The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Benzaldehydes are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring connected to a formyl group (-CHO), which is the simplest and most representative compound being benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO).
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/2509)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (2/2509)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

A technique for assessing the effects of olfaction on feed preference in lactating Holstein cows. (3/2509)

Our objective was to develop a method for assessing the effects of olfaction on feed preference. Two multiparous lactating Holstein cows were offered a totally mixed ration consisting of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, and a ground corn and soybean meal-based concentrate mixture (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for their ad libitum consumption in four consecutive 2.5-h periods daily for 5 d. An apparatus was developed that allowed odorants to be distributed at a set rate over two feeding containers with limited possibility of odor carryover. Four odorants and a control (no odorant) were compared against each other. All possible comparisons were conducted on the left and right feeding sides to avoid potential lateral-preference effects. Rank values of 0 or .5 were assigned to each odorant based on the percentage of total feed consumed in a period. A test of overall equality based on the sums of squares of ranks was used to determine whether odors affected preference. The limited results indicated that inhalation of odorants did not affect preference. Rank values were doubled for several odorants when compared with others, which suggested that the sample size limited experimental sensitivity. To attain reasonable power, we estimated that at least six cows were needed per study. Large effects of odorants on feed preference would have been required to reach statistical significance in this trial; however, the method provides a practical technique for testing the effects of olfaction on feed preference in cattle when the suggested number of cows is used.  (+info)

Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (4/2509)

EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound).  (+info)

The effect of age on odor-stimulated functional MR imaging. (5/2509)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of age, sex, and handedness on olfaction have not been adequately addressed with odor-stimulated functional MR imaging studies. We sought to determine the effect of age on functional MR imaging experiments performed with odor stimulation. METHODS: Five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 73 years and five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 24 years underwent gradient-echo echo-planar functional MR imaging using binasal olfactory stimulation. Imaging parameters included 3000/30 (TR/TE) and a 5-mm section thickness in a 6-minute sequence with 30 seconds of pulsed odorants alternating with 30 seconds of room air. The data were normalized to a standard atlas, and individual and group statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were generated for each task. The SPMs were thresholded for a P < .01, and the volumes of activation and distribution of cluster maxima were compared for the two groups. RESULTS: Analysis of the group SPMs revealed activated voxels in the frontal lobes, perisylvian regions, and cingulate gyri, with greater volume in the younger group than in the older group. The right inferior frontal, right perisylvian, and right and left cingulum had the largest number of voxels activated. The most common sites of activation on individual maps in both groups were the right inferior frontal regions and the right and left superior frontal and perisylvian zones. CONCLUSION: Given similar olfactory task paradigms, younger subjects showed a greater number of activated voxels than did older subjects. One must be cognizant of this effect when designing studies of odor-stimulated functional MR imaging.  (+info)

The effect of odour priming on long latency visual evoked potentials of matching and mismatching objects. (6/2509)

This study reports a cross-modal, olfactory/visual event related potential (ERP) using odours as olfactory primes. The results show a difference in the ERP waveform for the N400 waveform when a visual image does not match the priming odour. An N400 peak was produced for both the matched and mismatched conditions but the peaks were significantly more negative for the mismatched condition. By the use of non-food odours this study extends an earlier finding by Grigor, who, using the same ERP paradigm, obtained similar results for food odours and photographs of food.  (+info)

Visual event related potentials modulated by contextually relevant and irrelevant olfactory primes. (7/2509)

Visual evoked potentials were recorded from 16 scalp locations on 10 young subjects during presentation of a series of high-quality photographs on a computer screen. The photographs consisted of equal numbers of pictures of fruit (citrus and non-citrus fruits), flowers (roses and other flowers) and objects (e.g. buildings, vehicles, animals etc.). Every picture was different in order to avoid repetition effects. The pictures were presented under four odour conditions: no odour, rose odour, jasmine odour and citrus odour. In order to keep the subjects alert they were asked to make categorizing decisions for the visual stimuli (e.g. flower or fruit). No decision was required concerning the relationship between the visual stimulus and the odour. As expected, the N400 peak was more negative when the picture stimulus did not match the odour. It is hypothesized that the N400 peak can be used as a measure of relatedness of a sensory stimulus to a previous or on-going prime, irrespective of the mode of the stimuli.  (+info)

Sensory perception is related to the rate of change of volatile concentration in-nose during eating of model gels. (8/2509)

The relationship between perceived aroma and the volatile concentration measured in-nose was investigated during eating of a model food. Sensory ranking and time-intensity analysis (TI) were used to measure perceived aroma, while in-nose volatile concentration was monitored by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry, which produced time release data. A gelatine-sucrose gel with a range of gelatine concentrations (2-8% w/w) and flavoured with furfuryl acetate was used as the model food. Sensory scaling showed decreased flavour intensities and TI showed a decrease in the flavour perceived over time, as the gelatine concentration increased. Studies in model systems and in people demonstrated that the different rates of release observed for different gelatine concentrations were not due to binding of volatile to protein in the gel, nor to mucous membranes, but were due to different rates of gel breakdown in-mouth. There were no significant differences in the maximum in-nose volatile concentrations for the different gelatine concentrations, so the amount of volatile present did not correlate well with the sensory analysis. However, the rates of volatile release were different for the different gels and showed a good correlation with sensory data.  (+info)

In medical terms, the sense of smell is referred to as olfaction. It is the ability to detect and identify different types of chemicals in the air through the use of the olfactory system. The olfactory system includes the nose, nasal passages, and the olfactory bulbs located in the brain.

When a person inhales air containing volatile substances, these substances bind to specialized receptor cells in the nasal passage called olfactory receptors. These receptors then transmit signals to the olfactory bulbs, which process the information and send it to the brain's limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as to the cortex. The brain interprets these signals and identifies the various scents or smells.

Impairment of the sense of smell can occur due to various reasons such as upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, nasal polyps, head trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Loss of smell can significantly impact a person's quality of life, including their ability to taste food, detect dangers such as smoke or gas leaks, and experience emotions associated with certain smells.

Olfaction disorders, also known as smell disorders, refer to conditions that affect the ability to detect or interpret odors. These disorders can be categorized into two main types:

1. Anosmia: This is a complete loss of the sense of smell. It can be caused by various factors such as nasal polyps, sinus infections, head injuries, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
2. Hyposmia: This is a reduced ability to detect odors. Like anosmia, it can also be caused by similar factors including aging and exposure to certain chemicals.

Other olfaction disorders include parosmia, which is a distortion of smell where individuals may perceive a smell as being different from its original scent, and phantosmia, which is the perception of a smell that isn't actually present.

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

In the context of medicine, "odors" refer to smells or scents that are produced by certain medical conditions, substances, or bodily functions. These odors can sometimes provide clues about underlying health issues. For example, sweet-smelling urine could indicate diabetes, while foul-smelling breath might suggest a dental problem or gastrointestinal issue. However, it's important to note that while odors can sometimes be indicative of certain medical conditions, they are not always reliable diagnostic tools and should be considered in conjunction with other symptoms and medical tests.

Olfactory perception refers to the ability to perceive and recognize odors or smells, which is mediated by olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity. These neurons detect and transmit information about chemical compounds present in the inhaled air to the brain, specifically to the primary olfactory cortex, where the perception of smell is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs. Olfactory perception plays a crucial role in various aspects of human behavior, including food selection, safety, and emotional responses.

The olfactory pathways refer to the neural connections and structures involved in the sense of smell. The process begins with odor molecules that are inhaled through the nostrils, where they bind to specialized receptor cells located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, known as the olfactory epithelium.

These receptor cells then transmit signals via the olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I) to the olfactory bulb, a structure at the base of the brain. Within the olfactory bulb, the signals are processed and relayed through several additional structures, including the olfactory tract, lateral olfactory striae, and the primary olfactory cortex (located within the piriform cortex).

From there, information about odors is further integrated with other sensory systems and cognitive functions in higher-order brain regions, such as the limbic system, thalamus, and hippocampus. This complex network of olfactory pathways allows us to perceive and recognize various scents and plays a role in emotional responses, memory formation, and feeding behaviors.

In a medical context, taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts with taste buds, which are specialized sensory cells found primarily on the tongue. The tongue's surface contains papillae, which house the taste buds. These taste buds can identify five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami (savory). Different areas of the tongue are more sensitive to certain tastes, but all taste buds can detect each of the five tastes, although not necessarily equally.

