Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Premature, DiseasesBirth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Milk, HumanRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Fetal Organ Maturity: Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Infant, Postmature: An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Pubic Symphysis: A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Hernia, Diaphragmatic: Protrusion of abdominal structures into the THORAX as a result of congenital or traumatic defects in the respiratory DIAPHRAGM.Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Placental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Superfetation: The FERTILIZATION of an OVUM that takes place when a FETUS is already present in the UTERUS. Superfetation results in an unusual PREGNANCY with fetuses of different ages and sizes developing in utero simultaneously.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Polyhydramnios: A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.Fetofetal Transfusion: Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Cerclage, Cervical: The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Cordocentesis: The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.Uterine Cervical Incompetence: Incompetent UTERINE CERVIX is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of PREGNANCY. It is characterized by passive painless cervical dilation in the absence of UTERINE CONTRACTION; BLEEDING; INFECTION; and sometimes with the amniotic sac (AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE) bulging through the partially dilated cervix. Left untreated, this condition may lead to premature pregnancy loss, such as HABITUAL ABORTION.United StatesRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Labor Onset: The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
For infants of normal gestational age, 3 mm (0.12 in) internal diameter is an appropriate size. For normally nourished children ... The size is chosen based on the patient's body size, with the smaller sizes being used for infants and children. Most ... The differences, which are quite significant in infants, gradually disappear as the human body approaches a mature age and body ... A small amount of water vapor will also be evident within the lumen of the tube with each exhalation and there will be no ...
Exposure to NO, NO2, CO PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Women living ... The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded ... The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and ... Children aged less than five years that live in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total ...
"Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant". American Journal of ... that moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy was associated with delivery of small-for-gestational-age infant ... Mothers who have gestational diabetes have a high chance of giving birth to very large infants (10 pounds or more). Because the ... Lower rates of infant mortality are observed in breastfed babies in addition to lower rates of sudden infant death syndrome ( ...
Her research into small for gestational age infants led to a chart that plotted birth weight against gestational age; the chart ... The descriptors small for gestational age, appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age originated with ... In the early 1960s, Lubchenco began to publish her research on the relationship between birth weight and gestational age in ... A chart that allowed clinicians to plot a baby's birth weight against its gestational age became informally known as the " ...
Foetal cerebral redistribution
"Customised versus population-based growth charts as a screening tool for detecting small for gestational age infants in low- ... In a small study, mothers receiving high feedback were more likely to stop smoking and drinking alcohol however the quality of ... Only small studies have been conducted looking at group care but they have found that mothers' knew more about pregnancy, birth ... A review looking into which of these charts detected small babies found that there is no good quality research to show which is ...
Hypercoagulability in pregnancy
An infant born addicted to amphetamines is more likely to be born prematurely. It may also be small for gestational age. It may ... These may include: Birth defects Low birth weight Premature birth Small head circumference Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) ... An infant withdrawing from methadone can have sleeping difficulties, seizures and a higher risk of dying from Sudden infant ... Those born < 35 weeks' after gestation have lower CNS abstinence scores than term infants. It may be because preterm infants ...
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy
... having an infant small for his/her gestational age, and infant death. Some women have a greater risk of developing hypertension ... Pregnant women under the age of 20 or over the age of 40. Women who are pregnant with more than one baby. Women with diabetes, ... For example, in 1998 birth rates among women ages 30 to 44 and the number of births to women ages 45 and older were at the ... Although the proportion of pregnancies with gestational hypertension and eclampsia has remained about the same in the U.S. over ...
Nicobar long-tailed macaque
Infants are born with a dark natal coating, which lightens as they reach maturity, which occurs at about one year of age. The ... This primate is found on three of the Nicobar Islands-Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal-in biome regions consisting of ... gestational period is five-and-a-half months. Adult males are roughly one-and-a-half times larger than the females, and can ... This alternate diet includes young leaves, insects, flowers, seeds, and bark; it is also known to eat small crabs, frogs and ...
Endodermal sinus tumor
Tumor surveillance by monitoring AFP requires accurate correction for gestational age in pregnant women, and age in infants. In ... This is because EST often occurs as small "malignant foci" within a larger tumor, usually teratoma, and biopsy is a sampling ... This age group has a very good prognosis. In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are ... In infants, the tumor marker test is used, but must be interpreted using a reference table or graph of normal AFP in infants.[ ...
There are two ways to determine small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Many research studies agree that SGA babies are those ... Complications for the infant include limitations in body growth since the number and size of cells in tissues is smaller. The ... when birth weights of infants are greater than the 90th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age, ... birth weight or crown heel length measured at two standard deviations or more below the mean of the infant's gestational age, ...
List of MeSH codes (M01)
... infant, small for gestational age MeSH M01.060.703.520.460.600 --- infant, very low birth weight MeSH M01.060.703.520.500 --- ... infant MeSH M01.060.703.520 --- infant, newborn MeSH M01.060.703.520.460 --- infant, low birth weight MeSH M01.060.703.520. ... aged, 80 and over MeSH M01.060.116.100.540 --- frail elderly MeSH M01.060.116.630 --- middle aged MeSH M01.060.406 --- child ... infant, postmature MeSH M01.060.703.520.520 --- infant, premature MeSH M01.102.350 --- child, gifted MeSH M01.150.100 --- ...
... low gestational age at birth) or of the infant being small for gestational age (slow prenatal growth rate), or a combination of ... A baby born small or large for gestational age (either of the two extremes) is thought to have an increased risk of obesity in ... A very large birth weight is usually caused by the infant having been large for gestational age Studies have been conducted to ... small for gestational age) is significantly adverse to children to warrant inducing catch-up. Babies that have a low birth ...
... and small-for-gestational-age infants, all of which can lead to maternal death. Structural support and family support ... Family planning approaches include avoiding pregnancy at too young of an age or too old of an age and spacing births. Access to ... In most cases, high rates of maternal deaths occur in the same countries that have high rates of infant mortality. These trends ... The effect of a mother's death results in vulnerable families and their infants, if they survive childbirth, are more likely to ...
... small for gestational age, and born before 37 weeks gestation. In contrast, infants of women with hyperemesis who have a ... There is no significant difference in the neonatal death rate in infants born to mothers with HG compared to infants born to ... Infants of women with severe hyperemesis who gain less than 7 kg (15.4 lb) during pregnancy tend to be of lower birth weight, ... A small percentage rarely vomit, but the nausea still causes most (if not all) of the same issues that hyperemesis with ...
Environment and intelligence
Other studies have indicated that breast feeding may be particularly important for children born Small for Gestational Age (SGA ... either premature delivery or the infant's size is just lower than average for its gestational age; both contribute to ... Trimble, Benjamin, K.; Patricia A. Baird; John M. Opitz (1978). "Maternal age and down syndrome: Age-specific incidence rates ... At the age of 15 he was fitted with hearing aids and taught Spanish; however, after 4 years he still had severe difficulties in ...
