A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.

The progress of the Polio Eradication Initiative: what prospects for eradicating measles? (1/360)

Although various attempts have been made to eradicate infectious diseases, only smallpox has been eradicated to date. Polio is targeted for eradication in 2000 and already planning has begun for the eradication of measles. However, before we commit to a measles eradication effort, we must examine the lessons to be learned from polio eradication. Of particular importance is the debate over whether resources should be invested in 'horizontal' or 'vertical' programmes. The outcome of these debates will have a very deep and lasting impact on global health development in years to come. Collaboration between targeted programmes and the primary health care sector through polio and measles eradication efforts will help bring about the necessary balance between goal-oriented programmes, which are subject to quality control and can be evaluated by measurable outcomes, and broader efforts to build up sustainable health infrastructure.  (+info)

A variant of variola virus, characterized by changes in polypeptide and endonuclease profiles. (2/360)

A variant of variola virus is described which produces a late polypeptide of 25 kDa instead of one of 27 kDa and which has an additional endonuclease cleavage site for SalI in the viral DNA. These markers were shown to be genetically independent and to characterize 14 of the 48 variola strains which were examined. The variant strains were isolated from smallpox outbreaks originating in or from Pakistan between 1961 and 1974 and also from two cases at a Mission Hospital in Vellore, India in 1964. No variant strains were found among 9 other isolates from cases of variola major occurring in other parts of India or in Bangladesh, nor among 4 isolates from Indonesia, 15 from Africa or 6 isolates of variola minor.  (+info)

Cidofovir protects mice against lethal aerosol or intranasal cowpox virus challenge. (3/360)

The efficacy of cidofovir for treatment of cowpox virus infection in BALB/c mice was investigated in an effort to evaluate new therapies for virulent orthopoxvirus infections of the respiratory tract in a small animal model. Exposure to 2(-5)x10(6) pfu of cowpox virus by aerosol or intranasally (inl) was lethal in 3- to 7-week-old animals. One inoculation of 100 mg/kg cidofovir on day 0, 2, or 4, with respect to aerosol infection, resulted in 90%-100% survival. Treatment on day 0 reduced peak pulmonary virus titers 10- to 100-fold, reduced the severity of viral pneumonitis, and prevented pulmonary hemorrhage. The same dose on day -6 to 2 protected 80%-100% of inl infected mice, whereas 1 inoculation on day -16 to -8 or day 3 to 6 was partially protective. Cidofovir delayed but did not prevent the death of inl infected mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Treatment at the time of tail scarification with vaccinia virus did not block vaccination efficacy.  (+info)

Smallpox and its control in Canada. (4/360)

Edward Jenner's first treatise in 1798 described how he used cowpox material to provide immunity to the related smallpox virus. He sent this treatise and some cowpox material to his classmate John Clinch in Trinity, Nfld., who gave the first smallpox vaccinations in North America. Dissemination of the new technique, despite violent criticism, was rapid throughout Europe and the United States. Within a few years of its discovery, vaccination was instrumental in controlling smallpox epidemics among aboriginal people at remote trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Arm-to-arm transfer at 8-day intervals was common through most of the 19th century. Vaccination and quarantine eliminated endemic smallpox throughout Canada by 1946. The last case, in Toronto in 1962, came from Brazil.  (+info)

Experimental study of the role of inactivated vaccine in two-step vaccination against smallpox. (5/360)

In experiments on rabbits it was found that although administration of inactivated smallpox vaccine did not induce a demonstrable antibody response in the serum it enhanced the immune response to subsequent inoculation with live vaccine. The dose of inactivated vaccine corresponded to 8 x 10(7) PFU before inactivation (by (60)Co gamma-radiation); the dose of live vaccine was 1.2 x 10(5) PFU. When the interval between the two inoculations was 7-days, virus-neutralizing antibody appeared after 5 days and reached levels 2-4 times those obtained with live vaccine alone. With longer intervals (up to 60 days) the enhancement of the immune response was even greater. It seems likely that use of the two-step method may reduce the incidence of post-vaccination encephalitis and clinical studies to determine the optimum conditions for safety and efficacy are at present being undertaken.  (+info)

Smallpox eradication in West and Central Africa.(6/360)


Clinical observations on smallpox: a study of 1233 patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, during 1973. (7/360)

The paper presents clinical observations on 1 233 persons with smallpox who were admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, in 1973. The disease was of the modified type in 53 patients (4.3%), the ordinary type in 717 (58.2%), the flat type in 249 (20.2%), and the haemorrhagic type in 214 (17.3%). The fatality of these types of smallpox was found to be 5.7%, 26.8%, 88.4%, and 98.1%, respectively, and the overall case fatality was 50.7%. The haemorrhagic type was found mainly among older patients and affected males more often than females. The vaccination status of 1 218 patients was known. Of these, 901 (73.9%) were unvaccinated and had a fatality rate of 53.4%, whereas the 317 (26.1%) vaccinated patients had a fatality rate of 36.5%. Among the 201 haemorrhagic cases, 145 patients were unvaccinated (16.09% of the total number unvaccinated) and 56 (17.67%) had been vaccinated. Of 34 patients vaccinated during the incubation period, 19 (41.1%) died, whereas of 18 patients who had been vaccinated after the onset of fever, but before the appearance of rash, 9 (50%) died.  (+info)

The minimum protective level of antibodies in smallpox. (8/360)

Blood samples from 57 contacts of 6 smallpox cases were tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) and neutralizing antibodies. All 6 contacts who subsequently developed smallpox were unvaccinated and had neutralizing antibody titres of 10 or less. However, 6 unvaccinated contacts with similar antibody levels did not develop smallpox. None of the 41 vaccinated contacts, regardless of their antibody level, contracted the disease.  (+info)

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

Variola virus is the causative agent of smallpox, a highly contagious and deadly disease that was eradicated in 1980 due to a successful global vaccination campaign led by the World Health Organization (WHO). The virus belongs to the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus. It is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a complex structure that includes a lipoprotein membrane and an outer protein layer called the lateral body.

The Variola virus has two main clinical forms: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is more severe and deadly, with a mortality rate of up to 30%, while variola minor is less severe and has a lower mortality rate. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, such as clothing or bedding.

Smallpox was once a major public health threat worldwide, causing millions of deaths and severe illnesses. However, since its eradication, Variola virus has been kept in secure laboratories for research purposes only. The virus is considered a potential bioterrorism agent, and efforts are being made to develop new vaccines and antiviral treatments to protect against possible future outbreaks.

Vaccinia is actually not a medical term with a specific definition, but it refers to the virus used in the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is related to, but less harmful than, the variola virus that causes smallpox. When vaccinia virus is introduced into the skin, it leads to an immune response that protects against smallpox.

The term "vaccinia" also refers to the characteristic pockmark-like lesion that forms on the skin as part of the body's reaction to the vaccine. This lesion is a result of the infection and replication of the vaccinia virus in the skin cells, which triggers an immune response that helps protect against smallpox.

It's worth noting that while the smallpox vaccine is no longer routinely administered due to the eradication of smallpox, it may still be used in certain circumstances, such as in laboratory workers who handle the virus or in the event of a bioterrorism threat involving smallpox.

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family and Orthopoxvirus genus. It's the causative agent of monkeypox, a zoonotic disease with symptoms similar to smallpox but milder in nature. The virus was first discovered in 1958 in laboratory monkeys, hence its name.

There are two clades of MPXV: the Central African (Congo Basin) clade and the West African clade. The former is more severe and has a higher mortality rate, while the latter tends to cause less severe disease with lower fatality rates.

The virus is primarily transmitted to humans from infected animals such as rodents and primates, through direct contact with blood, bodily fluids, or rash material of an infected animal. Human-to-human transmission can occur via respiratory droplets, direct contact with lesions, or contaminated objects.

Monkeypox typically presents with fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and a distinctive rash that progresses from macules to papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs before falling off. The incubation period ranges from 5-21 days, and the illness usually lasts for 2-4 weeks.

Vaccination against smallpox has been found to provide some cross-protection against monkeypox, but its efficacy wanes over time. Currently, there are no approved vaccines specifically for monkeypox, although research is ongoing to develop new vaccines and antiviral treatments for this disease.

Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that is clinically comparable to smallpox, although it's typically milder. It's caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. The virus is usually transmitted to humans from animals such as rodents and primates, but human-to-human transmission can also occur through respiratory droplets, direct contact with body fluids or lesions, or indirect contact with contaminated materials.

After infection, the incubation period ranges from 5 to 21 days, followed by the onset of symptoms like fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, and exhaustion. A rash usually appears within 1-3 days after the onset of fever, starting on the face and spreading to other parts of the body, including the palms and soles. Lesions progress through several stages before falling off, leaving scabs that eventually fall off, signaling the end of the illness.

Monkeypox is endemic in Central and West African countries, but cases have been reported in non-endemic countries due to international travel. Vaccination against smallpox has shown cross-protection against monkeypox, although its efficacy wanes over time. Newer vaccines and antiviral treatments are being developed to combat the disease more effectively.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.

These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.

Orthopoxvirus is a genus of large, complex, enveloped DNA viruses in the family Poxviridae. It includes several species that are significant human pathogens, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and also known to cause cowpox and buffalopox), Monkeypox virus, and Camelpox virus. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild rashes to severe disease and death, depending on the specific species and the immune status of the infected individual. Historically, smallpox was one of the most devastating infectious diseases known to humanity, but it was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 due to a successful global vaccination campaign. However, other Orthopoxviruses continue to pose public health concerns and require ongoing surveillance and research.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents or toxins with the intent to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. These agents can be spread through the air, water, or food and can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxic substances produced by living organisms. The purpose of using these agents is typically to cause widespread illness, fear, and disruption. Biological warfare is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is illegal under international law.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Mass vaccination is a coordinated effort to administer vaccine doses to a large portion of a population in a short amount of time. This strategy is often used during outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as influenza or measles, to quickly build up community immunity (herd immunity) and reduce the spread of the disease. Mass vaccination campaigns can also be implemented as part of public health initiatives to control or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases in a population. These campaigns typically involve mobilizing healthcare workers, volunteers, and resources to reach and vaccinate as many people as possible, often through mobile clinics, community centers, and other accessible locations.

Pericarditis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pericardium, which is the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart and contains serous fluid to reduce friction during heartbeats. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and sometimes fever.

The pericardium has two layers: the visceral pericardium, which is tightly adhered to the heart's surface, and the parietal pericardium, which lines the inner surface of the chest cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between these two layers, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the chest cavity.

In pericarditis, the inflammation causes the pericardial layers to become irritated and swollen, leading to an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space. This can result in a condition called pericardial effusion, which can further complicate the situation by putting pressure on the heart and impairing its function.