Taste is a crucial part of our sensory experience, helping us identify and differentiate between various types of food and drinks, and playing an essential role in appetite regulation and enjoyment of meals. Abnormalities in taste sensation can be associated with several medical conditions or side effects of certain medications.

Odorant receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that are primarily found in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons in the nose. These receptors are responsible for detecting and transmitting information about odorants, or volatile molecules that we perceive as smells.

Each odorant receptor can bind to a specific set of odorant molecules, and when an odorant binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the generation of an electrical signal in the olfactory sensory neuron. This signal is then transmitted to the brain, where it is processed and interpreted as a particular smell.

There are thought to be around 400 different types of odorant receptors in humans, each with its own unique binding profile. The combinatorial coding of these receptors allows for the detection and discrimination of a vast array of different smells, from sweet to sour, floral to fruity, and everything in between.

Overall, the ability to detect and respond to odorants is critical for many important functions, including the identification of food, mates, and potential dangers in the environment.

Dysgeusia is a medical term that refers to a distortion in the ability to taste. It can cause food and drinks to have a metallic, rancid, or bitter taste. Dysgeusia is different from ageusia, which is the complete loss of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a reduced ability to taste.

Dysgeusia can be caused by various factors, including damage to the nerves responsible for taste, exposure to certain chemicals or medications, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment for dysgeusia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the symptom, changing the medication or adjusting the dosage may help. In other cases, addressing the underlying medical condition may improve taste perception.

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

The olfactory mucosa is a specialized mucous membrane that is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, near the septum and the superior turbinate. It contains the olfactory receptor neurons, which are responsible for the sense of smell. These neurons have hair-like projections called cilia that are covered in a mucus layer, which helps to trap and identify odor molecules present in the air we breathe. The olfactory mucosa also contains supporting cells, blood vessels, and nerve fibers that help to maintain the health and function of the olfactory receptor neurons. Damage to the olfactory mucosa can result in a loss of smell or anosmia.

Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are specialized sensory nerve cells located in the olfactory epithelium, a patch of tissue inside the nasal cavity. These neurons are responsible for detecting and transmitting information about odors to the brain. Each ORN expresses only one type of olfactory receptor protein, which is specific to certain types of odor molecules. When an odor molecule binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a signal transduction pathway that generates an electrical impulse in the neuron. This impulse is then transmitted to the brain via the olfactory nerve, where it is processed and interpreted as a specific smell. ORNs are continuously replaced throughout an individual's lifetime due to their exposure to environmental toxins and other damaging agents.

"Amorphophallus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, also known as the aroid family. These plants are native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. They are characterized by their large, distinctive inflorescences, which are often accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor that attracts pollinators such as flies and beetles.

The name "Amorphophallus" comes from the Greek words "amorphos," meaning formless, and "phallos," meaning penis, and refers to the shape of the inflorescence in some species. The most well-known species is Amorphophallus titanum, also known as the corpse flower, which produces one of the largest and smelliest inflorescences in the plant kingdom.

In addition to their unusual inflorescences, many species of Amorphophallus are also grown for their large, starchy tubers, which are used as a food source in some cultures.

Nose diseases, also known as rhinologic disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the nose and its surrounding structures. These may include:

1. Nasal Allergies (Allergic Rhinitis): An inflammation of the inner lining of the nose caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or mold.

2. Sinusitis: Inflammation or infection of the sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull that surround the nasal cavity.

3. Nasal Polyps: Soft, fleshy growths that develop on the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses.

4. Deviated Septum: A condition where the thin wall (septum) between the two nostrils is displaced to one side, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

5. Rhinitis Medicamentosa: Nasal congestion caused by overuse of decongestant nasal sprays.

6. Nosebleeds (Epistaxis): Bleeding from the nostrils, which can be caused by a variety of factors including dryness, trauma, or underlying medical conditions.

7. Nasal Fractures: Breaks in the bone structure of the nose, often caused by trauma.

8. Tumors: Abnormal growths that can occur in the nasal passages or sinuses. These can be benign or malignant.

9. Choanal Atresia: A congenital condition where the back of the nasal passage is blocked, often by a thin membrane or bony partition.

10. Nasal Valve Collapse: A condition where the side walls of the nose collapse inward during breathing, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.

These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can affect the nose.

Zinc sulfate is not a medical condition, but a chemical compound. It is often used in medical and health contexts as a dietary supplement or for the treatment of certain medical conditions.

Medical Definition:
Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is an inorganic salt of zinc with sulfuric acid, available in several hydrated forms. It is a white or colorless crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. In medical applications, it is used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat zinc deficiency, and for the treatment of certain conditions such as Wilson's disease, which involves copper overload, and acrodermatitis enteropathica, a rare inherited disorder of zinc metabolism. Zinc sulfate may also be used topically in ointments or eye drops to aid wound healing and treat various eye conditions.

The olfactory bulb is the primary center for the sense of smell in the brain. It's a structure located in the frontal part of the brain, specifically in the anterior cranial fossa, and is connected to the nasal cavity through tiny holes called the cribriform plates. The olfactory bulb receives signals from olfactory receptors in the nose that detect different smells, processes this information, and then sends it to other areas of the brain for further interpretation and perception of smell.

Taste perception refers to the ability to recognize and interpret different tastes, such as sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami, which are detected by specialized sensory cells called taste buds located on the tongue and other areas in the mouth. These taste signals are then transmitted to the brain, where they are processed and identified as specific tastes. Taste perception is an important sense that helps us to appreciate and enjoy food, and it also plays a role in our ability to detect potentially harmful substances in our diet.

Waste products, in the context of physiology and medicine, refer to substances that are produced as a result of various metabolic processes within the body's cells but have no further use for the body's normal functioning. These waste materials must be eliminated from the body to maintain homeostasis and prevent toxic accumulation.

Common examples of waste products include:

1. Carbon dioxide (CO2): A byproduct of cellular respiration, which is exhaled through the lungs.
2. Urea: formed in the liver from the breakdown of excess amino acids and proteins, then excreted by the kidneys in urine.
3. Creatinine: a waste product generated from muscle metabolism, eliminated through the kidneys in urine.
4. Water (H2O): A byproduct of various metabolic reactions, excreted as urine or sweat, and lost through respiration and evaporation.
5. Bilirubin: a waste product formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells, eliminated through the bile and feces.
6. Lactic acid: produced during anaerobic metabolism, especially with intense exercise or hypoxia; it can be converted back to pyruvate for energy production or removed by the liver and excreted in urine.
7. Hippuric acid: formed from the conjugation of glycine and benzoic acid, primarily eliminated through urine.
8. Indican: a waste product resulting from the metabolism of tryptophan, excreted in urine after being converted to indigo by intestinal bacteria.
9. Estrogens and androgens: hormonal waste products produced by the gonads and adrenal glands, metabolized and eliminated through urine and feces.

Maintaining the efficient elimination of these waste products is essential for overall health and well-being. Failure to do so can result in various medical conditions, such as kidney or liver failure, that can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

Kallmann Syndrome is a genetic condition that is characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (reduced or absent function of the gonads (ovaries or testes) due to deficient secretion of pituitary gonadotropins) and anosmia or hyposmia (reduced or absent sense of smell). It is caused by abnormal migration of neurons that produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during fetal development, which results in decreased production of sex hormones and delayed or absent puberty.

Kallmann Syndrome can also be associated with other symptoms such as color vision deficiency, hearing loss, renal agenesis, and neurological defects. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive pattern, and diagnosis usually involves a combination of clinical evaluation, hormonal testing, and genetic analysis. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain sexual function, as well as management of associated symptoms.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Electronics" is not a medical term, but rather a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of electronic devices and systems. It involves the study and application of electrical properties of materials, components, and systems, and how they can be used to process, transmit, and store information and energy.

However, electronics have numerous applications in the medical field, such as in diagnostic equipment, monitoring devices, surgical tools, and prosthetics. In these contexts, "electronics" refers to the specific electronic components or systems that are used for medical purposes.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), also known as Idiosyncratic Intolerance, is a chronic condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level exposure to chemicals in the environment. These reactions are not part of a recognized allergic response and are often delayed in onset.

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) defines MCS as: "A heightened sensitivity to chemicals that most people tolerate well... Symptoms can include headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, confusion, joint pain, and digestive disturbances."

