smoke is a major contributor to both particulate matter (PM) and ozone exposure in urban centers. Epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a casual relationship between these pollutants and cardiovascular and respiratory related deaths and illnesses. Given the expected increase in fire events due to climate and landscape changes, quantifying health effects of wildfire smoke and developing real-time tools to help air quality managers mitigate the effects of exposure are sorely needed. We comprehensively assessed the health risks posed by smoke exposure, and constructed new tools to estimate and forecast smoke concentration levels and associated health effects. We accomplished these goals with four specific aims. In Aim 1, we compared the chemical composition of fine PM emanating from fire smoke with typical urban PM in the US. This information fills an important gap in the literature, and enabled us to distinguish between smoke and non-smoke related ...
ing is the single most preventable cause of death in our society. Based on current patterns, smoking will kill about 650 million people alive in the world today. If these patterns continue, tobacco-caused deaths worldwide are expected to increase from about 5 million per year today to about 10 million per year by the 2030s. Most of these deaths will happen in developing countries. What are the dangers of environmental tobacco smoke? Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also known as passive smoking or secondhand smoke, occurs when non-smokers breathe in other peoples tobacco smoke. This includes mainstream smoke (smoke that is inhaled and then exhaled into the air by smokers) and sidestream smoke (smoke that comes directly from the burning tobacco in cigarettes). ETS contains the same harmful chemicals as the smoke that smokers inhale. In fact, because sidestream smoke is formed at lower temperatures, it has even larger amounts of some toxic and cancer-causing substances than mainstream smoke. ...
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Purpose: : Cigarette smoke is the single greatest environmental risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, and the effects of smoking are partially retained years after cessation. We have shown that cigarette smoke causes more severe CNV in mice. One proposed mechanism for the long lasting effect of smoke is toxic damage to vascular cells or extracellular matrix in blood vessels, which would persist long after smoke cessation. Another possibility is smoke-related alterations in myeloid or vascular progenitors in the marrow. In this case, the long term consequences of smoke would be retained in the bone marrow, but not in the peripheral tissue. We performed an experiment to test this distinction. Methods: : We performed bone marrow transplantation (BMT) by isolating bone marrow from mice exposed to full stream cigarette smoke two hrs daily for four weeks transferred into normal, non-exposed recipients; or vice versa, marrow from non-exposed mice into smoke-exposed recipients. Then, ...
For people with underlying heart and lung problems, effects from wildfire smoke can accumulate over shorter periods of time, Joseph said, but that can also depend on how much wildfire smoke people are exposed to and the chemical makeup of that smoke.. Its not a hard and fast rule as to how fast (health problems) come on, Joseph said.. Smoke also contains the same kind of particles as wood fired stoves, factories and restaurants, although they usually have smaller concentrations of dangerous particles. That means, once wildfire smoke goes away, people could still be exposed to the same irritants.. It could be a continuous, ongoing problem, he said.. Related: New Air Quality App Maps Oregon Wildfire Smoke Dangers. For people who dont have underlying health issues, long-term exposure to wildfire smoke can also damage airways, causing asthma-like issues, Joseph said.. Earlier studies have shown pollution from wildfire smoke is worse than scientists previously thought. In a 2017 report, ...
Cigarette smoking is known to cause dental problems in adults. Now a new study shows that breathing in passive smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke, may cause more cavities in children. Carol Pearson has the story. NATURAL SOUND, DENTIST PREPARING TO EXAMINE YOUNG BOY DENTIST Let?s see that big smile of yours there. This little boy wont feel like smiling if hes told he has a cavity. If he spends time around cigarette smoke, hes a lot more likely to have a cavity, according to a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Methods We generated sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke with a smoking machine, diluted it with conditioned filtered air, and passed it through a 6 m3 flow reactor with air exchange rates that matched normal residential air exchange rates. We tested the effects of 60 min aging on the concentration of 16 PAHs, nicotine, cotinine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. We also measured sorption and deposition of nicotine, cotinine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines on materials placed within the flow reactor.. ...
The radium isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra were analyzed in surface water at six points in the neighborhood of a mine of phosphate, associated with uranium, in the region of Santa Quitéria, state of Ceará, Brazil. Water samples were collected during twenty months, filtered and the concentrations of activity determined in the soluble and particulate phases. The results were analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for ordination of environmental data, and also by ANOVA, Tukey and Z tests to compare sets of data considering the radionuclides, the two analyzed phases and the six collecting points. The PCA identified four groups that included all collecting points, using aggregation features such as radionuclide and analyzed phase. The first group is composed by the samples of 226Ra in the soluble phase; the second group by samples of 226Ra in the particulate phase; the third one by 228Ra in the soluble phase, and finally, the fourth group by 228Ra in the particulate phase. This last
Mathis C, Poussin C, Weisensee D, Gebel S, Hengstermann A, Sewer A, Belcastro V, Xiang Y, Ansari S, Wagner S, Hoeng J, Peitsch M.. Philip Morris International, Neuchatel, Switzerland. The exposition of cigarette smoke on Human AIR-100 tissues shows equivalent results in MMP-1 release, gene expression and microRNA profiles to in vivo smokers tissue.. Abstract. Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the ...
In this study we found important structural differences between women with COPD with either biomass or tobacco smoke exposure. We found that participants exposed to biomass smoke had less emphysema, based on both qualitative and quantitative CT measures, than those exposed to tobacco smoke. In addition, less emphysema in the presence of similar airflow obstruction supports the argument that biomass smoke may lead to an airways disease phenotype. Although the quantitative CT scans did not show differences in airways metrics after adjusting for covariates, the radiologists rating showed worse air trapping in women exposed to biomass smoke. These results are consistent with the conclusions from the autopsy study by Rivera et al. [6], and, to our knowledge, represent the first direct comparison of COPD phenotypes in comparably obstructed living individuals exposed to biomass versus tobacco smoke, using questionnaire, exercise tolerance, lung function and MDCT data.. The body of evidence linking ...
A fire can spark and spread quickly, and the resulting smoke can spread for thousands of miles beyond the blaze. Winds have lifted the West Coast smoke over 3,000 miles across the United States to New York and into the Atlantic Ocean. The smoke from the recent Canadian and California wildfires, which as of this week covered 600,000 acres of the state, are also creating dangerous conditions for the thousands of passengers who travel by train in the area.. Correctly observing and predicting changes in wildfire locations and intensity over a widespread area is important to understanding how much smoke is generated from a wildfire. NOAAs new experimental HRRR(High-Resolution Rapid Refresh)-Smoke model is a major advancement in predicting the direction and height of wildfire smoke plumes. During the July 2018 Carr fire, detailed forecasts about smoke movement allowed Amtrak to make informed decisions about suspending part of their Coast Starlight service, which runs between Sacramento, California ...
This study is unique, wrote Hecht, an internationally recognized expert on cancer-causing substances found in cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco. It is the first to investigate human metabolism of a PAH specifically delivered by inhalation in cigarette smoke, without interference by other sources of exposure such as air pollution or the diet. The results reported here should serve as a stark warning to those who are considering starting to smoke cigarettes ...
When a Smoke Composition utilizes the heat of chemical reaction between oxidizer and fuel, to vaporize the volatile ingredients present in the composition, it is known as Pyrotechnic Smoke Composition. In a Colour Smoke Composition the colour dye ingredients vaporize and subsequently the dye vapour condenses in atmosphere, giving Coloured Smoke. Some of the Pyrotechnic Colour Smoke Composition known in the art are made with binder or without binder. When a binder is used as a constituent of smoke composition, it is known as a Castable Smoke Composition. Pyrotechnic Favoured Castable Colour Smoke Composition have been used for signaling, marking, tracking, spotting and distress signaling ...
How to Make MORE SMOKE! (or Zen and the Art of Smoke System Installation) by Robert Osorio - The Flying Penguin Okay, lets talk smoke systems. I know, most of you are thinking hey, I havent got a giant scale plane with a gas engine, so I cant make smoke. NOT! I dont fly anything bigger than a .90 four-stroke, all my engines run on glow, and many of my planes have smoke systems onboard. I just love to burn up a clear blue sky with some smoke, and were not talking about a piss-ant dribble that can be mistaken for a rich engine run. No sir! Im talking nice, thick, white smoke thick enough to lay a haze across the runway on a low pass. Ive rigged many of my planes with smoke and Ive learned a lot from it. Ill be happy to share some of my hard earned insights with you (feel free to ignore them if youre feeling smug and superior, wont bother me). The most important thing is this: be prepared to experiment! If you dont like to experiment youre in the wrong hobby anyway - take up stamp ...
First Alert manufactures both ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms, and they beep when they detect small and large smoke particles, respectively. Small particles typically come from hot, flaming...
Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and breast cancer have been published since 2000, but only one considered data after 2002 and conclusions varied. Three reviews of secondhand smoke (SHS) and breast cancer (2004-2006) each came to different conclusions. With 30 new studies since 2002, further review was deemed desirable. An Expert Panel was convened by four Canadian agencies, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada and the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer to comprehensively examine the weight of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies and understanding of biological mechanisms regarding the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer. This article summarises the panels full report ( There are 20 known or suspected mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke, and recognised biological mechanisms that explain how exposure to ...
Smoke detectors uae.Stars Fire & Safety offer a wide range of Smoke Detectors such as Ionization Smoke Detectors, Photoelectric Smoke Detectors, etc in UAE.
