Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).DimethylaminesDrug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)GlucosidesWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Sodium Cholate: A trihydroxy bile salt that is used as a digestive aid in dietary supplements. It is used in culture media and in conjunction with PAPAIN and PANCREATIN.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Reverse micelles as hosts for proteins and small molecules ; P.P. Luisi, M. Giomini, M.P. Pileni, B. Robinson ; Biochem. ... 947, 209-216, (1988). Reverse micelles : a microreactors ; M.P. Pileni ; J. Phys.Chem. 97, 6961-6974 (1993). Nanosized ...
Excess surfactant creates micelles in the water. Small amounts of monomer diffuse through the water to the micelle. A water- ... micelles}}{2N_{A}}}} where N m i c e l l e s {\displaystyle N_{micelles}} is number concentration of micelles (number of ... Monomer in the micelle quickly polymerizes and the growing chain terminates. At this point the monomer-swollen micelle has ... Those micelles that did not encounter a radical during the earlier stage of conversion begin to disappear, losing their monomer ...
"Small Bioactivated Magnetic Quantum Dot Micelles" (PDF). Chemistry of Materials. 20 (21): 6657-6665. doi:10.1021/cm801423r. ... Once solubilized by encapsulation in either a hydrophobic interior micelle or a hydrophilic exterior micelle, the QDs can be ... which will spontaneously form micellular structures at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The critical micelle ... These micelles can be moved in a magnetic field to create concentration gradients that will influence a cell's processes. Gold ...
As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids ... Carey, MC.; Small, DM. (Oct 1972). "Micelle formation by bile salts. Physical-chemical and thermodynamic considerations". Arch ... The D-ring is smaller by one carbon than the other three. The structure is commonly drawn with A at the left and D at the right ... Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which ...
Small intestine transit time in the normal small bowel study. American Journal of Roentgenology 1968; 104(3):522-524. Uday C ... The digestive enzymes break down proteins, and bile emulsifies fats into micelles. The duodenum contains Brunner's glands, ... the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum ... The small intestine begins at the duodenum, which receives food from the stomach. It is a tubular structure, usually between 6 ...
Food fat is dispersed by the action of bile into smaller units called micelles. The breaking down into micelles creates a much ... It is a small organ where the bile produced by the liver is stored, before being released into the small intestine. Bile flows ... The small intestine is subdivided into the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. The cecum marks the division between the small ... This can cause vitamin deficiencies due to the improper absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. The small intestine can ...
Casein micelle consist of mainly α(s1)-casein, α(s2)-casein, ß-casein, and κ-casein. Where hydrophobic α and ß-casein are in ... the inner sub-micelle and hydrophilic κ-casein in the outer part. When the milk start curding, it starts with a small ... First, cut a piece of old ginger into small pieces and grind the ginger to fine. Then, squeeze the juice out by pressing the ... Take off heat and allow it to cool a little. If you have a kitchen thermometer, place your kitchen thermometer into the milk. ...
... s should not be confused with lysosomes, or with micelles and reverse micelles composed of monolayers. The word ... A very small number of dietary and nutritional supplement companies are currently pioneering the benefits of this unique ... The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV, with several lamellar phase lipid bilayers), the small ... A less desirable form are multivesicular liposomes in which one vesicle contains one or more smaller vesicles. ...
"Structural Features of Micelles of Zwitterionic Dodecyl-phosphocholine (C12PC) Surfactants Studied by Small-Angle Neutron ...
To remove this staining, the plastics can be soaked in a solution containing a small amount of household bleach. Absorption of ... lycopene requires that it be combined with bile salts and fat to form micelles. Intestinal absorption of lycopene is enhanced ...
... Nippon Kayaku Announces FDA Orphan Drug Designation to New Polymeric micelle Anti-Cancer Drug NK012 for Small Cell Lung ... It has completed phase II clinical trials for triple-negative breast cancer and relapsed small cell lung cancer. In 2016, ... NK012 is a 'nanodevice' formulation of SN-38 (an irinotecan metabolite). NK012 is an SN-38-releasing polymeric micelle ... 2008). "Novel SN-38-Incorporated Polymeric Micelle, NK012, Strongly Suppresses Renal Cancer Progression". http://clinicaltrials ...
"Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering study on the spatial distribution of hydrophobic molecules in polymer micelles". Polymer ... This makes small-angle measurements in neutrons and X-rays a bit more tedious, as very small angles are needed, and the data in ... However, when the small-angle scattering condition is met, k R g ≪ 1 {\displaystyle kR_{g}\ll 1} , the sinc term can be ... We can thus approximate the scattering intensity in the small-angle regime as: log ⁡ I ( k ) = − 1 3 k 2 R g 2 + c o n s t . {\ ...
... resulting in the delivery of bile into the duodenal part of the small intestine. Bile salts form amphipathic lipids, micelles ... Chaudhri O, Small C, Bloom S (July 2006). "Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite". Philosophical Transactions of the ... CCK is synthesized and released by enteroendocrine cells in the mucosal lining of the small intestine (mostly in the duodenum ... CCK mediates digestion in the small intestine by inhibiting gastric emptying. It stimulates the acinar cells of the pancreas to ...
With a small ligand such pyridine that binds manganese from inside the cavity of the rotaxane, epoxidation happens outside the ... Non-discrete and structurally poorly defined system such as micelle and dendrimers are not included. The term supramolecular ... Although high raise in effective concentration is observed, molecules that employ this mode of catalysis have tiny rate ... As there is another Wikipedia article already written about small molecule asymmetric catalysts, this article focuses primarily ...
Depending on the nature of the molecule, these structures will either be small globules called micelles or be membranes. These ... Microstructure at scales smaller than can be viewed with optical microscopes is often called nanostructure, while the structure ... Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as ... The average grain size can be controlled by processing conditions and composition, and most alloys consist of much smaller ...
Bicelles can be thought of as a segment of bilayer encapsulated and solubilized by a micelle. Bicelles are much smaller than ... First, a small aperture is created in a thin layer of a hydrophobic material such as Teflon. Typically the diameter of this ... Detergent micelles are another class of model membranes that are commonly used to purify and study membrane proteins, although ... A vesicle is a lipid bilayer rolled up into a spherical shell, enclosing a small amount of water and separating it from the ...
In ionic micelles the monomers are typically fully ionized, but the high electric field strength at the surface of the micelles ... The coagulation value is smaller when the alkyl chain length of the coagulator is longer. Hydrophobic coagulation occurs when a ... A micelle is an aggregation of surfactants or block copolymer in aqueous solution or organic solution, often spherical. ... The surfactant's critical micelle concentration (CMC) plays a factor in Gibbs free energy of micellization. The exact ...
Light scattering should not be a concern due to the small size, a few nanometers, of the micelle. The effect of organic ... The addition of micelles to the mobile phase introduces a third phase into which the solutes may partition. Micelles are ... The solute will partition between the water and the stationary phase (KSW), the water and the micelles (KMW), and the micelles ... Many of the characteristics of micelles differ from those of bulk solvents. For example, the micelles are, by nature, spatially ...
Coughlan, Andy (2016) "Smallest ever genome comes to life: Humans built it but we don't know what a third of its genes actually ... Systems that do not proceed by template mechanisms, such as the self-reproduction of micelles and vesicles, have also been ... A very small minority of studies have concluded differently, namely that the root is in the Domain Bacteria, either in the ... A small bias (enantiomeric excess) in the population can be amplified into a large one by asymmetric autocatalysis, such as in ...
Micelles are also biologically important for the transport of fatty substances in the small intestine surface in the first step ... They have little to no capacity to form hydrogen bonds. When a molecule of a lipophilic substance is enveloped by water, ... Micelles draw oily substances into their hydrophobic cores, explaining the basic action of soaps and detergents used for ... Surfactant molecules also aggregate in water as micelles with their head groups sticking out and their tails bunched together. ...
... and then into even smaller micelles. This increases the surface area for lipid-hydrolyzing enzymes to act on the fats. Micelles ... Globules of fat are emulsified in the stomach into small droplets by bile salts during food digestion, speeding up the rate of ... Bile salts possess detergent properties that allow them to emulsify fat globules into smaller emulsion droplets, ... are roughly 200 times smaller than emulsion droplets, allowing them to facilitate transport monoglycerides and fatty acids ...
The digestive enzymes break down proteins and bile emulsifies fats into micelles. The duodenum contains Brunner's glands, which ... The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and ... The small intestine is where most chemical digestion takes place. Many of the digestive enzymes that act in the small intestine ... The primary function of the small intestine is the absorption of nutrients and minerals from food, using small finger-like ...