ICD-10 Chapter XVI: Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
Light for gestational age (P05.1) Small for gestational age (P05.2) Fetal malnutrition without mention of light or small for ... Other heavy for gestational age infants (P08.2) Post-term infant, not heavy for gestational age Postmaturity NOS (P10) ... gestational age (P05.9) Slow fetal growth, unspecified Fetal growth retardation NOS (P07) Disorders related to short gestation ... Other preterm infants Prematurity NOS (P08) Disorders related to long gestation and high birth weight (P08.0) Exceptionally ...
Low birth weight
... or the infant being small for gestational age (that is, a slow prenatal growth rate), or a combination of both. In general, ... Being small for gestational age can be constitutional, that is, without an underlying pathological cause, or it can be ... Low birth weight constitutes as sixty to eighty percent of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. Infant mortality ... regardless of gestational age. Subcategories include very low birth weight (VLBW), which is less than 1500 g (3 pounds 5 ounces ...
An abnormally slow growth rate results in the infant being small for gestational age, and, on the other hand, an abnormally ... A baby born within the normal range of weight for that gestational age is known as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ... The growth rate of an embryo and infant can be reflected as the weight per gestational age, and is often given as the weight ...
The earliest gestational age at which the infant has at least a 50% chance of survival is referred to as the limit of viability ... and are mostly but not exclusively preterm babies as they also include small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Weight-based ... Preterm infants usually show physical signs of prematurity in reverse proportion to the gestational age. As a result, they are ... Weight generally correlates to gestational age, however, infants may be underweight for other reasons than a preterm delivery. ...
... such as gestational age and preterm birth, but not with other outcomes. The same review cautioned that because differences ... Small-scale efficacy trials were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s, and attention grew in the 1990s following a meta-analysis ... A neonate (infant less than 28 days old) may experience a withdrawal syndrome from abrupt discontinuation of the antidepressant ... Although this may be used in clinical practice, there is little evidence for the relative efficacy or adverse effects of this ...
When infants have a lower birth weight or younger gestational age, there is a greater risk of infantile apnea. With the ... In some cases, it occurs when patients are born with a small airway opening. Patients with obstructive apnea often have ... full-term infants for short periods of time before breathing patterns in the infant stabilize. In premature infants, central ... Infantile apnea occurs in children under the age of one and it is more common in premature infants. Symptoms of infantile apnea ...
Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status and infant birth weight and gestational age at ... The Little Foundation is a London-based charity operating internationally. Named in honour of William Little, the English ... "Brain project; Funded by the Little Foundation." The Times [London, England] 22 Nov. 1990 "Research on handicaps; Letter." The ... The Little Foundation, registered charity no. 803551. Association of Medical Research Charities . ...
Infants of this description studied ranged in birth weight from 600 to 3660 grams and in gestational age from 24 to 38 weeks. ... "Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation for laser endoscopic procedures in infants and small children with laryngeal obstruction ... Infants studied ranged in birth weight from 750 to 3529 grams and in gestation age from 24 to 41 weeks. The Bunnell Life Pulse ... As the bar or ball rotates and the opening lines-up with the gas flow, a small, brief pulse of gas is allowed to enter the ...
Síndrome de la mort sobtada del lactant - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Hunt CE «Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions». Arch. Dis. ... Mage DT «A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS». J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal, 1, 1996, pàg. 13- ... Randall B «Witnessed sudden infant death syndrome». Journal of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Infant Mortality, 1, 1996, pàg ... Krous HF «A commentary on changing infant death rates and a plea to use sudden infant death syndrome as a cause of death». ...
Large for gestational age
Gestational age; pregnancies that go beyond 40 weeks increase incidence Fetal sex; male infants tend to weigh more than female ... "Optimal birth weight percentile cut-offs in defining small- or large-for-gestational-age". Acta Paediatrica. 99 (4): 550-5. doi ... "large-for-gestational-age infant" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Xu H, Simonet F, Luo ZC (April 2010). " ... "Large-for-gestational-age newborns in women with insulin-treated gestational diabetes under strict metabolic control". Wiener ...
Small for gestational age
One third of babies born with a low birth weight are also small for gestational age. Infants that are born at low birth weights ... Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly ... One third of low-birth-weight neonates - infants weighing less than 2500g - are small for gestational age. There is an 8.1% ... Being small for gestational age is broadly either: Being constitutionally small, wherein the state is basically a genetic trait ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ... Infants with chlamydia pneumonitis should be treated with oral erythromycin for 10-14 days. ...
... being small for gestational age at birth, Prader-Willi syndrome, Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome, or other conditions. Genetic ... 2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... the bone age is the same as the biological age but for some people, it is older. For many people with advanced bone ages, they ... One year's worth of drugs normally costs about US $20,000 for a small child and over $50,000 for a teenager. These drugs are ...
... is the key to Gestational Surrogacy, which is when the sperm of the intended father and egg of intended mother are ... A tiny person (a homunculus) inside a sperm, as drawn by Nicolaas Hartsoeker in 1695 ... miniature infant, or homunculus - that simply becomes larger during development. ... By convention, the larger gametes are considered female and are called ova, while the smaller gametes are male and are called ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant who are born weighing very little[clarify]. Not beginning ... Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, ... and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth (i.e., the earlier ...
Abortion in the United States
By gender, age, party, and regionEdit. Pew Research Center polling shows little change in views from 2008 to 2012; modest ... At every gestational age, elective abortion is safer for the mother than carrying a pregnancy to term.. ... It asserts the human rights of infants born after a failed attempt to induce abortion. A "born-alive infant" is specified as a ... When women have abortions (by gestational age)Edit. According to the Centers for Disease Control, in 2011, most (64.5%) ...
... such as birth weight and gestational age, along with mortality data, such as cause of death, in analyzing the data. Linkages ... As this example demonstrates, even a small decrease in data quality or small increase in the complexity of the data can result ... If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, ... is a subscript for the characteristics (sex, age, marital status, etc.) in the files. The conditional probabilities of ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... If the injury occurs at age early enough to affect development (e.g. as a neonate or infant), it often leaves the patient with ... For example, it can occur if the infant's head and neck are pulled toward the side at the same time as the shoulders pass ... A similar injury may be observed at any age following trauma to the head and shoulder, which cause the nerves of the plexus to ...
Attachment in children
Main, M.; Cassidy, J. (1988). "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment ... strategy with those who seem hopeless and show little attachment behaviour; it also puts together infants who run to hide when ... 1978) coding of the Strange Situation, secure infants are denoted as "Group B" infants and they are further subclassified as B1 ... "Until recently, scientific accounts ... of the infant's early social experiences converged on the view that the infant ...
Another trial stated that olive oil lowered the risk of dermatitis for infants in all gestational stages when compared with ... The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect, thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles ... Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:127. *^ a b Nicole Sturzenberger (2007). "Olive Processing Waste ... Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are primarily refined olive oil, with a small addition of virgin for taste. ...
Remington and Klein's Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 190-. ISBN 978-0-323- ... shows severely impaired ductal outgrowth at 11 weeks of age. However, by 15 weeks, ductal development has caught up ... ER expression in the breast is stable and differs relatively little in the contexts of reproductive status, stage of the ... and oral contraceptive use in healthy nulligravid women aged 19-25 years". Am. J. Epidemiol. 145 (7): 571-80. doi:10.1093/ ...