Antenatal smoke exposure is an important risk factor for increased respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities in infants and children. In children less than 2 years of age, the risk for lower respiratory illness has been found to be increased by 72% if the mother smoked. Although the observed increase in risk is lower in older children, parental smoking may nevertheless account for approximately 20% of all asthma in childhood. Maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with asthma and allergy-related symptoms in pre-school children. Certain infants may have a genetic susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental smoke exposure, both maternal during pregnancy and in infancy. Antenatal smoking exposure has been demonstrated in some, but not all, studies to have an adverse effect on lung function in infancy. In older children, antenatal smoke exposure has been associated with a reduction in airway function. The ...
I Love To Smoke : A true, personal story from the experience, I Smoke Cigarettes. I smoke when i get up, i smoke when i am mad, i smoke after i eat, i smoke before i go to bed. I love the way it feels and the way it makes me feel i want to quit so bad but i just cant. Its a part o...
Wholesale Operation Smoke Detector - Select 2018 high quality Wholesale Operation Smoke Detector products in best price from certified Chinese Temperature Detector manufacturers, Smoke Detector suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
Why Secondhand Smoke Could Be Harming Your Work Environment It is a well-known fact that smoking is extremely harmful towards your health. It is one of the leading causes of preventable death in America. However, did you know that over time secondhand smoke could also lead to cancer and other health issues in non-smokers? What is secondhand smoke? Secondhand smoke is when a non-smoker breaths in the smoke from a cigarette, as well as the smoke breathed out by the smoker. Why is secondhand smoke... Read More ...
The innate immune system is the first line of host defense and against viral pathogens via effector molecules, such as type-I interferon (IFN-α/β). Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and monocyte-derived DC (moDC) are potent producers of IFN in response to viruses through the respective activation of recognition toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic RNA helicases MDA5 and RIG-I. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a risk factor associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of respiratory infections. However, the mechanisms by which ETS alters innate immune responses have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the ability of pDC and moDC to respond to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). In viral infected pDC and moDC, CSE led to a significant dose-dependent decrease in IFN-α production and in pDC alone cytokines IL-10 and IP-10. CSE treatment attenuated IFN induction by ...
ELDERS SPEAK. I know Grandpa told me that to smoke is wakan (holy). The smoke you inhale represents the spirits of everything you put into the pipe. When you breathe in the smoke, you are asking to become one with everything or to become whole. -- Dr. A.C. Ross (Enhanamani), Lakota The smoke allows us to go from the Seen World to the Spirit World. It is in the Spirit World where we are all connected. In this way, we can become one with all things. Our pipe is sacred. We need to be respectful of our medicine. When we smoke the pipe, we need to have good thoughts because these thoughts are shared with the Spirit World. The pipe, the smoke, the spirits, our thoughts - these things are Wakan.. Great Spirit, today, let my thoughts be Wakan.. Copyright of Coyhis Publishing and can also be found in the book, Meditations with Native American Elders: The Four Seasons at Any republishing of part or all of their contents is prohibited.. Manataka teaches the ways of the Smoke ...
Second-hand smoke remains a significant public health threat. Despite evidence to suggest that secondhand smoke contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, little is known about the dose-dependent vascular effects of brief secondhand smoke exposure at low doses commonly encountered in the community. This study will investigate the acute vascular effects and dose-dependent biological mechanisms of secondhand smoke on endothelial function and oxidative stress ...
This is very misleading, because it suggests that there is no way to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. It seems to me that this is a dangerous message, because it tells the public that it is futile to even try to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. The truth is that the public should be warned to try to avoid secondhand smoke exposure. And it is largely possible to avoid such exposure, especially when workplaces are smoke-free. While it is true that the vapor phase of secondhand smoke is not visible, I find that it is usually quite easy to smell secondhand smoke and know that it is there. In fact, I can usually detect the instant a smoker lights up in an environment, even if that person is located in a remote area of a room, far away from me. I dont see the point in trying to make people believe that it is pointless to even try to avoid secondhand smoke exposure ...
Many fire related deaths are caused by smoke inhalation. Smoke has many catastrophic effects on the body and can affect it in a number of ways such as pulmonary irritation, thermal damage and toxic poisoning.. Smoke inhalation takes place as a result of fires releasing harmful vapours and gases; victims are limited to clean air during the outbreak of fire, so the likeliness of breathing in toxic fumes rises, and they become at risk of smoke inhalation. House fires produce hundreds of these toxic fumes and harmful airborne chemicals due to the burning materials and restriction of oxygen.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental tobacco smoke. T2 - Experimental facts and societal issues. AU - Witschi, H.. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. AU - Coggins, R. E.. AU - Penn, A.. AU - Gori, G. B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Involuntary exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public or in working places is considered to be a serious risk to human health. This symposium addressed several issues of toxicological interest that are associated with exposure to ETS. Epidemiologic evidence obtained in human studies suggests that passive smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer in nonsmokers and favors the development of respiratory tract infections in children. Comparatively few data are available from animal studies that provide experimental support of the observations. Exposure of pregnant or neonate rats to cigarette sidestream smoke (SS) affects developmental patterns of drug metabolizing enzymes that may persist up to 90 days. In young roosters, SS accelerates the development of ...
Anthracosis is a form of pneumoconiosis seen in coal workers, although other environmental factors such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and biomass fuels used extensively for cooking and home heating are also known to cause anthracosis.1-6 The terms hut lung or domestically acquired particulate lung disease have been used to describe the condition.7 A diagnostic feature in anthracosis is the black-colored deposits along the airway or lymph nodes. Problems caused by chronic exposure to biomass smoke and other particulates, such as dust or silicates from food grinding, are becoming more relevant in the western world due to immigration.7,8 Individuals may develop both physical and radiologic abnormalities of the lung presenting as chronic obstructive or fibrotic lung disease due to chronic exposure to smoke and particulates. Recent estimates attribute 1.5 to 2 million deaths per year worldwide to indoor air pollution, most of them (1 million) occurring in children younger than 5 years due to ...
The global smoke detector market is segmented into product type such as photoelectric smoke detector, dual sensor smoke detector, ionization smoke detector, others. Among these segments, dual sensor smoke detector segment is expected to grow at maximum CAGR during the forecast period. The expansion of the dual sensor smoke detector segment can be attributed to its capability to detect both fast-flame and smoldering fires. Moreover, it can be used in industries, commercial buildings as well as in residential buildings.. Global smoke detector market is expected to register a 5.2% CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the global smoke detector market was valued at USD 1.4 Billion in 2016 and is expected to reach at notable revenue of USD 2.31 Billion by the end of 2024. A number of factors such as increasing constructional activities, rising number of smart homes and growing technological advancements in fire detecting technologies are anticipated to drive the growth of smoke detector market ...
The global smoke detector market is segmented into product type such as photoelectric smoke detector, dual sensor smoke detector, ionization smoke detector, others. Among these segments, dual sensor smoke detector segment is expected to grow at maximum CAGR during the forecast period. The expansion of the dual sensor smoke detector segment can be attributed to its capability to detect both fast-flame and smoldering fires. Moreover, it can be used in industries, commercial buildings as well as in residential buildings.. Global smoke detector market is expected to register a 5.2% CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the global smoke detector market was valued at USD 1.4 Billion in 2016 and is expected to reach at notable revenue of USD 2.31 Billion by the end of 2024. A number of factors such as increasing constructional activities, rising number of smart homes and growing technological advancements in fire detecting technologies are anticipated to drive the growth of smoke detector market ...
Meet Your Body: An introduction to how wood smoke hurts your health.. The body needs internal stability in all functions. It operates best with in a narrow range of acidity, blood pressure, blood temperature and hormone concentrations. It has complex negative feedback systems to achieve this stability. Stability is called homeostasis. We will be examining how and where wood smoke exposure can upset this balance, particularly in the 50 percent of the population that is vulnerable.. We will look at studies linking fine particulate to mortality and illness. We will look at tables to help understand what wood smoke chemicals and micro particulate can do to the body. We will look briefly at some of the functions the body must perform to remain alive, and mechanisms of disease, emphasizing research findings.. The body is truly micro managed. Even our cells have smaller divisions: mitochondria are round to rod shaped objects with a double membrane inside the cell. They are the principal sites of energy ...
The photoacoustic technique has been used in conjunction with an optical transmission measurement to determine the fraction of light absorbed in cigarette and acetylene smoke aerosols. At 0.5145-μm wavelength, the absorption-to-extinction fraction is 0.01 ± 0.003 for cigarette smoke and is in excellent agreement with predictions from Mie theory for smoke particles having a refractive index of 1.45-0.00133i and a median diameter in the 0.15-0.65-μm range. For acetylene smoke the absorbed fraction was 0.85 ± 0.05.. © 1980 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
CS is a complex chemical mixture of gases and suspended particulate matter that contains a wide range of carcinogens, mutagens, and free radicals that can induce an array of DNA lesions (e.g., adducts, deletions, insertions, point mutations, structural chromosomal aberrations, aberrant sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and single strand DNA breaks) that have been strongly implicated in the development and progression of human cancers by epidemiological studies [39-48]. Our previous studies showed that CS and cigarette smoke condensate (i.e., tar) can also directly induce DSBs in both normal and malignant lung cells [24, 35]. DSBs are a major type of DNA damage that can lead to translocations and chromosomal instability, two important mechanisms in the generation of malignant tumors [49]. Consequently, detection of DSBs and the various proteins that sense and orchestrate repair of these lesions may ultimately provide a more precise measurement of the potential cancer risk in individuals ...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | COPD | MAPK/FoxA2-mediated cigarette smoke-induced squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelial cells - Dove Me
I am sure you recognize the debilitating consequences of cigarette smoke to our body. This does not only weaken the lungs. The smoke emitted by cigarettes can injury the composition of the skin.. A lot of chronic smokers experience from the look of premature wrinkles and good strains. Vype Vuse is simple to seem outdated if you smoke a good deal of cigarettes. But if you want to get rid of these indicators of skin ageing, you have to do the subsequent suggestions:. 1. Cease cigarette smoking correct now. You have to get rid of this undesirable vice or you will definitely wreck the quality of your well being.. two. Increase your intake of berries, nuts, citrus fruits and eco-friendly leafy veggies. Make positive your meals have these food items.. Berries incorporate lots of anti-oxidants that can support combat the negative effects of hazardous totally free radicals. The undesirable factor about cigarette smoking is that it prompts the look of hazardous free radicals. These solitary electrons are ...