As the micelles form, the micelle diameter actually shrinks creating a "reel in" effect. The general structure of these ... A small amount of gradient copolymer (i.e.styrene/4-hydroxystyrene) is added to a polymer blend (i.e. polystyrene/ ... Micelles of the gradient copolymer can form when the gradient copolymer concentration is too high in a block copolymer solution ... This application is not available for block and graft copolymer because of its very low critical micelle concentration (cmc). ...
The antibody-bound micelle is then removed through fecal clearance. Dijkstra J, Swartz GM, Raney JJ, et al. (September 1996). " ... In circulation, this antibody binds selectively to the small, dense, oxidized cholesterol or oxysterol rich LDLs that are known ... The antibody selectively binds to oxysterol or oxidized-rich cholesterol micelles and prevents their uptake by the intestinal ...
The proteins are held together by small clusters of calcium phosphate, the micelle also contains lipase, citrate, minor ions, ... At a pH of 6.5 the casein micelles repulse each other due to the electronegativity of the outer layer of the micelle. During ... it structure also assists in the reactivity of the micelle. The formation of casein molecules into the micelle is very unusual ... Casein micelles are rather porous structures, ranging in the size of 50-250 nm in diameter and the structures on average are 6- ...
... shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle. In this way, the small oil droplet becomes water-soluble. ... A micelle - the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain ... Because the amount of charge separated in such dipoles is usually smaller than a fundamental charge, they are called partial ... They can form a micelle and are a vital in forming cell membranes ...
H2O mixtures in Igepal reverse micelles as a function of temperature and micelle size. We find that even small micelles contain ... Structure and dynamics of water in nonionic reverse micelles: A combined time-resolved infrared and small angle x-ray ... We study the structure and reorientation dynamics of nanometer-sized waterdroplets inside nonionic reverse micelles (water/ ... Igepal-CO-520/cyclohexane) with time-resolved mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. In the ...
The particle size distribution of non-targeting micelles mPEG-PCL-γ-Fe2O3 and targeting micelles cRGD-PEG-b-PCL-γ-Fe2O3. The ... Since the surface area of the micelles increases by molecular exclusion of cRGD on the micelle surface, the micelle core ... The synthesized polymeric micelles had a small size (about 50 nm) and supermagnetic sensitivity, and the R2 and R2/R1 were ... These micelles had a small particle size and supermagnetic sensitivity, and they were used as a drug-delivery system for ...
Journal Article Song, Yang ; Wang, Mingming ; Li, Suiqiong ; ... - Small The design and synthesis of biocompatible ... shows that micelle assembly occurs in two steps,starting with "precursor" particles that transform into worm-like micelles, ... Herein we showthat by appending bulky b-cyclodextrin (CD) groups onto sheet-forming peptoids,weobtain cylindrical micelles that ... DOE PAGES Journal Article: Hierarchical Assembly of Peptoid-Based Cylindrical Micelles Exhibiting Efficient Resonance Energy ...
The method involves synthesizing the particles within an emulsion having a 1-40% water content to form reverse micelles. In ... Furthermore, we observed little variation of the micelle diameter with changing water content. However, the intensity of the ... The present invention provides a water-in-oil emulsion having a high aqueous concentration, small micelle size, and involves ... The present invention provides techniques for making very small particles of a variety of materials, small particles of ...
Hence, it is better to use surfactant a little bit higher than CMC. This little additional value is to cover the dissolution ... Micelles only form above critical micelle temperature. For example, the value of CMC for sodium dodecyl sulfate in water (no ... The CMC is the concentration of surfactants in the bulk at which micelles start forming. The word bulk is important because ... Upon reaching CMC, any further addition of surfactants will just increase the number of micelles (in the ideal case). There are ...
The small micelles or liposomes may be loaded with oxygen. 6. Diagnosis of Disease. Another aspect of the present disclosure ... Thus, there exists a need for improved formulations that provide smaller, more stable micelles/liposomes, comprising egg ... The pharmaceutical compositions of the present disclosure comprising smaller and more stable SAMS (average micelle diameter of ... As mentioned above, micelles and/or liposomes are unstable in an emulsion, and this unstability can result in the micelles ...