Pericarditis may be caused by various factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, heart attacks, trauma, or cancer. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and reducing inflammation with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids. In severe cases, pericardiocentesis (removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space) or surgical intervention may be necessary.

Poxviridae is a family of large, complex, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes many significant pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the Variola virus, which causes smallpox in humans, a highly contagious and deadly disease that has been eradicated through global vaccination efforts. Other important human pathogens in this family include the Monkeypox virus, which can cause a smallpox-like illness, and the Molluscum contagiosum virus, which causes benign skin tumors.

Poxviruses have a unique ability to replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. They also have a complex structure, with a large, brick-shaped virion that contains a lateral body, a core, and an outer envelope. The genome of poxviruses is relatively large, ranging from 130 to 375 kilobases in length, and encodes many genes involved in viral replication, host immune evasion, and modulation of host cell processes.

Poxviridae is further divided into two subfamilies: Chordopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect vertebrates, and Entomopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect insects. The Chordopoxvirinae subfamily is divided into several genera, including Orthopoxvirus (which includes Variola, Monkeypox, and Vaccinia viruses), Parapoxvirus (which includes Orf virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus), and Yatapoxvirus (which includes Yaba monkey tumor virus and Tanapox virus).

Overall, Poxviridae is a diverse family of viruses that pose significant public health and agricultural threats, and continue to be the subject of ongoing research and development efforts aimed at understanding their biology and developing new vaccines and therapies.

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Reporting Systems are spontaneous reporting systems used for monitoring the safety of authorized medicines in clinical practice. These systems collect and manage reports of suspected adverse drug reactions from healthcare professionals, patients, and pharmaceutical companies. The primary objective of ADR reporting systems is to identify new risks or previously unrecognized risks associated with the use of a medication, monitor the frequency and severity of known adverse effects, and contribute to post-marketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance activities.

Healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, are encouraged to voluntarily report any suspected adverse drug reactions they encounter during their practice. In some countries, patients can also directly report any suspected adverse reactions they experience after taking a medication. Pharmaceutical companies are obligated to submit reports of adverse events identified through their own pharmacovigilance activities or from post-marketing surveillance studies.

The data collected through ADR reporting systems are analyzed to identify signals, which are defined as new, changing, or unknown safety concerns related to a medicine or vaccine. Signals are further investigated and evaluated for causality and clinical significance. If a signal is confirmed, regulatory actions may be taken, such as updating the product label, issuing safety communications, or restricting the use of the medication.

Examples of ADR reporting systems include the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) EudraVigilance, and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

Ectromelia virus, also known as mousepox virus, is a species of Poxviridae family that specifically infects mice. It is the causative agent of a disease called ectromelia or mousepox, which is similar to smallpox in humans. The virus primarily affects the spleen, liver, and lungs of the host, leading to symptoms such as rash, fever, weight loss, and hind limb paralysis. Ectromelia virus has been used as a model organism to study poxvirus immunology and pathogenesis.

Cowpox virus is a species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects cows and occasionally other animals such as cats, dogs, and humans. The virus causes a mild disease in its natural host, cattle, characterized by the development of pustular lesions on the udder or teats.

In humans, cowpox virus infection can cause a localized skin infection, typically following contact with an infected animal or contaminated fomites. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within 1-2 weeks without specific treatment. However, in rare cases, the virus may spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe symptoms.

Historically, cowpox virus has played a significant role in medical research as it was used by Edward Jenner in 1796 to develop the first successful vaccine against smallpox. The similarity between the two viruses allowed for cross-protection, providing immunity to smallpox without exposing individuals to the more deadly disease. Smallpox has since been eradicated globally, and vaccination with cowpox virus is no longer necessary. However, understanding the biology of cowpox virus remains important due to its potential use as a model organism for studying poxvirus infections and developing countermeasures against related viruses.

Ectromelia, infectious, also known as mousepox, is a viral disease that primarily affects mice. It is caused by the ectromelia virus, which belongs to the Poxviridae family. The infection results in various symptoms such as skin lesions, rash, weight loss, and in severe cases, death.

The infection spreads through direct contact with infected mice or their excretions. It can also be transmitted through contaminated bedding, food, and water. In the lab setting, the virus can be transmitted through aerosolized particles, making it highly contagious in populations of mice.

The incubation period for ectromelia, infectious ranges from 5 to 10 days. The initial symptoms include a loss of appetite, lethargy, and hunched posture. As the infection progresses, a rash may develop on the ears, nose, and tail, which eventually spreads to the rest of the body. In severe cases, the rash can ulcerate and become necrotic, leading to the loss of limbs or digits.

There is no specific treatment for ectromelia, infectious. However, supportive care such as fluid therapy, nutritional support, and pain management can help manage the symptoms and improve outcomes. Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, quarantine of infected animals, and vaccination of susceptible populations.

While ectromelia, infectious is primarily a disease of mice, it has been used as a model for studying poxviruses and developing vaccines. The virus shares many similarities with variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, making it a valuable tool for research.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Isoindoles are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as they are organic compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical terminology or human disease. However, isoindole is a heterocyclic compound that contains two nitrogen atoms in its structure and can be found in some naturally occurring substances and synthetic drugs.

Isoindoles are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable ring structure with delocalized electrons. They can form the core structure of various bioactive molecules, including alkaloids, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that occur naturally in plants and animals and can have various pharmacological activities.

Some isoindole derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. However, these compounds are still in the early stages of research and development and have not yet been approved for medical use.

Therefore, while isoindoles themselves do not have a specific medical definition, they can be relevant to the study of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

Civil defense refers to the measures taken by a government or organization to protect its citizens from military attack, sabotage, or other hostile actions. These measures may include evacuation plans, emergency response procedures, and the construction of protective structures such as bomb shelters. In the medical field, civil defense efforts might also involve planning for the provision of healthcare services during and after a disaster or emergency situation. This could include establishing alternate care sites, coordinating with volunteer organizations to provide medical care, and ensuring that medical supplies and equipment are available.

Biological warfare agents are pathogenic organisms or toxins that are intentionally used in a military conflict or act of terrorism to cause disease, death, or disruption. These agents can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins produced by living organisms. They can be spread through the air, water, or food and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms to serious diseases that can be fatal if left untreated.

Biological warfare agents are considered weapons of mass destruction because they have the potential to cause widespread harm and panic. The use of such agents is prohibited by international law, and their production, storage, and transportation are closely monitored and regulated. Despite these efforts, there remains a risk that biological warfare agents could be used in acts of terrorism or other hostile actions.

Kaposi varicelliform eruption (KVE) is a cutaneous disorder that results from the dissemination of the Herpesviridae family of viruses, most commonly herpes simplex virus (HSV), in individuals with underlying dermatologic conditions. The term "Kaposi" refers to the dermatologist who first described this condition, and "varicelliform" indicates the appearance of the rash, which resembles that seen in varicella or chickenpox.

In KVE, the affected individual's pre-existing skin disorder, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, or Darier disease, facilitates the entry and spread of the virus, leading to a widespread, severe skin eruption. The lesions typically appear as vesicles, pustules, and crusted papules, covering large areas of the body. They can be painful, pruritic (itchy), or associated with constitutional symptoms like fever and malaise.

KVE is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as secondary bacterial infections, scarring, and systemic spread of the virus. Treatment usually involves antiviral medications, often given systemically, along with supportive care for the skin lesions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 18th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 18th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that! The 18th century was a time of great advancement and change in the medical field, with many notable discoveries and innovations. Some examples include:

* The development of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796
* The discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1774
* The invention of the thermometer by Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714
* The publication of "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae" by Edward Jenner in 1798, which helped to establish the concept of vaccination
* The founding of the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1773
* The development of new surgical techniques and instruments, such as the use of tourniquets and catgut sutures.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

Eye infections, also known as ocular infections, are conditions characterized by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in any part of the eye or its surrounding structures. These infections can affect various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis), cornea (keratitis), eyelid (blepharitis), or the internal structures of the eye (endophthalmitis, uveitis). The symptoms may include redness, pain, discharge, itching, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. The cause can be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic, and the treatment typically involves antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungals, depending on the underlying cause.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by a sudden onset of widespread inflammation and damage to the brain and spinal cord. It typically follows a viral infection or, less commonly, vaccination and is more prevalent in children than adults.

The condition involves the rapid development of multiple inflammatory lesions throughout the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions lead to demyelination, which means the loss of the protective myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers, disrupting communication between neurons. This results in various neurological symptoms such as:

1. Encephalopathy (changes in consciousness, behavior, or mental status)
2. Weakness or paralysis of limbs
3. Visual disturbances
4. Speech and language problems
5. Seizures
6. Ataxia (loss of coordination and balance)
7. Sensory changes
8. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction (e.g., temperature regulation, blood pressure, heart rate)

The diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical presentation, radiological findings, and laboratory tests to exclude other possible causes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically shows multiple, large, bilateral lesions in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis may reveal an elevated white blood cell count and increased protein levels.

Treatment for ADEM generally includes high-dose corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) may be used if there is no response to steroid therapy. Most patients with ADEM recover completely or have significant improvement within several months, although some may experience residual neurological deficits.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

Cowpox is a mild and self-limiting viral disease that primarily affects cattle. Historically, it was known for providing immunity against smallpox in humans who came into contact with the virus. The cowpox virus belongs to the Poxviridae family and is closely related to the variola virus, which causes smallpox.

The infection in cows typically results in pustular lesions on their udders or teats. When a human milkmaid or farmer handling an infected animal develops cowpox, they usually experience flu-like symptoms and form pustular skin lesions, primarily on the hands and fingers. These lesions eventually scab over and heal within 1-2 months without medical intervention.

The transmission of cowpox from animals to humans is rare nowadays due to widespread vaccination against smallpox and improved hygiene practices in dairy farming. However, it remains an occupational hazard for those working closely with cattle or other susceptible animals.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Disaster planning in a medical context refers to the process of creating and implementing a comprehensive plan for responding to emergencies or large-scale disasters that can impact healthcare facilities, services, and patient care. The goal of disaster planning is to minimize the impact of such events on the health and well-being of patients and communities, ensure continuity of medical services, and protect healthcare infrastructure and resources.