Chicken legs and wings, mackerel, small fish such as capelin are subjected to pseudo-smoking. Products soaked in liquid smoke look the same as smoked ones - you cannot tell, and they smell of smoke. Manufacturers add this composition even to the casing and minced meat of sausages - the product is actually boiled, and the smell and taste are like smoked. Is liquid smoke harmful? Expert opinion: ALEXANDER PITITSA, chief physician of the Kramatorsk oncological dispensary: ​​Smoked meats can be used occasionally. - Is it true that smoked products acquire carcinogenic properties as a result of prolonged contact with smoke?. - Of course, there are carcinogens in smoked meats. Especially in those that are not produced in a natural way of smoking in the smoke of natural firewood, but with the use of various chemical technologies, liquids like liquid smoke in which the meat is dipped. Such smoked meats are especially harmful to the body, and today there are most of them on the shelves. ...
The utility model discloses an automatic smoke removing type ionizing surgical instrument which comprises an ionizing surgical instrument body which is provided with a power connecting line of the ionizing surgical instrument. The power connecting line is connected with an operating pen of the ionizing surgical instrument; a smoke dust sucker is fixedly connected to the operating pen of the ionizing surgical instrument; a smoke collecting hole of the smoke dust sucker is arranged at the front side of the operating pen; an exhaustsmoke pipe is installed at the tail end of the smoke dust sucker, the other end of the exhaustsmoke pipe is provided with an electric air pump, and an exhaustsmoke hole of the electric air pump leads to outside. By adopting the structure, the automatic smoke removing type ionizing surgical instrument can keep doctors and patients in good heath, and the utility model has the advantages of simple structure, convenient use, and clear eyeshot of operations.
Exposure to cigarette smoke has long been associated with increased frequency of respiratory infections-which are harder to treat in smoke-exposed people than in those who lack such exposures. Now Ritwij Kulkarni of Columbia University, New York, NY, and colleagues show that cigarette smoke actually boosts virulence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Their study appears in the November 2012 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity.
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and validate the use of a new, custom-built automatic smoking machine (ASM), primarily designed to study the effects of an environmental tobacco smoke surrogate (ETS surrogate) exposure in animals of various sizes, including large animals. The equipment includes a programmable ASM coupled to a vented whole body chamber, where animals can be exposed to both mainstream and sidestream smoke. The user-friendly interface allows for full programming of puff volume (1-60 mL), time interval between two puffs (1-60 s) and between two cigarettes (1-60 min). Eight newborn lambs were exposed to either 10 (4 lambs, C10 group) or 20 (4 lambs, C20 group) cigarettes, 8 h per day for 15 days. Four additional control, lambs were exposed to air (C0 group). Weight gain was identical in all three groups of lambs. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio increased with the number of cigarettes smoked (C0: 11 ± 7 ng/mg; C10: 961 ± 539 ng/mg; C20: 1821 ± 312 ng/mg), ...
P-1: In addition to the above-mandated requirements for the installation of the approved smoke detectors required by said provision, there shall be installed in all public buildings in which there is mixed occupancy, that is, where one or more occupants of the units contained therein are residential in nature as defined by the terms of this article, smoke detectors in approved places in the nonresidential portion of said building, structure and/or dwelling in order to provide protection to the occupants of said residential dwelling unit; and said smoke detectors are to be placed in stairways or on the ceiling where there is a free flow of air in order to protect sleeping residents in said dwelling units contained therein, and said installation of detectors in areas other than the aforesaid shall be as approved and designated by the Fire Marshal of the Borough of Tyrone ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" (Merle Travis, Tex Williams) - 2:54 "I Just Drove By" (Kimmie Rhodes) - 4:12 "Cold, Cold ...
Croft, Andy (2004). Smoke!. Place of publication not identified: Mudfog. ISBN 9781899503612. OCLC 947067829. Andy Croft website ... with Nigel Thompson and George Baron smoke! an historical pageant (2004, Mudfog) - commissioned as part of the 150th ...
Smoke; A Century of Kretek. pp. 140-143. Terence H Hull (30 July 2007). "Penis enhancements". Inside Indonesia.. ... "Indonesian Invention Uses Cycle Smoke to Cool Food". Jakarta Globe. Victoria Tunggono (5 June 2016). "Indonesian student ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!" w.m. Merle Travis & Tex Williams "Steppin' Out With My Baby" w.m. Irving Berlin "Tallahassee" w.m. Frank ... "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" - Tex Williams "The Spaniard That Blighted My Life - Al Jolson & Bing Crosby "A Sunday ... "Don't Smoke in Bed" w.m. Willard Robison "Don't Telephone, Don't Telegraph, Tell a Woman" w.m. Al Stewart & Tex Williams "Down ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" (Travis, Williams), Tex Williams & His Western Caravan - 2:54 "Cigareets, Whuskey and ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" - Tex Williams and His Western Caravan "What About You?" - Johnny and Jack and Their ...
... of London fogs were due to smoke alone, all were made denser and longer-lasting by smoke and that the death rate "enormously ... By the 1600s, smoke pollution was also having an effect on building exteriors. In a landmark legal case from 1610, judgement ... The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London Since Medieval Times (Methuen, 1987) Ciecieznski, N. J. "The Stench of ... Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke, and Culture in Britain since 1800 (2009) Williamson, Tom. An Environmental History of ...
Born: Tex Williams, American country music singer, known for his talking blues style in country hits "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! ( ...
"Smoke , LACMA Collections". LACMA. Retrieved 17 June 2016. "Tony Smith's monumental sculpture 'Smoke' will not disappear from ...
Tex Williams's "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" topped the Billboard best-sellers chart for six weeks and the country ...
He is best known for his talking blues style; his biggest hit was the novelty song, "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)", ... They originally played polkas for Capitol Records, and later saw success with "Smoke, Smoke, Smoke" written in large part by ... "Smoke" was the No. 5 song on Billboard's Top 100 list for 1947, and was No. 1 on the country chart that year. It can be heard ... during the opening credits of the 2006 movie Thank You for Smoking. Williams started out in the early 1940s as vocalist for the ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)"), born in Ramsey John Staff, Sergeant of the US Army, shot in Berlin by East German ...
Nelson and Stroud were inspired to record the album while talking about Tex Williams' hit song "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That ... They were inspired to record the album while Stroud and Nelson were talking about Tex Williams' "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That ... Cigarette)". Stroud recalled the first time he heard the song, and that he saw his mother smoking while it was being played. ...
"Smoke". Better Call Saul. Season 4. Episode 1. August 6, 2018. AMC. "Breathe". Better Call Saul. Season 4. Episode 2. August 13 ...
"Smoke Magazine - Cigars and Life's Burning Desires". Smoke Magazine - Cigars and Life's Burning Desires. Boxman, Alyson R. " ... owner of the Megaburgh Puff Adders Appeared in Smoke, Spring 1997 issue Origin story Appeared in Smoke, Summer 1997 issue ... Appeared in Smoke, Winter 1997 issue Colonel Kootz and the Heart of Darkness Militia steal all of the Pentagon's cigars and ... Appeared in Smoke, Fall 1997 issue Bank robbers flee to San Franallison, where Cigarman is unwelcome. He disguises himself as " ...
Bush, Evan (September 7, 2017). "Smoke? Fire? Destruction? The little towns near Lake Cle Elum have seen it before". Seattle ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" (pancreatic cancer) Flatt and Scruggs (Lester Flatt 1914-1979 and Earl Scruggs 1924-2012 ...
The first single, "Smoke", has charted on Country Airplay and Hot Country Songs, reaching number one on the former chart, ... "A Thousand Horses "Smoke" Song Review , The Big 94.5 Country". Archived from the original on 2015-07-14. ... "Smoke". Billboard. Retrieved July 13, 2015. Trust, Gary (June 1, 2015). "Chart Highlights: Taylor Swift Ties Record as 'Bad ... In 2014, the band signed with Republic Nashville of Big Machine Label Group and released its first single "Smoke", which set a ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" by the Tex Williams Western Caravan was the No. 1 folk record of 1947, receiving 103 ...
"Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!" Despite the success of the single, which was the first million-selling record released on the Capitol ... The longest unbroken run at number one in 1947 was the fifteen consecutive weeks achieved by Tex Williams with "Smoke! Smoke! ... Smoke! (That Cigarette)", which was atop the chart from July until October. This was the first chart-topper for Williams in his ...
