Ribosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Edeine: Basic peptide antibiotic from Bacillus brevis. It exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis.Imidoesters: Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Ribosome Subunits, Large: The largest ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the domains which catalyze formation of the peptide bond and translocation of the ribosome along the MESSENGER RNA during GENETIC TRANSLATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ribosome Subunits: The two dissimilar sized ribonucleoprotein complexes that comprise a RIBOSOME - the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. The eukaryotic 80S ribosome is composed of a 60S large subunit and a 40S small subunit. The bacterial 70S ribosome is composed of a 50S large subunit and a 30S small subunit.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial: The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Protein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Prokaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Deinococcus: A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Sparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-1: The smallest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 8 kD. It binds near the A-site of the 30S subunit of RIBOSOMES and may play a role in preventing premature addition of aminoacyl-tRNA-linked PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR TU to the ribosome during the initiation of a peptide chain (PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL).Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Viomycin: A strongly basic peptide, antibiotic complex from several strains of Streptomyces. It is allergenic and toxic to kidneys and the labyrinth. Viomycin is used in tuberculosis as several different salts and in combination with other agents.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5: A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complexModels, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Peptide Elongation Factor G: Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hygromycin B: Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.Capreomycin: Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.N-Formylmethionine: Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Emetine: The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).RNA, Small Nucleolar: Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Peptide Elongation Factor 1: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.PseudouridineDEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific: A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major ... Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S). References[edit]. *^ 40S+Ribosomal+Subunits at the US National Library of Medicine ... Structure of the T. thermophila,' proteins from the structures of the large subunit PDBS 417, 4A19 and small subunit PDB 2XZM ... 40S ribosomal proteins[edit]. The table "40S ribosomal proteins" shows the individual protein folds of the 40S subunit colored ...
... the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid. "Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA". "Halobacterium salinarum 23S ribosomal RNA ... Large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (LSU rRNA) is the largest of the two major RNA components of the ribosome. Associated ... with a number of ribosomal proteins, the LSU rRNA forms the large subunit of the ribosome. The LSU rRNA acts as a ribozyme, ... ". "Homo sapiens 28S ribosomal RNA (nuclear)". Homo sapiens mitochondrion, complete genome. "Revised Cambridge Reference ...
2000). "A proteomics approach to the identification of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins". J. Biol. Chem ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has been called mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 in the literature. GRCh38: ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... The DAP3 gene encodes a 46 kDa protein located in the lower area of the small mitoribosomal subunit. This protein contains a P- ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ... 28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is one of the more highly conserved mitochondrial ribosomal proteins among mammals ... 28S ribosomal protein S33, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS33 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 2001). "Identification of four proteins from the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome using a proteomics ... 28S ribosomal protein S35, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS35 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 28S ribosomal protein S30, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS30 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is similar to the chicken pro-apoptotic protein p52. Transcript variants using ...
"The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S17P family. The encoded protein is moderately ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ...
2000). "A proteomics approach to the identification of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins". J. Biol. Chem ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... 28S ribosomal protein S25, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS25 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
2000). "A proteomics approach to the identification of mammalian mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal proteins". J. Biol. Chem ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... The encoded protein is a key component of the ribosomal small subunit and controls the decoding fidelity and susceptibility to ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ...
Hamacher, K.; Trylska, J.; McCammon, J.A. (2006). "Dependency Map of Proteins in the Small Ribosomal Subunit". PLoS Comput. ... The model has a wide range of applications from small proteins such as enzymes composed of a single domain, to large ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... 28S ribosomal protein S26, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS26 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. This gene lies adjacent to and downstream of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ... 28S ribosomal protein S7, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRPS7 gene. Mammalian mitochondrial ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that contains a high level of sequence similarity with ribosomal protein S11P family ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J Biol Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200. ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S16P family. The encoded protein is one of the ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S6P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this ... Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 33181-95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103236200 ...
... using a small-subunit ribosomal DNA". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 75 (12): 2112-2119. doi:10.1139/z97-846. CS1 maint: Multiple ...
2000). "Structure of functionally activated small ribosomal subunit at 3.3 angstroms resolution". Cell. 102 (5): 615-23. doi: ... A candidate phylum was defined by Hugenholtz and Pace in 1998, as a set of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences with less than 85% ... "ARB-Silva: comprehensive ribosomal RNA database". The ARB development Team. Retrieved January 2, 2016. "Hierarchy Browser". ... for example their ribosomal DNA. The lack of easily accessible morphological features, such as those present in animals and ...