Sudden infant death syndrome - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions". Arch. Dis. Child. ... Male infants die more often than female infants; about 60% of the cases are male infants. Infants also die more often during ... The infant has anemia. Age[change , change source]. SIDS only happens at certain ages. The risk of SIDS is highest in ... Mage DT (1996). "A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS". J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal 1: 13-31. ...
Growth hormone deficiency
Small for gestational age, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome. ... The incidence of idiopathic GHD in infants is about 1 in every 3800 live births, and rates in older children are rising as ... As an adult ages, it is normal for the pituitary to produce diminishing amounts of GH and many other hormones, particularly the ... GH supplementation is not recommended medically for the physiologic age-related decline in GH/IGF secretion. It may be ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... "House Report 107-186 - BORN-ALIVE INFANTS PROTECTION ACT OF 2001". gpo.gov. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. ... a child weighing at least 500 grammes, or having reached a gestational age of at least 24 weeks who shows no signs of life." ... However, for practical purposes, legal definitions usually require recorded fetal deaths to attain some gestational age (16, 20 ...
... leading to a baby that has stunted growth and is born smaller than 90% of other babies at the same gestational age. The effect ... Contrarily, among the infants with their scarcity, there are more males. Anencephaly is shown to occur approximately twice as ... Parent's age. Main articles: Advanced maternal age and Paternal age effect ... before age five have been established. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings. Little is currently known ...
Childbirth in Nepal
Inside contains gloves, a small piece of soap, five squares of gauze, a small blade, three pieces of string, a small plastic ... The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... ages 25-34 (compared to ages 15-24), and high wealth and education status. Another study found that women who received ... and adding mental stress related to maternal work outside the home that may affect intrauterine growth and gestational duration ...
... extremely premature infants (less than 1,000 g, less than 28 weeks gestational age, or less than 35 cm in length) that were ... Also, women who are already small in stature tend to deliver smaller than average babies, perpetuating a cycle of being ... Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( ... "Infant Mortality: What Is CDC Doing?". Infant Mortality , Maternal and Infant Health , Reproductive Health ,. Centers for ...
... leading to a baby who has stunted growth and is born smaller than 90% of other babies at the same gestational age. The effect ... Infants exposed to mercury poisoning in utero showed predispositions to cerebral palsy, ataxia, inhibited psychomotor ... Parent's age. Main articles: Advanced maternal age and Paternal age effect ... before age five have been established. Little is currently known about how paternal smoking damages the fetus, and what window ...
Date the pregnancy (gestational age). *Confirm fetal viability. *Determine location of fetus, intrauterine vs ectopic ... At the extreme, very small transducers can be mounted on small diameter catheters and placed into blood vessels to image the ... The ultrasound can be performed through the soft spots in the skull of a newborn infant (Fontanelle) until these completely ... Higher frequencies have a correspondingly smaller wavelength, and can be used to make sonograms with smaller details. However, ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Ferritin - because most infants affected by HDN have iron overload, a ferritin must be run before giving the infant any ... A rise in the retic count can mean that an infant may not need additional transfusions. Low retic is observed in infants ... Anti-C and anti-c can both show a negative DAT but still have a severely affected infant. An indirect Coombs must also be ...
Exposure to NO, NO2, CO PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Women living , ... The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded ... The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and ... "Infant Inhalation Of Ultra-fine Air Pollution Linked To Adult Lung Disease". Sciencedaily.com. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2010-08-29 ...
嬰兒猝死症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全
Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal ... Limited evidence suggested swaddling risk increased with infant age and was associated with a twofold risk for infants aged ,6 ... A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS. J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal. 1996, 1: 13-31.. ... Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: About SUID and SIDS. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1
... , also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which very little or no insulin is ... In the United States, type 1 diabetes affected about 208,000 youths under the age of 20 in 2015. Over 18,000 youths are ... The time interval from emergence of autoantibodies to clinically diagnosable diabetes can be a few months in infants and young ... Gestational diabetes *Diabetes and pregnancy. *Prediabetes *Impaired fasting glucose. *Impaired glucose tolerance ...
Current guidelines require that all babies of less than 32 weeks gestational age or having a birth weight less than 1.5 kg (3.3 ... in infants. In preterm infants, the retina is often not fully vascularised. Retinopathy of prematurity occurs when the ... X-rays of the lungs show little change in the short term, but extended exposure leads to increasing diffuse shadowing ... However, if the infant's breathing does not improve during this time, blood tests and x-rays may be used to confirm ...
... small for gestational age, low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of ... Short-term neonatal outcomes show small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function and growth restriction. Long-term ... Start of gestational age. Main article: Gestational age. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the ... Adding the estimated gestational age at childbirth to the above time point. Childbirth on average occurs at a gestational age ...
A Cochrane review in 2017 found that there was too little evidence to show whether pelvimetry is beneficial and safe when the ... Gestational age. *Human embryogenesis. *Maternal physiological changes. *Postpartum physiological changes. Care. *Nutrition * ... Women whose pelvises were deemed too small received caesarean sections instead of birthing naturally. ...
... teens in this age group and a drop of 8% from 2010. Birth rates fell 11% for women aged 15-17 years, and 7% for women aged 18- ... 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower. ... Many of those at risk of unintended pregnancy have little income, so even though contraceptives are highly cost-effective, ... Greater infant mortality. If all sexually active couples in the US had routinely used effective contraception in 1980, ...
An abnormally slow growth rate results in the infant being small for gestational age, and, on the other hand, an abnormally ... A baby born within the normal range of weight for that gestational age is known as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ... The growth rate of an embryo and infant can be reflected as the weight per gestational age, and is often given as the weight ...
Confined placental mosaicism
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... made up a smaller number of cases of mosaicism detected on CVS, but were more often confirmed in fetal tissue (19%). On the ... growth problems or detectable levels of trisomy in small samples of prenatal CVS. Currently, there is no evidence that somatic ...
For instance the incidence of stroke in women under the age of 80 is less than that in men, but higher in those aged over 80. ... Syphilis in pregnancy results in over 300,000 fetal and neonatal deaths per year, and 215,000 infants with an increased risk of ... The smallest decline was seen in the developed countries, from 26 to 16 (37%). In terms of assisted births, this proportion had ... gestational diabetes, hyperemesis gravidarum, hypertensive states including preeclampsia, and anemia. Globally, ...
Risk factors for small for gestational age infants
There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles ... Risk factors for small for gestational age infants Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Dec;23(6):779-93. doi: 10.1016/j. ... There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles ... pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous ...
Outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at |27 weeks' gestation. - PubMed - NCBI
To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants born at ,27 weeks gestational age (GA) are at increased risk for ... Outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at ,27 weeks gestation.. De Jesus LC1, Pappas A, Shankaran S, Li L, Das A, ... The SGA group comprised 385 infants; the non-SGA group, 2586 infants. Compared with mothers of non-SGA infants, mothers of SGA ... Infants with birth weight ≥ 10th percentile for GA were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal ...
small for gestational age infant
Scientific Experts about small for gestational age infant ... small for gestational age infant. Summary. Summary: An infant ... Outcome in preterm small for gestational age infants compared to appropriate for gestational age preterms at the age of 2 years ... You are here: Research Topics , persons , .. , newborn infant , low birth weight infant , small for gestational age infant ... in small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in comparison to appropriately grown and large for gestational age (LGA) ...
Effect of breastfeeding on cognitive development of infants born small for gestational age
... Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(3):267-74. ... but it is not known whether breastfeeding should be encouraged for infants born small for gestational age (SGA) whose growth ... Infants born SGA were given supplemental foods significantly earlier than those born AGA. Growth of infants born SGA was not ... using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 13 mo and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence at 5 y of age. ...
Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age | American Academy of Pediatrics
Infants small for gestational age grow at a faster rate than appropriate-for-age infants during the first six months of life. ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age. Eleanor Colle, David Schiff, Gail ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ...
Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age | American Academy of Pediatrics
Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age. Eleanor Colle, David Schiff, Gail ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ...
The impact of small-for-gestational-age on neonatal outcome among very-low-birth-weight infants. - PubMed - NCBI
The impact of small-for-gestational-age on neonatal outcome among very-low-birth-weight infants.. Tsai LY1, Chen YL2, Tsou KI3 ... percentile for gestational age, whereas the appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age (AGA) group (n = 1120) included infants ... Small-for-gestational-age in very-low-birth-weight infants: good or bad? [Pediatr Neonatol. 2015] ... By contrast, the association of SGA with severe ROP was only significant in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 27-29 ...
Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth | Hypertension
Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth. Anna-Karin Wikström, Johanna ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ...
PRIME PubMed | Perinatal correlates and neonatal outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at term gestatio
PubMed journal article Perinatal correlates and neonatal outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at term gestatio ... and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants. ... NewbornInfant, Newborn, DiseasesInfant, Small for Gestational AgeMorbidityPregnancyReference ValuesRisk Factors ... Perinatal Correlates and Neonatal Outcomes of Small for Gestational Age Infants Born at Term Gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. ...
Frontiers | Maternal Circulating Placental Growth Factor and Neonatal Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Small for Gestational Age...
In SGA infants with both low (P = 0.01). SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were ... Cord blood leptin levels were lower comparing SGA infants with low vs. normal maternal PlGF levels (P=0.01). SGA infants with ... In SGA infants with both low (,25th percentile) and normal maternal PlGF concentrations, cord plasma IGF-I and leptin ... It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at ...
Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age |...
Yearly, millions of human infants are born small for gestational age (SGA), and these infants are at higher risk for later ... Low body adiposity and high leptinemia in breast-fed infants born small-for-gestational-age. J Pediatr 2010;156:145-147pmid: ... Promotion of faster weight gain in infants born small for gestational age: is there an adverse effect on later blood pressure? ... Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age. Breast ...
topic:"Infant, Small for Gestational Age" found 1 record • Arctic Health
Estimates of Burden and Consequences of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age in Low and Middle Income Countries with...
2017). Estimates of Burden and Consequences of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age in Low and Middle Income Countries with ... Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex ... You are here: Home / Research / Publications / Estimates of Burden and Consequences of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age ... about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased ...
Promotion of Faster Weight Gain in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age. Is There an Adverse Effect on Later Blood Pressure? ...
Association of Oxygen Target and Growth Status With Increased Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants: Further Analysis...
1 compared the effect of oxygen saturation targets on retinopathy of prematurity or death among infants born at 24 to ... Association of Oxygen Target and Growth Status With Increased Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants: Further Analysis ... Association of Oxygen Target and Growth Status With Increased Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants: Further Analysis ... at that assessment we noted a disproportionate loss of small for gestational age (SGA) infants. This observation promoted us to ...
Cognitive and neurologic development of the premature, small for gestational age infant through age 6: Comparison by birth...
... infants with 300 premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants through 6 years of age. Design. Infants born at less ... than or equal to 37 weeks gestational age and less than or equal to 2500 g with birth weight 2 standard deviations or more ... To compare the neurologic and cognitive outcomes of 129 premature small for gestational age (SGA) ... small for gestational age infant through age 6: Comparison by birth weight and gestational age. Pediatrics, 98(6), 1167-1178. ...
Metabolic adaptation in small for gestational age infants. | Archives of Disease in Childhood
... and relating these to cross sectional data in 218 infants of appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA). SGA term infants had ... has long been recognised as a feature of the failure of metabolic adaptation in infants who are small for gestational age (SGA ... At birth, SGA preterm infants had lower mean blood glucose concentrations than AGA preterm infants (3.17 v 4.16 mmol/l), but ... Mean blood glucose concentrations did not differ between AGA and SGA preterm infants. For variables that differed between the ...
Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants ...
Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants ... Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants. Int J ... Keywords: small for gestational age, small for date, fetal/placental weight ratio, placenta, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal ... to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates.. Methods: From 93,034 placentas/infants of mothers who vaginally delivered a ...
Concomitant preterm birth and severe small-for-gestational age birth weight among infants of immigrant mothers in Ontario...
We excluded 893 infants (0.09%) whose gestational age was ,24 or,42 weeks and 487 infants (0.05%) whose gestational age at ... and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, such as maternal age, infant sex, parity, income level and marital status. ... Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country ... Concomitant preterm birth and severe small-for-gestational age birth weight among infants of immigrant mothers in Ontario ...
Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions | ADC Fetal & Neonatal...
Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions ... Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions ... Size for gestational age at birth: impact on risk for sudden infant death and other causes of death, USA 2002 ... New data by Malloy1 further substantiate fetal growth restriction or being small for gestational age (SGA) as a risk factor for ...
Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants | ADC Fetal & Neonatal...
Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants ... Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants ... occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. In contrast, the peak aRDs for BPD ... and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm ...
Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not...
"Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ... Differ But Are Lower Than in US Infants, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ... Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ...
Growth in Full- Term Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants: From Birth to Final Height - Semantic Scholar
This percentage decreased further during childhood to reach a value of 7.9% at 18 y of age. Although most SGAL infants have ... followed from birth to final height at about 18 y of age. Most infants, defined as SGA on the basis of a birth length less than ... SGAL infants were found to have a 7-fold higher risk for short final stature (relative risk, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.7- ... At 18 y of age, 22% of the total short population were short at birth (, - 2 SDS), whereas when birth weight was used to define ...
HKU Scholars Hub: Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in...
Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in gestational impaired ... Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in gestational impaired ... small-+and+large-for-gestational+age+infants+in+gestational+impaired+glucose+tolerance. en_HK. ... Conference Paper: Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in ...
Insulin family polymorphisms in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants - PubMed
Being born small for gestational age (SGA) increases the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and later life vascular and ... Insulin family polymorphisms in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants Prabha H Andraweera 1 , Kathryn L ... Insulin family polymorphisms in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants Prabha H Andraweera et al. Mol Hum ... A functional variant in ANGPT1 and the risk of pregnancies with hypertensive disorders and small-for-gestational-age infants. ...
