An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The nitrate opposite the oxygen is quite asymmetric, but the mirror image nitrate groups have more equal oxygen bond lengths. ... Over 80 °C it decomposes slowly. Vanadyl nitrate can form a solid pale yellow adduct with boron trifluoride. An adduct is also ... Many of these bands are due to stretching in nitrogen-oxygen bonds, but 1016.3 cm−1 is due to the double vanadium-oxygen bond. ... The vanadium oxygen double bond is in the same plane as a nitrate group roughly opposite. The other two nitrate groups are at ...
Tron, Gina (August 9, 2019). "'It's A Big Deal': Victim In 40-Year-Old 'Orange Socks' Cold Case Identified". Oxygen. Retrieved ... Turner, Allan (August 3, 2012). "Eternity's gate slowly closing at Peckerwood Hill". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 16, ...
At 100 °C, wet hay absorbed twice the amount of oxygen of dry hay. There has been conjecture that the complex carbohydrates ... bacteria slowly decompose the materials, producing heat. If these materials are stored in a way so the heat cannot escape, the ... Freshly mined coal consumes oxygen more rapidly than weathered coal, and freshly mined coal self-heats to a greater extent than ... Coal can ignite spontaneously when exposed to oxygen, which causes it to react and heat up when there is insufficient ...
Sawgrass thrives in the slowly moving water, but may die in unusually deep floods if oxygen is unable to reach its roots. It is ... Bacteria decompose dead sawgrass slowly underwater without oxygen. When the water was drained in the 1920s and bacteria ... All grow in oxygen-poor soil, can survive drastic water level changes, and are tolerant of salt, brackish, and fresh water. All ... It also dissolved oxygen in the peat, promoted algae, and prohibited the growth of native invertebrates on the bottom of the ...
Meanwhile, the large tank is slowly leaking oxygen. After regrouping, the crew realizes that one person must ignore the ... Only half of the algae survives, providing just enough oxygen for a third crew member. Without another oxygen supply, the crew ... David reveals that the rest of the algae has died, leaving only enough oxygen for two, and agrees to join her. Zoe and David ... However, the canisters can only sustain enough oxygen for two passengers. Barnett orders David to immediately cultivate his ...
... metal tarnishes slowly in air. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. Mixtures of ... It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air.[6] ... Ytterbium reacts with oxygen to form ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3), which crystallizes in the "rare-earth C-type sesquioxide" ... Ytterbium is quite electropositive, and it reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium(III ...
Under low oxygen conditions plastics break down more slowly. The breakdown process can be accelerated in specially designed ... The steps taken to fragment these materials also differ based on the presence of oxygen in the system. The breakdown of ... Factors include light, water, oxygen and temperature. The degradation rate of many organic compounds is limited by their ... Biodegradable material is capable of decomposing without an oxygen source (anaerobically) into carbon dioxide, water, and ...
"Why do low oxygen levels cause altitude sickness?". Altitude.org.. *^ "The Lake Louise Consensus on the Definition of Altitude ... Prevention is by gaining elevation slowly over days. The medications acetazolamide, dexamethasone, or nifedipine may also be ... The initial cause of HAPE is a shortage of oxygen caused by the lower air pressure at high altitudes.[1][4] The mechanisms by ... Oxygen should also be given if possible. Symptoms tend to quickly improve with descent, but more severe symptoms may continue ...
... is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). It slowly decomposes in the presence ... This makes the practice similar to other oxygen-based therapies, such as ozone therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Both the ... Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen with a ΔHo of -2884.5 kJ/kg and a ΔS of 70.5 J/(mol·K): 2 H 2O 2 → 2 H 2O ... It is also difficult to raise the level of oxygen around cancer cells within a tumour, as the blood supply tends to be poor, a ...
In order to avoid fluid overload, fluids are given slowly. The prognosis significantly depends on the underlying cause of the ... It may include intranasal oxygen, painkillers, blood transfusions, and fluids. ... preventing one or both lungs from fully expanding and thereby interfering with the normal transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide ...
Sawgrass thrives in the slowly moving water, but may die in unusually deep floods if oxygen is unable to reach its roots. It is ... Bacteria decompose dead sawgrass slowly underwater without oxygen. When the water was drained in the 1920s and bacteria ... It also dissolved oxygen in the peat, promoted algae, and prohibited growth of native invertebrates on the bottom of the food ... The sheetflow travels so slowly that water is typically stored from one wet season to the next in the porous limestone ...