Pawlowski, J.; Holzmann, M.; Fahrni, J.; Richardson, S.L. (2003). "Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the ... However, so far little is known about their biology and ecological role in deep-sea ecosystems. They seem to be unicellular, ... For this reason, very little is known of their life history. As they occur in all the world's oceans and in great numbers, ...
RNA, ribosomal 3, also known as RNR3, is a human gene. It is a minor isoform of large subunit of ribonucleotide-diphosphate ... regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of small subunits; RNR3 has a paralog, RNR1, ... 1985). "Variation among human 28S ribosomal RNA genes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 (22): 7666-70. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.22. ... McCallum FS, Maden BE (1986). "Human 18 S ribosomal RNA sequence inferred from DNA sequence. Variations in 18 S sequences and ...
2000). "Structure of functionally activated small ribosomal subunit at 3.3 angstroms resolution". Cell. 102 (5): 615-23. doi: ... The gene used was the 16S ribosomal DNA. The names have been changed to reflect more current nomenclature used by molecular ... divided Eubacteria into 11 divisions based on 16S ribosomal RNA (SSU) sequences: Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later ...
21 September 2000). "Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit". Nature. London: Nature Publishing Group. 407 (6802): 327-339. ... Coughlan, Andy (2016) "Smallest ever genome comes to life: Humans built it but we don't know what a third of its genes actually ... A very small minority of studies have concluded differently, namely that the root is in the Domain Bacteria, either in the ... A small bias (enantiomeric excess) in the population can be amplified into a large one by asymmetric autocatalysis, such as in ...
There are now at least 13 genetically distinct small subunit ribosomal RNA lineages. These additional subtypes were found in a ... January 2003). "Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts based on the comparison of small-subunit ... As compared to the other forms, it is generally smaller in size and has a thick multilayered cyst wall. It lacks a central ...
21 ribosomal proteins, and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the ... "Functional characterization of sequence motifs in the transit peptide of Arabidopsis small subunit of rubisco". Plant ... Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... Toc159 is another GTP binding TOC subunit, like Toc34. Toc159 has three domains. At the N-terminal end is the A-domain, which ...
The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major ... Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S). References[edit]. *^ 40S+Ribosomal+Subunits at the US National Library of Medicine ... Structure of the T. thermophila, proteins from the structures of the large subunit PDBS 417, 4A19 and small subunit PDB 2XZM ... 40S ribosomal proteins[edit]. The table "40S ribosomal proteins" shows the individual protein folds of the 40S subunit colored ...
The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes. It is a ... The small ribosomal subunit is made up of 16S rRNA and 19 full proteins. There is also one polypeptide chain that measures in ... H27 in the small subunit as well as binding to the A-site in the large subunit.Puromycin is a common inhibitor of ribosomal ... Then the large ribosomal subunit will bind and protein synthesis will continue. The binding of the large subunit causes a ...
The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major ... Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S) 40S Ribosomal Subunits at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Structure of the T. thermophila, proteins from the structures of the large subunit PDBS 417, 4A19 and small subunit PDB 2XZM ... In the figure "Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic 40S Ribosomal Subunit from T. thermophila", the ribosomal RNA core is ...
Database on the structure of small ribosomal subunit RNA.. Van de Peer Y1, Nicolaï S, De Rijk P, De Wachter R. ... The Antwerp database on small ribosomal subunit RNA offers over 4300 nucleotide sequences (August 1995). All these sequences ...
As cryptic morphology, low parasitaemia and selective growth in culture have recurrently biased survey, we used 18S ribosomal ... Ribosomal RNA Is the Subject Area "Ribosomal RNA" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... Phylogeny of the genus Corynebacterium deduced from analyses of small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences Int J Syst Bacteriol. ... We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... The variability of chemotaxonomic characteristics within the genus Corynebacterium suggests that small-subunit ribosomal DNA ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
EVP-87 small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence Microsporidium sp. EVP-87 small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial ...