This enables detection of small changes in body temperature. ... A novel thermo-sensitive micelle contrast agent and its ... Body temperature sensitive micelles for MRI enhancement X. Zhu, S. Chen, Q. Luo, C. Ye, M. Liu and X. Zhou, Chem. Commun., 2015 ... A novel thermo-sensitive micelle contrast agent and its enhancement of MRI contrast with temperature are reported. The ...
Polymeric micelles offer the potential to improve delivery to brain tumors as they have demonstrated the capacity to be ... Here, we highlight key aspects of the design of polymeric micelles as therapeutic delivery systems with a review of their ... Here, we highlight key aspects of the design of polymeric micelles as therapeutic delivery systems with a review of their ... However, despite these advantages, there are currently no micelle formulations targeting brain cancer in clinical trials. ...
micelle* An aggregate of molecules in a colloid [1]. For example, phospholipids in aqueous solution form micelles - small ... micelle An aggregate of molecules in a colloid. For example, phospholipids in aqueous solution form micelles - small clusters ... micelles Emulsified droplets of partially hydrolysed lipids, small enough to be absorbed across the intestinal mucosa.. ... micelles A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ...
Reverse micelles as hosts for proteins and small molecules ; P.P. Luisi, M. Giomini, M.P. Pileni, B. Robinson ; Biochem. ... 947, 209-216, (1988). Reverse micelles : a microreactors ; M.P. Pileni ; J. Phys.Chem. 97, 6961-6974 (1993). Nanosized ...
Mixed micelles of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactants. A small angle neutron scattering study. Kadi, M ... The present results could be explained by one type of mixed micelles with an inhomogeneous distribution of fluorinated and ... Earlier results from this system suggested that a demixing occurred, into two coexisting populations of micelles, hydrocarbon- ... have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering with contrast matching. ...
... SUPR uses JavaScript for certain functions. We cannot ... Some state the micelle falls apart in the vicinity of the membrane surface, others propose endocytosis as a main mechanism of ... We argue that once the micelle or vesicle comes to the surface of the membrane the energy barriers of both diminish each other ... In that project we aim to investigate the contribution of composition of micelles on the transfer of molecule through the ...
... conceptualize how soap removes debris via micelle aggregation, and identify what hard water is and its effect on micelle ... Olive Oil mixed with a little dirt, 100 mL. *Disposable cooking pans (4) ... Micelles to the Rescue - How Soap Transports Debris. Grades: 9-12. Author: Ryan Kiddey. Source: This material is based upon ... conceptualize how soap removes debris via micelle aggregation, and identify what hard water is and its effect on micelle ...
Micelles are also at work in the human body. Micelles help the body absorb lipid and fat soluble vitamins. They help the small ... Micelle formation is described by thermodynamics, driven by entropy and enthalpy. Function and Usage[edit]. Micelles usually ... Micelles show up as vesicles in biology. Unlike a micelle, however, vesicles contain a lipid bilayer, which is composed of two ... Sizes of micelles range from 2 nm (20 A) to 20 nm (200 A), depending on composition and concentration. The size of a micelle is ...
Stothart PH, Cebula DJ (1982) Small-angle neutron scattering study of bovine casein micelles and sub-micelles. J Mol Biol 160: ... Stothart PH (1989) Subunit structure of casein micelles from small-angle neutron scattering. J Mol Biol 208:635-638PubMedGoogle ... Holt C, de Kruif CG, Tuinier R, Timmins PE (2003) Substructure of bovine casein micelles by small-angle X-ray and neutron ... Hansen S, Bauer R, Lomholt SB, Bruun Qvist K, Pedersen JS, Mortensen K (1996) Structure of casein micelles studied by small- ...
CLSM imaging revealed that mixed micelles were efficiently absorbed into the cytoplasm region of MCF-7 cells. Therefore, Cur- ... The objective of this study was to prepare curcumin-loaded mixed Soluplus/TPGS micelles (Cur-TPGS-PMs) for oral administration ... and the curcumin in the surface of the particles was little [19]. The released mechanism of curcumin from micelles might be ... Mixed micelles can provide multiple functionality micelles by constituent copolymers. Therefore, a mixed micelle was developed ...
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice (2019) * FLT3-specific curcumin micelles enhance activity of ...