Impact of macronutrient supplements on later growth of children born preterm or small for gestational age: A systematic review...
Gestation-specific infant mortality, 2013 - ONS
Babies whose birthweight lies below the tenth percentile for their gestational age are known as "small for gestational age" ( ... Figure 6: Infant mortality rates for small for gestational age babies, by ethnicity, 2011 to 2013. England and Wales. Source: ... 2014) Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary ... Table 4: Live births, neonatal and infant mortality by mothers age and gestational age at birth, 2013 birth cohort, England ...
Growth of Premature Infants Born Small by Gestational Age | ESPE2018
Premature infants born small by gestational age (SGA) represent a potential cohort for growth retardation. However, up to the ... Growth of Premature Infants Born Small by Gestational Age. Tatyana Kovalenko, Anton Yuditskiy & Irina Petrova. ... Aim: To assess the dynamics of growth of preterm infants born small by gestational age within 5 years of life, taking into ... Preterm infants with SGA and gestational age ,32 weeks reached the control group and population values by the age of 3 years: a ...
Circulating GLP-1 in Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Breast-Feeding Vs Formula-Feeding | ESPE2015 | 54th Annual ESPE |...
... in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; N=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either ... Circulating GLP-1 in Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Breast-Feeding Vs Formula-Feeding. Marta Díaza,b, Judit Bassolsc, ... SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. ... Results: At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations ...
Body composition and growth in full-term small for gestational age and large for gestational age Swedish infants assessed with...
Body composition and growth in full-term small for gestational age and large for gestational age Swedish infants assessed with ... Background Being born small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA) has short and long term metabolic ... Fat mass (g) in SGA infants increased 23 times between birth and 3-4 months of age compared to 2.8 times for LGA infants. At 3- ... Results SGA infants had significantly lower body fat (%) at birth compared to LGA infants. SGA infants increased their body ...
Appropriate forGestationPercentile for gestational agePregnancyCohortMorbidityPediatricsMortality90thIncidenceEthnicityMETHODSConclusionsParityNewbornWeeksPrematurityPrevalenceFull-term infantsPrenatalPregnanciesMaternal AgeSingleton infantsVLBWDiabetes2017Growth retardationLess than 2.5Neonatal InteSocioeconomic statusPlacentalNutritionalBirth weight 10thSupplementationIntra-uterine growth restrictionWeightsDifferencesCentileOutcomePostnatal catch-up growthBayley Scale of Infant DevelopmentHead circumference at birthBabies
- To address this issue, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and cognitive development were evaluated prospectively for 220 term children born SGA and 299 term children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (nih.gov)
- 10th percentile) infants born at term gestation to 372 appropriate for gestational age controls (AGA, birth weight 10th to 90th percentile) matched by sex, race, and gestational age within 2 weeks. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Between birth and 4 months, we studied how SGA-BRF and SGA-FOF infants distribute their weight gain as compared with BRF controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (diabetesjournals.org)
- To compare the neurologic and cognitive outcomes of 129 premature small for gestational age (SGA) infants with 300 premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants through 6 years of age. (rti.org)
- Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. 2018-03-01 00:00:00 ABSTRACTObjectives:Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are more susceptible to infectious morbidity and growth faltering compared to their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) counterparts. (deepdyve.com)
- Materials and methods: A total of 43 preterm infants with SGA and 44 preterm infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) were included in the control group with a distribution of them depending on the gestational age: 22 31 weeks and 32 36 weeks. (eurospe.org)
- If the baby's gestational age findings after birth match the calendar age, the baby is said to be appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medlineplus.gov)
- People born small for gestational age (SGA) have a lower IQ throughout development, however the differences in IQ to those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) reduce by adulthood. (warwick.ac.uk)
- While the foetal reference classified more infants as SGA than the neonatal reference, SGA using either reference was associated with an IQ -8 points lower than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), with the difference narrowing into adulthood. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Appropriate for gestational age (AGA) describes a fetus or newborn infant whose size is within the normal range for his or her gestational age . (northside.com)
- An appropriate for gestational age full-term infant is heavier than 2500 grams (about 5.5 lbs.) and lighter than about 4000 grams (about 8.75 lbs. (northside.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the development of sucking patterns in small-for-gestational age (SGA) preterm infants differs from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) preterm infants. (hanze.nl)
- abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the development of sucking patterns in small-for-gestational age (SGA) preterm infants differs from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) preterm infants.STUDY DESIGN: We assessed sucking patterns in 15 SGA and 34 AGA preterms (gestational ageRESULTS: SGA preterms developed a normal sucking pattern later than did AGA preterms (median, 50 versus 44 weeks PMA, P=.002). (hanze.nl)
- Both SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight between the 10th and 90th percentiles) infants show persistent postnatal growth failure after discharge. (elsevier.com)
- The concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estradiol, cortisone, and cortisol were analyzed in umbilical cord serum with mass spectrometry.Girls born SGA had higher levels of androstenedione than girls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (4.0 versus 2.6 nmol/L, p = 0.002). (gu.se)
- We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. (duhnnae.com)
- Of the remainder, 282 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 61 were small for gestational age (SGA). (jamanetwork.com)
- We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of mortality for SGA defined using the recently published Intergrowth standard, preterm, LBW, and gestational age and size for gestational age categories (preterm- appropriate for gestational age [AGA], term-SGA, and preterm-SGA). (ovid.com)
- Although small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have higher mortality, difference in the outcome of SGA and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants regarding respiratory morbidity is controversial. (ac.ir)
- 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). (scielo.br)
- The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). (scielo.br)
- Example: 35-week gestational age delivery, 2250g weight is appropriate for gestational age but is still LBW. (wikipedia.org)
- SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were characterized by greater decreases in cord blood IGF-I and leptin concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
- Objective To characterise the excess risk for death, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm infants, stratified by completed weeks of gestation. (bmj.com)
- 95% CI 0.13 to 0.40) occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. (bmj.com)
- The incidence and relative risk of short stature in children born SGA were studied using a Swedish healthy full-term (37-43 wk of gestation) singleton birth cohort (n = 3650) from Göteborg, followed from birth to final height at about 18 y of age. (semanticscholar.org)
- We are the only source of National Statistics on gestation-specific infant mortality with ethnicity in England and Wales. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Home Research Outputs Body composition and growth in full-term small for gestation. (lu.se)
- The researchers followed 203 VP/VLBW (under 32 weeks gestational age and/or under 1500g) and 198 term born children (between 37 and 41 weeks gestation) in Germany born in 1985-6 into adulthood. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Graphs are available showing the upper and lower normal limits for different gestational ages from the mid-20s through 42 weeks of gestation. (northside.com)
- Preterm birth (n=53, 7%) was defined as a delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation and SGA birth (n=124, 16%) was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for the infant's gestational age and sex compared to US singleton live births. (biomedsearch.com)
- Study design, subjects, and outcome measures We studied infants 23-28 weeks' gestation born 2006-2013 at NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. (elsevier.com)
- Data for specific weeks of gestation are provided and the differences were present at each gestational age. (jamanetwork.com)