Williams had his hit recording of "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" in 1948. Cooley reconstituted his band with former ...
ISBN 978-1-880238-07-3. Smoke. BOA Editions. 2000. ISBN 978-1-880238-86-8. Facts about the Moon. W. W. Norton & Company. 2005. ...
He smokes with the same mannerisms. (Hicks recently quit.) He sports the same attitude, the same clothes. He touches on almost ... Coleman, Tim (2005). "Denis Leary: Playing with Fire". Smoke. Archived from the original on 13 December 2006. Retrieved 22 ...
"Theodore C. Polos, Ah! Smoke". The Collection Online. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2015-06-22. MacFarlane, Scott ( ...
"Smoke Gets In Your Eyes" - ? "Smokin'" - Howard Roberts "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke (That Cigarette)" - Tex Williams & His Western ... "Smoking Woman On The Street" - Reverend J. M. Gates (approx 1934-41) "Smoke Rings" - Sam Cooke (1962) "Chew Tobacco Rag" - ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Smoking". Retrieved 2008-01-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Dreams". ... Don't Smoke In Bed - Nina Simone (1958) Roosevelt's In Trinidad - Attila (1933) Why I like Roosevelt - The Soul Stirrers (1947 ...
They hold up the deck and take the cards one by one off the bottom as the other player(s) call out "smoke" ... "smoke" ... " ... The "dealer" instructs the other player(s) to call out "smoke" if they see a black card, and "fire" if they see a red. ... "smoke" ... and, with the first red card, "fire!" On hearing "fire", the "dealer" riffles the cards (as if to shuffle them) into ...
... smoke; current; dew; bile aûa enclosure, ring (Tahitian loan) auau to shout in pain ea to rise, get up êi a lampoon eo a ...
... smoke; sun/daytime People and habitation (6 words): child/son; grandfather/elder brother; house; husband/male; man/person; name ... smoke' (STEDT #2361) *nəy 'sun/daytime' (STEDT #85) People and habitation *tsa ⪤ *za 'child/son' (STEDT #2727) *bəw ⪤ *pəw ' ...
Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen Commander Cody (George Frayne) - piano, lead vocal on "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! That ... Country Casanova is highlighted by the band's classic cover version of "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)." Their cover ... "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! That Cigarette"). Side A "Country Casanova"* (Billy Farlow, Michael J. Richards) - 2:38 "Shall We Meet ( ... "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)" (Merle Travis, Tex Williams) - 3:41 "Sister Sue" (John Tichy, Bruce Barlow, Andy Stein, ...
"Smoke". Better Call Saul. Season 4. Episode 1. August 6, 2018. AMC. "Piñata". Better Call Saul. Season 4. Episode 6. September ...
Data and statistical information on secondhand smoke facts. ... Reduces smoking and encourages people who smoke to quit. *Helps ... Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers. ... In adults who have never smoked, secondhand smoke can cause:. *Heart disease *For adults who do not smoke, breathing secondhand ... Many people who do not smoke are still exposed to secondhand smoke. *During 2013-2014, 58 million people who do not smoke were ...
Quitting smoking can be hard, but it is one of the best ways a woman can protect herself and her developing baby. For free help ... Smoking during pregnancy can cause preterm birth (being born too early), certain birth defects, and stillbirth. ... Smoking during pregnancy can cause babies to be born too small or too early. Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely ... It is never too late to quit smoking.. It is important to quit smoking for good. A women might think it is safe to start ...
Quit Smoking Now. Download Smoke Free - Quit Smoking Now and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Smoke Free - ... This is next level, Ive been smoking for YEARS & havent ever felt so happy being smoke-free. This app makes your new, smoke- ... This is next level, Ive been smoking for YEARS & havent ever felt so happy being smoke-free. This app makes your new, smoke- ...
... views on smoking, stopping smoking, and smoking cessation resources and services. Health Soc Care the Community2006;14:572-82. ... Ascertainment of smoking status. Eleven studies did not report continuous abstinence, classification of smoking status was not ... Ascertainment of smoking status. Some studies might misclassify exposure by using point prevalence smoking abstinence. This ... West R, McEwen A, Bolling K, Owen L. Smoking cessation and smoking patterns in the general population: a 1 year follow-up. ...
Smoking increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and angina. ... Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and ... Second-hand smoke. Second-hand smoke can cause heart disease in non-smokers. Breathing in second-hand smoke damages your ... What smoking does to your heart. Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and other parts of your body. It ... If you smoke, you are:. Four times more likely to die of heart disease (i.e. heart attack and stroke) and three times more ...
Journal of the American Medical Association put a dent in the arguments against Marijuana smoking today, with release of a new ... In fact, smoking accounts for 30 percent of all cancer deaths in the U.S. Learn exactly why smoking is so bad for the health, ... The reasons why smoking is bad for you Smoking damages nearly every organ in the body. It is directly responsible for a range ... Smoking every day can increase psychosis risk, study finds Smoking at least 10 cigarettes every day or using marijuana at least ...
For the practice of smoking, see Smoking. For other uses, see Smoke (disambiguation). ... smoke signals), defensive and offensive capabilities in the military (smoke screen), cooking, or smoking (tobacco, cannabis, ... and distinguished between black smoke (carbonized particles) and white smoke which is not a smoke at all but merely a ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Smoke.. *. "Smoke" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). 1911.. .mw-parser-output ...
A Brooklyn smoke shop is the center of neighborhood activity, and the stories of its customers. ... smoke , writer , first part , wallet , loitering , See All (73) » Taglines:. Where theres smoke... theres laughter! See more ... Smoking belongs to such activities. It is an activity which needs a work break. It gives us an opportunity for a stop and for ... In Auggies New York smoke shop, day by day passes, seemingly unchanging until he teaches us to notice the little details of ...
A smoke ring is a visible vortex ring formed by smoke in a clear atmosphere. Smokers may blow smoke rings from the mouth, ... The head of a mushroom cloud is a large smoke ring. A smoke ring is commonly formed when a puff of smoke is suddenly injected ... JSTOR link Movie of a modern recreation of Taits smoke ring experiment How to Blow Smoke Rings - Howiw How To Blow Smoke Rings ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) How to puff a smoke ring? Blowing a smoke ring (wikiHow) Smoke rings generated by ...
The smoke point of an oil correlates with its level of refinement. Many cooking oils have smoke points above standard home ... The more FFA an oil contains, the quicker it will break down and start smoking. The lower in FFA, the higher the smoke point.[ ... "Smoking Points of Fats and Oils". Whats Cooking America. "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. 2012-04-17 ... The following table presents smoke points of various fats and oils. view talk edit Specified smoke, fire, and flash points of ...
Smoke has many uses--screening smoke, signaling smoke, smoke curtain, smoke haze, and smoke deception. Thus it is an artificial ... "Related to Old English smēocan ("to smoke, emit smoke; fumigate"), West Frisian smoke ("(to) smoke"), Dutch smook ("smoke"), ... smoke (third-person singular simple present smokes, present participle smoking, simple past and past participle smoked) ... From Middle English smoke, from Old English smoca ("smoke"), probably a derivative of the verb smocian ("to smoke, emit smoke; ...
Mephit, Smoke This small winged humanoid has soot-colored skin, crimson eyes, and dark wings. Small trails of smoke stream from ... Smoke mephits enjoy combat and rush headlong into it, slashing with their claws. If a smoke mephit can draw its opponents to ... A smoke mephits natural weapons are treated as magic weapons for the purpose of overcoming damage reduction. A smoke mephit ... A smoke mephit heals only if it is exposed to smoke or soot (whether magically created or mundane in nature). ...
Smoke-developed index (abbreviated SDI) is a measure of the concentration of smoke a material emits as it burns.[1] Like the ... The ASTM standard E84 defines a standard test method for surface flame spread and smoke density measurements.[2] A smoke- ... Retrieved from "" ...
Smoke Signal (1955) Passed , 1h 28min , Action, Drama, Western , March 1955 (USA) ... Smoke Signal See more » Filming Locations:. Universal Studios - 100 Universal City Plaza, Universal City, California, USA See ...
... but theyre actually created using smoke.. Michael Fennell, 43, became interested in smoke as an art tool around 15 years ago, ... the potential for the medium of smoke painting soon became apparent. (Caters News). See more work by Michael Fennell, visit his ...
Smoke streams east from a fire in Carlsbad Caverns National Park in this true-color image from June 14, 2011. ... Half Dome is on the left, with a smoke plume rising from Little Yosemite Valley to its right. ...
... and the smoke breathed out by the smoker affecting others. ... Secondhand smoke is smoke that comes from the burning end of a ... Secondhand Smoke Also called: Environmental tobacco smoke, Passive smoking, Tobacco smoke pollution ... Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You (Surgeon General) - PDF * Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes (Environmental ... Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke ...
... air-polluting smoke hater unable to sustain conversation or tolerance while in an enclosed space with a smoker (Restaurant ... Andrews, revered as he may be as a restaurant critic, is setting himself up to be reviled by us "smoke haters" for his arcane, ... Am I to believe that "good ventilation" is the universal solution for separating smoker from "smoke hater"? Do I get marked ... According to Colman Andrews categorization, I am an "allergic, air-polluting smoke hater" unable to sustain conversation or ...
and a Canadian boyband for a campaign aimed at preventing teenage girls and young women from taking up smoking. ... He added, "We have chosen those (stars) who do not smoke and who are idols for this group." ...