2006) reported that colostrum and early-lactation milk contain a small number of very large micelles, reaching diameters of 600 ... The relative proportions of the individual caseins in the micelles vary with micelle size. Proportions of αs- and β-casein ... 3.5 Properties of casein micelles. Brooker and Holt (1978) reported that colostrum contains casein micelles several micrometres ... 2013). Linzell and Peaker (1975) reported that as little as 0.1 mL blood.L−1 can be detected visually and that 0.4 mL.L−1 turns ...
As an initial study, the triblock copolymer was used to encapsulate several different small molecule drugs with varying ... uncrosslinked drug loaded micelles, or crosslinked, drug loaded micelles dissolved in 150 mM NaCl. Daunorubicin micelles were ... To test stability of the crosslinked micelle, the in vitro stability of the micelle below the CMC was determined using a ... In order to test the stability of the micelle in vivo, a crosslinked, daunorubicin-loaded micelle was assessed in a ...
Methods and formulations for delivering hydrophobic molecules to a host via these micelles are also provided. Methods of ... stabilizing liposomes or lipid based formulations by addition of polymeric micelles are also provided. ... Polymeric micelles for encapsulation of hydrophobic molecules are provided. ... report the synthesis of a single species of hyperbranched polymeric micelles for encapsulation of small hydrophobic organic ...
The broader distribution signifies micellar rearrangement processes where small micelles shrink and large micelles grow. At ... These micelles can further grow only if other micelles dissolve by releasing unimers. This is particularly clear from the ... we obtained the mean radius of micelles and their aggregation number or the average number of block copolymers per micelle (P ... Figure 2. a) Time evolution of the mean aggregation number of micelles (Pmean) for different concentrations of the block ...
Page contains details about aurora A kinase specific small interfering RNA loaded cystamine/octanedioic acid/branched ... polyethyleneimine-modified hyaluronic acid micelles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, ... specific small interfering RNA loaded cystamine/octanedioic acid/branched polyethyleneimine-modified hyaluronic acid micelles. ... paclitaxel loaded cystamine/octanedioic acid/branched polyethyleneimine-modified hyaluronic acid micelles. *aurora A kinase ...
A micelle is any small charged particle. Usually soil micelles are made of clay or organic matter. Most soil micelles have ... In some highly weathered tropical soils, the soil micelles are positively charged and attract anions instead of cations. ...
Silica-coated quantum dots are small and have a high surface area and a large pore size, the latter of which may be useful for ... Their small size and hydrophilicity could enable them to easily travel through the urinary system, which the investigators are ... Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles. BioPhotonics. Oct 2006 David Shenkenberg. Quantum dots might become more widely ... Before silica-shelling, they coated the quantum dots with detergent micelles, which enable the incorporation of other ...
The formation of ellipsoidal mixed micelles was confirmed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis. The shape and size ... As a result, it was concluded that PEGylated mixed micelles can be considered to be a promising system for the delivery of MLX ... The PEG corona also enhanced the stability of the mixed micelles formulation as observed in the zeta potential data. The M-PMM ... The cytotoxicity of M-PMM was much higher (GI 50 ,10µg/mL) than free meloxicam (MLX) and conventional mixed micelles (GI 50 , ...
  • Polymer micelles offer a promising approach to achieving these goals due to their inherent ability to overcome multiple biological barriers, such as avoidance of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polymer micelles have received much attention over the past thirty years as drug delivery vehicle [ 5 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Now it's possible to grow polymer micelles in one direction (bottom) by cross-linking polymer strands (silver) on the ends of a B-A-B micelle and then dissolving the A tract. (acs.org)
  • Up to now, chemists could grow wirelike polymer micelles of a specific length, but they could not control the makeup and architecture because the nanostructures would grow at both ends simultaneously, which can be a disadvantageous constraint. (acs.org)
  • We argue that once the micelle or vesicle comes to the surface of the membrane the energy barriers of both diminish each other and make it equally preferential for the molecule to stay or to move inside the membrane. (snic.se)
  • In that project we aim to investigate the contribution of composition of micelles on the transfer of molecule through the intestinal membrane. (snic.se)
  • and a reference molecule - ethanol), 4 micelle compositions (pure sodium taurocholate, pure phospholipids, mixture NaTC:PL 4:1 and mixture with cholesterol) and 2 membranes (pure POPC and DLiPC with NaTC) will be studied systematically. (snic.se)
  • Umbrella sampling technique will be applied to observe potential of mean force U/kT (R) for pulling the molecule away from the micelle to the bulk, from the bulk to the membrane (and other way around) and from the micelle straight to the membrane. (snic.se)