While Chuck uses an oxygen mask, Dan's humanity is slowly restored. He has no recollection of events after he ejected from the ... he must now replace that oxygen by consuming any type of oxygen-enriched blood. When Dan's coated helmet is found in a car with ... They see the same specks on the necks of the dead cattle; they also find a high-altitude oxygen lead from the Y-13. Chuck ... But with Dan's metabolism having been altered in space, his body and brain have now become starved of oxygen on Earth; ...
The cobaloxime is slowly decomposed by acids and bases. With acids, the products of decomposition are dimethylglyoxime, cobalt ... This process afford the cobaloxime(II), which is subsequently oxidized by the oxygen in air: 4 CoCl2•6H2O + 8 dmgH2 + 8 py + O2 ... The complex has no reaction with hydrogen gas, and cannot carry oxygen as salcomine does. It would, however, react with ...
His wife comes to slowly and sees her husband, but is too late. Li finally realizes that there is more to life than work and ... They hide in the second vacuum chamber as the oxygen cylinders detonate. Able now to reach his wife, Jack desperately tries to ... in order to ensure compliance he places Jack's wife and his partner's children inside a vacuum chamber to slowly run out of air ...
At 800 atmospheres of pressure the surface atmosphere, with its load of dissolved oxygen and sulphur oxides, is compressed to a ... Only when the density of the planet's air is a little less than the density of liquid water will the raindrops descend slowly; ... Tenebra has an atmosphere "consisting of water heavily laced with oxygen and oxides of sulphur". At the surface the temperature ... But the raindrops descend slowly, even in Tenebra's stiff gravity. ...
However, insufficient oxygen remains for all three astronauts to survive until Dougherty arrives. There is possibly enough for ... The Soviet cosmonaut shines a light on Lloyd, drifting slowly away from the Apollo; Dougherty retrieves him using a maneuvering ... NASA debates whether a rescue flight can reach the crew before their oxygen runs out in approximately two days. There are no ... An agitated Lloyd offers to leave since he is "using up most of the oxygen anyway", but Pruett overrules him. He orders ...
Metallic technetium slowly tarnishes in moist air and, in powder form, burns in oxygen. Technetium can catalyse the destruction ... Moreover, its long half-life means that this emission decreases very slowly with time. It can also be extracted to a high ...
Dissolved haematein slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen, yielding products that have not found applications. In acidic ... contain a cationic dye-metal complex and will slowly stain nucleic acids. Haemalum solutions used for routine staining are more ...
It biodegrades slowly. Polyvinyl acetate Vinyl acetate Polymerization Polyvinyl nitrate "Poly(vinyl alcohol)_msds". Schnepf MJ ... It has high tensile strength and flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier properties. However, these properties ...
The machine used for analysis aspirates this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the partial pressures of oxygen and ... In such a case, carbon dioxide levels should be slowly diminished.[citation needed] Anion gap Radial artery puncture Chemical ... Online interactive oxygen delivery calculator Acid Base Balance (page 3) RCPA Manual: Base Excess (arterial blood) "ABG ( ... An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. An ABG test ...
When hemoglobin S is deprived of oxygen, it can polymerize, which is what is proposed to cause the "sickled" cells. The sickled ... A sickling collapse comes on slowly, following cramps, weakness, general body aches and fatigue. Individuals with known ... A collapse can be prevented by taking steps to ensure sufficient oxygen levels in the blood. Among these preventative measures ... This is because the sickling happens only at low oxygen concentrations. With regards to the actual concentration of hemoglobin ...
... and their oxygen reserve, which slowly depletes in underwater and vacuum areas. If either of these resources is fully depleted ... this slowly depletes their oxygen and, for some types of liquid, their shields as well. Another notable level feature in all ... The heads-up display, which is always visible, has health and oxygen bars, an inventory, and a motion sensor. The inventory ... There are special wall panels located throughout the levels that can be used to recharge the player's shield or oxygen reserves ...
Heating nickel sulfate dehydrates it, and then 700° it loses sulfur trioxide, sulfur dioxide and oxygen. Nickel sulfite can be ... A solution is formed that slowly loses sulfur dioxide, and which crystallises nickel sulfite hexahydrate. Crystals are ...
In addition to this, the player has a limited supply of oxygen. The game has three different levels of difficulty and a ... On release, GamePro called the game "a well-executed thriller that slowly builds in intensity." Though they complained that ...