Disaster planning typically involves:

1. Risk assessment: Identifying potential hazards and assessing their likelihood and potential impact on healthcare facilities and services.
2. Developing a disaster plan: Creating a detailed plan that outlines the steps to be taken before, during, and after a disaster to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and visitors, as well as the continuity of medical care.
3. Training and education: Providing training and education to healthcare personnel on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.
4. Exercises and drills: Conducting regular exercises and drills to test the effectiveness of the disaster plan and identify areas for improvement.
5. Resource management: Identifying and securing necessary resources, such as medical supplies, equipment, and personnel, to support disaster response efforts.
6. Communication and coordination: Establishing clear communication protocols and coordinating with local emergency responders, public health authorities, and other healthcare facilities to ensure a coordinated response to disasters.
7. Recovery and restoration: Developing plans for restoring medical services and infrastructure after a disaster has occurred.

Disaster planning is an essential component of healthcare delivery and is critical to ensuring the safety and well-being of patients and communities during emergencies or large-scale disasters.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Quarantine is a public health practice used to protect the population from the spread of communicable diseases. It involves separating and restricting the movement of individuals who have been exposed to an infectious agent, but are not yet showing symptoms, for a period of time to determine if they become sick and to prevent transmission during the incubation period. The term "quarantine" comes from the Italian word "quaranta," which means "forty," as it originally referred to the 40-day period that ships were required to be isolated before passengers and crew could go ashore during the Black Death plague epidemic in the 14th century. Nowadays, quarantine is often used in the context of travel restrictions and isolation measures for individuals who may have been exposed to diseases such as COVID-19, Ebola, or tuberculosis.

Vesiculobullous skin diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the formation of blisters (vesicles) and bullae (larger blisters) on the skin. These blisters form when there is a separation between the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) and the dermis (layer beneath the epidermis) due to damage in the area where they join, known as the dermo-epidermal junction.

There are several types of vesiculobullous diseases, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Some of the most common types include:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks proteins that help to hold the skin together, causing blisters to form.
2. Bullous pemphigoid: another autoimmune disorder, but in this case, the immune system attacks a different set of proteins, leading to large blisters and inflammation.
3. Dermatitis herpetiformis: a skin condition associated with celiac disease, where gluten ingestion triggers an immune response that leads to the formation of itchy blisters.
4. Pemphigoid gestationis: a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs during pregnancy and causes blisters on the abdomen and other parts of the body.
5. Epidermolysis bullosa: a group of inherited disorders where there is a fragile skin structure, leading to blistering and wound formation after minor trauma or friction.

Treatment for vesiculobullous diseases depends on the specific diagnosis and may include topical or systemic medications, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or antibiotics, as well as wound care and prevention of infection.

Cytosine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid molecules DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). The single-letter abbreviation for cytosine is "C."

Cytosine base pairs specifically with guanine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair. In DNA, the double helix consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by these base pairs, such that the sequence of one strand determines the sequence of the other. This property is critical for DNA replication and transcription, processes that are essential for life.

Cytosine residues in DNA can undergo spontaneous deamination to form uracil, which can lead to mutations if not corrected by repair mechanisms. In RNA, cytosine can be methylated at the 5-carbon position to form 5-methylcytosine, a modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "historiography" is actually a term that pertains to the study of history rather than medicine. Historiography refers to the writing of history, specifically the methods and principles used by historians in their research, interpretation, and presentation of historical events and phenomena. It involves the analysis of sources, the development of interpretations and arguments, and the representation of the past in written narratives or other forms of communication.

Sentinel surveillance is a type of public health surveillance that is used to monitor the occurrence and spread of specific diseases or health events in a defined population. It is called "sentinel" because it relies on a network of carefully selected healthcare providers, hospitals, or laboratories to report cases of the disease or event of interest.

The main goal of sentinel surveillance is to provide timely and accurate information about the incidence and trends of a particular health problem in order to inform public health action. This type of surveillance is often used when it is not feasible or practical to monitor an entire population, such as in the case of rare diseases or emerging infectious diseases.

Sentinel surveillance systems typically require well-defined criteria for case identification and reporting, as well as standardized data collection and analysis methods. They may also involve active monitoring and follow-up of cases to better understand the epidemiology of the disease or event. Overall, sentinel surveillance is an important tool for detecting and responding to public health threats in a timely and effective manner.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

Federal hospitals are healthcare facilities that are owned, operated, or funded by the federal government of a country. In the United States, for example, federal hospitals can be run by various agencies including the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals for military veterans, the Indian Health Service (IHS) hospitals for Native Americans, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) hospitals for inmates. These hospitals provide medical care to specific populations as part of the government's responsibility to ensure the health and well-being of its citizens. They must adhere to federal regulations and standards of care, and may also conduct research and train healthcare professionals.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

The bones that make up the upper extremity, also known as the upper limb, include those found in the arm, shoulder, and wrist. Here is a medical definition of each bone in the upper extremity:

1. Clavicle (Collarbone): A long, S-shaped bone located in the anterior part of the shoulder region that connects the trunk to the arm. It acts as a strut between the scapula and the sternum, providing support and protection for the underlying structures such as blood vessels and nerves.
2. Scapula (Shoulder Blade): A flat, triangular bone located on the posterior aspect of the shoulder region. The scapula has several important functions, including anchoring muscles that move the arm and serving as a site of attachment for the clavicle.
3. Humerus: The longest bone in the upper extremity, located in the arm between the shoulder and elbow. It has a proximal end (head) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the shoulder joint, and a distal end (epicondyles) that articulates with the radius and ulna bones to form the elbow joint.
4. Radius: One of two bones in the forearm located laterally (on the thumb side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The radius also has a unique feature called the radial head, which is a rounded articular surface that allows for rotation of the forearm.
5. Ulna: One of two bones in the forearm located medially (on the pinky side). It has a proximal end that articulates with the humerus at the elbow joint, and a distal end that articulates with the carpals of the wrist. The ulna also has a prominent process called the olecranon, which forms the bony prominence on the back of the elbow (olecranon process).
6. Carpals: Eight small bones located in the wrist region that form the proximal row of the carpus. They include the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones. The carpals articulate with the radius and ulna proximally, and the metacarpals distally.
7. Metacarpals: Five long bones located in the hand region that form the middle part of the hand. They articulate with the carpals proximally and the phalanges distally. The metacarpals are numbered 1-5, with the thumb being metacarpal 1 and the little finger being metacarpal 5.
8. Phalanges: Fifteen small bones located in the fingers and thumb region that form the distal part of the hand. Each digit has three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), except for the thumb, which only has two (proximal and distal). The phalanges articulate with the metacarpals proximally and each other distally.

Understanding the anatomy of the upper limb is essential for healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and treat conditions affecting this region. Familiarity with the bones, joints, muscles, and nerves that make up the upper limb can help clinicians identify areas of injury or dysfunction, develop appropriate treatment plans, and monitor patient progress over time.