  • Micelles form spontaneously in water, as stated above this spontaneous arrangement is due to the amphipathic nature of the molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • To be able to engineer that in a small molecule is almost impossible. (nap.edu)
  • There are not enough elements in a small molecule to allow you to build in those controls. (nap.edu)
  • The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Depending on the nature of the molecule, these structures will either be small globules called micelles or be membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small molecule 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) was used to stabilize the transmembrane protein Ferric hydroxamate uptake protein component A (FhuA) utilized as host for the construction of a rhodium-based biohybrid catalyst. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Through its multiple levels of innovation, Project 1 will revitalize the therapeutic quest to target cMyc for translational development with targeted nanotherapy by synthetically modifying next generation Myc-Max small molecule antagonists. (cancer.gov)
  • Spectroscopist, RISE Fellow since 2016, RISE Associate since 2012, formerly member of Small Molecule Structure Elucidation Group at Schering-Plough and Merck. (drew.edu)
  • Transforming the Small Molecule to Medicine Product Design Process? (ddfevent.com)
  • As a result of this effort, described in a publication in the journal Nature Medicine ( 'Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging' ), the investigators were able to detect small tumors implanted into mice. (nanowerk.com)
  • Tests on the resulting nanoparticles showed that those containing small amounts of manganese produced a mangetic signal approximately six times stronger than that produced by the iron oxide nanoparticles typically used in MRI studies. (nanowerk.com)
  • These results prompted the investigators to examine if manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticles could detect tumors as small as 50 milligrams in mass in mice. (nanowerk.com)
  • The drug delivery system used in this study makes use of nanoparticles called micelles developed by Kit Lam , professor and chair of the UC Davis Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine and a co-author of the article. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials and oncologists at the University of Chicago created nano-sized bubbles, or "micelles," that contained two ingredients at their centers: magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide and cisplatin, a conventional chemotherapy drug also known as "the penicillin of cancer. (anl.gov)
  • To do so, they also encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles within the micelle along with the cisplatin. (anl.gov)
  • These nanoparticles served as tiny "heaters" that were turned on by an applied magnetic field, which caused the micelle container to collapse and release the cisplatin. (anl.gov)
  • In order to see the action of the nanoparticles and cisplatin as the micelle collapsed, the researchers used the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source . (anl.gov)
  • γ-Fe 2 O 3 -loaded PEG-PCL micelles not only possess ultra-small size and high superparamagnetic sensitivity, also can be actively targeted to carcinoma vascular endothelial cells by tumor-targeted cRGD. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we highlight key aspects of the design of polymeric micelles as therapeutic delivery systems with a review of their clinical applications in several non-brain tumor cancer types. (frontiersin.org)
  • These micelles have been engineered to be stable at low concentrations even in complex biological fluids, and to release cargo in response to low pH environments, such as in the tumor microenvironment or in tumor cell endosomes. (hindawi.com)
  • Histological analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick-end labeling assay, western blot, immunohistochemical detection and microvessel density detection demonstrated that fisetin and fisetin micelles induced increased tumor apoptosis, proliferation suppression and antiangiogenesis activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In current study, we detected the effect of fisetin and fisetin-micelles on ovarian cancer cell line growth, the relative apoptosis pathway and the anti-tumor effect in xenograft mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A tumor shaped like a small mushroom, with its stem attached to the epithelial layer (inner lining) of an organ. (lbbc.org)
  • A new nanodelivery system is able to sneak cancer treatments past the defenses of drug-resistant tumor cells-offering hope to many cancer patients who benefit little from existing drug treatments. (technologyreview.com)
  • Ordinarily, oxaliplatin is injected into a patient's bloodstream, and from there it enters the cytoplasm of tumor cells by way of small gaps or channels in the cell membrane. (technologyreview.com)
  • Tumor accumulation ratios to normal tissue (muscle) at 24 hours for polymeric micelles (tumor/muscle ratio=40) showed an order of magnitude increase in comparison to free adriamycin (tumor/muscle ratio=1.5). (nii.ac.jp)