Im the only one who doesnt want to smoke. I still want to be friends with them. What should I do? ... I have friends who always want to smoke before and after school. ... SMOKE FREE. DEAR SMOKE FREE,. Tell them you dont like smoking ... Everyone encounters smoking in his or her life. You should be proud to say no to smoking and, better yet, never start smoking. ... If you dont want to smoke, you shouldnt. Tell your friends you dont want to smoke. If your friends pressure you to smoke, ...
One of the catchiest tunes ever used in a jeans commercial, by an English group with an Anglo-Brazilian singer. Check out their album if you can find it some...
Should They Be Forced to Smoke?" "Controversy in the Vatican: Should Sponsors Be Allowed to Smoke at Art Exhibits?" ...
Copyright / Trademark: If you have a valid legal concern (i.e. copyright or trademark) and would like to request the removal of this application, please use our online notification form. ...
Demonstrators protest the planned closure of an Alcoa plant on the Italian island of Sardinia. The plants employs about 2,000 people.
Holy Smoke! owes a lot to Winslet, both because of the way she looks and because of the emotional energy she brings to her work ... As Holy Smoke moves from its early mix of rapture and humor into this more serious, confrontational stage, it runs into trouble ... Holy Smoke is one of those movies that takes some potentially fascinating ideas and shipwrecks them by poor execution and even ... All sorts of questions go unanswered, and theres little of the density found in Campions early work; this is mainly smoke, ...
... reasons why smoke alarms fail to operate, smoke alarm performance by power source, the difference in smoke alarm performance in ... Smoke alarms in U.S. home fires. This report focuses chiefly on smoke alarm presence and performance in home fires reported to ... Smoke alarms provide an early warning of a fire, giving people additional escape time. In 2012-2016, smoke alarms were present ... In fires in which the smoke alarms were present but did not operate, more than two of every five (43%) of the smoke alarms had ...
Improving the effectiveness of smoke alarms is among the strategies employed by CPSC staff to reduce the fire death rate. ... staff is participating in voluntary standard and code activities for smoke alarms. These activities support CPSCs strategic ... CPSC Staff Report: Smoke Alarms - Evaluating the Need for a Consumer Focused Smoke Alarm Performance System, December 2015 ... CPSC Staff Report: Smoke Alarms - Public Benefits to a Smoke Alarm Performance Evaluation Scheme - December 2015 ...
Chimney with smoke pollution - This photo has been released into the public domain. There are no copyrights you can use and ... Media in category "Smoke". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 704 total. ... Burning Rubbish Bin Smoking On Grafton Road.jpg 1,600 × 1,200; 414 KB. ... smoke (en); دخان (ar); Tatatĩ (gn); မီးခိုး (my); 煙 (yue); füst (hu); Ke (eu); fum (ca); Qusñi (qu); Rauch (de); Fumm (lmo); ...
A satellite sensor is helping scientists understand where smoke is headed and what it means for those breathing it. ... But smoke has plenty of secrets that are opaque to human eyes. How high and far will the smoke go? How does it change as it ... Seeing through Sakhas Smoke. With dozens of wildfires burning in a part of Russia best known for its frigid winters, the ... Fires and Smoke in Russia. This photo-like image from August 4, 2010, shows intense fires burning across central Russia and a ...
are cured with smoke. 2. Room in a tannery where hides were unhaired. Source for information on smoke-house: A Dictionary of ... smoke-house. 1. Place where meat, fish, etc. are cured with smoke.. 2. Room in a tannery where hides were unhaired.. ... smoke-house A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture © A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture ... "smoke-house." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved December 13, 2018 from ...
  • Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) is a plant that can be smoked in cigarettes, pipes, or cigars. (
  • Some people think they're safer than cigarettes because the smoke cools when it passes through the water. (
  • See how much money you've saved, how many cigarettes you've not smoked, how long you've been smoke free, how much life you've regained and how your health is improving. (
  • Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that regular smokers report smoking cigarettes to alleviate emotional problems and feelings of depression and anxiety, to stabilise mood, and for relaxation as well as relieving stress. (
  • Research on their safety indicates there are risks for heart health and the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in helping people to quit smoking has not been proven. (
  • The harm from cigarettes showed up clearly while those smoking a joint a day and not smoking tobacco did not show the degradation. (
  • colloquial , uncountable ) Anything to smoke (e.g. cigarettes, marijuana, etc. (
  • They are the product of federal bureaucrats and of federal policy, and beginning next year they will by law adorn every pack of cigarettes sold in this country, alongside blunt textual warnings such as "Smoking Can Kill You. (
  • Smoking materials, including cigarettes, pipes, and cigars, started an estimated 17,200 home structure fires reported to U.S. fire departments in 2014. (
  • In this presentation, safety tips are provided for the precautions that should be taken by people who smoke, where to smoke safely, and how to properly dispose of cigarettes. (
  • Herbal cigarettes, marketed as an aid to quit smoking, are a potential health hazard, scientists have warned. (
  • The illegal smuggling of tobacco products will be encouraged by an increase in taxation on packets of cigarettes, the pro-smoking lobby warns. (
  • Within a year or so of starting to smoke, children inhale the same amount of nicotine per cigarette as adults, experience craving for cigarettes when they cannot smoke, make attempts to quit, and report experiencing the whole range of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. (
  • anyone who lives here smoke cigarettes, cigars, or pipes anywhere inside this home? (
  • How many cigarettes per day {do you/does PERSON} usually smoke anywhere inside the home? (
  • One day not long ago, my father was telling me that once he'd quit smoking cigarettes, he never smoked again for fear that he'd fall off the wagon entirely. (
  • In three of the studies, patch users were smoking fewer cigarettes even before their planned quit day, though they had not been told to do so. (
  • The therapy might work by breaking the association between lighting up and getting the pleasure of nicotine, says Jed Rose, director of the Duke Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research in Durham, N.C. "Cigarettes become less enjoyable when smoking on the patch, just as eating when you're not hungry is not as rewarding as when you are," Rose says. (
  • Everybody knows that smoking cigarettes and being around active smokers is dangerous to people's health. (
  • That said, take up pipe smoking because you're interested in this rich experience, not because you think it's a safe alternative to cigarettes. (
  • I smoke cigarettes with friends when I am having a good time. (
  • I always smoke cigarettes to get a lift. (
  • Anti-tobacco activists fought to keep IQOS out of the U.S. In 2017, a group of 123 anti-smoking organizations sent PMI a letter demanding the company simply stop making cigarettes - period. (
  • They proved it again when they banned the city's drug stores from selling cigarettes, which didn't stop a single smoker from lighting up, but chased thousands of them out of pharmacies and into liquor stores to buy their smokes. (
  • Some users of electronic cigarettes modify their devices to inhale large amounts of vapour at once, to exhale "clouds" in patterns like smoke rings. (
  • Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers. (
  • Although most smokers report wanting to quit, 6 many continue as they report that smoking provides them with mental health benefits. (
  • Although smokers think that smoking offers mental health benefits, there is a strong association between smoking and poor mental health, and smokers with mental health disorders tend to be heavier smokers and more dependent. (
  • Second-hand smoke can cause heart disease in non-smokers. (
  • Journal of the American Medical Association put a dent in the arguments against Marijuana smoking today, with release of a new report showing casual pot smokers might even have stronger lungs than non smokers. (
  • A part of the increased capacity was put down to the way pot smokers usually take deep breaths when they smoke, but one joint per day is hardly giving your lungs great exercise. (
  • It is part of a broad White House-led effort to effect a decrease in the number of smokers, one that includes $225 million in funding from the now-infamous Recovery Act and provisions in the (also now-infamous) Affordable Care Act that will require Medicaid, as well as many private insurance plans, to cover "smoking cessation" treatment. (
  • It would be one thing to ponder the use of taxpayer dollars and the force of law to change smokers' habits, if this were happening within the context of a serious conversation about whether individual decisions to smoke impose substantial enough effects on non-smokers - in terms of air quality, socialized health-care costs for the treatment of tobacco-related illnesses, and the like - to justify restrictions. (
  • Against the background of a smoking population of about 46 million, they estimate the labels will, if you'll excuse the expression, create or save some 213,000 non-smokers. (
  • It is now recognised that cigarette smoking is primarily a manifestation of nicotine addiction and that smokers have individually characteristic preferences for their level of nicotine intake. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Pregnant women who live or work with smokers may be at slightly higher risk of having a stillbirth, suggests a study that adds to evidence that even secondhand smoke can harm unborn babies. (
  • Secondhand smoke is thought to expose people to about one percent of the smoke that active smokers inhale. (
  • The Canadian researchers also found that babies born to passive smokers weighed 54 grams, or nearly 2 ounces, less than babies whose mothers lived and worked in smoke-free households. (
  • SDSU psychologist Georg Matt first became interested in thirdhand smoke about 20 years ago in a smoking cessation study that discovered nicotine byproducts could still be detected in the children of mothers who were former smokers, even after they had quit smoking and no one else smoked near the child. (
  • If byproducts of smoked tobacco remained in the room, then it was no wonder the kids of former smokers were still being exposed. (
  • She said smoking in movies "makes smoking appealing to youth and reducing those images can reduce" the number of young smokers. (
  • His argument is that people are going to smoke for the foreseeable future, and so the smart move is to create new technologies that are "sufficiently good at re-creating the smoking experience to convince smokers to switch … but not so close to the cigarette that you still have too high levels of toxins. (
  • Smokers may blow smoke rings from the mouth, intentionally or accidentally. (