The Book of Smallpox and Measles). During the Middle Ages several smallpox outbreaks occurred in Europe. However, smallpox had ... In malignant-type smallpox (also called flat smallpox) the lesions remained almost flush with the skin at the time when raised ... This form of smallpox occurs anywhere from 3% to 25% of fatal cases, depending on the virulence of the smallpox strain. Most ... Smallpox virus lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing chick. In contrast to the rash in smallpox, the rash in ...
The Smallpox Hospital, sometimes referred to as the Renwick Smallpox Hospital and later the Maternity and Charity Hospital ... ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7. p.954 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Renwick Smallpox Hospital. Renwick Smallpox Hospital ... "NYC Opening Old Smallpox Hospital to Public". 1010WINS.com. WINS (AM). 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2009-12-02.[dead link] Dunlap, ... Despite the availability of the smallpox vaccine, New York City still had large outbreaks of the disease, due to the arrival of ...
BBC portal Smallpox 2002 - Silent Weapon round up of newspaper reviews, in The Guardian, 6 February 2002 Smallpox proves ... Smallpox 2002: Silent Weapon is a fictional docudrama produced by Wall to Wall, showing how a single act of bioterrorism leads ... The premise of it was one man who, in 2002, creates the smallpox virus himself, infects himself, and touches ten people in New ... The film was renamed Smallpox when it aired on FX on 2 January 2005. ...
Smallpox US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Smallpox Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy "Smallpox/ ... Edward Jenner referred to cowpox as variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow). The origins of the smallpox vaccine became murky ... all countries where smallpox had been endemic. In December 1979 they concluded that smallpox had been eradicated; a conclusion ... became the standard for vaccine production adopted by the WHO Smallpox Eradication Unit when it initiated its global smallpox ...
... (Japanese: 疱瘡神, Hōsōkami) or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox ... They offered flowers and burned incense in order to please smallpox demon. In Okinawa, there was smallpox poetry in Ryuka; the ... There is a collection of smallpox poetry including 105 poems published in 1805. Traditional smallpox folk dances have been ... were lines that wrote that smallpox devils were enshrined in families which had smallpox in order to recover from smallpox. ...
... is a bay on the west side of San Juan Island in the U.S. state of Washington. Smallpox Bay was named for the fact ... "Smallpox Bay: The dark history of a lovely recreational area". Island Histories. Retrieved 20 February 2021. 48°32′28″N 123°09′ ... U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Smallpox Bay Meany, Edmond S. (1923). Origin of Washington ... that a group of indigenous victims of the 1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic died there and their corpses burned by US ...
The London Smallpox Hospital, sometimes known as the Middlesex County Hospital for Smallpox and Inoculation, was established in ... "St Pancras Small Pox Hospital". The Workhouse- The story of an institution. Retrieved 5 December 2016. Media related to London ... The Hospital was replaced by the Highgate Smallpox and Vaccination Hospital, erected in 1848-1850. West of Farringdon Road. ... Smallpox, All stub articles, United Kingdom hospital stubs). ... Smallpox Hospital at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Use dmy dates ...
Like all smallpox victims, he was at serious risk of dying, but he survived the disease. This article discusses smallpox as it ... an inoculated person was treated with live smallpox virus, taken from pustules of the mildest variety of smallpox that could be ... yet effective protection from smallpox through a smallpox vaccine was discovered only at the end of the century (see below). ... Smallpox struck the Mozart family again in the next generation: Nannerl's eldest son Leopold and two of her stepchildren caught ...
Smallpox has had a major impact on world history, not least because indigenous populations of regions where smallpox was non- ... In 710 CE, smallpox was re-introduced into Europe via Iberia by the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Japanese smallpox ... The history of smallpox extends into pre-history. Genetic evidence suggests that the smallpox virus emerged 3,000 to 4,000 ... During the 1770s, smallpox killed at least 30% of the Northwestern Native Americans, killing tens of thousands. The smallpox ...
The Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or colonial epidemic was a smallpox outbreak that hit Massachusetts in 1633. Smallpox ... "Signs and Symptoms , Smallpox , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-02-15. Retrieved 2023-04-18. RILEY, JAMES C. (2010). "Smallpox and ... According to a historical account in 1884 of the 1721 smallpox outbreak, more than one sixth of people would die from smallpox ... After the events of the 1633 Massachusetts smallpox epidemic there were subsequent outbreaks of smallpox in the region. Most ...
The last reported smallpox case in Australia was in 1938. Smallpox vaccination ceased in 1980[citation needed] after smallpox ... "small pox" and reminds the reader that he believes the "small pox" in question was "Chicken Pox, a small pox other than ... "It looked like smallpox and acted like smallpox and the outcomes were high mortality rates like smallpox." The speed with which ... "Smallpox and Cowpox under the Southern Cross: The Smallpox Epidemic of 1789 and the Advent of Vaccination in Colonial Australia ...
In Britain, smallpox vaccination became compulsory in the 1850s. In Gloucester, a smallpox outbreak occurred in the mid-1870s. ... Walter Hadwen "Gloucester smallpox epidemic, 1896: Henry Wicklin, aged 6 years, as a smallpox patient. Photograph by H.C.F., ... The smallpox epidemic in Gloucester in 1895-6, and the water cure. Pickering, J. (1896) Gloucester epidemic of small-pox, 1895- ... Ethel Cromwell (with smallpox) Ethel Cromwell (convalescing) Ephraim Beard with smallpox. Died on 13 April 1896 An isolation ...
The smallpox virus retention debate has been going on among scientists and health officials since the smallpox virus was ... Maggie Fox (19 November 2021). "Vials marked "smallpox" contained virus used in vaccine, not smallpox virus, CDC finds". CNN. ... Sebelius, Kathleen, (2011), "Why We Still need Smallpox", The New York Times (25 April 2011). "Smallpox eradication: ... which causes smallpox. "Smallpox". WHO Factsheet. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Fenner F (2006). Nature, ...
The Aral smallpox incident was a 30 July 1971 outbreak of the viral disease which occurred as a result of a field test at a ... The smallpox formulation-400 gr. of which was exploded on the island-"got her" and she became infected. After returning home to ... "Smallpox - not a bad weapon". Interview with General Burgasov (in Russian). Moscow News. Archived from the original on 14 ... One crew member of the Lev Berg contracted smallpox as the ship passed within 15 km (9 miles) of the island. This crew member ...
An epidemic of smallpox in 1856 on the west Pacific island of Guam, then under the control of Spain, resulted in the death of ... The smallpox pandemic had killed 4,563 people, or over 55% of the population. The Honolulu newspaper The Polynesian printed an ... Four thousand had died with smallpox in three months." It is possible that the lack of people to tend crops resulted in a food ... Epidemics of influenza, smallpox, or whooping cough are recorded throughout the Spanish-Chamorro Wars of the late seventeenth ...
The 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak was the largest outbreak of smallpox in Europe after the Second World War. It was centered ... By late 1971, smallpox-infected pilgrims had carried smallpox from Iran into Syria and Iraq. In early 1972, a 38-year-old ... "Memories Of Smallpox Outbreak Stir Nostalgia For Tito's Time". www.barrons.com. Retrieved 2021-07-06. "Smallpox in Yugoslavia ... Smallpox 2002: Silent Weapon hosted by Drama. Drama-documentary about a hypothetical bioterrorism attack involving smallpox. ...
Smallpox epidemics, Smallpox in the United States, Smallpox vaccines, Disasters in Boston). ... How an African slave helped Boston fight smallpox Behbehani, Abbas (December 1983). "The Smallpox Story: Life and Death of an ... On 26 May Cotton Mather wrote in his diary: "The grievous calamity of the small pox has now entered the town." Boston's last ... On 22 February 1722, it was officially announced that no new cases of smallpox were appearing in Boston and the disease was in ...
Smallpox, the First Fleet, and Port Jackson Tribes. Event occurs at 2:14. "Sydney's smallpox outbreak of 1789 - Biological ... ISBN 978-0-203-44835-9. v t e v t e (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Smallpox epidemics, 1789 in Australia, 18th- ... In April 1789, Sydney, Australia, experienced one of its most violent outbreaks of smallpox when the disease swept through ... "National Museum of Australia - Smallpox epidemic". www.nma.gov.au. Retrieved 2020-03-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names ...
The 1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic was a smallpox outbreak that started in Victoria on Vancouver Island and spread ... In August, when smallpox arrived in the Puget Sound area the Tulalip and Nooksack were mostly safe, while other native groups ... Smallpox was brought to Victoria by the ship Brother Jonathan, which carried 350 passengers from San Francisco. The population ... It is unclear how large a supply of the smallpox vaccine was available. Some sources stated that there was a shortage of ...
It was one of the last smallpox outbreaks in Europe (the 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak was last). The officer who brought the ... Smallpox epidemics, Smallpox eradication, 1963 in Poland, History of Wrocław, 1963 disease outbreaks, Disease outbreaks in ... An outbreak of smallpox occurred in the city of Wrocław in Poland in the summer of 1963. The disease was brought to Poland by ... "SMALLPOX BATTLE WIDENED IN POLAND". The New York Times. 27 July 1963. ProQuest 116618718. Żuk, Piotr; Żuk, Paweł (24 September ...
Smallpox had crossed the ocean before in 1670, causing a two-year epidemic, and since then a new generation of people had ... In 1707, smallpox arrived in Iceland aboard a ship from Denmark when a passenger fell sick and died with the disease. Despite ... Epidemic diseases like smallpox did not naturally sustain themselves on the island due to the relatively sparse population, but ... Iceland experienced one of its deadliest outbreaks of smallpox beginning in 1707. The epidemic ultimately killed around 12,000 ...
... contracted smallpox and died from the infection. The strain of smallpox that killed her was being analysed in a laboratory ... The Last Days of Smallpox: Tragedy in Birmingham is a 2018 nonfiction account of the events leading up to and following the ... The first three of seven sections in the book provide the reader with historical background on the smallpox disease and its ... The author, Mark Pallen, proposes an explanation of how Janet Parker - the last person to die from smallpox - contracted the ...
Efforts to eradicate smallpox in Mexico started when José Ignacio Bartolache wrote a book in 1779 about smallpox treatment ... Smallpox was officially declared eradicated from Mexico in 1951. Native American disease and epidemics History of smallpox Hays ... In 1520, the first wave of smallpox killed 5-8 million people. From 1545 to 1576, up to 17 million people died from smallpox. ... He thought that smallpox was a remedy of nature to clear bad mood and doctors should not accelerate the process of healing ...
The 1924-1925 Minnesota smallpox epidemic was the deadliest outbreak of smallpox in the U.S. state of Minnesota. 500 people ... Smallpox comes in two varieties, one mild and one deadly (also called black, or virulent, or hemorrhagic.) In the late 19th and ... They also put smallpox victims in the public hospital, infecting new victims. Saint Paul officials isolated as many of the ill ... Although smallpox vaccination is almost 100% effective, public health officers had no power to make people protect themselves. ...
Benn, E C (1 May 1963). "Smallpox in England and Wales 1962: Smallpox in Bradford 1962: A Clinical Review". Proceedings of the ... Smallpox outbreak in Bradford (1962) Secure against smallpox. Granada TV footage (Director: Geoffrey Warnes) 1967 (Pages ... where there was an ongoing epidemic of smallpox. The outbreak resulted in 14 cases of smallpox and contact tracing of over ... An outbreak of smallpox in Bradford in 1962 first came to attention on 11 January 1962, when a cook from the children's ...
Smallpox epidemics, Smallpox in the United States, 1830s health disasters, 1837 natural disasters in the United States, 1837 ... By the 1730s, smallpox had made its way west across Canada and the northern United States to the edge of the American frontier ... Smallpox infections spiked in the 1780s and persisted up to the 1837 epidemic. In what is now Canada, the fur trade ... Smallpox proved particularly deadly in the interior parts of North America such as on the Great Plains because these ...
The successful eradication of smallpox in India was an exceptional public health achievement. However, the WHO's Smallpox ... www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/how-india-overcame-smallpox "30,000 Killed in India in Smallpox Epidemic". Los Angeles Times. 6 ... The 1974 smallpox epidemic in India infected 188,000 people, leading to the deaths of 31,000 Indians. The media reported the ... During the Indian smallpox eradication campaign, over 80% of the population lived in remote areas, creating logistical issues ...
The 735-737 Japanese smallpox epidemic (天平の疫病大流行, Tenpyō no ekibyō dairyūkō, "Epidemic of the Tenpyō era") was a major smallpox ... "History of Smallpox , Smallpox , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2021-02-21. Retrieved 2022-11-25. Jannetta, Ann Bowman (2014). Epidemics ... including smallpox. The smallpox epidemic of 735-737 was recorded as having taken hold around August 735 in the city of Dazaifu ... Smallpox demon Sam, Regi (February 2022). "TRACKING THE CHRONOLOGY OF EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS". Journal of Natural Remedies. 21 ...