  • An increase in the tumor accumulation ratio to the heart was also significant for the micelle-forming conjugate, suggesting a low incidence of cardiac toxicity in the conjugate system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mixtures of the partly fluorinated cationic surfactant HFDePC (N-(1, 1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecanyl)pyridinium chloride and deuterated headgroup) with C(16)TAC, hexadecyl-trimethylammonium chloride, have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering with contrast matching. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using small angle neutron scattering we determine the microemulsion structure as a function of composition. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • Stroboscopic Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations of Microsecond Dynamics in Magnetic Nanomaterials. (ebooks.com)
  • The size, morphology, and detailed structural information were studied by a combination of techniques, i.e., dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and small angle neutron scattering. (mit.edu)
  • Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a uniquely powerful tool for probing structural information on length scales ranging from 0.5-200nm. (ornl.gov)
  • The General-Purpose Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer (GP-SANS) CG-2 instrument is optimized for providing information about structure and interactions in materials in the range of 0.5-200 nm. (ornl.gov)
  • Human hepatic carcinoma vascular endothelial cells (T3A) were cultured with the resulting micelles to assess the micelle uptake using Prussian blue staining and the cell signal intensity using MRI. (medsci.org)
  • This behavior was clearly explainable in terms of micelle uptake and intracellular localization. (researchensemble.com)
  • Nano-scaled micelles were designed to extend the half-lives of drugs and reduce the uptake by reticuloendothelial system (RES) [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A. Experimental set-up with lipid micelle SWIR quantum dots injected into the circulation and whole body scan with SWIR camera. (newswise.com)
  • B. Resulting fluorescent image shows the accumulation of the lipid micelle SWIR quantum dots in the liver (blue circle) and heart (red circle). (newswise.com)
  • Students will be able to describe the molecular structure of a micelle. (uakron.edu)
  • By combining NMR (yielding H-1 chemical shift, spin relaxation, and self-diffusion data) and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, we investigate the complex temperature dependence of the molecular and aggregate states in aqueous solutions of the surfactant [CH3(CH2)(17)(OCH2CH2)(20)OH], abbreviated as C18E20, and.hexamethyldisiloxane, HMDSO. (diva-portal.org)
  • The advantage of the amphiphilic MPD over micelle-forming detergents is demonstrated in the polymerization of phenylacetylene, showing a ten-fold increase in yield and increased molecular weights. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Bulky residues Ile 177 and Ile 181 pack against small residues of the opposite monomer, and favorable polar backbone-backbone contacts at the interface likely include noncanonical Calpha-H.O=C hydrogen bonds from Gly 180 to Ile 177. (rcsb.org)
  • Polymeric micelles offer the potential to improve delivery to brain tumors as they have demonstrated the capacity to be effective carriers of chemotherapy drugs, genes, and proteins in various preclinical GBM studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • diC18-UGGGU-ext micelles remain intact in the presence of serum proteins. (nih.gov)
  • However, it would be more suitable for PIC micelles to incorporate polyelectrolytes or macromolecules like nucleic acids and proteins [ 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Researchers found no increased risk of hardening arteries in the group drinking more coffee, which even held true for the small number of the participants who reported drinking up to 25 cups daily. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Researchers have developed and tested tiny polymer-coated, medication-delivering packets in rats. (aoa.org)
  • Mucoadhesive micelles offer significant potential to increase the bioavailability of topically applied ophthalmic drugs," the researchers write in the conclusion of their study. (aoa.org)
  • By equipping each micelle component with a green fluorescent tag at the surface and a red fluorescent tag that faces the core, the researchers were able to track their progress through cells with fluorescent video microscopy and film when and where the micelles delivered their payload. (technologyreview.com)
  • The researchers discovered that, even starting out, these micelles were both complex and compound, which was not predicted. (icr.org)
  • Synthethic "copolymer micelles" are cell-like delivery methods for cancer medication inside the body, but researchers at Purdue University believe they might have discovered that these nano-sized micelles can also help to fix spinal cord injuries , according to PopSci.com. (seriousaccidents.com)
  • The micelle-embedded SWIR-QDs dissolved and circulated through the bloodstream for an extended period, allowing the researchers to study heart and respiration rates in awake mice. (newswise.com)