- In this study, we intend to compare the mortality and respiratory morbidity rates between the preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for age (AGA) neonates of less than 34 weeks of gestation. (ac.ir)
- Small for gestational age (SGA) babies are much smaller than normal babies of the same gestation. (myhealth.gov.my)
- These babies weigh less and are smaller than 90% of all other babies of the same gestation. (myhealth.gov.my)
- The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. (hindawi.com)
Percentile for gestational age3
- Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. (nih.gov)
- A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. (nih.gov)
- Compared with mothers of non-SGA infants, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have a high school education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. (nih.gov)
- 80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. (ahajournals.org)
- A pregnancy resulting in a preterm birth (PTB) and concomitant small for gestational age birth weight (SGA)-'PTB-SGA'-is thought to be most pathological, in terms of both being due to placental dysfunction 1 2 and their adverse sequelae for the newborn infant. (bmj.com)
- Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. (medlineplus.gov)
- Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. (cdc.gov)
- Assigning size is a way to measure and monitor the growth of the infant throughout the pregnancy as well as at the time of birth. (northside.com)
- Does lack of multinutrient supplementation during early pregnancy increase vulnerability to alcohol-related preterm or small-for-gestational-age births? (biomedsearch.com)
- The objective of this study was to assess whether women who do not take multinutrient supplements during early pregnancy are more susceptible to the effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption on preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA) compared to women who do take multinutrients. (biomedsearch.com)
- Our findings provide marginal evidence that multinutrient supplementation during early pregnancy may modify the risk of SGA births and preterm birth associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy and may have important implications for pregnant women and women of child-bearing age. (biomedsearch.com)
- Women who engage in or are exposed to multiple risks during pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. (lww.com)
- We analyzed the data of parents and infants from a population-based cohort research of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project (NPCP) in rural China. (biomedcentral.com)
- We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants. (ucc.ie)
- Babies that are large for gestational age throughout the pregnancy may be suspected because of an ultrasound, but fetal weight estimations in pregnancy are quite imprecise. (wikipedia.org)
- male infants tend to weigh more than female infants Excessive maternal weight gain Multiparity (having two to three times the number of LGA infants vs. primaparas) Congenital anomalies (transposition of great vessels) - Hydrops fetalis Erythroblastosis fetalis - Hydrops fetalis Use of some antibiotics (amoxicillin, pivampicillin) during pregnancy - Hydrops fetalis Genetic disorders of overgrowth (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
- Birth weight less than 10th percentile for their gestational age (number of weeks of pregnancy). (myhealth.gov.my)
- Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged.The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased.These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. (nih.gov)
- Adverse pregnancy outcome and association with small for gestational age birth weight by customised and population-based percentiles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- SGA describes a baby who is smaller than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. (eurekalert.org)
- The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 60 percent of women of childbearing age consume alcoholic beverages despite the fact that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is implicated in a wide range of birth defects and developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and visual and auditory impairments. (hhs.gov)
- High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece. (tripdatabase.com)
- A study discovered that supplementation with zinc during pregnancy has long-term heart benefits for the infant. (forcesofnature.ca)
- The following risk factors generally contribute either to the underlying biological vulnerability or represent an external trigger: SIDS rates are higher for infants of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
- We conducted a retrospective cohort study on VLBW infants registered at the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan between 2007 and 2011. (nih.gov)
- 10th percentile) and 161 optimal birth weight (25th-75th percentiles) control infants in the 3D (design, develop and discover) birth cohort in Canada, we assessed whether maternal circulating placental growth factor (PlGF), a biomarker of placental function, is associated with metabolic health biomarkers in SGA infants. (frontiersin.org)
- The study cohort consists of 174 infants (88 girls and 86 boys) recruited ( Fig. 1 ) into a longitudinal study that assesses the body composition and endocrine-metabolic state of SGA infants, as compared with AGA-BRF controls, in the first years after birth ( 9 , 13 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- This birth cohort allows births and infant deaths to be reported by gestational age and ethnicity. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Premature infants born small by gestational age (SGA) represent a potential cohort for growth retardation. (eurospe.org)
- 27 weeks gestational age (GA) are at increased risk for mortality, morbidity, and growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months corrected age. (nih.gov)
- This study aimed to evaluate the impact of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) on mortality and morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. (nih.gov)
- Conclusion The excess risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with being born SGA varies by adverse outcome and gestational age. (bmj.com)
- Preterm birth is a significant causative factor of infant and child morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
- Small for gestational age SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. (duhnnae.com)
- Small for gestational age infants have an increased risk of immediate complications, short-term morbidity and mortality, and long-term neurologic and metabolic disorders in adulthood. (beds.ac.uk)
- However, it has been suggested that the definition be restricted to infants with birth weights greater than the 97th percentile (2 standard deviations above the mean) as this more accurately describes infants who are at greatest risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
- The establishment of specific norms of birth weight for gestational age in a Cameroonian population may be an important step towards identifying infants at higher risk of early morbidity or death. (hindawi.com)
- Compared with non-SGA infants, SGA infants had higher mortality and were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and postnatal steroid use. (nih.gov)
- 27 weeks GA is associated with an increased likelihood of postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure, and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months corrected age. (nih.gov)
- Prematurity and low birth weight are associated with high perinatal and infant mortality, especially in developing countries. (labome.org)
- Further subgroup analysis showed that SGA had significant effects on mortality in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 24-29 weeks, as well as on BPD in those with a gestational age of 27-32 weeks. (nih.gov)
- Our data provide evidence that SGA may be associated with increased risks of neonatal mortality, ROP, and BPD in VLBW infants. (nih.gov)
- Objectives: To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard. (unc.edu)
- Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. (unc.edu)
- With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated. (unc.edu)
- Babies born in 2013 had an infant mortality rate of 3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births for babies born in 2012. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Black African babies (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3 deaths per 1,000 live births respectively) had the highest infant mortality rates. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- The infant deaths rates in this bulletin may differ slightly from those published in Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2013 (DR) and Childhood, Infant and Perinatal Mortality in England and Wales, 2013 (CIPM) . (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- The infant mortality rate presented in DR, 2013 (4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) was based on deaths that were registered in 2013. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Infant mortality statistics for Scotland and Northern Ireland are the responsibility of National Records of Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics Research Agency respectively. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- Substantial inequalities in infant mortality rates are known to exist between white and ethnic minority groups in England and Wales (Gray et al. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. (co.zw)
- Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. (co.zw)
- To evaluate the risk of newborn and infant mortality associated with preterm, small for gestational age (SGA), and low birth weight (LBW) stratified by maternal HIV status and the location of birth. (ovid.com)
- Compared with term-AGA groups, infants born both preterm and SGA had a greater risk of neonatal mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 5.43, 95% CI 2.01-14.63) than preterm-AGA infants (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.89-3.05) and term-SGA infants (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.96-3.34). (ovid.com)
- Maternal HIV infection modified the risk of infant mortality associated with being born preterm or LBW, with a higher relative risk among those born to HIV-uninfected women. (ovid.com)
- LGA is often defined as a weight, length, or head circumference that lies above the 90th percentile for that gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
- A baby is also called "large for gestational age" if its weight is greater than the 90th percentile at birth. (wikipedia.org)
- 10th percentile) and an underestimation of infants as large for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 90th percentile). (cmaj.ca)
- 90th percentile) babies may be identified using the centile charts of birth weight for gestational age and sex [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Prolonging small feeding volumes early in life decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. (springer.com)
- Compared with North China, the incidence of preterm SGA infants was higher in South China. (biomedcentral.com)
- At birth these individuals were small for gestational age , and as adults they had increased incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 6 The incidence of dysphagia is increasing, partially due to the improved survival of preterm infants and those with complex medical conditions. (scielo.org.za)
- By definition, SIDS deaths occur under the age of one year, with the peak incidence occurring when the infant is at 2 to 4 months of age. (wikipedia.org)
- Gestational age and ethnicity are not always collected at birth registration and we have only routinely reported them since 2006. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- 2009). However, information about ethnicity and gestational age is not always collected at birth registration. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- 6 To date, comparisons between a single population-based standard and customized standards, including ones that are based on ethnicity, have focused on small-for-gestational-age infants, but less attention has been paid to the potential under-classification of large infants. (cmaj.ca)
- However, it is well recognized that there is a wide variation in the birth weight for gestational age of infants depending on ethnicity and sex [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- P =0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. (cambridge.org)
- Methods Body composition in 25 SGA and 25 LGA infants were assessed during the first days of life and at 3-4 months of age using air displacement plethysmography. (lu.se)
- Methods: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. (elsevier.com)
- Methods: Data for 1997-2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. (cdc.gov)
- METHODS: Using data from population-based birth defect registries, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study enrolled infants with nonsyndromic congenital heart defects (case subjects) and infants without congenital heart defects or any other birth defect (control subjects). (biomedsearch.com)
- Conclusions: Preterm infants with SGA and gestational age of less than 32 weeks have a high risk of growth retardation in the first 5 years of life and require in-depth examination to address the issue of hormone growth therapy. (eurospe.org)
- Conclusions: Nutrition management and perceived nutrient requirements for tSGA infants among practising HCPs in Southeast Asia showed considerable variation. (elsevier.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Infants with congenital heart defects are approximately twice as likely to be small for gestational age as control subjects. (biomedsearch.com)
- Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. (ovid.com)
- Z scores of PW and F/P based on the standard curves for sex-, parity-, and gestational-age-specific PW and F/P were calculated. (medsci.org)
- We accounted for some risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, such as maternal age, infant sex, parity, income level and marital status. (bmj.com)
- By contrast, the association of SGA with severe ROP was only significant in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 27-29 weeks. (nih.gov)
- The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Surfactant, Positive Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)1 compared the effect of oxygen saturation targets on retinopathy of prematurity or death among infants born at 24 to 27 weeks' gestational age. (rti.org)
- Infants born at less than or equal to 37 weeks gestational age and less than or equal to 2500 g with birth weight 2 standard deviations or more below the mean birth weight for gestational age were categorized as SGA. (rti.org)
- 38 weeks' postmenstrual age) and/or to fetal growth restriction (SGA). (bmj.com)
- The risk-adjusted probability of dying or developing one or more of the evaluated morbidities among SGA infants was similar to that of non-SGA infants born approximately 2-3 weeks less mature. (bmj.com)
- The prospective study included preterm infants with SGA (group 1, n =100) and preterm infants corresponding to gestational age (group 2, n =69) with a division by gestational age (32-36 weeks and 22-31 weeks). (eurospe.org)
- Premature infants with SGA and gestational age of 22-31 weeks have an unfavorable growth prognosis in the first 5 years of life, which determines the direction of further research. (eurospe.org)
- Results: Preterm infants with AGA with a gestational age of more than 32 weeks had optimal growth rates consistent with population standards throughout the follow-up period. (eurospe.org)
- 32 weeks reached the control group and population values by the age of 3 years: a median of 93 cm (89, 95), −0.03 S.D. (−0.08, 0.12). (eurospe.org)
- Premature infants with SGA and gestational age less than 32 weeks had the most pronounced growth retardation: from −2.3 S.D. in 1 year to −1.5 S.D. at 5 years of age. (eurospe.org)
- Infants born before 37 weeks are considered premature. (medlineplus.gov)
- Infants born after 42 weeks are considered postmature. (medlineplus.gov)
- The measurement is calculated based on the estimated gestational age (how many weeks the mother was pregnant) in comparison to what is considered normal height, weight, head size, and developmental level for a child of the same gestational age and gender. (northside.com)
- or=36 weeks) longitudinally from 34 to 50 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). (hanze.nl)
- 05). A higher gestational age and z-score for birth weight were predictive of normal sucking at 50 weeks PMA. (hanze.nl)
- After discharge from the neonatal intensive care units and post-conceptional age of 40 weeks is reached, the recently released WHO growth curves appear suitable for monitoring their ongoing growth. (springer.com)
- Factors such as gestational age, birth weight, poor weight gain and Apgar scores showed no association with either type of dysphagia in the sample of infants with a mean gestational age of 35.53 weeks. (scielo.org.za)
- The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. (hindawi.com)
- Irrespective of degree of prematurity, SGA infants are at greater risk for neurodevelopmental impairment than are equally premature AGA infants. (rti.org)
- Prematurity combined with intrauterine growth retardation (small to gestational age, SGA) is a potential risk factor for adverse growth prognosis. (eurospe.org)
- Aim: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. (uu.nl)
- With the growing importance of preterm SGA infants, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for preterm SGA in China. (biomedcentral.com)
- Growth characteristics of 15 full-term infants, selected because of weights more than 2 SD below the mean for gestational age, are described. (aappublications.org)
- The weight for full-term infants that are born AGA will most often be between 2,500 grams (about 5.5 lbs or 2.5 kg) and 4,000 grams (about 8.75 lbs or 4 kg). (medlineplus.gov)
- It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. (frontiersin.org)
- There is a lack of knowledge on which prenatal biomarkers may be useful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. (frontiersin.org)
- Prenatal intervention that would prevent low birth weight infants who are SGA would be a major contribution towards perinatal health improvement. (nzdl.org)
- Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate. (wikipedia.org)
- We investigated the association of functional SNPs in insulin (INS), insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) with small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies, uterine and umbilical artery Doppler and plasma insulin level. (cdc.gov)
- A functional variant in ANGPT1 and the risk of pregnancies with hypertensive disorders and small-for-gestational-age infants. (cdc.gov)
- Pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants demonstrate impaired placental vascular remodelling. (cdc.gov)