"January, 1760: A Smallpox Epidemic Sweeps the Lowcountry". South Carolina Historical Society. Retrieved 2021-10-09. "Smallpox ... Between 1738 and 1739, a smallpox epidemic broke out among the Cherokee who resided in the Province of North Carolina, as well ... 900 Cherokees had joined the British to fight the Spanish in Florida in 1739, and may have brought smallpox back with them. ... The Irish-born historian James Adair claimed that smallpox was introduced by "Guinea-men", enslaved people from West Africa. ...
The campaign aimed to provide the smallpox vaccine to those who would respond to an attack, establishing Smallpox Response ... Kaiser, Jocelyn (3 March 2005). "Report Faults Smallpox Vaccination Campaign". Science. (Smallpox vaccines, Vaccination in the ... Richards, Edward P.; Rathbun, Katharine C.; Gold, Jay (July 2004). "The Smallpox Vaccination Campaign of 2003: Why Did it Fail ... Connolly, Ceci (13 April 2003). "U.S. Smallpox Vaccine Program Lags". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 ...
The smallpox vaccine protects people from smallpox by helping their bodies develop immunity to smallpox. The vaccine is made ... Smallpox vaccination can protect you from smallpox for about 3 to 5 years. After that time, its ability to protect you ... Find out who should get smallpox vaccine.. Historically, the vaccine has been effective in preventing smallpox infection in 95 ... The vaccine does not contain the smallpox virus and cannot give you smallpox. ...
In 1980, the World Health Assembly declared smallpox eradicated (eliminated), and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have ... Smallpox research in the United States continues and focuses on the development of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests to ... Thousands of years ago, variola virus (smallpox virus) emerged and began causing illness and deaths in human populations, with ... Thanks to the success of vaccination, the last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949. ...
... a French Jesuit missionary wrote an essay criticising Chinas handling of smallpox. The reality, though, was China was light ... And for a long time, many Europeans and Americans believed China was the "cradle of smallpox", an idea that circulated widely ... Yet, contrary to Cibots claims, the mechanisms put in place to respond to smallpox by the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty ... Unfortunately, Cibots text went on to become one of the most-cited western sources on Chinese smallpox in the 19th and 20th ...
The Book of Smallpox and Measles). During the Middle Ages several smallpox outbreaks occurred in Europe. However, smallpox had ... In malignant-type smallpox (also called flat smallpox) the lesions remained almost flush with the skin at the time when raised ... This form of smallpox occurs anywhere from 3% to 25% of fatal cases, depending on the virulence of the smallpox strain. Most ... Smallpox virus lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing chick. In contrast to the rash in smallpox, the rash in ...
Find a list of symptoms related to smallpox ... Smallpox is an infectious disease caused by the Variola virus. ... Smallpox (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish * Smallpox (National Institute of Allergy and ... Smallpox (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Smallpox/Monkeypox Vaccine (JYNNEOS): ... Smallpox/Monkeypox Vaccine Information Statement (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Vaccine Basics: Smallpox ( ...
Smallpox is an acute, contagious disease caused by the variola virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, in the Poxviridae ... Flat smallpox (malignant smallpox) - A severe variety of smallpox in which lesions do not project above the skin surface ... Hemorrhagic smallpox (fulminant smallpox) - A rare, very severe, highly fatal variety of smallpox in which hemorrhages develop ... Variola major smallpox has 4 subtypes, as follows:. * Ordinary smallpox - The most common form, which accounts for 90% or more ...
What is smallpox disease?. Smallpox is a serious, highly contagious and often fatal infectious disease caused by the variola ... ACAM2000 cannot cause smallpox; it does not contain the smallpox virus, but rather the "live" vaccinia virus - not dead virus ... A person infected with smallpox develops a rash characterized as raised pocks on the face and body. A person with smallpox has ... FDA licensed Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, with the proprietary name ACAM2000, for active immunization against smallpox ...
Pexa-Vec is a genetically engineered virus that is used in the smallpox vaccine. ... While Pexa-Vec is derived from vaccinia virus and is similar to smallpox, it doesnt contain smallpox and cannot cause the ... Pexa-Vec is a genetically engineered virus that is used in the smallpox vaccine. Share:. Facebook Twitter Pinterest LinkedIN ... Engineered small pox may kill liver cancer. Date:. April 9, 2013. Source:. University of California, San Diego Health Sciences ...
In the event of a smallpox outbreak in the United States, how long would it take for a vaccine to start protecting Americans by ... "Another purpose of the study is to see how quickly people can be protected against smallpox after a release of smallpox into ... Tags: Bacteria, Flu, Food, Immune Response, Immune System, Influenza, Insulin, Medicine, Mpox, Research, Skin, Smallpox, ... In the event of a smallpox outbreak in the United States, how long would it take for a vaccine to start protecting Americans by ...
Administration of a tissue-cultured smallpox vaccine showed signs of an effective vaccine response with no serious adverse ... "The threat of smallpox bioterrorism has prompted reconsideration of the need for smallpox vaccination. Serious adverse events ... Administration of a tissue-cultured smallpox vaccine showed signs of an effective vaccine response with no serious adverse ... Study assesses duration of protection offered by smallpox infection and possible cross-reaction with Mpox virus ...
In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, ... derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections.. ...
All inclusive source for Jynneos smallpox vaccine information. ... Smallpox/Mpox Vaccine (JYNNEOS™): What You Need to Know. Nov. ... Smallpox (Jynneos) Jynneos Smallpox/Mpox Vaccine Resource Center. On September 24, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... When Pregnancy Is Discovered After Smallpox Vaccination - Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry. Oct. 26, 2022. ... You will find below all of the resources you will need about the Jynneos smallpox/mpox vaccine. More will be added as they are ...
... around the world are urging the World Health Organization to block a dangerous proposal that would allow the smallpox virus to ... The almost eradication of smallpox. Smallpox kills one quarter or more of the people infected and leaves many others disfigured ... Prohibit the genetic engineering of smallpox, the insertion of smallpox genes in other poxviruses, and any further distribution ... No to GM Smallpox!. Non-governmental organizations around the world are urging the World Health Organization to block a ...
Points from Letters: Smallpox and Chicken-pox Br Med J 1948; 1 :418 doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4547.418-d ... Points from Letters: Smallpox and Chicken-pox. Br Med J 1948; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4547.418-d (Published 28 ...
2003, signed the Smallpox Emergency Personnel Protection Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-20). This report presents the reasons some ... and describes the smallpox vaccine injury compensation provisions Congress actually passed. Finally, it presents issues that ... and 7 weeks after Senator Gregg introduced the administration smallpox vaccine injury compensation proposal, President Bush, on ... months after announcing his decision to vaccinate military personnel and front-line civilian health workers against smallpox, 3 ...
Smallpox DNA found in the bodies of people who lived in the Viking era show that these viruses were different to the one ... Read more: Lets finally condemn the smallpox virus to extinction. The Variola virus was also found in a man in a mass grave in ... The DNA of ancient smallpox viruses has been found in the bones and teeth of a dozen or so people who lived in northern Europe ... Unexpectedly, these smallpox strains are quite different to the strain that was eliminated in the 20th century - and possibly ...
Smallpox virus detected in 300-year-old Siberian mummy ... Smallpox virus detected in 300-year-old Siberian mummy By Eryn ... A team of French and Russian researchers recently found new snippets of smallpox DNA in 300-year-old mummies from Siberia, ... Thanks to vaccination efforts, smallpox - killer of hundreds of millions people around the world over the course of the 20th ... That evidence suggested that she had suffered a "sudden and lethal infection," perhaps from smallpox. ...
The fact that Vector is one of only two places in the world that stockpiles Smallpox-the other being the CDC facility in ... Russia Confirms Explosion At Ex Bioweapons Lab Storing Ebola, Smallpox And Plague. ... "some of the most dangerous strains-including smallpox, Ebola, anthrax and certain plagues-are still being kept inside the ...
Smallpox disease was eradicated in 1977, but because smallpox virus could be used as an agent of bioterrorism, health-care ... When requesting a videotape by e-mail, indicate Smallpox: What Every Clinician Should Know on the subject line. Use of trade ... On the program Smallpox: What Every Clinician Should Know, specialists discuss methods designed to improve health-care ... Notice to Readers: Smallpox: What Every Clinician Should Know --- A Self-Study Course. ...
... and now First in staging a smallpox scare to justify the forced quarantine or vaccination of healthy people. How very ... smallpox vaccine. Vaccinia virus, used in genetic research, causes mild symptoms in humans and is less contagious than smallpox ... Smallpox Scare Spurs Florida Emergency Powers Bill "And if the person doesnt comply with quarantine or if theres no practical ... "At the time we were worried it was smallpox," Dr. Steven Wiersma said last fall. "It was something we were very concerned about ...
... smallpox - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... Tags disease eradication, smallpox On Global Health and Being " ... Tags DA Henderson, measles, Preparedness, smallpox Global Immunization: 50 Years of Work, Humanity, and Success. This blog was ... Celebrating the 40th Anniversary of Smallpox Eradication and Learning from its Success. This year, 2020, the world is ... commemorating the 40-year anniversary of the declaration of the eradication of smallpox. Considered to be the greatest ...
WHOs in-house smallpox expert. The proposals would also permit the two smallpox repository labs-one at the Centers for Disease ... 7 recommendations on smallpox. WHO committee plan would allow 20% of viral genome to be released to approved labs. John Dudley ... When the World Health Organizations (WHO) external advisory committee on smallpox recommended last week that WHO allow the two ... still possessing the virus to insert a green fluorescent marker gene into it to test the efficacy of potential anti-smallpox ...
Smallpox is a contagious disease and kills as many as 30% of those infected. ... Werent the remaining stocks of the smallpox virus destroyed after smallpox was eradicated?. When smallpox was officially ... Smallpox was fatal in up to 30% of cases.. Smallpox has existed for at least 3,000 years and was one of the worlds most feared ... Until then, smallpox killed many millions of people.. How can I catch it and is it contagious?. The virus which causes smallpox ...
Smallpox Among the Plains Indians Did the U.S. Army intentionally infect the Indians to cause the Great Smallpox Epidemic of ... Smallpox Epidemic Of 1837 Smallpox was the scourge of the West, especially to the Indians. They called it "Rotting face" for ... Smallpox was the scourge of the West, especially to the Indians. It attacked whole tribes and left few survivors. It has ... A few years ago an activist wrote a revisionist history about the Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1837 claiming the U.S. Army ...
Smallpox was a serious illness caused by the variola virus that killed hundreds of millions of people. Smallpox was eradicated ... Smallpox caused a hard, blistering rash over most of your body that left disfiguring scars.. What is smallpox?. Smallpox was a ... Does smallpox still exist?. Smallpox no longer exists in humans or spreads naturally. There havent been any cases of smallpox ... Ordinary smallpox. Ordinary smallpox was the most common type of smallpox and caused the symptoms described above. It caused ...
The lab contained vials of the smallpox virus, previously unknown to authorities. ... In A Lab Store Room, An Unsettling Surprise: Lost Vials Of Smallpox. Listen · 3:53 3:53 ... In A Lab Store Room, An Unsettling Surprise: Lost Vials Of Smallpox Scientists at the National Institutes of Health made an ... This is smallpox virus, a deadly, deadly disease.. BRUMFIEL: Well, Henderson told me, you have to remember this is back in the ...
  • The smallpox vaccine protects people from smallpox by helping their bodies develop immunity to smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine is made from a virus called vaccinia , which is a poxvirus similar to smallpox, but less harmful. (cdc.gov)
  • The smallpox vaccine contains live vaccinia virus, not a killed or weakened virus like many other vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine does not contain the smallpox virus and cannot give you smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • The Smallpox Vaccine Safety page has more information about who is more likely to experience these side effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Find out who should get smallpox vaccine . (cdc.gov)