  • To obtain them, the researchers begin with a small B-A-B micelle. (acs.org)
  • Finally, the researchers selectively dissolve the A tract of the B-A-B micelle with well-chosen solvents. (acs.org)
  • The researchers named this new technology SHANEL (Small-micelle-mediated Human orgAN Efficient clearing and Labeling). (eurekalert.org)
  • This was not the first time scientists had used applied nanomagnetic heat sources as a way to attack cancer cells, but the more targeted approach of the micelles allowed the researchers to use a much lower amount of heat and much less magnetic material, thereby risking less damage to healthy cells. (anl.gov)
  • We study the structure and reorientation dynamics of nanometer-sized waterdroplets inside nonionic reverse micelles (water/Igepal-CO-520/cyclohexane) with time-resolved mid-infrared pump-probe spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. (uva.nl)
  • In this study, we have taken advantage of the combination of stopped-flow rapid mixing and time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) . (esrf.eu)
  • Physical properties of DOPC reverse micelles in the presence of free fatty acids in bulk oils were also investigated by the small angle X-ray scattering technique. (ebscohost.com)
  • One initially starts off with concentrations greater than CMC in water and on adding fabric with large interfacial area and waiting for equilibrium, the surfactant concentration goes below CMC and no micelles are left. (wikipedia.org)
  • P123/N127 (poloxamer) combined micelles for the intravenous delivery of the anticancer drug sorafenib (SRB) or its combination with verteporfin (VP), a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy that should go with well the cytotoxicity profile of the chemotherapeutic. (researchensemble.com)
  • In the wide scenario of nano-platforms available for anticancer drug delivery, polymeric micelles centered on biocompatible polymers have been bringing in interest, due to great versatility, small size, simplicity of functionalization, and potential to transport a multidrug freight for combination treatments.1C3 Representatives of such materials are Pluronic? (researchensemble.com)
  • Publications] M.Yokoyama: 'Development of micelle-forming polymeric drug with superior anticancer activity' Polymeric Drugs and Drug Administration,Amer.Chem.Soc.Symposium Series 545. (nii.ac.jp)
  • B) Experimental SAXS profiles of DSPE-PEG, diC18-UGGGU, and diC18-UUUUU micelles each at 2 mg/mL, from top to bottom, and fitted profiles from ellipsoid model fits (red lines). (nih.gov)
  • Some state the micelle falls apart in the vicinity of the membrane surface, others propose endocytosis as a main mechanism of the transfer. (snic.se)
  • The mucous membrane that lines the mouth, stomach and small intestine, consists of glands that secrete digestive enzymes to aid in digestion. (amazonaws.com)
  • The micelles penetrate the cell membrane in a different way, entering the cell through a process called endocytosis. (technologyreview.com)
  • By protecting a membrane protein complex within a n -dodecyl-β- d -maltoside micelle, we demonstrated a powerful strategy that will enable the subunit stoichiometry and ligand-binding properties of membrane complexes to be determined directly, by precise determination of the masses of intact complexes and dissociated subunits. (sciencemag.org)
  • Anton 2 simulation of the process of reverse micelle (RM) contact, fusion and fusion termination by the amyloid beta peptide. (psc.edu)
  • Moreover, free fatty acid decreased pH inside reverse micelle as confirmed by the NMR studies. (ebscohost.com)
  • The reverse micelles also structurally prevent the rapid inactivation of peptides by enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract via a non-specific enzyme inhibition by surfactant(s) in the formulation. (webwire.com)
  • Besides the obvious advantage of delivering SRB in poloxamer micelles, our results provide a obvious example that each photochemotherapeutic combination needs detailed research on their particular connection, and no generalization on enhanced cytotoxic effects should become produced a priori. (researchensemble.com)
  • We find that even small micelles contain a large fraction of water that reorients at the same rate as water in the bulk, which indicates that the polyethylene oxide chains of the surfactant do not penetrate into the water volume. (uva.nl)
  • Therefore, a mixed micelle was developed with Soluplus and D- α -tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS 1000) for curcumin delivery. (hindawi.com)
  • The way this anti-paralysis shot works is that the outer shell of micelles consist of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which can hone in on damaged axons - nerve cells in the body - acting like bio-safe plaster to the area of injury. (seriousaccidents.com)
  • Micro-Micelle™ Technology is a microscopic physical state of carotenoid derivatives as diacetates, which are readily incorporated in the digestive system as micromicelles providing an improved bioavailability of the carotenoids that are ingested. (macuhealth.com)
  • The change is the addition of Micro-Micelle™ Technology, which is a natural process using properties of the flower to create micelles and achieve optimal bioavailability. (macuhealth.com)