Both tanks were slowly filled up until the launch as the oxygen and hydrogen evaporated. The launch commit criteria considered ... At the time of separation, gaseous oxygen was vented from the nose to cause the ET to tumble, ensuring that it would break up ... The ET was 47 m (153.8 ft) tall and 8.4 m (27.6 ft) in diameter, and contained separate tanks for liquid oxygen (LOX) and ... The RS-25 is a staged-combustion cycle cryogenic engine that used liquid oxygen and hydrogen and had a higher chamber pressure ...
The concentration of oxygen in water is lower than air and it diffuses more slowly. In a litre of freshwater the oxygen content ... Oxygen has a diffusion rate in air 10,000 times greater than in water. The use of sac-like lungs to remove oxygen from water ... Fish transfer oxygen from the sea water to their blood using a highly efficient mechanism called countercurrent exchange. ... As a result the gills can extract over 80% of the oxygen available in the water. Marine teleosts also use their gills to ...
... tarnishes slowly in air and oxidizes ("rusts") like iron in water containing dissolved oxygen. Naturally occurring ... Of particular interest is the use of a Mn-O cluster, the oxygen-evolving complex, in the production of oxygen by plants. ... Manganese is also important in photosynthetic oxygen evolution in chloroplasts in plants. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is ... Dismukes, G. Charles; Willigen, Rogier T. van (2006). "Manganese: The Oxygen-Evolving Complex & Models". Manganese: The Oxygen- ...
The acid separated the water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The iron filings absorbed the oxygen gas which allowed the ... The airship drifted up slowly at first, going towards the factory roof peaks. The driver-reporter immediately dropped one of ... Oxygen gas, generated at 600 cubic feet per hour, went through a lime-water wash and from there to fill the balloon. The ... This caused the oxygen and hydrogen to react, creating water (H2O). This man-made water then acted as a nucleus for making rain ...
There is evidence from oxygen isotopes at Deep Sea Drilling Program sites that ice began to build up in Antarctica about 36 Ma ... As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, the climate slowly cooled towards a series of ... A Middle Miocene δ18O increase, that is, a relative increase in the heavier isotope of oxygen, has been noted in the Pacific, ...
Tilling over-pumps oxygen to local soil residents, such as bacteria and fungi. As a result, the chemistry of the soil changes. ... "Natural farming succeeds in Indian village By Partap C Aggarwal" in the 1980s Satavic Farms (India), "Slowly, bit by bit, we ... Living roots drill millions of tiny holes in the soil and thus provide oxygen. They also create room for beneficial insects and ...
... "slowly uttered words".[441] Kong Duong, who worked with Pol Pot in the 1980s, said that he was "very likeable, a really nice ... and he eventually required daily access to oxygen.[394] He spent increasing amounts of time with his family, in particular his ...
A few other isotopes and radiotracers are slowly being introduced into oncology for specific purposes. For example, 11C- ... Because the oxygen atom that is replaced by F-18 to generate FDG is required for the next step in glucose metabolism in all ... oxygen-15 (~2 min), fluorine-18 (~110 min), gallium-68 (~67 min), zirconium-89 (~78.41 hours),[32] or rubidium-82(~1.27 min). ... and has been measured using the tracer oxygen-15. Because of its 2-minute half-life, O-15 must be piped directly from a medical ...
Under low levels of oxygen, the pre-Bötzinger complex needs to rearrange the activity of its neurons and requires the ... Cellularly, substance P is involved in the depolarization of nonpacemaker neurons slowly, causing an increase in action ... The pre-Bötzinger complex produces two types of breathing rhythms under normal levels of oxygen. In eupnea, or normal breathing ... Moreover, ATP-dependent potassium channels help neurons detect changes in energy or oxygen levels to modify breathing patterns ...
The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice- ... "Slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate in traditional bushfoods: a protective factor against diabetes?". Am J Clin Nutr. 45 ...
Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and the inner membrane of their carapaces. ...
The thin skin of the octopus absorbs additional oxygen.[39] When resting, around 41% of an octopus's oxygen absorption is ... This moves the body slowly.[31]. In 2005, Adopus aculeatus and veined octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus) were found to walk on ... "The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in Octopus". The ... In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. The haemocyanin is ...
However, as the years went by, the government levied more and more taxes on the sake industry and slowly the number of ... Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen ... After the war, breweries slowly began to recover, and the quality of sake gradually went up. However, new players on the scene- ...