However, it's important to note that the medical community has not reached a consensus on the definition, cause, or diagnosis of MCS. Some healthcare providers question its validity as a distinct medical entity due to lack of consistent scientific evidence supporting the relationship between exposure levels and symptoms.

Nasal obstruction is a medical condition that refers to any blockage or restriction in the normal flow of air through the nasal passages. This can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, swelling, or physical abnormalities in the nasal cavity. Common causes of nasal obstruction include allergies, sinusitis, deviated septum, enlarged turbinates, and nasal polyps. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, and nasal discharge. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Phenylethyl Alcohol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H10O. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products due to its rose-like odor.

In a medical context, Phenylethyl Alcohol may be mentioned in relation to its potential antimicrobial properties or as a component of certain pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not a medication or treatment on its own. It is important to note that while Phenylethyl Alcohol has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

"Pentanols" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, pentanols refer to a group of alcohols containing five carbon atoms. The general formula for pentanols is C5H12O, and they have various subcategories such as primary, secondary, and tertiary pentanols, depending on the type of hydroxyl (-OH) group attachment to the carbon chain.

In a medical context, alcohols like methanol and ethanol can be toxic and cause various health issues. However, there is no specific medical relevance associated with "pentanols" as a group. If you have any further questions or need information about a specific chemical compound, please let me know!

In medical terms, sensation refers to the ability to perceive and interpret various stimuli from our environment through specialized receptor cells located throughout the body. These receptors convert physical stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, pressure, and chemicals into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via nerves. The brain then interprets these signals, allowing us to experience sensations like sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

There are two main types of sensations: exteroceptive and interoceptive. Exteroceptive sensations involve stimuli from outside the body, such as light, sound, and touch. Interoceptive sensations, on the other hand, refer to the perception of internal bodily sensations, such as hunger, thirst, heartbeat, or emotions.

Disorders in sensation can result from damage to the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. Examples include numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in specific body parts, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHO. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde, and it consists of a benzene ring attached to a formyl group. Benzaldehyde is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Benzaldehyde occurs naturally in various plants, including bitter almonds, cherries, peaches, and apricots. It is used in many industrial applications, such as in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and dyes. In addition, benzaldehyde has been used in medical research for its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

However, it is important to note that benzaldehyde can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used in accordance with appropriate safety guidelines.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

Androstenes are a group of steroidal compounds that are produced and released by the human body. They are classified as steroids because they contain a characteristic carbon skeleton, called the sterane ring, which consists of four fused rings arranged in a specific structure. Androstenes are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized in the gonads (testes and ovaries), adrenal glands, and other tissues.

The term "androstene" refers specifically to compounds that contain a double bond between the 5th and 6th carbon atoms in the sterane ring. This double bond gives these compounds their characteristic chemical properties and distinguishes them from other steroidal compounds.

Androstenes are important in human physiology because they serve as precursors to the synthesis of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. They also have been found to play a role in the regulation of various bodily functions, including sexual behavior, mood, and cognition.

Some examples of androstenes include androstenedione, which is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen; androstenediol, which can be converted into either testosterone or estrogen; and androsterone, which is a weak androgen that is produced in the body as a metabolite of testosterone.

It's worth noting that androstenes are sometimes referred to as "pheromones" because they have been found to play a role in chemical communication between individuals of the same species. However, this use of the term "pheromone" is controversial and not universally accepted, as it has been difficult to demonstrate conclusively that humans communicate using chemical signals in the same way that many other animals do.

The olfactory nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve (I), is a specialized sensory nerve that is responsible for the sense of smell. It consists of thin, delicate fibers called olfactory neurons that are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity. These neurons have hair-like structures called cilia that detect and transmit information about odors to the brain.

The olfactory nerve has two main parts: the peripheral process and the central process. The peripheral process extends from the olfactory neuron to the nasal cavity, where it picks up odor molecules. These molecules bind to receptors on the cilia, which triggers an electrical signal that travels along the nerve fiber to the brain.

The central process of the olfactory nerve extends from the olfactory bulb, a structure at the base of the brain, to several areas in the brain involved in smell and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Damage to the olfactory nerve can result in a loss of smell (anosmia) or distorted smells (parosmia).

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Animal communication is the transmission of information from one animal to another. This can occur through a variety of means, including visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical signals. For example, animals may use body postures, facial expressions, vocalizations, touch, or the release of chemicals (such as pheromones) to convey messages to conspecifics.

Animal communication can serve a variety of functions, including coordinating group activities, warning others of danger, signaling reproductive status, and establishing social hierarchies. In some cases, animal communication may also involve the use of sophisticated cognitive abilities, such as the ability to understand and interpret complex signals or to learn and remember the meanings of different signals.

It is important to note that while animals are capable of communicating with one another, this does not necessarily mean that they have language in the same sense that humans do. Language typically involves a system of arbitrary symbols that are used to convey meaning, and it is not clear to what extent animals are able to use such symbolic systems. However, many animals are certainly able to communicate effectively using their own species-specific signals and behaviors.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the skull near the nose. The inflammation can be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, as well as allergies, structural issues, or autoimmune disorders.

In sinusitis, the mucous membranes lining the sinuses become swollen and may produce excess mucus, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, thick green or yellow nasal discharge, facial pain or pressure, reduced sense of smell, cough, fatigue, and fever.

Sinusitis can be classified into acute (lasting less than 4 weeks), subacute (lasting 4-12 weeks), chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks), or recurrent (multiple episodes within a year). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, and may include antibiotics, nasal corticosteroids, decongestants, saline irrigation, and in some cases, surgery.

Lupus vasculitis in the central nervous system (CNS) is a specific type of inflammation that occurs in the blood vessels of the brain and/or spinal cord due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. In this condition, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue, including blood vessel walls, leading to their inflammation and damage.