  • Historically, the vaccine has been effective in preventing smallpox infection in 95% of those vaccinated. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevention was achieved mainly through the smallpox vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the modern smallpox vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDA licensed Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, with the proprietary name ACAM2000, for active immunization against smallpox disease for persons determined to be at high risk for smallpox infection. (fda.gov)
  • The vaccine is manufactured by Emergent Product Development Gaithersburg, Inc. The approval and availability of this second-generation smallpox vaccine in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) enhances the emergency preparedness of the United States against the use of smallpox as a dangerous biological weapon. (fda.gov)
  • The vaccine is made from a virus called vaccinia, which is a "pox"-type virus related to smallpox but causes milder disease. (fda.gov)
  • The vaccine stimulates a person's immune system to develop antibodies and cells in the blood and elsewhere that can then help the body fight off a real smallpox infection if exposure to smallpox ever occurs. (fda.gov)
  • Is ACAM2000 different than Dryvax, a vaccine used in the global eradication of smallpox? (fda.gov)
  • ACAM2000, a "second generation" smallpox vaccine, is derived from a clone of Dryvax, purified, and produced using modern cell culture technology. (fda.gov)
  • The Advisory Committee also received reports on the status of the WHO Smallpox Vaccine Emergency Stockpile. (who.int)
  • Pexa-Vec is a genetically engineered virus that is used in the smallpox vaccine. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In the event of a smallpox outbreak in the United States, how long would it take for a vaccine to start protecting Americans by stimulating an immune response? (news-medical.net)
  • This study at Saint Louis University will look at the ability of an investigational vaccine made by Bavarian Nordic to stimulate the immune system against smallpox. (news-medical.net)
  • The currently licensed smallpox vaccine, however, provides benefits post-exposure, and may be useful in further preventing the spread of the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Frey said this research compares the ability of a new investigational smallpox vaccine called IMVAMUNE to produce a strong immune response against smallpox disease with another vaccine called Dryvax, the currently licensed vaccine. (news-medical.net)
  • Dryvax vaccine is the original Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed vaccine that was used to protect humans against smallpox disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Administration of a tissue-cultured smallpox vaccine showed signs of an effective vaccine response with no serious adverse events, according to a study in the March 11 issue of JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association . (news-medical.net)
  • LC16m8 vaccine appears to be a viable alternative to first-, second- and other third-generation vaccines in a smallpox preparedness program," the researchers conclude. (news-medical.net)
  • On September 24, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first live, non-replicating vaccine for prevention of smallpox and mpox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or mpox infection. (health.mil)
  • You will find below all of the resources you will need about the Jynneos smallpox/mpox vaccine. (health.mil)
  • These revised ACIP recommendations on smallpox vaccine update the previous recommendations (MMWR 1980;29:417-20) to include current information on the changes in the International Health Regulations and the ending of distribution of smallpox vaccine to civilians. (cdc.gov)
  • The basic recommendation is unchanged--smallpox vaccine is only indicated for civilians who are laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox or other closely related orthopox viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) is a highly effective immunizing agent against smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • The judicious use of smallpox vaccine has eradicated smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Misuse of smallpox vaccine to treat herpes infections has been associated with severe complications (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox vaccine should never be used therapeutically. (cdc.gov)
  • In May 1983, the only active, licensed producer of smallpox vaccine in the United States discontinued distribution of smallpox vaccine to civilians (13). (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, smallpox vaccine is no longer available to civilians. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC provides smallpox vaccine to protect laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox virus and other closely related orthopox viruses (14). (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox disease was eradicated in 1977, but because smallpox virus could be used as an agent of bioterrorism, health-care providers should familiarize themselves with the disease and the vaccine that prevents it. (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox was the first disease for which there was a vaccine. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Several vials labeled "smallpox" have been found at a vaccine research facility in Pennsylvania, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Tuesday. (cnn.com)
  • The frozen vials labeled 'Smallpox' were incidentally discovered by a laboratory worker while cleaning out a freezer in a facility that conducts vaccine research in Pennsylvania. (cnn.com)
  • The vial holds approximately 100 doses of the smallpox vaccine. (cnn.com)
  • People with a history of atopic dermatitis and people who live with them do not receive smallpox vaccines because atopic dermatitis patients and former patients face an increased risk of developing serious and potentially fatal reactions to the vaccine,' said Donald Leung, MD, PhD Head of the Division of Pediatric Allergy-Clinical Immunology at National Jewish, and principal investigator for the Clinical Studies Consortium of the Atopic Dermatitis and Vaccinia Network. (nationaljewish.org)
  • In the case of an actual smallpox outbreak, thousands and possibly millions of people would receive the vaccine. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Since people living with atopic dermatitis patients also should not receive the vaccine, it is possible that close to 40% of the population are not currently eligible to routinely receive smallpox vaccination. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Individuals with atopic dermatitis who have problems with viral infections including herpes simplex and molluscum contagiosum or a previous reaction to the smallpox vaccine are encouraged to contact one of these medical centers. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, government sources reported only 15.4 million doses of smallpox vaccine, made in the 1970s, were available. (heartland.org)
  • Whelan advocated "assured access to the vaccine only after it was confirmed that smallpox was indeed available as a terror weapon or even after exposure to smallpox had occurred. (heartland.org)
  • Jynneos (smallpox and monkeypox vaccine, live, non-replicating) is a vaccine used to prevent smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection. (rxlist.com)
  • Our Jynneos (smallpox and monkeypox vaccine, live, non-replicating) Suspension for Subcutaneous Injection Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • When thawed, JYNNEOS (Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-replicating) is a milky, light yellow to pale white colored suspension for subcutaneous injection. (rxlist.com)
  • JYNNEOS is a vaccine indicated for prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years of age and older determined to be at high risk for smallpox or monkeypox infection. (rxlist.com)
  • By 1796, the English physician Edward Jenner was able to create smallpox immunity with his cowpox vaccine. (rush.edu)
  • In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox the only human disease to be eliminated entirely by a vaccine. (rush.edu)
  • Smallpox vaccine administration is warranted in individuals exposed to the virus or facing a real risk of exposure. (who.int)
  • The European Union's executive arm has approved a smallpox vaccine for use against monkeypox after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared its spread a global health emergency , the Danish drugmaker that developed the jab said. (aljazeera.com)
  • The European Commission has extended the marketing authorisation for the company's smallpox vaccine, Imvanex, to include protection from monkeypox" in line with a recommendation by the EU's medicines watchdog, Bavarian Nordic said in a statement on Monday. (aljazeera.com)
  • It was also considered a potential vaccine for monkeypox because of the similarity between the monkeypox virus and the smallpox virus. (aljazeera.com)
  • Last year, researchers began to test the remaining stock of smallpox vaccine. (missourinet.com)
  • There is enough smallpox vaccine to vaccinate everyone who would need it in the event of an emergency (Centers for Disease Control, 2002). (calverthealth.org)
  • The smallpox vaccine helps the body develop immunity to smallpox. (calverthealth.org)
  • Currently, the United States has a big enough stockpile of smallpox vaccine to vaccinate everyone who might need it in the event of an emergency. (calverthealth.org)
  • Our results showed that the humoral immunity from the smallpox vaccine in the population still remains, and VTT-specific NAb levels wane with age. (nature.com)
  • ACAM2000, a replicating vaccinia virus-based second generation smallpox vaccine, can provide effective protection even after exposure to MPXV. (nature.com)
  • The CDC said the vials contained a virus that's used in the smallpox vaccine, not the virus that causes smallpox. (politifact.com)
  • The CDC said the government was notified Nov. 15 that several frozen vials labeled "smallpox" were found by a lab worker while cleaning out a freezer in a vaccine research lab in Pennsylvania. (politifact.com)
  • Laboratory testing at the CDC later showed the vials contained vaccinia, the virus used in the smallpox vaccine, not variola virus, the cause of smallpox. (politifact.com)
  • Finally, the ACIP added new recommendations regarding the use of the vaccine in the event of smallpox bioterrorism. (bmj.com)
  • Obviously, the discussion that follows does not apply to the use of the vaccine to prevent smallpox, which is a highly contagious disease with excessive mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Erythema multiforme major, also referred to as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, is a toxic or allergic rash in response to the smallpox vaccine that can take various forms, and range from moderate to severe.This image was created in 08/2003 and provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Allen W. Mathies, MD, John Leedom, MD/ California Emergency Preparedness Office (Calif/EPO), Immunization Branch. (imageenvision.com)
  • Forty-two percent of the US population was never vaccinated, and an estimated 53% of the US population has received the smallpox vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • An open-label, non-randomized study investigating the safety and efficacy of smallpox vaccine, LC16, as post-exposure prophylaxis for mpox. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the post-exposure prophylaxis of mpox and safety after inoculating the smallpox vaccine . (bvsalud.org)
  • Participants in close contact with patients with mpox were inoculated with "Freeze-dried cell culture Smallpox Vaccine LC16," within 14 days after close contact. (bvsalud.org)
  • Smallpox vaccination can protect you from smallpox for about 3 to 5 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Routine smallpox vaccination among the American public stopped in 1972 after the disease was eradicated in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Thanks to the success of vaccination, the last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949. (cdc.gov)
  • Worldwide vaccination stopped the spread of smallpox three decades ago. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The history of smallpox is remarkable not only because of the spectacular devastation it wreaked upon civilization since the dawn of humankind, but also for the astounding achievement of modern medicine, which eradicated this plague through the concerted efforts of global vaccination (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • This process implies that contacts of the recent voluntary smallpox vaccination program, a lim- different infected persons are independent of each other ited number of healthcare workers volunteered for vacci- and that no saturation of the incidence occurs at higher nation because of the risks associated with vaccination and prevalence. (cdc.gov)
  • Ring Vaccination and Smallpox Control end of the infectious period (Figure 1A). (cdc.gov)
  • Following a global eradication campaign, which included vaccination, the World Health Organization certified the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox disease in 1980. (fda.gov)
  • A clinical study to demonstrate ACAM2000 is non-inferior to Dryvax was conducted in each of two populations: those who had never been vaccinated for smallpox (naive) and those who had previous vaccination. (fda.gov)
  • The threat of smallpox bioterrorism has prompted reconsideration of the need for smallpox vaccination. (news-medical.net)
  • Smallpox was eradicated by the WHO-led public health surveillance and targeted vaccination programme that began in 1967. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Smallpox vaccination of civilians is now indicated only for laboratory workers directly involved with smallpox (variola virus) or closely related orthopox viruses (e.g., monkeypox, vaccinia, and others). (cdc.gov)