Is not able to methylate uridine at this position (PubMed:20047967). Has also an essential role in 40S ribosomal subunit ... biogenesis independent on its methyltransferase activity, facilitating the incorporation of ribosomal protein S19 during the ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase NEP1Add BLAST. 243. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase NEP11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information which has been inferred by a ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in ribosomal small subunit biogenesis pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in ribosomal small subunit biogenesis pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
Two new small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene lineages within the subclass gymnamoebia. Publication Status is Submitted Or In ... dactylopodia; glycostyles; gymnamoebae; paramoebidae; parasome; protist; scales; small-subunit ribosomal rna; subpseudopodia; ... Phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences for gymnamoebae of the families Vexilliferidae, ...
May play a critical role in biogenesis of 30S subunits. ... sp,Q17ZF9,RSMA_HELAH Ribosomal RNA small subunit ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase AUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase A. HELPY. 271. UniRef90_O25972. Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase A. ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase A. HELPY. 271. UniRef50_O25972. Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase A. ...
Small Subunit Ribosomal DNA Suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula1 is a Foraminiferan. Authors. *. JAN ... To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of ...
The canonical translation initiation pathway begins with cap-dependent attachment of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) to the ... Migration of Small Ribosomal Subunits on the 5′ Untranslated Regions of Capped Messenger RNA by Nikolay E. Shirokikh 1,*, Yulia ... "Migration of Small Ribosomal Subunits on the 5′ Untranslated Regions of Capped Messenger RNA." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 18: ... Shirokikh, N.E.; Dutikova, Y.S.; Staroverova, M.A.; Hannan, R.D.; Preiss, T. Migration of Small Ribosomal Subunits on the 5′ ...
Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using ei … ... Ribosomal small subunit sequence variation within spores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Scutellospora sp Mol Ecol. 1999 ... Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using either the universal ...
... two different small subunit ribosomal proteins that assemble into pre-40S subunits in the nucleus are retained in the nucleus ... small subunit ribosomal proteins used as markers for the localization of 40S subunits. We suggest that the nuclear retention of ... Moy, T. I., and P. A. Silver, 2002 Requirements for the nuclear export of the small ribosomal subunit. J. Cell Sci. 115: 2985- ... GFP-tagged versions of small subunit ribosomal proteins, RpS2 (Milkereit et al. 2003) and RpS3 (Seiser et al. 2006), have both ...
Using a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we ... f LARGE SEQUENCE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE OF PLASMODIUM OVALE IN CAMBODIA * SANDRA INCARDONA1, ... Primary sequences of two small subunit ribosomal RNA genes from Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol 28 : 63-68.. [ ... Using a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we ...
The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit ... The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit ... The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit ... The Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein EMB2654 Is Essential for Trans-Splicing of a Chloroplast Small Ribosomal Subunit ...
The small ribosomal subunit is responsible for the decoding of genetic information and plays a key role in the initiation of ... 1999) The small ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus at 4.5 Å resolution: pattern fittings and the identification of a ... The small ribosomal subunit (30S in prokaryotes) is responsible for decoding the genetic information. It plays a central role ... In contrast, a more recent cryo‐EM study on the Thermus small ribosomal subunit (McCutcheon et al., 1999) localized IF3C on the ...
Rsm28p is a small-subunit mitochondrial ribosomal protein.To examine wild-type Rsm28p and the suppressor form of the protein, ... The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present ... A novel small subunit ribosomal protein of yeast mitochondria that interacts functionally with an mRNA-specific translational ... In this study we describe an as-yet-undetected yeast mitochondrial ribosomal small-subunit protein, Rsm28p, as the product of a ...
Bhattacharya, D. and Medlin, L. (1995): Phylogeny of plastids A review based on comparisons of small subunit ribosomal RNA ... Phylogeny of plastids A review based on comparisons of small subunit ribosomal RNA coding regions ...
844 base pairs were compared after sequencing the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene spanning the most variable area within the ... Phylogeny and dating of some pathogenic keratinophilic fungi using small subunit ribosomal RNA.. @article{ ... Phylogeny and dating of some pathogenic keratinophilic fungi using small subunit ribosomal RNA.}, author={Dag Harmsen and ... A new marker sequence for systematics of medically important fungi based on amino acid sequence of the largest subunit of RNA ...