CNS vasculitis can cause various neurological symptoms such as headaches, seizures, cognitive impairment, mood changes, stroke-like episodes, and even loss of consciousness. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or angiography), and laboratory tests to detect the presence of autoantibodies associated with SLE. Treatment usually includes immunosuppressive therapy to control the inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels in the CNS.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Look up smell or smells in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Smell may refer to; Odor, airborne molecules perceived as a scent ... "Smells" (Bottom), an episode of Bottom The Smell, a music venue in Los Angeles, California Code smell, any characteristic of a ... program that possibly indicates a deeper problem This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Smell. If an ... or aroma Sense of smell, the scent also known scientifically as olfaction " ...
The smell of death is a smell occurring during decomposition. It is made up of over 800 different chemicals. There have been ... "The smell of death". Scienceline. 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2020-02-07. Pennisi, E. (2015). "Researchers isolate the 'human smell ... The "smell of death" research has been permitted as evidence in court. In the 2011Caylee Anthony case, in which Casey Anthony ... The goal is to eventually synthesize the death smell of Putrescine and cadaverine, as not all facilities have access to human ...
When people use the term "smell", they are usually referring to "orthonasal smell", or the perception of smell molecules that ... It is best described as a combination of traditional smell (orthonasal smell) and taste modalities. Retronasal smell creates ... and made the explicit differentiation between retronasal smell and orthonasal smell. Rozin describes orthonasal smell as " ... Retronasal smell, retronasal olfaction, is the ability to perceive flavor dimensions of foods and drinks. Retronasal smell is a ...
"That Smell" is a song by the Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd. Written by Ronnie Van Zant and guitarist Allen Collins, it was ... "That Smell" was the second single released from Street Survivors and failed to chart. The song is featured in the films Blow ( ... Martin's Griffin, 1998), p. 83 Listen to "That Smell" on YouTube v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "the smell of death surrounds you". Three days after the album was released, the band was devastated by a plane crash. The crash ...
Different authors have defined the word "smell" in different ways: N. Moha et al.: "Code and design smells are poor solutions ... Generally, it is appropriate to live with design smells due to constraints imposed by the context. Nevertheless design smells ... "design smell" can be traced to the term "code smell" which was featured in the book Refactoring: Improving the Design of ... Bugs or unimplemented features are not accounted as design smells. Design smells arise from the poor design decisions that make ...
Bad code smells can be an indicator of factors that contribute to technical debt. Robert C. Martin calls a list of code smells ... "Code Smell 10 - Too Many Arguments". Garousi, Vahid; Küçük, Barış (2018). "Smells in software test code: A survey of knowledge ... One way to look at smells is with respect to principles and quality: "Smells are certain structures in the code that indicate ... Thus, a code smell is a driver for refactoring. A 2015 study utilizing automated analysis for half a million source code ...
... are claims of ownership to particular smells. These rights can include copyright or non-conventional trademark. In ... In the United States, Hasbro has a trademark for the smell of Play-Doh. marie-andree (4 January 2018). "Does a French copyright ... Liszewski, Andrew (18 May 2018). "Hasbro Has Officially Trademarked the Smell of Your Childhood: Play-Doh". Gizmodo. v t e ( ... Einhorn, David A.; Portnoy, Lesley (April 2010). "The Copyrightability of Perfumes: I Smell a Symphony" (PDF). Intellectual ...
Official website Her Smell at IMDb Her Smell at Rotten Tomatoes Her Smell at Metacritic (Articles with short description, Short ... "Her Smell". New York Film Festival. Retrieved August 28, 2018. Hipes, Patrick (October 4, 2018). "Elisabeth Moss' 'Her Smell' ... "Her Smell". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved March 2, 2023. "Her Smell Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved April 12, 2019. Dowd ... "Her Smell". Toronto International Film Festival. Retrieved August 8, 2018. "Her Smell". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 1, ...
The stimulating smells used are often selected from major smell categories, such as aromatic, flowery, fruity, and resinous. ... Doty, Richard L. (2019). "Treatments for smell and taste disorders: A critical review". Smell and Taste. Handbook of Clinical ... In 2017, the International and European Rhinologic Societies recommended smell training for treating loss of smell due to ... some subjects gained the ability to smell it. In addition to smell training, other treatments for anosmia that have been ...
... and the relatively new Gallery Row both border Skid Row. The Smell was founded by Ara Shirinyan, Jarrett Silberman, ... "Los Angeles' volunteer run, all ages experimental art space". The Smell. Retrieved 2013-10-18. "About". The Smell. 5 November ... The Smell, notable for its DIY ethic, is home to many of the area's avant-garde performers and artists. The venue is maintained ... The Smell is an all-ages, alcohol and drug-free, punk rock and experimental music venue in Downtown Los Angeles, California. ...
Choi, Charles (April 6, 2007). "That New-Car Smell? Not Toxic, Study Finds". Live Science. "Why that "New Car Smell" Poses ... New car smell is the odor that comes from the combination of materials found in new automobiles, as well as other vehicles like ... In some cultures, the new car smell is not considered desirable and manufacturers work to eliminate it. A two-year study ... A Daily Telegraph article on the study described the enjoyment of new car smell as "akin to glue-sniffing". However, another ...
Sarah Murphy (21 April 2017). "Roger Waters "Smell the Roses"". Exclaim.ca. Retrieved 28 February 2019. Smell the Roses at ... "Smell the Roses" is a song by English rock musician and former Pink Floyd member Roger Waters, and the ninth track on his fifth ... In an interview, Waters said of the song: ""Smell the Roses" is almost an afterthought. It's Nigel going, "Oh f-, you've ... "Listen to Roger Waters' Biting New Song, 'Smell the Roses'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 28 February 2019. ...
... is the first live album by the American rock band the Cramps. The mini-album was recorded at The Peppermint ... "The Cramps: Smell of Female Review at AllMusic. Retrieved September 10, 2011. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is a system that released odour during the projection of a film so that the viewer could "smell" what was ... It reads at the bottom "Now in Smell-O-Vision" and another has the sentence "Smell-O-Vision users insert nostril tubes now". In ... For example, one character is identified by the smell of pipe tobacco. Smell-O-Vision did not work as intended. According to ... Hodson, Hal (March 29, 2013). "Smell-o-vision screens let you really smell the coffee". New Scientist. Copyright Reed Business ...
"Smell the Magic - L7". Allmusic. Retrieved March 17, 2010. Christgau, Robert (2000). "L7: Smell the Magic". Christgau's ... Smell the Magic is the second studio album by American rock band L7, released in 1990 by Sub Pop. Originally issued as a 12" EP ... "L7's Smell the Magic: 30th Anniversary Edition featuring all 9 songs remastered & available together on vinyl for the first ...
The sense of smell, or olfaction, is the special sense through which smells (or odors) are perceived. The sense of smell has ... Often, land organisms will have separate olfaction systems for smell and taste (orthonasal smell and retronasal smell), but ... inability to smell Hyperosmia - an abnormally acute sense of smell Hyposmia - decreased ability to smell Presbyosmia - the ... Having a strong sense of smell is referred to as macrosmatic in contrast to having a weak sense of smell which is referred to ...
... is the characteristic odor of elderly humans. Much like many animal species, human odor undergoes distinct ... One study suggested that old person smell may be the result of 2-nonenal, an unsaturated aldehyde which is associated with ... Mitro, Susanna; Gordon, Amy R.; Olsson, Mats J.; Lundström, Johan N. (30 May 2012). "The Smell of Age: Perception and ... "Scientists Confirm Existence of 'Old Person Smell'". Health.com. Health Media Ventures, Inc. Archived from the original on 8 ...
"Smell of Incense" is a song by the American psychedelic rock band the West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band, written by Ron ... "Smell of Incense", like all of the band's releases, was commercially unsuccessful and failed to chart. The song was later ... The group's version was also included on Southwest F.O.B.'s only album, Smell of Incense. However, the cover art sparked some ... "Smell of Incense - Review". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 24, 2015. Whitburn, Joel (2013). Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles, 14th ...
... is the only extended play by I Smell Panties. It was self-released on June 28, 2008. The track "Lisa" was later ... "I Smell Panties EP by I Smell Panties". Genius. Retrieved October 21, 2022. (Articles with short description, Short description ... I Smell Panties was an American comedy hip hop duo from Los Angeles, California, that consisted of Tyler, the Creator and ... "I Smell Panties By Tyler, The Creator & Jasper The Dolphin". MixtapeMonkey. Retrieved October 26, 2019. "The Odd Future Tape By ...
Official website The Smell of Success at IMDb The Smell of Success at Rotten Tomatoes Initiateproductions.com v t e v t e ( ... The Smell of Success is a 2009 American comedy film directed by Michael Polish and starring Billy Bob Thornton, Téa Leoni, Kyle ... "The Smell of Success". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-11-04. ... Helms as Chet Pigford Mark Polish as Thaddeus Young Pruitt Taylor Vince as Cleveland Clod Frances Conroy as Agnes May The Smell ...
The dog sense of smell is the most powerful sense of this species, the olfactory system of canines being much more complex and ... This is thought to make its sense of smell up to 40 times more sensitive than human's.: 246 These receptors are spread over an ... The wet nose, or rhinarium, is essential for determining the direction of the air current containing the smell. Cold receptors ... Dogs have roughly forty times more smell-sensitive receptors than humans, ranging from about 125 million to nearly 300 million ...
... is an album released by solo artist Mortiis in 2001. Released in 2001 under the Earache label. This was the ... "Smell the Witch" - 5:43 The following tracks were remixes available on a special remastered edition released in 2002: "Paranoid ... "The Smell Of Rain" at discogs (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles needing additional ...