  • There is no evidence that smallpox vaccination has any value in the treatment or prevention of recurrent herpes simplex infection, warts, or any disease other than those caused by orthopox viruses (8). (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox vaccination is no longer required for international travel. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Certificates of Vaccination no longer include a smallpox vaccination certificate. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC can assist physicians in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected complications of smallpox vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Health-care workers are requested to report complications of smallpox vaccination to CDC through state and local health departments. (cdc.gov)
  • Thanks to vaccination efforts, smallpox - killer of hundreds of millions people around the world over the course of the 20th century alone - was eradicated in 1979. (latimes.com)
  • In the absence of immunity induced by vaccination, humans appear to be universally susceptible to infection with smallpox. (who.int)
  • Smallpox has existed for at least 3,000 years and was one of the world's most feared diseases until it was eradicated by a collaborative global vaccination programme led by the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • There Is No Specific Treatment For Smallpox Disease, And The Only Prevention Is A Smallpox Vaccination. (cnn.com)
  • ALTAMONTE SPRINGS, FL - A vial of dried smallpox vaccination is shown December 5, 2002 in Altamonte Springs, Florida. (cnn.com)
  • Smallpox, also known as variola, was declared eradicated in 1980 by the World Health Organization after a concerted global vaccination effort. (cnn.com)
  • Long a dreaded scourge of humans, smallpox was wiped out around the world by 1980 due to an aggressive vaccination program. (nationaljewish.org)
  • We expect that our research program will lead to safer smallpox vaccination for atopic dermatitis patients and a more thorough protection of our population against a bioterrorist attack using the smallpox virus,' said Dr. Leung. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The last case of smallpox in the U.S. was diagnosed in 1971, and routine smallpox vaccination stopped in the U.S. in 1972. (heartland.org)
  • Ring vaccination is how smallpox became a disease of the past. (heartland.org)
  • Although the smallpox epidemic killed nearly 14% of Boston's population, Onesimus' sharing of the practice of variolation set the stage for vaccination. (rush.edu)
  • The Calvert County Health Department, along with all counties in the state, has submitted a smallpox vaccination plan to the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (calverthealth.org)
  • Phase 1 of the plan is to have in place a pre-vaccinated health workforce that could implement a larger-scale vaccination effort and provide patient care if a smallpox outbreak were to occur. (calverthealth.org)
  • Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but the disease is now extinct after a successful worldwide vaccination program. (calverthealth.org)
  • Our findings suggest that most Chinese populations still maintain VTT-specific IgG antibodies for 42 or more years after smallpox vaccination and could provide some level of protection against MPXV. (nature.com)
  • Vaccination using VACV against smallpox has been shown to provide 85% protection against MPXV infection based on epidemiological features, as observed in Zaire in the past. (nature.com)
  • 10 Few people born following the eradication of smallpox have received smallpox vaccination, making those younger than 43 years old vulnerable to other orthopoxviruses, such as MPXV and CPXV infections. (nature.com)
  • As witnessed by the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox and near eradication of polio, vaccination against infectious diseases has been a true success story of medical science. (bmj.com)
  • We embed this traced vaccination policy in a smallpox disease transmission model to estimate the number of cases and deaths that would result from an attack in a large urban area. (stanford.edu)
  • The widespread introduction of effective vaccination in the 19th century diminished - but did not eliminate - smallpox in the western world, and it persisted in many areas well into the 20th century . (inverse.com)
  • Robbie Martin continues his series on the George W Bush smallpox bioterror scare, this time laying out the series of events and shining a light on the hyperbolic media coverage that culminated with the official Whitehouse smallpox vaccination rollout plan. (mediaroots.org)
  • The campaign] was a remarkable experience, and something I'm very proud to have been part of," Henderson told the Hub in January 2015 in advance of the opening of a Welch Medical Library exhibition titled Smallpox: Vaccination/Eradication . (jhu.edu)
  • Once the disease and its method of spread were understood better, smallpox vaccination became mandatory in developed countries in the early 1900s. (medscape.com)
  • Thousands of years ago, variola virus (smallpox virus) emerged and began causing illness and deaths in human populations, with smallpox outbreaks occurring from time to time. (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by variola virus (often called smallpox virus) which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox is an acute, contagious disease caused by the variola virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus , in the Poxviridae family (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Smallpox is a serious, highly contagious and often fatal infectious disease caused by the variola virus that emerged in human populations thousands of years ago. (fda.gov)
  • In its decision WHA64(11) (2011), following review of smallpox research undertaken, the Sixty- fourth World Health Assembly reaffirmed earlier decisions (resolutions WHA49.10 (1996) and WHA52.10 (1999)) that the remaining stocks of variola virus should be destroyed. (who.int)
  • Historical accounts and lesions found on Egyptian mummies suggest that the Variola virus, which causes smallpox, has plagued people for thousands of years. (newscientist.com)
  • The additional recommendations, which along with the green-marker proposal have yet to be approved by WHO, would allow labs around the world to work with fragments of the variola virus as large as 20% of the whole genome, according to Daniel Lavanchy, WHO's in-house smallpox expert. (the-scientist.com)
  • Smallpox is an ancient disease caused by the variola virus. (who.int)
  • Smallpox was a serious illness caused by the variola virus. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Photo credit: WHO Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by Variola virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family. (who.int)
  • Previous scientific analysis of the 16th century remains-which did not include DNA testing-suggested the child was infected with Variola virus, or smallpox. (newswise.com)
  • Smallpox is a highly contagious, very deadly disease caused by the variola virus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Smallpox is caused by the variola virus. (bioedge.org)
  • Before its 1980 eradication, variola virus, the virus that leads to smallpox, it was mainly spread by direct contact between people. (labroots.com)
  • This year, 2020, the world is commemorating the 40-year anniversary of the declaration of the eradication of smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • That's the model for the successful eradication of smallpox throughout the world," says Dr. Robert Baltimore, a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Infectious Diseases. (heartland.org)
  • The global eradication of smallpox was certified, based on intense verification activities in countries, by a commission of eminent scientists in December 1979 and subsequently endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1980. (who.int)
  • Did the Eradication of Smallpox Accidentally Help the Spread of HIV? (discovermagazine.com)
  • Klag described the eradication of smallpox as "one of the greatest public health achievements in history. (jhu.edu)
  • In 1980, the World Health Assembly declared smallpox eradicated (eliminated), and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since. (cdc.gov)
  • The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980, making smallpox the only human disease to be eradicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • General routine vaccinations for smallpox were stopped in the United States in 1971, and the world was declared free of smallpox in 1980. (news-medical.net)
  • At the World Health Assembly in May 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the world free of smallpox (1-4). (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Assembly declared smallpox eradicated in 1980. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Smallpox has been eradicated since 1980. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Scientists found vials of the deadly smallpox virus in an old storage room at an unsecured government lab outside Washington, D.C. The smallpox virus was declared eradicated from the world in 1980. (npr.org)
  • Monkeypox is less dangerous and contagious than smallpox, which was eradicated in 1980. (aljazeera.com)
  • In 8 May 1980, the World Health Organisation declared that "the world and its peoples have won freedom from smallpox. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The CDC says on its website that there have been no cases of smallpox in the United States since 1949 and that it was declared eradicated by the World Health Assembly in 1980. (politifact.com)
  • The last known natural case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977, and in May 1980 the World Health Assembly declared the disease officially eradicated . (inverse.com)
  • Even though eradicated in 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that smallpox as a contagious and sometimes fatal infectious disease that can be used as a bioweapon. (labroots.com)
  • Smallpox officially was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. (medscape.com)
  • In 1980, the Soviet Union commenced large-scale production of the smallpox virus and genetic recombination of strains that are more virulent. (medscape.com)
  • Even so, a suspected case of smallpox is a public health emergency and must be promptly investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • The last case of smallpox in the United States was in 1949. (calverthealth.org)
  • The last case of smallpox was reported in 1977. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The last reported cases of smallpox in humans were laboratory-acquired. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There haven't been any cases of smallpox in the last 45 years. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • There have been no cases of smallpox since 1977. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In the early 1950s, an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred worldwide each year. (jhu.edu)
  • How did we eradicate smallpox? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • I also talked to D. A. Henderson, the researcher who led the effort to eradicate smallpox. (npr.org)
  • In 1959, the World Health Organization initiated a program to eradicate smallpox worldwide , but the effort didn't really get underway until 1967. (inverse.com)
  • Donald Ainslie Henderson , former dean of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health who led the World Health Organization's successful 10-year effort to eradicate smallpox, died Friday at Gilchrist Hospice Care in Towson, Maryland. (jhu.edu)
  • Military officers who had acquired immunity to smallpox were chosen to deploy to regions where the disease was active. (theconversation.com)
  • Cowpox virus "scarification" by Jenner, used to induce protective immunity against smallpox, is not a single species but a group of up to 5 virus species that infects cows, humans, and other animals. (medscape.com)
  • A large proportion of the population has no immunity and fatality rates could be higher than 25% if smallpox were to be released as a bioterrorist weapon. (fda.gov)
  • It had been around for thousands of years .Survivors of smallpox already had immunity. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The hope was that smallpox symptoms would be milder and also create some degree of immunity in the future. (rush.edu)
  • It is urgent to assess the level of immunity to smallpox in individuals vaccinated 43 or more years ago and evaluate their immunological susceptibility to MPXV. (nature.com)
  • Later that century, English doctor Edward Jenner discovered that inoculation with a closely related virus, cowpox, also conferred immunity to smallpox but was much safer . (inverse.com)
  • To reconstruct the evolutionary history of smallpox, scientists need to compare the DNA from virus samples preserved at various times. (inverse.com)
  • Smallpox is a potentially fatal disease that starts with fever and vomiting and an outbreak of ulcers in the mouth and a skin rash. (health.mil)
  • In the event of a smallpox outbreak, Calvert County's public safety and health officials in partnership with the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and The Center for Disease Control and Prevention are prepared to respond quickly to protect you and your family. (calverthealth.org)
  • In the event of a smallpox bioterrorist attack in a large U.S. city, the interim response policy is to isolate symptomatic cases, trace and vaccinate their contacts, quarantine febrile contacts, but vaccinate more broadly if the outbreak cannot be contained by these measures. (stanford.edu)
  • Smallpox research in the United States continues and focuses on the development of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests to protect people against smallpox in the event that it is used as an agent of bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
  • it does not contain the smallpox virus, but rather the "live" vaccinia virus - not dead virus like many other vaccines. (fda.gov)
  • The Advisory Committee reviewed the work of each centre and pharmaceutical companies cooperating in the authorized programme of research for the development of diagnostic tests, smallpox vaccines, and antiviral and therapeutic agents. (who.int)
  • State media also confirmed that the facility, which is "known for having developed vaccines for Ebola and hepatitis, as well as for studying epidemics and general issues surrounding immunology," was part of a "now-defunct Soviet biological weapons program," and that "some of the most dangerous strains-including smallpox, Ebola, anthrax and certain plagues-are still being kept inside the Institute's building. (forbes.com)