  • People who do not smoke, but are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at work, experience a 25-30% increase in their risk of developing heart disease. (
  • Adults exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have newborns with lower birth weight, increasing the risk of health complications. (
  • Infants exposed to secondhand smoke after birth have significantly higher risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (
  • Many people who do not smoke are still exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • During 2013-2014, 58 million people who do not smoke were exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • Although the number of people who do not smoke but are exposed to secondhand smoke has declined, disparities in secondhand smoke exposure persist. (
  • More of our low-income population lives in multi-unit housing, which means that they are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • Of nearly 12,000 women in the database, 11 percent said they had been exposed to secondhand smoke. (
  • The finding puzzled researchers: If the children were not exposed to secondhand smoke, how were they still being exposed? (
  • These policies also can help prevent youth initiation and help those who currently smoke to quit. (
  • It Is Never "Too Late" to Quit Smoking During Pregnancy! (
  • It is important to quit smoking for good. (
  • If you or someone you know wants to quit smoking, talk to your healthcare provider about strategies. (
  • If you have friends who smoke or use tobacco, you can help them by encouraging them to quit. (
  • 9 12 13 Unsurprisingly, views about smoking predict whether or not people attempt to quit 14 and whether or not they are successful. (
  • Call the Quitline 13 7848 or visit the Quit website if you want to quit smoking or want to help someone else to quit. (
  • If you are a smoker and are ready to quit, thinking about quitting, or want to help someone else to quit, talk to your doctor or health practitioner about giving up smoking. (
  • Many people slip up after they quit and start smoking again. (
  • Use the quit smoking action plan designed to help heart attack survivors. (
  • Need to quit smoking? (
  • The combined use of nicotine patches and sprays is the best way to quit smoking, researchers find. (
  • Husband and I are coming to our first Coachella, and after smoking a pack of Camel Lights a day for over 10 years, we both just quit about 6 weeks ago, just in fucking time. (
  • Yeah, the starting just for a few days doesn't work, I had quit for 10 years and now am smoking again. (
  • Quit full on smoking a couple years ago. (
  • sometimes when im having a really great cigarette looking at the sunset trippin on some sweet sweet psychedelic i wonder if i will ever quit smoking. (
  • The policies do not require that residents quit smoking or prohibit people who smoke from moving in. (
  • Public Health provides technical support for policy implementation to housing providers, including surveys, resident meetings, and presentations on how to access quit support, which is a critical element to successfully implementing no-smoking policies. (
  • Some subjects used the patch before quitting, while others did not, and Shiffman's analysis examined whether people were smoke-free six weeks, and then six months, after a target quit date. (
  • Even being around tobacco smoke puts a woman and her developing baby at risk for health problems. (
  • if they have asthma , breathing in other people's tobacco smoke can trigger asthma attacks. (
  • Thirdhand smoke is the residue from tobacco smoke that collects on surfaces and becomes a source for long-term exposure to harmful pollutants. (
  • Eleven compounds in tobacco smoke have been identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as Group 1 Human Carcinogens. (
  • The EPA's study stated that secondhand tobacco smoke is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. (
  • EPA estimated that up to one million asthmatic children have their condition worsened by exposure to secondhand smoke and that tobacco smoke exposure may also be a risk factor for the development of new cases of asthma. (
  • Environmental tobacco smoke has also been classified as a "known human carcinogen" by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. (
  • Secondhand tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds. (
  • A 2004 study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) revealed that people exposed to high levels of secondhand tobacco smoke (also known as "passive smoking") are more likely to develop coronary artery disease. (
  • Between 1981 and 1989 PM performed at least 115 studies at INBIFO on the toxicity of secondhand tobacco smoke. (
  • Homes become reservoirs of tobacco smoke pollutants," Matt said. (
  • Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. (
  • Tobacco smoke, active and passive smoking. (
  • Secondhand smoke exposure causes more than 7,300 deaths from lung cancer among people who do not smoke. (
  • Measurements of blood serum cotinine (as a measure of secondhand exposure among people who do not smoke) show that exposure to secondhand smoke steadily decreased in the United States between 1988-2014. (
  • During 1988-1991, almost 90 of every 100 (87.9%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. (
  • During 2007-2008, about 40 of every 100 (40.1%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. (
  • During 2011-2014, about 25 of every 100 (25.2%) people who did not smoke had measurable levels of cotinine. (
  • Many people know that smoking causes cancer, heart disease, and stroke. (
  • Still others might know lots of people who smoke and they might think it's a way to act or look like an adult. (
  • Fortunately, fewer people are starting smoking than a few years ago. (
  • Maybe that's because more and more people have learned that smoking and tobacco use can cause cancer and heart disease . (
  • In fact, each day 1300 people die from smoking alone. (
  • Some people smoke a pack a day, which adds up to $2,190! (
  • Usually, people don't like smoking or chewing tobacco at first. (
  • When people try smoking for the first time, they often cough a lot and feel pain or burning in their throat and lungs. (
  • People start smoking for different reasons. (
  • And people with some health conditions, like asthma , get sicker if they smoke (and often if they're just around people who smoke). (
  • If you already have heart disease, you are at greater risk from exposure to second-hand smoke than people who don't. (
  • The authors factored in for people who smoked tobacco and those that lived in more polluted areas with lesser air quality. (
  • Anyway, who is going to speak for all those millions of people who do like to smoke? (
  • Join after-school clubs to find people who share the same smoke-free interests as you. (
  • People can die from smoking. (
  • Yes, it is certainly within your individual rights to smoke and engage in other activities that some people think are risky. (
  • At once hilarious and serious, cruel and tender, and bristling with vitality, Holy Smoke is the right movie for the millennium, envisioning new possibilities in the way people view and relate to one another. (
  • PLEASE NOTE: In order to assess readiness and provide strategies for your smoke-free work, at least three people from your community must complete the Online Readiness Survey within a one-month time frame. (
  • Smoke alarms provide an early warning of a fire, giving people additional escape time. (
  • If people want to open smoking bars, I think that's legal (there are all sorts of cigar places out here, so there must be some provision in the law). (
  • The government's White Paper on tobacco proposes specific measures for reducing smoking among children and young people. (
  • The government attempt to stop people smoking includes the controversial ban on sponsorship and advertising. (
  • Why do people start smoking? (
  • In King County , 77 percent of renters prefer smoke-free housing-including over half of people who smoke-yet only 35 percent of renters report that they live in buildings with no-smoking policies. (
  • In another study, published this month in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Shiffman and colleagues showed that use of nicotine gum before quitting also helps people stop smoking. (
  • This so-called thirdhand smoke presents an under-recognized danger to human health and especially to young children and people with compromised immune systems, according to a multidisciplinary research team at San Diego State University. (
  • Penelope Quintana, an environmental health scientist and one of Matt's colleagues, noted that people are probably most familiar with thirdhand smoke residue as the yellowing of walls in a home. (
  • Little Smoke specialises in buying entire animals, hacking them into chunks big enough for one-to-four people to share, listing the cuts on a chalkboard and crossing them off as they're eaten (although there is also a menu featuring perennial dishes). (
  • Usually associated with illusionists and magicians, it is thought that the phrase originated from the classic act of illusion where a magician makes objects or people appear or disappear by using smokes and mirrors as a distraction. (
  • Aug. 19, 2010 -- When movies show actors lighting up a cigarette, it increases the likelihood that young people will start smoking , the CDC said today in a special report and briefing. (
  • The researchers also say that young people who are heavily exposed to onscreen smoking are about two to three times more likely to begin smoking than those who are lightly exposed. (
  • The more they see, the more likely they are to smoke," Bauer said, adding that movies create a "culture of acceptance" and send a message to young people that it's OK to smoke. (
  • Though progress has been made in getting young people not to take up the habit, one in five high school students smokes, she said. (
  • He said the popular movie Avatar "delivered a billion impressions of smoking in the U.S. alone, given the incidents and the number of people who saw actors, including the star Sigourney Weaver, lighting up. (
  • He says there are still too many scenes of people smoking even though Congress held hearings in 2007 on smoking in movies. (
  • Citing an analysis of four studies, he said it is estimated that 44% of young people trying smoking can be attributed to what they see in the movies. (
  • The smoke, from about 300 fires, is blamed for at least two fatal traffic accidents this week that left eight people dead. (
  • The smoke has obscured views of some of the capital's landmarks, such the Obelisco monument and the government house, Casa Rosada, and people were seen walking on the city streets covering their faces with clothes. (
  • I smoke when people around me are smoking. (
  • You can always take the approach that people should not be doing something, and if your ideological position is they should not (smoke) and you stick to this, you can spend your entire life hoping that the people will stop, and you can keep advocating for it. (
  • We need to think about the people who smoke today. (
  • This blend of images from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the CALIPSO satellite and the MODIS on NASA's Aqua satellite, offers two different views of smoke from the Sakha wildfires on July 18, 2014. (
  • Understanding how high wildfires send smoke into the atmosphere is one of the key pieces of information required to predict where and how a smoke plume will spread. (