"The Smell of Us". Box Office Mojo. Ariston Anderson (30 July 2014). "Larry Clark's 'The Smell of Us' to Premiere at Venice Days ... The Smell of Us is a 2014 French drama film directed by Larry Clark, focusing on the lives of several middle-class young people ... The Smell of Us at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, 2014 films, Template film ... Adams, Mark (2014-08-27). "The Smell Of Us". Screen. Retrieved 2021-12-03. Stéphane Delorme. "Édito janvier 2015 Les 20 ans de ...
... (Serbian: Miris dunja) is a 1982 Yugoslav drama film directed by Mirza Idrizović. It was entered into the ... Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Smell of Quinces at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles with ...
"New Car Smell" at Showtime "New Car Smell" at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... "New Car Smell" is the fourth episode of the second season of the American television drama series Homeland, and the 16th ... VanDerWerff, Emily (October 21, 2012). "New Car Smell". The A.V. Club. Retrieved July 21, 2019. Hogan, Michael (October 21, ... Collura, Scott (October 21, 2012). "HOMELAND: "NEW CAR SMELL" REVIEW". IGN. Retrieved October 26, 2012. "Best & Worst of 2012: ...
... at IMDb Sweet Smell of Success at AllMovie Sweet Smell of Success at the TCM Movie Database Sweet Smell ... Sweet Smell of Success essay [1] by Andrea Alsberg at National Film Registry Sweet Smell of Success essay by Daniel Eagan in [2 ... Sweet Smell of Success at Rotten Tomatoes. Last accessed: March 1, 2013. Sweet Smell of Success at Metacritic. Last accessed: ... "That Old Feeling: Sweet Smells" by Richard Corliss, Time, March 21, 2002. "Alexander Mackendrick on Sweet Smell of Success" by ...
Digital download (United States) "Mine Smell Like Honey" - 3:11 "Mine Smell Like Honey - Single by R.E.M." iTunes Store. ... "Mine Smell Like Honey" is a song by American alternative rock band R.E.M. It was released as the second single from their ...
... ". Discogs. October 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2014. "KH008: THE BABIES - LIVE AT THE SMELL". Kill/Hurt. ... Live at the Smell is a live album by American rock band The Babies. The album is limited edition, with only 100 copies made. It ... "Now since I was at this show, and know how great it was, I won't go on and say how incredibly much I hate the Smell, which by ... "mp3: the babies - breaking the law (live at the smell)". Nu Rave Brain Wave. October 17, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2014. The ...
... ISBN 9780312152093. Retrieved 2010-10-19. The Smell of Apples at Google Books (Webarchive template wayback ... The Smell of Apples is a 1993 debut novel by South African Mark Behr, published in Afrikaans as Die Reuk van Appels then ...
... may refer to: Smelting, chemical process The common name of various fish: Smelt (fish), a family of small fish, Osmeridae ... Smell (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Smelt. If an internal link led you ... also called whitebait smelt), Hypomesus, Mallotus, Osmerus, Spirinchus and Thaleichthys Herring smelt of the family ... Hypomesus and Mallotus All pages with titles beginning with smelt All pages with titles containing smelt Melt (disambiguation) ...
The smell of death is a smell occurring during decomposition. It is made up of over 800 different chemicals. There have been ... "The smell of death". Scienceline. 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2020-02-07. Pennisi, E. (2015). "Researchers isolate the human smell ... The "smell of death" research has been permitted as evidence in court. In the 2011Caylee Anthony case, in which Casey Anthony ... The goal is to eventually synthesize the death smell of Putrescine and cadaverine, as not all facilities have access to human ...
Mutated genes may explain why humans have a poor sense of smell. ... but people have a woeful sense of smell compared with many ... that more than 70 percent of the human genes encoding olfactory receptors-the cell-surface proteins used to detect smells- ... researchers hypothesized that this unexpected predominance of so-called pseudogenes accounts for the poor human sense of smell. ...
It would be surprising if it smelled like aftershave. Incidentally, urine comes from the blood, as gross as that sounds. The ... Would you drink it or even smell it? ... It smells bad because it it the toxins which leave your body. ... Should your pee smell good?. No. It should not smell good. Pee with a sweet smell means you have had too much sugar. ... fist of all my dog does not smell like pee and it is smell not small and if your dog smell like pee the peed on itself ...
... A new generation in Armenia awakens in protest over Prime Minister Serzh Sarkisians ...
Taste and Smell in the News: NIDCD-Supported Research. *. October 27, 2023 ... How Smell and Taste Change as You Age - National Institute on Aging ... The Sense of Smell in U.S. Adults Over Age 40 (Infographic) ... The Sense of Smell in U.S. Adults Over Age 40 (Infographic) ...
... a lot of other planets smell like farts.) ... What does space smell like?. Spoiler: a lot of other planets ... The final frontier smells a lot like a Nascar race-a bouquet of hot metal, diesel fumes and barbecue. The source? Dying stars, ... The smell of space is so distinct that, three years ago, NASA reached out to Steven Pearce of the fragrance maker Omega ... Astronauts have reported smelling "burned" or "fried" steak after a space walk, and they arent just dreaming of a home-cooked ...
Potpourri consists of dried plant materials that emit a strong yet pleasant fragrance. Dried flower petals, herbs, seeds, spices and leaves add both their fragrance and their attractiveness to a potpourri mix. You can display potpourri in a small bowl or sew it into sachets.
... whereas smelling strangers activates centers associated with fear. Most interestingly, smelling lovers activates pleasure ... Her smelling your B.O. a little bit more might just keep her interested and help deter her nose from following other scents, ... This is why I had to report on a study that showed even without knowing it, womens brains picked up on the smell of arousal in ... Women are even able to identify men with different immune genes simply based on the smell of their sweat, something that makes ...
Impaired smell is the partial or total loss or abnormal perception of the sense of smell. ... The sense of smell also enhances your ability to taste. Many people who lose their sense of smell also complain that they lose ... The loss of smell can occur with conditions that prevent air from reaching smell receptors located high in the nose, or loss of ... Smell testing. If the loss of sense of smell is caused by a stuffy nose (nasal congestion), decongestants or antihistamines may ...
No Trucks) - brake smell - On the way to town this morning I got a distinct brake smell inside my jeep. Walking around the jeep ... brake smell On the way to town this morning I got a distinct brake smell inside my jeep. Walking around the jeep I couldnt ... Both rear tires spin about the same BUT when you turn the right rear - it produces the distinct brake smell.. Im thinking it ... I noticed lots of smoke and an awful smell coming from my front right wheel... ...
Humans can tell an unhealthy individual just from their face and smell using a network hardwired into all of us to keep us away ... Humans can tell an unhealthy individual just from their face and smell using a network hardwired into all of us to keep us away ... Humans can tell an unhealthy individual just from their face and smell using a network hardwired into all of us to keep us away ... The raters did not consciously score the smells from the individuals as significantly different between the healthy and ...
Cookbooks left out in the open absorb food odors and books that are exposed to cigarette smoke pick up the stale smell. Old ... Add a good smell to your old book with vanilla extract. Remove the book from the plastic zip bag and brush baking soda off, ... Cookbooks left out in the open absorb food odors and books that are exposed to cigarette smoke pick up the stale smell. Old ... Fresh air helps remove smells from books. Leave your book outside, in a place safe from weather conditions, and allow it to air ...
Learn more about what might cause a bad smell in the nose, and what to do about it, here. ... Causes of a bad smell in the nose include sinusitis, mouth or tooth infections, and certain foods and drinks. ... People with phantosmia smell things that are not there. It occurs when a condition interferes with a persons sense of smell. ... Most conditions that cause a bad smell in the nose are not life threatening. However, if the bad smell is severe or chronic, it ...
Now researchers have created a sensory map for smell. The map details how the fruit flys olfactory receptor neurons, the ... components that sense smell, are organized within the insects sensory hairs. ... A map for the sense of smell. Evolution has structured flies with an energy-efficient olfactory system. Date:. January 31, 2022 ... The distinctive smell of a flower… the unmistakable aroma of coffee… the dangers linked with inhaling smoke fumes. Sensory ...
A new test can identify individuals based on their sense of smell, and may hold information about a persons genetic makeup as ... Sense of smell is strictly personal, study suggests. Olfactory fingerprint could be tough target for identity theft ... People who lack olfactory bulbs shouldnt be able to smell. But some women can By Sofie Bates. November 6, 2019. ... 50 years ago, scientists suspected that lost sense of smell could be restored By Aina Abell. November 17, 2023. ...
The "new car" smell is meticulously planned and, of course, designed. Audi has a "nose" team that smells the interiors of cars ... You have static smells, specially designed to remove the notion of time by masking other smells. Think of Vegas casinos that ... Another example is the "new car" smell that you find in a brand new auto. Some people love the smell so much that they buy "new ... Allegorical smells which we know from perfumes. What does Sauvage by Dior smell like? Like Johnny Depps lone macho cool? ...
Twitters Tweet Smell Of Success. 2 minute read , March 2009. ...
Dog owners have besieged animal experts in the US with queries about a strange popcorn smell coming from the paws of their pets ... Smells good: Bacteria and yeast growing on the paws of pet dogs may lie behind the distinctive popcorn smell that some owners ... The wet dog smell is instantly recognisable, but why do the animals smell so bad - even after theyve been washed? ... This is also why dogs smell more if they get wet. Dogs with persistent changes in smell should be checked by a vet. ...