- We aimed to investigate the association between ANGPT1 rs2507800 polymorphism and pregnancies complicated by gestational hypertensive disorders and SGA infants. (cdc.gov)
- Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Infants born to mothers receiving treatment with terbutaline / propranolol / labetalol /oral anti-diabetes medications . (medindia.net)
- Which growth standards should be used to identify large- and small-for-gestational age infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes? (biomedcentral.com)
- WHO standards underestimated size in preterm infants and are less applicable for use in type 1 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Maternal and fetal IGF-I and IGF-II levels, fetal growth, and gestational diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Little is known about the role of maternal IGF-II in fetal growth and whether IGF-I or IGF-II is implicated in fetal hypertrophy in gestational diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
- OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess maternal and fetal IGF-I and IGF-II levels in association with fetal growth and gestational diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Lutein supplementation with pregnant women with gestational diabetes was found to be associated with lower oxidative stress in the mothers. (forcesofnature.ca)
- Although the etiology of growth retardation among infants with congenital heart defects is uncertain, further exploration may uncover a common pathogenesis or causal relationship between congenital heart defects and small for gestational age. (biomedsearch.com)
- It is commonly, and quite wrongly, taught that all SGA infants with growth retardation tend to catch-up in early months, though often not completely. (nzdl.org)
- Although the available data clearly demonstrate that preterm infants, especially if born SGA, exhibit postnatal growth retardation at the time of hospital discharge, the importance of the nutritional post discharge management has not been sufficiently taken into account. (elsevier.com)
- If small for gestational age babies have been the subject of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), formerly known as intrauterine growth retardation, the term SGA associated with IUGR is used. (wikipedia.org)
Less than 2.53
- The invention provides a method and a composition for the treatment of infants age less than 2.5 years old defined as small for gestational age (SGA), including the use of hGH or any compound that increases blood levels of hGH or of IGF-I. Early use of the composition prevents the irreversible neurological and psychological damage of the children. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Term infants usually weigh less than 2.5 kg. (myhealth.gov.my)
- Infants born SGA with severe short stature (or severe SGA) are defined as having a length less than 2.5 standard deviation scores below the mean. (wikipedia.org)
- The researchers also determined whether other aspects such as being very preterm/very low birth weight, socioeconomic status and parent-infant relationship influence SGA's effect on cognitive performance. (warwick.ac.uk)
- They also assessed the parent's socioeconomic status and parent-infant relationship before the infant was 5 months old, and had participants do a developmental and IQ tests on six occasions, from 5 months to 26 years old. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Downregulated expression of PlGF may cause placental vascular insufficiency, resulting in placental dysfunctional complications including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, or its surrogate indicator, small for gestational age (SGA) ( 5 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
- To address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that maternal PlGF, a biomarker of placental function, may be associated with neonatal metabolic health profile in SGA infants, as indicated by cord blood concentrations of insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. (frontiersin.org)
- Informed consent was obtained from all women before gested that infants exposed in utero to both placental they were enrolled in this study. (cdc.gov)
- Breastfeeding during infancy appears to result in enhanced cognitive development during childhood, but it is not known whether breastfeeding should be encouraged for infants born small for gestational age (SGA) whose growth might otherwise benefit from nutritional supplementation. (nih.gov)
- Growth of infants born SGA was not related to early nutritional supplementation. (nih.gov)
- The impetus to form standardised and evidence based feeding regimens is important as adequate nutritional management and growth monitoring particularly in this population of infants will have long term impact on population health. (elsevier.com)
- Nutritional needs of low-birth-weight infants. (springer.com)
- Besides the close maternal-infant contact of breastfeeding, the nutritional factors of human milk, above all long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid, may at least partly account for the observed association. (elsevier.com)
- 5 Interference with the nutritional requirements of infants may cause negative psychological consequences for caregivers and even death in infants. (scielo.org.za)
Birth weight 10th1
Intra-uterine growth restriction1
- There is a growing interest in the extent to which body composition, both in the short and the long term, differs in infants born at the extremes of these birth weights. (lu.se)
- There were 374 infants with birth weights of 500 g to 1500 g admitted in the first 24 hours after birth, but 31 died before studies were obtained. (jamanetwork.com)
- Infants of immigrant women in Western nations generally have lower birth weights than infants of native-born women. (cmaj.ca)
- To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. (hindawi.com)
- There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. (hindawi.com)
- We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. (hindawi.com)
- 7 ] reported that preterm Botswana-born infants had higher average birth weights while term Botswana infants had lower birth weights compared to those born in the US. (hindawi.com)
- The aim of this study was to establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. (hindawi.com)
- Subsequently, although there were no differences in blood glucose concentrations, SGA term infants had lower mean ketone body concentrations (for example day 2: 0.07 v 0.41 mmol/l), and failed to mount a ketogenic response to low blood glucose concentrations. (bmj.com)
- At birth, SGA preterm infants had lower mean blood glucose concentrations than AGA preterm infants (3.17 v 4.16 mmol/l), but there were few postnatal metabolic differences between the two groups. (bmj.com)
- These data suggest that, although there are early metabolic differences between SGA and AGA infants, it is possible that current clinical management is effective in preventing subsequent hypoglycaemia. (bmj.com)
- Conclusion Several significant differences have been identified between SGA and LGA infants, indicating that the effects of intrauterine life continues to play an important role in body composition and growth during the first 3-4 months of life. (lu.se)
- Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard. (unc.edu)
- A small proportion exhibited some catch-up but, at least by two years, had not yet reached the 5th centile. (nzdl.org)
- Most SGA infants showed postnatal upward weight centile crossing and by 3 years were similar in size to AGA infants. (springer.com)
- The impact of small-for-gestational-age on neonatal outcome among very-low-birth-weight infants. (nih.gov)
- There was, nevertheless, a significant effect of SGA on cognitive outcome independent of neurologic status at all ages except 3 years. (rti.org)
- SGA compared with non-SGA infants experienced higher unadjusted rates of each study outcome except grade 3-4 IVH among survivors. (bmj.com)
- Developmental outcome and follow-up of the small for gestational age infant. (thefreedictionary.com)
Postnatal catch-up growth2
Bayley Scale of Infant Development1
Head circumference at birth2
- An update of the Swedish reference standards for weight, length and head circumference at birth for given gestational age (1977-1981). (semanticscholar.org)
- It has been previously determined by researchers from the University of Warwick that those with a smaller head circumference at birth and subsequent poor head growth have a lower IQ . (warwick.ac.uk)
- There is interest in infant deaths statistics from policymakers, those responsible for managing services for mothers and babies, charities and academics interested in research into causes of infant death. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- AGA babies have lower rates of problems and death than babies that are small or large for their gestational age. (medlineplus.gov)
- Term SGA babies look mature like a normal babies except that they are smaller in size. (myhealth.gov.my)
- Catch-up growth may occur in some babies while others remain small throughout childhood. (myhealth.gov.my)
- One third of babies born with a low birth weight are also small for gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
- Intrauterine growth restriction, also called "pathological SGA" 90 percent of babies born SGA catch up in growth by the age of 2. (wikipedia.org)
- When women deliver their babies in certified healthcare facilities without paying or paying a very small amount of money, they are motivated to use their own money on the diet of the baby, clothing, and other needs (Onarheim, Iversen, and Bloom n.p). (wikipedia.org)