  • Smoke will be carried east from numerous wildfires burning across Colorado and Utah today. (
  • The public believes passive smoking is a risk to health, despite split scientific opinion on the issue, a survey has found. (
  • In December 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a risk assessment titled "The Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking," that concluded that secondhand smoke is a known human carcinogen which kills about 3,000 nonsmokers each year and is responsible for up 300,000 cases of bronchitis and pneumonia in children annually. (
  • The 2001 study's authors conclude that this finding provides direct evidence that passive smoking may cause endothelial dysfunction of the coronary circulation in nonsmokers. (
  • Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. (
  • Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. (
  • Goel P, Raditra A, Singh I, Aggarwal A, Dua D. Effects of passive smoking on outcome in pregnancy. (
  • By June 15, plumes of smoke had started to emerge in MODIS imagery. (
  • The early morning skies over the Black Hills region were brown with the high level plumes of smoke. (
  • Objective To investigate change in mental health after smoking cessation compared with continuing to smoke. (
  • Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Longitudinal studies of adults that assessed mental health before smoking cessation and at least six weeks after cessation or baseline in healthy and clinical populations. (
  • Conclusions Smoking cessation is associated with reduced depression, anxiety, and stress and improved positive mood and quality of life compared with continuing to smoke. (
  • Social, economic, personal, and political influences all play an important part in determining patterns of smoking prevalence and cessation. (
  • Zyban: In Monday's Health section, an article on quitting smoking said that the smoking-cessation medication Zyban might act by blocking the brain chemicals norepinephrine and dopamine. (
  • Absorption of cigarette smoke from the lung is rapid and complete, producing with each inhalation a high concentration arterial bolus of nicotine that reaches the brain within 10-16 seconds, faster than by intravenous injection. (
  • In 2005, researchers and the University of California, San Francisco reviewed unpublished in vivo research on secondhand cigarette smoke performed by scientists at the Philip Morris Tobacco Company during the 1980s at its overseas biological lab Institut für Biologische Forschung, or INBIFO . (
  • The studies revealed that inhaled fresh secondhand smoke is approximately four times more toxic per gram in its total particulate matter than mainstream cigarette smoke (the smoke the smoker himself inhales). (
  • According to the researchers, "undiluted side-stream smoke contains many harmful chemicals and in greater concentration than cigarette smoke inhaled through a filter. (
  • When cigarette smoke is blown into the environment, its chemical constituents don't just vanish into thin air. (
  • Cigarette smoke is known to contain thousands of chemicals, and these chemicals get deposited onto surfaces," she said. (
  • There's a long and notorious list of dangerous chemical compounds in cigarette smoke that researchers can look for in thirdhand smoke residue. (
  • Hookahs are water pipes used to smoke tobacco through a hose with a mouthpiece. (
  • Category:Pipe Smoking]] == Steps == ===Gathering Supplies=== #Browse pipes. (
  • Part of the pleasure of smoking pipes is the ability to create your own perfect experience. (
  • In 2012-2016, smoke alarms were present in three-quarters (74%) and sounded in more than half (53%) of the home fires reported to U.S. fire departments. (
  • The death rate per 1,000 reported home fires was more than twice as high in homes that did not have any working smoke alarms (12.3 deaths per 1,000 fires), either because no smoke alarm was present or an alarm was present but did not operate), as it was in homes with working smoke alarms (5.7 per 1,000 fires). (
  • In fires in which the smoke alarms were present but did not operate, more than two of every five (43%) of the smoke alarms had missing or disconnected batteries. (
  • The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff is participating in voluntary standard and code activities for smoke alarms. (
  • Improving the effectiveness of smoke alarms is among the strategies employed by CPSC staff to reduce the fire death rate. (
  • The National Fire Alarm Code (the National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 72), Life Safety Code (NFPA 101), and the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standard, UL 217, Single and Multiple Station Smoke Alarms , are the model codes and standards for smoke alarm performance and safety. (
  • CPSC staff will continue to support code and standard activities and to improve the effectiveness of smoke alarms through better detection, alerting, and reliability. (
  • Smoke alarms have successfully prevented thousands of residential fire deaths. (
  • Reducing the number of non-working alarms and providing unprotected homes with smoke alarms may produce a further reduction in fire deaths. (
  • NFPA also reports that an estimated 890 lives could've been saved every year if all homes had working smoke alarms. (
  • Smoke alarms and detectors should be placed away from windows, doors and other vents where there could be a possibility of dust or debris interfering with the system. (
  • If you have smoke alarms in the kitchen and bedrooms, make sure they are functioning properly. (
  • While businesses, public buildings, rental homes and apartments are required by law to have a certain number of smoke alarms installed, it is up to a homeowner to outfit their living space with the appropriate alarms. (
  • Two basic types of smoke alarms exist. (
  • Ionization smoke alarms work well for detecting trace or near-invisible smoke particles that float through the detection chamber. (
  • Photoelectric smoke alarms, by contrast, feature a beam of light in a chamber connected to a perpendicular chamber. (
  • Smoke alarms are available in both DC- and AC-powered varieties. (
  • DC-powered smoke alarms operate on 9-volt or AAA batteries most commonly. (
  • Wireless smoke alarms are battery powered, but they are designed to be a part of an interconnected system of alarms. (
  • Wireless smoke alarms may be a part of a full-spectrum home security system. (
  • Dead batteries caused one-quarter (25%) of the smoke alarm failures. (
  • Read NFPA's smoke alarm safety tips. (
  • Keeping these statistics in mind, it is important to gather as much information about smoke alarm systems as possible. (
  • According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the mortality rate in home fires was twice as high in those houses that did not have a working smoke alarm. (
  • A wide variety of smoke alarm systems are available. (
  • Households that already have wired smoke alarm systems installed could find it easy to change their security provider or upgrade their system. (
  • A smoke alarm will give you an early warning of a fire in your house, and can potentially save your life. (
  • However, if it's actually going off it may be because of dust or something near the smoke detector which might be triggering the alarm. (
  • Put in place to detect the onset of a fire in homes, businesses and other structures, a smoke alarm is instrumental in helping prevent the loss of life and property. (
  • As a general rule, a smoke alarm of one type or another should be installed on every floor of a home in order to ensure timely notification should a fire break out. (
  • When smoke enters the chamber, the current is disrupted and the alarm sounds. (
  • When enough smoke enters to block the path of light, portions of the light are deflected into the second chamber where they come into contact with a sensor, setting off the alarm. (
  • Smoke alarm/carbon monoxide detector combo units are common as well. (
  • stopping smoking substantially reduces these health risks. (
  • Tell your friends about the risks of smoking. (
  • Smoke is a collection of airborne particulates and gases [1] emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis , together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. (
  • Its not known exactly why tobacco appears to be so much more harmful than marijuana, especially considering the contents of the smoke are similar. (
  • And the most frequent gripe I've heard-well, up until the cops who shot Amadou Diallo were acquitted-is that someone's buddy, sweetheart, or uncle got locked up for smoking a little harmless marijuana. (
  • It's not that I think that you, smoking a little marijuana in the privacy of your own living room, are committing a wrong against society that must be righted. (
  • Everyone deserves to breathe smoke-free air where they live. (
  • see also smoke and mirrors . (
  • Volume I of "Muscle, Smoke & Mirrors" is truly the untold stories surrounding "Bodybuilding's Amazing Nutritional Origins. (
  • Celebrate the magic on Smoke and Mirrors Day. (
  • Also sometimes known as Festival of Smoke and Mirrors Day, this unofficial holiday is celebrated annually on March 29. (
  • Smoke and mirrors is an English language phrase that is used to describe things and actions that are deceptive, manipulative, or lack complete explanation. (
  • In computing, the term smoke and mirrors is often used to refer to programs that seem to exist, but in reality do not. (
  • Preferably try to use smoke and mirrors in your tricks. (
  • In her suit, filed two years ago, she claimed that cigarette smoking in the cabin, now banned, caused her injuries and she wanted RJR and other smoke companies to cough up $500,000 in compensatory damages. (
  • Obviously more research is needed, and it would be interesting to see results of lung tests in communities such as Jamaica and the Himalayas where smoking pot is endemic and done in larger daily volumes. (
  • EPA also concluded that secondhand smoke was associated middle ear effusions, upper respiratory tract irritation, and small reductions in lung function, and that it increased severity of asthma symptoms in children. (
  • A number of investigations are now in progress, which include a detailed analysis of the deaths by age and cause, as stated on the death certificate, examination of the reports of pathologists, a study of lung chemistry in certain fatal cases, and further chemical study of the fog and smokes. (
  • Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains the very addictive chemical nicotine. (
  • It is only in the past decade or so that the fundamental role of nicotine in sustaining smoking behaviour has begun to be more widely accepted. (
  • The link with nicotine addiction does not imply that pharmacological factors drive smoking behaviour in a simple way and to the exclusion of other influences. (
  • Because nicotine is completely out of your system after only 3 days, no matter how long you smoked or how much. (
  • There's a kind of mythology that if you smoke while using one of these nicotine-replacement products, that's toxic," says Saul Shiffman, a psychologist at the University of Pittsburgh. (
  • During the 1990s, there were rumors that smoking while using a nicotine patch could lead to heart attacks. (
  • This material is intended for public consumption and is a brief guide to the many laws governing smoke-free workplaces and spaces. (