This article explains why eating asparagus makes pee smell and why only some people can smell it. ... How long does the smell last?. Some people notice the rotten-like smell as early as 15-30 minutes after eating asparagus, and ... However, not everyone produces the smell, and the majority of people cant smell it due to a specific genetic modification. ... This article explains why eating asparagus makes pee smell, and why only some people can smell it. ...
... smell and identify the chemical composition of a persons breath and then diagnose up to 17 potential diseases, according to ... Smell is a primary human sense, key to our survival.. Like a super-sensitive human nose, an experimental technology can "smell ... Though Na-Nose may seem revolutionary, smell was recognized as a potential diagnostic tool in antiquity. ... and Hippocrates cataloged a specific disease because it caused bad breath and bad-smelling sweat." ...
A books smell is also influenced by its environment and materials it encounters over the course of its life (which is why some ... What Causes "Old Book Smell"? Posted by Shailesh Prasad in categories: chemistry, materials. ... books have hints of cigarette smoke, others smell a little like coffee, and still others, cat dander). ...
Did you know... that a zyzzyx is a type of wasp? that the chances of being injured by a toilet seat at some point in your life are reckoned to be one in 6.500? that the collective noun for giraffes is the very apt a tower of giraffes and that snail races start with the words ready, steady, SLOW! Amaze your mates and fascinate your family with these brilliant facts, and more!
Problems with a persons sense of smell may help predict a higher risk for age-related health problems. ... Smell tests may become an integral part to clinical care for aging people who may be cognitively impaired. A simple smell test ... Smell dysfunction acts as an early indicator of cognitive decline as well as signs of frailty in the brain and unhealthy aging. ... Smell tests may be able to enhance clinical and research efforts in improving care for older adults, especially with COVID-19 ...
Science confirms you should stop and smell the roses. Short nature intervention can bring out the best in people. Date:. ... "Science confirms you should stop and smell the roses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2017. /. 11. /. ... That Smell: New Gut Microbe Produces Smelly Toxic Gas but Protects Against Pathogens ... "Science confirms you should stop and smell the roses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 November 2017. ,www.sciencedaily.com. /. ...
Although the scent smells heavenly to many, it can be as toxic as it is intoxicating. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ... To most people, the smell of a new car is strangely enticing. Though its difficult to pinpoint exactly what it is that makes ... Despite its crispness, the smell of a brand-new car is far from natural. Its actually the result of the release or "outgassing ... In fact, scientific studies have been conducted to test whether or not these smells are concentrated enough to produce any ...
... digital smell sensing technology to recreate thousands of odours via a personal computer-based smell-amplifying device. ... based start-up thats trying to give computers a sense of smell. In an interview on Sunday, DigiScents chief executive, Joel ... connects to a PC and can blend 128 basic scents into a much larger number of smells. swissinfo with agencies ... digital smell sensing technology to recreate thousands of odours via a personal computer-based smell-amplifying device.. ...
"A strong smell of food might do that but our technology is very basic - blowing a fan over smell-infused felt. We need a better ... THAT crisp apple colour and that crisp apple smell could one day come out of the same ink-jet printer, if an idea hatched in a ... AromaRama pumped scent into cinema air conditioning, while the rival Smell-O-Vision had its own dedicated system of pipes. Both ... There is no red-green-blue for smell - there are thousands of components needed. You cant synthesise raspberry from chocolate ...
That new-book smell April 19th, 2018 The first copies of Going Offline. showed up today! This is my own personal stash, sent ...
As I took my first sip, I thought, as I always do, that it smelled like... the same Band-Aids. A quick poll of PopSci editors ... revealed that I wasnt alone in associating the smell of scotch with non-food: others thought of Sharpies, hospitals, and wood ... As I took my first sip, I thought, as I always do, that it smelled like… the same Band-Aids. A quick poll of PopSci editors ... So when you insist to a Scotch lover that their favorite drink just smells like a box of bandages, rest assured that ...
Hi, About a year or so ago I had an episode of foul smelling/tasting burps that led to an episode of severe upper abdominal ... It does really often smell like sulfur and if bad enough will make you throw up. Now, violent throwing up? If you eat a fair ... Hi, About a year or so ago I had an episode of foul smelling/tasting burps that led to an episode of severe upper abdominal ... amount of meat and eggs, that has been associated with this sulfur smell as well when throwing up or burping. My understanding ...
  • Cite this: An Older Person's Sense of Smell Can Predict Health Issues - Medscape - Mar 29, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • In 1998, Dominique Giorgi of the Institute of Human Genetics in Montpellier, France, and colleagues reported that more than 70 percent of the human genes encoding olfactory receptors-the cell-surface proteins used to detect smells-possess disabling mutations. (sciencenews.org)
  • The map details how the fruit fly's olfactory receptor neurons, the components that sense smell, are organized within the insect's sensory hairs. (sciencedaily.com)
  • SOLE SCENTS "Olfactory fingerprints," such as the two represented graphically above for two different people, represent a person's individual sense of smell. (sciencenews.org)
  • People who lack olfactory bulbs shouldn't be able to smell. (sciencenews.org)
  • Areas of the nervous system concerned with integration of information were also strongly active, indicating that the brain is drawing together a combination of visual and olfactory (smell) cues from the subjects and using this to influence the rater's perception of the person they are looking at. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In this case, researchers found a genetic modification that alters one or more of the olfactory receptors that should respond to the asparagus smell, causing what is known as asparagus anosmia, or the inability to smell asparagus pee ( 8 ). (healthline.com)
  • For each one-point increase in both olfactory identification and sensitivity scores, frailty status declined significantly, which suggests that the ability to smell well has a connection to better overall health in the aging population. (medscape.com)
  • Incoming smells are first processed by the olfactory bulb, which starts inside the nose and runs along the bottom of the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • In psychophysical smell and taste tests of persons with acute COVID-19, 72% had an olfactory defect and 19% had a gustatory defect ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Head injury can damage or destroy fibers of the olfactory nerves (the pair of cranial nerves that connect smell receptors to the brain) where they pass through the roof of the nasal cavity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • can damage the olfactory nerves, commonly causing loss of smell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A previous WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program study found that olfactory and nasal trigeminal thresholds were altered by the toxic exposure, but not scores on a 20-odor smell identification test. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the luxury "new car" scent of a Bentley interior will have oak and leather tones, very different from plastic and vinyl smells of an economy car. (core77.com)
  • Working with an industrial scent producer in Denmark we mixed the smells of oil, machined metal, rubber and flowers to accentuate the materials and convey the outdoorsy lifestyle of biking. (core77.com)
  • Since a strong and pungent smell characterizes many sulfur-containing components, such as rotten eggs , natural gas, or skunk spray, scientists believe that asparagusic acid may be the cause of your pee's funny scent after eating the vegetable ( 1 , 2 ). (healthline.com)
  • Thucydides said there was a specific scent to plague victims in Athens, and Hippocrates cataloged a specific disease because it caused bad breath and bad-smelling sweat. (wxyz.com)
  • Although the scent smells heavenly to many, it can be as toxic as it is intoxicating. (mentalfloss.com)
  • AromaRama pumped scent into cinema air conditioning, while the rival Smell-O-Vision had its own dedicated system of pipes. (newscientist.com)
  • Twelve South did not immediately respond to PCMag's request for comment, but told CNET that the scent is its 'creative director's interpretation' of a new Mac smell. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Understanding the scent-tracking behavior of a silkmoth ( Bombyx mori ) could help scientists develop robots that are able to sense environmental spills and leaks by smell, according to the new study. (livescience.com)
  • Without being scratched or heated, the bill gave off a scent that smelled like maple syrup, he said. (go.com)
  • Not everybody smells the sugary sweet scent. (go.com)
  • The smell of space is so distinct that, three years ago, NASA reached out to Steven Pearce of the fragrance maker Omega Ingredients to re-create the odor for its training simulations. (popsci.com)
  • Another, similar kind of cresol, meta-cresol, is a common ingredient in antiseptics (though less now than they used to be-they're sort of extremely poisonous and tend to get abandoned as soon as we find anything as effective), and is such a distinctive, astringent odor that many people, upon smelling it, simply think "medicinal. (popsci.com)
  • CSQ030 was intended to capture a history of an altered, typically unpleasant perception of smell in the presence of an ordinary odor (parosmia). (cdc.gov)
  • Allamandola explains that our solar system is particularly pungent because it is rich in carbon and low in oxygen, and "just like a car, if you starve it of oxygen you start to see black soot and get a foul smell. (popsci.com)
  • These unpleasant gases, which become foul-smelling odors, can travel through small holes in the back of the mouth that connect to the sinuses and cause a bad smell in the nose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Smoking can also reduce someone's ability to taste and smell food properly, which may cause someone to smell odors that they perceive as foul, but which may not actually be bad. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hi, About a year or so ago I had an episode of foul smelling/tasting burps that led to an episode of severe upper abdominal pain. (medhelp.org)
  • NEW YORK (AP) - A foul smelling plant known as the "corpse flower" is finally blooming at the New York Botanical Garden in New York City. (newschannel5.com)