They slowly decompose at standard conditions to the superoxides and oxygen, and hydrolyse immediately to the hydroxides when in ... Reaction with oxygen Upon reacting with oxygen, alkali metals form oxides, peroxides, superoxides and suboxides. However, the ... The other oxygen compounds are also unstable in water. 2KO2 + 2H2O → 2KOH + H2O2 + O2[145]. Li2O + H2O → 2LiOH. Reaction with ... forming an oxide ion and an oxygen atom. This causes lithium to form the oxide exclusively on reaction with oxygen at room ...
Arterial and venous hypoxia, or the deprivation of adequate oxygen supply to certain areas of the brain, occurs when a tumor ... Oligodendrogliomas are incurable but slowly progressive malignant brain tumors. They can be treated with surgical resection, ... and the occurrence of either slowly evolving or the sudden onset of focal neurologic symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral ...
Elsewhere, Colossus and the Goblin Queen's army are slowly making headway, though they are losing goblins. They are ... Scab: Forms durable armor plating when his blood is exposed to oxygen. (Implied killed by Cannonball) ...
Recent technological advances are slowly improving wheelchair and powerchair technology. A variation on the manually-propelled ... walkers or oxygen tanks, drink holders, and mud and wheel-guards as clothing protectors. ...
This however means less room around the breathing hole as the ice slowly closes the gap. When out at sea, whales dive out of ... In addition to their streamlined bodies, they can slow their heart rate to conserve oxygen; blood is rerouted from tissue ... shallow dives while building their oxygen reserves, and then make a sounding dive.[11][45] ... tolerant of water pressure to the heart and brain among other organs; haemoglobin and myoglobin store oxygen in body tissue; ...
... which is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene ... "Highly expressed genes in yeast evolve slowly". Genetics. 158 (2): 927-931. PMC 1461684. PMID 11430355 ... increasing the risk of blood clots and possibly depriving vital organs of oxygen.[33] Some complications associated with sickle ...
It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and ... digesting it slowly.[78] ... The air space (7) provides the embryo with oxygen while it is ...
Although air-breathing fish can absorb oxygen through their lungs, the lungs tend to be ineffective for discharging carbon ... Likewise, the paired appendages had not been formerly connected to the spine, but the slowly strengthening limbs now ... very low in oxygen) would have been under evolutionary pressure to develop their air-breathing ability.[82][83][84] ... when atmospheric oxygen levels were too low to sustain wildfires.[81] During this time, fish inhabiting anoxic waters ( ...
Personnel stay inside the main compartment for 17 hours before ascending as the pressure is slowly reduced, so that they do not ... Electro-galvanic oxygen sensor. *Pneumofathometer. *Submersible pressure gauge. Mobility. equipment. *Diving bell *Closed bell ...
Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant or oxygen-absorbing packets, vacuum sealing, or refrigeration in ... Though at these heights the plants grow more slowly, they acquire a better flavour.[61] ...
... and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen ... Crucible steel, formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible, ... Basic oxygen process. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.. *^ Jones, J.A.T. ; Bowman, B. and Lefrank, P.A. (1998) "Electric Furnace ... Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon ...
Since hemoglobin has a greater affinity to CO than oxygen the breath-hold time can be only 10 seconds, which is a sufficient ... Slow vital capacity (SVC) is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly after slow maximum inhalation. ...
Oxygen catastrophe: banded iron formations forms. Sleaford Orogeny on Australian continent, Gawler Craton 2,440-2,420 Ma. 2500[ ... Widespread forests slowly draw in massive amounts of CO2, gradually lowering the level of atmospheric CO2 from 650 ppmv down to ... First known oxygen-producing bacteria. Oldest definitive microfossils. Oldest cratons on Earth (such as the Canadian Shield and ... Highest-ever atmospheric oxygen levels. Goniatites, brachiopods, bryozoa, bivalves, and corals plentiful in the seas and oceans ...
Patients are usually given supplemental oxygen and dexamethasone as well. HACE can be prevented by ascending to heights slowly ... The rate of change from a normal oxygen environment and how little oxygen is in the new environment can be used to predict the ... FiO2 should be titrated to maintain arterial oxygen saturation of greater than 90%, bearing in mind that oxygen supply is often ... oxygen deprivation).[10] This occurs after the body is exposed to a low-oxygen environment and before it acclimatizes. ...
Air flow: Regulates the oxygen content surrounding the tea and removes odors from the aging tea. Dank, stagnant air will lead ... Dry storage involves keeping the tea in "comfortable" temperature and humidity, thus allowing the tea to age slowly. Wet or " ... Fully fermented with microbes during a processing phase which is largely anaerobic, i.e. without the presence of oxygen. This ... with teas that have undergone the latter ageing more slowly, but thought to show more complexity. ...