  • DENVER - The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded a five-year, $20.7 million grant to National Jewish Medical and Research Center to lead a consortium of academic medical centers trying to make smallpox vaccines safer for millions of people with atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Vaccines have helped us eliminate and/or control smallpox, measles, chickenpox and polio, and it will be what leads to the end of this pandemic," adds Sha, who also is a ​professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases in the Department of Internal Medicine at Rush Medical College. (rush.edu)
  • The virus which causes smallpox is contagious and spreads through person-to- person contact and saliva droplets in an infected person's breath. (who.int)
  • Two laboratories (one in the U.S. and one in Russia) have stocks of the virus that causes smallpox for research purposes only. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • But because of the recent concern about biowarfare and bioterrorism throughout the world, the U.S. government is making efforts to improve its ability to protect its citizens in the event of a bioterrorist attack involving the smallpox virus (Variola major virus). (news-medical.net)
  • Safety guidelines were established to prevent the spread of smallpox when offers of tribute were brought from visiting dignitaries and when arranging audiences with the emperor. (theconversation.com)
  • Beginning in the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) led efforts to stop the spread of smallpox worldwide. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Unlike some other diseases, getting vaccinated following exposure to smallpox could provide protective effects. (news-medical.net)
  • A flurry of efforts to beef up the state's ability to cope with a bioterrorism attack followed, with legislation presented to Gov. Jeb Bush on Tuesday giving the state health secretary specific powers in a public health emergency such as smallpox. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Mr Gates suggested that the "germ-games" could include preparing for acts of bioterrorism such as smallpox attacks on airports. (yahoo.com)
  • When the MSM covered smallpox bioterrorism from 2002-2003, Iraq becomes an increasingly mentioned potential suspect for unleashing this deadly plague. (mediaroots.org)
  • This is Part 3 of an ongoing Anthrax-adjacent Media Roots Radio series about Smallpox bioterrorism. (mediaroots.org)
  • He was an incredible raconteur who had, it seemed, a million stories about his life in public health, ranging from the influenza epidemic of 1957 to running the WHO smallpox program to initiating and leading our nation's preparedness and response efforts for bioterrorism. (jhu.edu)
  • In 1977, a health care field worker conducts a house-to-house search for possible smallpox-infected inhabitants. (inverse.com)
  • From 1966 to 1977, he was director of the WHO's global smallpox eradication campaign. (jhu.edu)
  • In 1716, an African slave named Onesimus (pronounced oh-NESS-see-muss) told his owner, Cotton Mather, an influential Boston minister, that he knew how to prevent smallpox, and that he in fact had it and had been cured of it. (rush.edu)
  • Magnification 65,000X. Smallpox Is A Serious, Highly Contagious, And Sometimes Fatal Infectious Viral Disease. (cnn.com)
  • Smallpox, a highly contagious and infectious disease, was rampant in New England and other American colonies in the early 1700s. (rush.edu)
  • Smallpox is a serious, highly contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. (calverthealth.org)
  • As a result of smallpox infection, whole civilizations, including the Incas and the Aztecs, were destroyed in a single generation, and efforts to ward off the disease indelibly affected the practice of religion and medicine. (medscape.com)
  • That evidence suggested that she had suffered a "sudden and lethal infection," perhaps from smallpox. (latimes.com)
  • A week before Florida's chief epidemiologist received a call from Palm Beach County about a possible anthrax case there, he was scrambling on a report that a Gainesville graduate student might have smallpox, a contagious viral infection that kills one out of three victims. (educate-yourself.org)
  • TPOXX safety was evaluated using clinical trials on 359 healthy human volunteers without a smallpox infection and the most frequently reported side effects included a headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. (labroots.com)
  • Because of the ease of production and aerosolization of the virus (only 10-100 virus particles are needed for infection), smallpox is a potential biological weapon. (medscape.com)
  • Non-governmental organizations around the world are urging the World Health Organization to block a dangerous proposal that would allow the smallpox virus to be genetically engineered, and to ensure that remaining stocks of the virus are destroyed within two years. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • During the wide-ranging interview , Gates spoke of the need for a World Health Organization task force that could run what he called "germ games," where countries could prepare for bioterror attacks, citing as an example: "What if a bioterrorist brought smallpox to 10 airports. (politifact.com)
  • While Pexa-Vec is derived from vaccinia virus and is similar to smallpox, it doesn't contain smallpox and cannot cause the disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT) was used to vaccinate against smallpox in China 42 years ago. (nature.com)
  • All have been diseases other than smallpox, most commonly chickenpox or other rash illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • Smallpox only naturally infects humans and does not exist in a carrier state. (medscape.com)
  • Smallpox no longer exists in humans or spreads naturally. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Elephant pox, which is related to the human disease smallpox, can be contracted by humans. (elephant.se)
  • The U.S. stopped routine smallpox vaccinations in 1972. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because it spread only among close contacts, health officials could contain smallpox outbreaks with "ring vaccinations. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • As a result, military and healthcare professionals have begun receiving smallpox vaccinations for the first time in more than 30 years. (nationaljewish.org)
  • As early as 1622, imperial Manchu bannermen had implemented a precursor to our modern-day coronavirus tracing apps, with squad leaders required to report anyone showing symptoms of smallpox. (theconversation.com)
  • Everyone who had smallpox had symptoms, including a characteristic rash. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What are the symptoms of smallpox? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Ordinary smallpox was the most common type of smallpox and caused the symptoms described above. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Flat-type smallpox caused more severe initial symptoms than ordinary smallpox. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Some people who underwent variolation still developed severe symptoms and even died from smallpox. (rush.edu)
  • Mpox is a zoonotic disease caused by the mpox virus (MPXV) characterized by smallpox-like symptoms, including fever and rash, but the signs of mpox are milder and the mortality rate is lower than those of smallpox. (nature.com)
  • Containment worked because people infected with the smallpox virus do not pass it on until they exhibit obvious symptoms . (inverse.com)
  • In addition, there were two very rare and fulminating types of smallpox, the malignant (flat) and hemorrhagic forms, which were usually fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, variola major disease could take several very different courses, which resulted in four types of smallpox disease based on the Rao classification: ordinary, modified, malignant (or flat), and hemorrhagic smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • many very knowledgeable and very boring [Chinese] essays on the origin and the cause of smallpox. (theconversation.com)
  • Three decades after the threat of smallpox was eliminated, international disputes have resurfaced with greater intensity about whether to destroy the only known specimens of the virus that causes one of humanity's worst afflictions. (bioedge.org)
  • The earliest evidence of smallpox comes from ancient Egypt circa 1157 BCE, where the mummified remains of a pockmarked Ramses V were uncovered. (medscape.com)
  • There is no evidence of smallpox transmission anywhere in the world. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have questions about smallpox you can call the Calvert County Health Department, Disease Surveillance and Control Division during business hours at 410.535.5400. (calverthealth.org)
  • Collaborating Centre for Smallpox and Other Poxvirus Infections, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America. (who.int)
  • The proposals would also permit the two smallpox repository labs-one at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta and the other at Novosibirsk in Russia-to insert variola genes one at a time into other viruses in. (the-scientist.com)
  • Imvanex has been approved in the EU since 2013 for the prevention of smallpox. (aljazeera.com)
  • If there were a release of the smallpox virus, we would vaccinate people immediately after the release," Frey said. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, a form called variola sine eruptione (smallpox without rash) was seen generally in vaccinated persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person infected with smallpox develops a rash characterized as raised pocks on the face and body. (fda.gov)
  • Smallpox caused a hard, blistering rash over most of your body that left disfiguring scars. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • What does a smallpox rash look like? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The smallpox rash starts in your mouth and on your face and quickly covers most of your body. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This was similar to ordinary smallpox, but the rash was less severe and didn't last as long. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Smallpox is a contagious disease and kills as many as 30% of those infected. (who.int)
  • Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest (a disease of even-toed ungulates) in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the plan includes Calvert County's response to an actual smallpox event. (calverthealth.org)
  • Through genetic engineering or targeted mutations, laboratories that receive pieces of the smallpox genome may be able to create smallpox or a novel virus with its characteristics without ever receiving an actual sample of Variola major . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Historically, ordinary smallpox had an overall fatality rate of about 30%, and the malignant and hemorrhagic forms were usually fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1 in 3 people with ordinary smallpox died. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) develop ordinary or hemorrhagic smallpox depending on the size of the inoculum. (medscape.com)
  • How did they find these vials of smallpox virus? (npr.org)
  • Preliminary DNA tests showed that the six vials contained smallpox virus, though the CDC can't yet confirm if it was still infectious. (npr.org)
  • BLOCK: And have they been able to trace back where these vials of smallpox virus came from in the first place? (npr.org)
  • BLOCK: What happens to these vials of smallpox virus now? (npr.org)
  • In 2014, employees of the National Institutes of Health found six vials of smallpox in an unused storage room as they packed up a lab at the NIH's Bethesda, Maryland, campus to move it. (cnn.com)
  • Says Bill Gates is linked to the discovery of vials labeled "smallpox" at Pennsylvania lab. (politifact.com)
  • Vials labeled "smallpox" were found in a freezer at a lab in Pennsylvania, not long after Bill Gates cited a smallpox attack in an interview. (politifact.com)
  • That interview, coupled with the recent news that vials labeled "smallpox" were found in a Pennsylvania lab several days later, has sparked numerous social media claims suggesting the two are linked. (politifact.com)
  • The vials labeled "smallpox" were found at a Merck lab in Montgomery County, outside Philadelphia, according to NBC Philadelphia. (politifact.com)
  • A Facebook post suggests there's a link between a Bill Gates interview where he mentions possible smallpox attacks and the discovery of vials labeled "smallpox" in a lab freezer in Pennsylvania a week later. (politifact.com)
  • Smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1979. (who.int)
  • Smallpox no longer occurs naturally since it was totally eradicated by a lengthy and painstaking process, which identified all cases and their contacts and ensured that they were all vaccinated. (who.int)
  • Of those Boylston inoculated, one in 40 died of smallpox, while of those who contracted it naturally, one in seven died of smallpox. (rush.edu)
  • Strengthening national preparedness for smallpox: an update. (cdc.gov)
  • By vaccinating and controlling outbreaks, they rid the world of smallpox. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • He did suggest that governments fund more research in a worldwide effort to prepare for the next pandemic, which he said could come from bioterror attacks, citing a smallpox attack at airports as a possible example. (politifact.com)
  • At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. (scoop.it)
  • Smallpox was fatal in up to 30% of cases. (who.int)
  • Smallpox is estimated to be fatal to one-third of unvaccinated individuals exposed to the virus. (heartland.org)
  • Variola minor is a less common presentation, causing less severe disease, typically discrete smallpox, with historical death rates of 1% or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1950s, Henderson served as chief of the Epidemic Intelligence Service at the Centers for Disease Control, then as chief of the Smallpox Eradication Program at CDC. (jhu.edu)