  • Sinusitis causes symptoms such as sinus inflammation and nasal congestion, which can interfere with a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It occurs when a condition interferes with a person's sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person's sense of smell may reveal a lot about his or her identity. (sciencenews.org)
  • This variation means that nearly every person's sense of smell is subtly different. (sciencenews.org)
  • Now researchers have created a sensory map for smell. (sciencedaily.com)
  • University of California San Diego researchers have now described such a smell sensory map in fruit flies. (sciencedaily.com)
  • That complex emotion and memory can be triggered by a simple sensory cue: the smell of winter air. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Researchers are increasingly recognising the importance of smells, and sensory experiences more broadly, in day-to-day living. (springwise.com)
  • The condition can also cause bad breath and a discolored, bad-smelling discharge in the nose and back of the throat, all of which may create a bad smell in the nose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • That can lead to infections and discharge, which can smell bad when you pee. (webmd.com)
  • I know discharge can have smell and of course pee leaking, but he says this even when I know I am clean. (babycenter.com)
  • I smelled it today though I assume it's discharge. (babycenter.com)
  • Old books can become musty-smelling and absorb odors from their surroundings. (ehow.com)
  • Cookbooks left out in the open absorb food odors and books that are exposed to cigarette smoke pick up the stale smell. (ehow.com)
  • Smell and taste disorders can be total (all odors or tastes), partial (affecting several odors or tastes), or specific (only one or a select few odors or tastes). (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: To employ a well-validated 40-item smell identification test to definitively establish whether the ability to identify odors is compromised in a cohort of WTC-exposed individuals and, if so, whether the degree of compromise is associated with self-reported severity of rhinitic symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Exposure to WTC air pollution was associated with a decrement in the ability to identify odors, implying that such exposure had a greater influence on smell function than previously realized. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal is to eventually synthesize the death smell of Putrescine and cadaverine, as not all facilities have access to human cadavers, for the training of cadaver dogs, and possibly even creation of an electric nose to sniff out human remains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of smell can occur with conditions that prevent air from reaching smell receptors located high in the nose, or loss of or injury to the smell receptors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the loss of sense of smell is caused by a stuffy nose (nasal congestion), decongestants or antihistamines may be prescribed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What causes a weird smell in the nose? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people have a bad or strange smell that seems to come from inside the nose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most conditions that cause a bad smell in the nose are not life threatening. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article discusses the causes of a bad smell in the nose, as well as treatments and prevention methods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several conditions are commonly associated with a bad smell inside the nose, and we cover many of them below. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most of our ability to enjoy the taste and smell of food and drink relies on molecules traveling to the sinuses through a passageway near where the roof of the mouth connects to the nose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So, when there is not enough saliva, a person is more likely to experience conditions that can cause a bad smell or taste in the mouth and nose, such as bad breath and tooth decay. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Audi has a "nose" team that smells the interiors of cars and materials samples. (core77.com)
  • When you pee, these compounds evaporate almost immediately, which enables them to travel from the urine up to your nose, allowing you to smell them. (healthline.com)
  • Like a super-sensitive human nose, an experimental technology can "smell" and identify the chemical composition of a person's breath and then diagnose up to 17 potential diseases, according to the scientists who developed it. (wxyz.com)
  • Though Na-Nose may seem revolutionary, smell was recognized as a potential diagnostic tool in antiquity. (wxyz.com)
  • Impaired smell is the partial or total loss or abnormal perception of the sense of smell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The other hypothesis - called the perception hypothesis - states that everyone produces the smell, but some are unable to detect or perceive it ( 4 ). (healthline.com)
  • Experts think hormones may change your perception of smells. (webmd.com)
  • There are also age-related changes in smell and flavor perception that may affect food palatability and nutrient intake. (cdc.gov)
  • Why Does Asparagus Make Your Pee Smell? (healthline.com)
  • Asparagus contains asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing compound that can make your pee smell. (healthline.com)
  • These make your pee smell for a few reasons. (webmd.com)
  • Too much vitamin B1 (thiamine) can make your pee smell like fish. (webmd.com)
  • You have literal smells, such as freshly made waffles or pancakes defused in the street to lure you into the creperie. (core77.com)
  • However, the exact cause of the distinctive smell, which has been described by some as being like corn chips or freshly made popcorn, is still largely unknown. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • With age, some persons may consume more in response to a reduced ability to smell, while others may consume less. (cdc.gov)
  • In the field most participants who answered "yes" to this question did not believe that they had any problem with their ability to smell. (cdc.gov)
  • A loss of smell receptors due to aging causes a decreased ability to smell in older people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • may interfere with the ability to smell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Digiscents'iSmell consumer device, which looks like a small stereo speaker, connects to a PC and can blend 128 basic scents into a much larger number of smells. (swissinfo.ch)
  • While there's always waste in your urine, like ammonia, the smell is stronger if you're dehydrated. (webmd.com)
  • We are team green so I also wonder if a gender or hormone difference could be causing the stronger smell. (babycenter.com)
  • But as the day heated up, the smell grew stronger. (cbsnews.com)
  • Your pee or breath may smell fruity if you don't treat high blood sugar. (webmd.com)
  • Liver disease can make your pee and breath smell musty. (webmd.com)
  • We report a robust multiyear lead-lag association between internet search activity for loss of smell or taste and COVID-19-associated hospitalization and deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • You wouldn't guess from the proliferation of perfumes and underarm deodorants, but people have a woeful sense of smell compared with many other residents of the animal kingdom. (sciencenews.org)
  • Many people who lose their sense of smell also complain that they lose their sense of taste. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with smell loss should label when food items were opened to prevent eating spoiled food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with phantosmia smell things that are not there. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Phantosmia only affects around 10-20% of people with smell disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people love the smell so much that they buy "new car-scented" air fresheners. (core77.com)
  • For some reason, lots of people think they smell alike. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • This article explains why eating asparagus makes pee smell, and why only some people can smell it. (healthline.com)
  • Some people notice the rotten-like smell as early as 15-30 minutes after eating asparagus, and studies have determined that within 25 minutes, half of the asparagusic acid consumed has already been absorbed ( 7 ). (healthline.com)
  • One study in 87 people who ate 3-9 spears of asparagus found that the half-life of the asparagus smell was 4-5 hours ( 3 ). (healthline.com)
  • Yet, another study in 139 people who also consumed 3-9 asparagus spears reported the half-life of the smell to be 7 hours, meaning that the effect could even last up to 14 hours ( 7 ). (healthline.com)
  • In fact, research suggests that a large percentage of people can't smell asparagus pee. (healthline.com)
  • Not everyone is familiar with asparagus pee, and researchers believe that it's because some people either don't produce the smell or are unable to perceive it. (healthline.com)
  • Smell tests may become an integral part to clinical care for aging people who may be cognitively impaired. (medscape.com)
  • To most people, the smell of a new car is strangely enticing. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Nearly all people with COVID-19 who lost their sense of smell gained it back, a small year-long study showed. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A majority of the people I know smell maple syrup when they smell the bills," said Landsman. (go.com)
  • She told ABC News that while it is unusual to happen on such a large scale, it is possible for people to smell a smell that isn't actually there. (go.com)
  • Also, the CSQ questionnaire was designed to provide data to support the Healthy People 2020 objectives for taste and smell disorders (Healthy People, 2020). (cdc.gov)
  • Now, this isn't the first year people have complained about the smell. (cbsnews.com)
  • People typically notice changes in smell by age 60. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A very few people are born without a sense of smell. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Multiple symptoms are associated with COVID-19, but "new loss of smell or taste" is highly specific (odds ratio ≈10) ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Occasionally, serious infections of the nasal sinuses or radiation therapy for cancer causes a loss of smell or taste that lasts for months or even becomes permanent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Smells good: Bacteria and yeast growing on the paws of pet dogs may lie behind the distinctive popcorn smell that some owners claim to be able to detect. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The researchers hypothesized that this unexpected predominance of so-called pseudogenes accounts for the poor human sense of smell. (sciencenews.org)