In this paper, the association between polymorphism of the small sub-unit ribosomal RNA apicoplastic gene pfssrRNA (PFC10_ ... and S17 of the 30S small ribosomal sub-unit and various ribonucleic acids of the 16S ribosomal RNA, preventing the binding of ... Crystal structures of complexes of the small ribosomal subunit with tetracycline, edeine and IF3. EMBO J. 2001;20:1829-39. ... However, no point mutation was found in small sub-unit plastid ribosomal homologue plasmodial genes in African isolates (pfrps7 ...
... end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates of the deuteromycete mycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum ... De Wachter R, Neefs J, Goris A, Van de Peer Y (1992) The gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete ... Group-I intron family in the nuclear ribosomal RNA small subunit genes ofCenococcum geophilum isolates. ... A family of optional group-I introns was found near the 3′ end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates ...
  • The majority of the protein-coding genes encode primary components of the photosynthetic apparatus, including major subunits of photosystems I and II, cytochrome b 6 f , the NDH complex, and ATP synthase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A family of optional group-I introns was found near the 3′ end of the nuclear small subunit rRNA genes in 61 out of 70 isolates of the deuteromycete mycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum . (springer.com)
  • Taken together with previous results, 22 of the 54 E. coli ribosomal protein genes can be individually deleted from the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malaria parasites have distinct small subunit ribo- morphologic features of the malaria parasite stages in the somal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes that are developmentally blood were described for the Kalimantan orangutans by regulated ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The recorded P. knowlesi infections in humans were discovered and confirmed by a PCR assay using a set of oligonucleotide primers (Pmk8 and Pmkr9) that target one of the parasite's small-subunit rRNA (ssrRNA) genes ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The presence of multiple, slightly differing variants of the nuclear-encoded ribosomal RNA genes in single spores may or may not be due to this possible nuclear heterogeneity. (tolweb.org)
  • miRNAs are ~21 nucleotide long small noncoding RNA molecules, formed endogenously in most of the eukaryotes, which mainly control their target genes post transcriptionally by interacting and silencing them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The differences in the evolutionary rates in the ribosomal genes of dinoflagellates, especially SSU rDNA and also in the domains of the LSU rDNA, has yielded phylogenetic trees with a characteristic structure: a large group of short branched sequences, the so-called Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales and Peridiniales complex (GPP complex), and a group with longer branches including Gonyaulacales and other taxa (Saunders et al. (scribd.com)
  • Living organisms contain several hundred copies of the genes required for the two molecules of ribosomal RNA. (wisegeek.com)
  • We suggest that the proximal consequence of these LTV1 mutations is inhibition of the cytoplasmic maturation of 40S subunits and that nuclear retention of pre-40S subunits is a downstream consequence of the failure to release and recycle critical factors back to the nucleus. (genetics.org)
  • Our findings uncover the existence of an extraribosomal complex consisting of PDCD2L, RPS2, and PRMT3 and support a role for PDCD2L in the late maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. (asm.org)
  • Ribotyping has been successfully applied to the phylogenetic analysis and detection of species in the genus Spiroplasma ( 21 ) and in the closely related genus Mycoplasma ( 51 , 48 ), whose members are even smaller than spiroplasmas. (asm.org)
  • Given the position of this structure in the three-dimensional model of the small subunit and the additional interactions that are likely to form in the same rRNA region, the central domain pseudoknot appears to contribute to a complex structure of rRNA that controls the conformational state of the ribosome. (nebraska.edu)
  • The "40S" and "60S" names originate from the convention that ribosomal particles are denoted according to their sedimentation coefficients in Svedberg units . (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering available data on tetracycline interactions with the prokaryotic 30S subunits, including the presented data (E.coli), X-ray data (T.thermophilus) and genetic data (Helicobacter pylori, E.coli), a second high affinity tetracycline binding site is proposed within the 3'-major domain of the 16S rRNA, in addition to the A-site related tetracycline binding site. (mpg.de)
  • that binds Crm1 directly in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner ( T homas and K utay 2003 ) and is thought to recruit Crm1 to the pre-60S subunit in the nucleoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • Single mutations of U to A at 571 or A to U at 865 dramatically altered the structural stability of the 30S subunit and also impaired the function of the subunit in translation. (nebraska.edu)
  • We show that EMB2654 is required for the trans-splicing of the plastid rps12 transcript and that therefore the emb2654 mutant lacks Rps12 protein and fails to assemble the small subunit of the plastid ribosome, explaining the loss of plastid translation and consequent embryo-lethal phenotype. (plantphysiol.org)