  • A summary of how 2016 legislation has improved protection from secondhand smoke exposure in California workplaces. (
  • Smoke from a bee smoker , used in beekeeping . (
  • Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. (
  • Cheers to an arrogant, insufferably insensitive smoker that we "smoke haters" love to hate. (
  • As for your change of subject, I know you to be a committed smoker and I can imagine how deeply it offends your libertarian self to imagine the smoking cops lounging in wait. (
  • His father, Dr. John Marine Kercheval, a smoker, died of emphysema at the age of 67, and Kercheval realized that he too might someday be stricken with a smoking-related illness. (
  • Sidestream smoke, which is smoke that comes from a lighted cigarette, pipe, or cigar, and "mainstream smoke," the smoke the smoker himself inhales and exhales. (
  • A smoker may create rings by taking smoke into their mouth and expelling it with a tongue flick, by closing the jaw, tapping the cheek, or producing a sudden burst of air with the lungs and throat. (
  • The smoker may also use any of those methods to blow into a cloud of smoke outside their mouth. (
  • According to the U.S. Surgeon General , secondhand smoke contains a number of poisonous gases and chemicals, including hydrogen cyanide (used in chemical weapons), carbon monoxide (an odorless, colorless gas found in car exhaust), butane (used in lighter fluid), ammonia (used in household cleaners), and toluene (found in paint thinners). (
  • Blue Smoke offers a selection of traditional barbecue styles from across the country along with other regional American specialties, served with warm hospitality in a fun and relaxed atmosphere. (
  • Blue Smoke celebrates the evolving American South and honors its culinary traditions with executive chef Jean-Paul Bourgeois at the helm. (
  • For adults who do not smoke, breathing secondhand smoke has immediate harmful effects on the heart and blood vessels. (
  • Secondhand smoke causes nearly 34,000 premature deaths from heart disease each year in the United States among adults who do not smoke. (
  • And adults are often addicted, which is why so many of them have a hard time quitting smoking. (
  • The existence of these studies on secondhand smoke was unknown until the tobacco industry's internal documents were made public on the Internet in 1998. (
  • Stanton Glantz, PhD, primary author of the report and a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, says the number of smoking incidents in movies declined in 1998, a decline that may have been linked to a settlement that year between states and the tobacco industry. (
  • Media related Smoke buoys, which are intended to mark targets. (
  • Thirdhand Smoke: What Are the Dangers to Nonsmokers? (
  • This page on the California Tobacco Control Program's TobaccoFreeCA website provides information on the importance of protecting yourself and your family from thirdhand smoke by keeping the places that we live, work, and play completely tobacco-free. (
  • SDSU researchers are studying just how wide-spread and persistent thirdhand smoke can be and exploring ways to eradicate it from the home. (
  • Matt, Quintana and environmental chemist Eunha Hoh today study thirdhand smoke in a range of environments where an unsuspecting public might encounter the lasting aftereffects of smoking: rental housing units, newly purchased homes, rental cars, hotel rooms and casinos. (
  • SDSU's team is among the leaders in the growing field of thirdhand smoke research and is part of the Thirdhand Smoke Research Consortium. (
  • The levels of these chemicals may be quite low in thirdhand smoke residue, but they are dangerous when you have chronic exposure. (
  • So far, she and her colleagues have found a link between thirdhand smoke and the presence of extremely hazardous carcinogenic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. (
  • Smoking and tobacco use, health effects of second hand smoke, health consequences linked to exposure to second hand smoke. (
  • smoke with significant tar content is yellow to brown. (
  • So do yourself a favour by quitting smoking. (
  • Half Dome is on the left, with a smoke plume rising from Little Yosemite Valley to its right. (
  • CALIPSO sent pulses of laser light (lidar) down through the atmosphere and recorded the reflections to generate a vertical profile of the smoke plume. (
  • The CALIPSO transect shows a large plume of smoke about 10 to 12 kilometers (6 to 7 miles) up, about the same altitude as the cloud deck on the left side of the MODIS image. (
  • CALIPSO also detected a faint mixture of smoke and clouds below the primary smoke plume that was about 3 to 5 kilometers (2 to 3 miles) up. (
  • The NOAA Office of Satellite and Product Operations provides the Hazard Mapping System image below which shows the plume of forest fire smoke as detected by geosynchronous satellites. (
  • A women might think it is safe to start smoking again after her baby is born. (
  • Yet every single day, about 3,200 kids and teens start smoking. (
  • Some kids may start smoking just because they're curious. (
  • Others start because their family members or friends smoke. (
  • That's why it's so much easier to not start smoking at all. (
  • You should be proud to say no to smoking and, better yet, never start smoking. (
  • You'll need more than a pipe to start smoking. (
  • The smell of stale smoke tends to last - not just on people's clothing, but on their hair, furniture, and cars. (
  • [11] Presence of such smoke, soot, and/or brown oily deposits during a fire indicates a possible hazardous situation, as the atmosphere may be saturated with combustible pyrolysis products with concentration above the upper flammability limit , and sudden inrush of air can cause flashover or backdraft . (
  • A smoke mephit heals only if it is exposed to smoke or soot (whether magically created or mundane in nature). (
  • The visible particulate matter in such smokes is most commonly composed of carbon (soot). (
  • NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of fires and smoke in north central Russia on June 15, 2012, at 05:50 UTC (1:50 a.m. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified secondhand smoke as a Group A Human carcinogen , which means that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that it causes cancer in humans. (
  • Officials from the CDC, the University of California-San Francisco, and the Legacy antismoking group said in a news briefing that not enough has been done by Hollywood to reduce onscreen smoking in movies. (
  • Iceland Volcano Blows Spectacular Smoke Ring: Big Pics Discovery News, 2010-05-10. (
  • For much of the 20th century, smoking was regarded as a socially learned habit and as a personal choice. (
  • All these facts stress the importance of behavioral changes in the population as well as stringent public health measures and legislation for ensuring smoke free work places, public places and households for children. (
  • But perhaps the biggest surprise in the crack index is the fact that, as of 2000 -- the most recent year for which the index data are available -- Americans were still smoking about 70 percent as much crack as they smoked when consumption was at its peak. (
  • Estimates of global mortality attributable to smoking in 2000. (
  • Designed to detect smoke when it disrupts the ionizing process in the ionization chamber by neutralizing charged oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (
  • Nothing disrupts a smoke like a malfunctioning pipe. (
  • colloquial , countable , never plural ) An instance of smoking a cigarette , cigar , etc. (
  • Andrews, revered as he may be as a restaurant critic, is setting himself up to be reviled by us "smoke haters" for his arcane, simplistic and unworkable "ventilation theory. (
  • Smoke is an aerosol (or mist ) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light . (
  • Blowing a smoke ring (wikiHow) Smoke rings generated by eruptions of Etna volcano Smoke rings from Stromboli volcano Instructions on building a smoke ring cannon Smoke rings at US Army disposals in Iraq (see images on bottom) Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin), On Vortex Atoms, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI, 1867, pp. 94-105. (
  • Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals, of which hundreds are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. (
  • The film opens with Naylor on a talk show, about to be verbally attacked by the other guests, who are all anti-smoking, and include a boy dying of cancer. (
  • He told me it looked like adenocarcinoma, a cancer he attributes to smoking. (
  • Stjernfeldt M, Lindsten J, Berglund K. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer. (
  • Chemicals in secondhand smoke appear to affect the brain in ways that interfere with its regulation of infants' breathing. (
  • The only way to fully protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke is not to allow smoking indoors. (
  • A 2001 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) showed that inhaling secondhand smoke substantially reduced coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy nonsmokers. (
  • Residue from the smoke settles into, accumulates and is stored in the surrounding environment, such as upholstery, carpets, walls, clothing and curtains. (
  • But how dangerous is the residue smoking leaves behind? (
  • [2] A smoke-developed index of less than 450 is required by IBC section 803.1 at interior walls and ceilings for all surface materials except trim. (
  • This video on the California Tobacco Control Program's TobaccoFreeCA website shows smoke from a neighboring apartment can enter through the ventilation system, through cracks in the walls, and even through floorboards and light fixtures. (
  • It includes the most recent laws passed as of January 1, 2020, that impact smoke-free areas throughout California. (
  • Phosphorus and antimony oxides and their reaction products can be formed from some fire retardant additives, increasing smoke toxicity and corrosivity. (
  • Smoke streams east from a fire in Carlsbad Caverns National Park in this true-color image from June 14, 2011. (
  • this is mainly smoke, not fire. (
  • Smoking materials caused 5% of reported home fires, 21% of home fire deaths, 10% of home fire injuries, and 6% of the direct property damage. (
  • And when she lectured, she spun such captivating tales that her students virtually lived history, their eyes smarting with the battlefield smoke of Bull Run or their ribs aching from the pounding spray of Bull Connor's fire hoses in Birmingham. (
  • The smoke detectors in my house keep going off and there is no fire! (
  • Pushed on by the wind, the out-of-control blaze consumed 450 acres southeast of County Road 474 in three hours, blanketing the Four Corners area with smoke and prompting dozens of motorists on U.S. Highway 27 to stop and gawk at the 2-mile-wide fire. (
  • Conditions in Grand Junction will improve today in comparison to yesterday as smoke from the Trail Mountain fire moves north of I-70. (
  • Areas in the Uinta Basin may be impacted by smoke from this fire on both Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon. (
  • But during his final fire call, he discovers he's immune to dragon smoke. (
  • Smoke rings may also be formed by sudden bursts of fire (such as lighting and immediately putting out a cigarette lighter), by shaking a smoke source (such as an incense stick) up and down, by firing certain types of artillery, or by the use of special devices, such as vortex ring toys. (