  • Problems with a sense of smell may help predict a higher risk for age-related health problems, according to researchers from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (medscape.com)
  • A group of researchers has put a silkmoth in the driver's seat of a small two-wheeled robot to study how the insect tracks down smells. (livescience.com)
  • Blooms known as "nuisance blooms" can discolor water, smell bad, and cause the water or fish to taste bad. (cdc.gov)
  • Temporary loss of the sense of smell is common with colds and nasal allergies , such as hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The sense of smell also enhances your ability to taste. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treating the cause of the problem may correct the lost sense of smell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you lose your sense of smell, you may have changes in taste. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The sense of smell may return to normal without treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Foods and drinks are full of microscopic molecules that stimulate the sense of smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This kind of functional map, however, had not yet been identified for the sense of smell. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Smell is a primary human sense, key to our survival. (wxyz.com)
  • As with vision and hearing, sense of smell weakens as we age. (medscape.com)
  • Keeping an eye on sense of smell may serve as an influential biomarker and risk factor for frailty. (medscape.com)
  • Smell tests may be able to enhance clinical and research efforts in improving care for older adults, especially with COVID-19 affecting many patients' sense of smell. (medscape.com)
  • Givaudan, which was spun-off from Swiss drugs giant Roche in June, said it was entering an exclusive agreement with DigiScents, which is a California -based start-up that's trying to give computers a sense of smell. (swissinfo.ch)
  • After COVID, When Will Sense of Smell Return? (medpagetoday.com)
  • The results suggest the insect was steering by both its sense of smell and its sense of sight. (livescience.com)
  • Elephants have an extremely good sense of smell, and anyone who has watched elephants knows how they greet each other, and how they sniff each other's faces, mouths, genitalia and dung and urine along pathways and at waterholes," said Von Durckheim. (iol.co.za)
  • Because approximately 80% of taste disorders are truly smell disorders, much of this article focuses on the sense of smell and its dysfunction, with additional discussion of taste and related disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The NHANES 2011-12 household interview taste and smell questionnaire collected data on self-reported taste and smell ability, selected symptoms of and medical treatment for taste and smell disorders, and data on conditions that may represent risk factors for taste and smell disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • These questionnaire items may be helpful to describe self-reported variation in taste and smell ability, and to estimate the prevalence of self-reported medical provider diagnosed smell and taste disorders among U.S. adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Historically, disorders of taste and smell have been difficult to diagnose and treat, often because of a lack of knowledge and understanding of these senses and their disease states. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of disorders of taste and smell in the US general population has been estimated from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014 protocol. (medscape.com)
  • The disorders of smell are classified as "-osmias" and those of taste as "-geusias. (medscape.com)
  • When your urine has a smell, it is usually due to your diet. (answers.com)
  • Certain things that you intake such as food, medications, drugs, etc. can have an effect on the color and smell of your urine. (answers.com)
  • How does it affect urine smell? (healthline.com)
  • The fast absorption rate suggests that the effect of asparagus on urine smell can appear quite quickly, and recent studies also agree that it can last for more than a few hours. (healthline.com)
  • If cystine is in your urine, it may smell like rotten eggs. (webmd.com)
  • The ability to tell the difference between flavors actually depends on smell, not the taste receptors on the tongue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These conditions can damage or destroy smell receptors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When your body metabolizes asparagusic acid, it produces numerous smelly, sulfur-based compounds that give your pee a rotten-like smell that can last 8-14 hours. (healthline.com)
  • The asparagusic acid in asparagus produces many sulfurous byproducts that give your pee a rotten-like smell . (healthline.com)
  • Should your pee smell good? (answers.com)
  • No. It should not smell good. (answers.com)
  • Add a good smell to your old book with vanilla extract. (ehow.com)
  • Put a couple dryer sheets in a plastic bag with your book to make it smell good. (ehow.com)
  • While you're in there, you might get a whiff of something that doesn't smell good. (webmd.com)
  • The biggest debate, however, is whether they smell like a good breakfast. (go.com)
  • To robustly test for a potential association, we analyzed Google Trends searches for "loss of smell" and "loss of taste" across 5 different English-speaking countries and 3 different years (2020, 2021, and 2022) and examined the correlation to reported COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • In April 2020, Renaud and colleagues published a single-center study of 97 adult outpatients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 and acute smell loss that lasted more than 7 days. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The distinctive smell of a flower… the unmistakable aroma of coffee… the dangers linked with inhaling smoke fumes. (sciencedaily.com)
  • For some Canadians the sweet smell of money has an aroma exactly like its famed maple syrup. (go.com)
  • Allow the baking soda to absorb the offensive smell overnight. (ehow.com)
  • Poor oral hygiene increases the number of food particles left in the mouth that can decay, increasing the risk of developing a bad taste or smell in the mouth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An alteration in taste or smell may be a secondary process in various disease states, or it may be the primary symptom. (medscape.com)
  • A strong smell of food might do that but our technology is very basic - blowing a fan over smell-infused felt. (newscientist.com)
  • Your pee may also have a strong smell after you drink coffee, or eat fish, onions, or garlic. (webmd.com)
  • If you have kidney failure, you may smell a lot of ammonia when you go to the bathroom. (webmd.com)
  • How do smells trigger such strong emotions and memories? (psychologytoday.com)
  • A number of behavioral studies have demonstrated that smells trigger more vivid emotional memories and are better at inducing that feeling of "being brought back in time" than images. (psychologytoday.com)
  • We perceive the world with five senses: We see, hear, smell, touch and taste, which allows us to experience the world. (core77.com)
  • It does really often smell like sulfur and if bad enough will make you throw up. (medhelp.org)
  • If you eat a fair amount of meat and eggs, that has been associated with this sulfur smell as well when throwing up or burping. (medhelp.org)
  • Your genes affect whether you can smell these sulfur byproducts. (webmd.com)
  • Smell dysfunction acts as an early indicator of cognitive decline as well as signs of frailty in the brain and unhealthy aging. (medscape.com)
  • Brain anatomy may explain why some smells conjure vivid memories and emotions. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Perhaps the most obvious question might be why you would be smelling your dog's paws in the first place, but if you do happen to give them a cursory sniff, you might find they smell of popcorn. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Taking a cue from the auto industry, I helped create a metallic and rubbery "new bicycle" smell to compete with the attractiveness of cars while working for Biomega. (core77.com)
  • Though scientists have not been able to determine whether one compound is responsible for the smell or if it's due to the mixture of all of them, a compound called methanethiol is widely mentioned in the literature. (healthline.com)
  • The debate over the smell of puppy paws appears to have started after a reader of Chicago based animal behaviour expert Steve Dale asked him a question about the odour of dog's feet. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • A book's smell is also influenced by its environment and materials it encounters over the course of its life (which is why some books have hints of cigarette smoke, others smell a little like coffee, and still others, cat dander). (lifeboat.com)
  • Humans can tell an unhealthy individual just from their face and smell using a network hardwired into all of us to keep us away from contagion, a new study has shown. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Loss of smell is not serious, but can sometimes be a sign of a nervous system condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One hypothesis - called the production hypothesis - suggests that only some individuals are capable of producing the sulfurous compounds responsible for the smell, while others are non-producers. (healthline.com)
  • However, if the bad smell is severe or chronic, it can negatively impact someone's quality of life and may require medical attention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pee with a sweet smell means you have had too much sugar. (answers.com)
  • They produce a slightly sweet, corn like smell. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Some bacteria such as Pseudomonas do have quite a strong odour which I normally refer to as a 'bubblegum' smell, similar to children's sweets that are bubblegum flavoured, but others might interpret this as a popcorn smell as it's a bit sickly and sweet almost in the smell they give off. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The sweet smell is from ketonuria, or a buildup of ketones. (webmd.com)
  • When these amino acids build up, their pee or earwax starts to smell sweet. (webmd.com)
  • CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla.- A mild toxic leak and a smoke-like smell aboard the International SpaceStation (ISS) prompted an afternoon scare for three astronauts aboard theorbital laboratory, mission managers said Monday. (space.com)
  • The station's three-astronaut Expedition13 crew reported a smoke-like smell in the laboratory's Russian-builtZvezda service module and initially reported smoke itself, though the emergencywas later traced to a toxic irritant leak used in a primaryoxygen generator. (space.com)