Eccentric contraction and oxygen consumption: Oxygen consumption is needed for muscles to work properly. Eccentric muscle ... as long as the dumbbell is lowered slowly rather than letting it drop (i.e., the biceps are in a state of contraction to ... Less oxygen was consumed during negative work then that of positive work with the oxygen consumption ratio being 3:7.[14] Due ... Eccentric contractions and cardiac output: With lower cost of oxygen how would eccentric exercise affect the heart? A study was ...
Some groundwater contains very little oxygen when pumped from wells, but most natural water supplies include dissolved oxygen. ... Through the 1990s, water cooling for home PCs slowly gained recognition among enthusiasts, but it started to become noticeably ... Corrosion increases with increasing oxygen concentrations.[4] Dissolved oxygen approaches saturation levels in cooling towers. ... Dissolved oxygen is desirable in blowdown or OTC water being returned to natural aquatic environments. ...
Reacts slowly[2] Vapor pressure ,1 atm (20 °C)[1] Conjugate acid Silanium (sometimes spelled silonium) ... Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus mononitride. *Potassium chloride. *Silicon carbide. *Silicon mononitride ...
A high dose of local anesthetic, typically lidocaine or prilocaine without adrenaline,[6] is slowly injected as distally as ... where there is a risk of massive hemolysis due to low oxygen tension or hemolytic crisis due to restricted blood flow).[1][4][7 ...
Bleomycin forms a complex with oxygen and metals such as Fe2+, leading to the production of oxygen radicals, DNA breaks, and ... Because of this, the gas may not be noticed and symptoms may appear slowly. Phosgene directly reacts with amine, sulfhydryl, ... Chlorine is a strong oxidizing element causing the hydrogen to split from water in moist tissue, resulting in nascent oxygen ... Other inhaled agents may be directly toxic (e.g. cyanide, carbon monoxide), or cause harm simply by displacing oxygen and ...
Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals ... and only slowly adopted Newtonianism in the mid-18th century. A notable exception were universities in Spain, which under the ... chemists began dividing into camps based on the old phlogiston theory and the new oxygen theory.[91] A new form of chemical ... Eventually the oxygen-based theory of combustion drowned out the phlogiston theory and in the process created the basis of ...
Supplemental oxygen is rarely required unless the oxygen tension in arterial blood (Pa,O2) cannot be normalised. ... Slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. As indicated in table 2⇓, some neuromuscular conditions may be nonprogressive (e.g. ... Oxygen therapy. As the main cause of respiratory insufficiency in neuromuscular disorders is alveolar ventilation, the use of ... The addition of oxygen therapy to ventilatory support is sometimes required during episodes of acute pneumonia, but it is ...
... the oxygen content of oceans across the planet could be more and more diminished, with serious consequences for the future of ... The oxygen then spreads to the deep ocean as the surface waters slowly sink.. Global warming is expected to reduce the mixing ... The oxygen would slowly return to the oceans, but even 100,000 years from now they will not have fully recovered. If theyre ... A drop in oxygen may also cause the oceans bacteria to change. Bacteria that need oxygen will no longer be able to thrive in ...
water saturated with dissolved oxygen,. *slowly rising water level,. *presence of the other sex, and ... Oxygen. Frequent fluctuations and low levels of oxygen content in pond water tend to inhibit gonadal development. To ensure ... Supplying fresh, oxygen-rich water, therefore, is an important requirement.. Stocking density. Although most cultivated fishes ... The swelling of eggs and their development will be hampered and they will soon die due to their inability to get oxygen. On the ...
Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Mix official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... Use only with equipment cleaned for oxygen service. Open valve slowly. Close valve after each use and when empty. Protect from ... Airgas Carbon Dioxide -Oxygen Mix. Carbon Dioxide Oxygen. COMPRESSED GAS, OXIDIZING N.O.S (95% OXYGEN USP 5% CARBON DIOXIDE USP ... Use only with equipment cleaned for oxygen service. Open valve slowly. Close valve after each use and when empty. Protect from ...
Controlling oxygen may stop batteries from slowly fading. (Phys.org) -When oxygen atoms escape, they change the local ...
Feedings by mouth will start very slowly. Your baby may eat slowly and may need feeding therapy, lots of encouragement, and ... Oxygen.. *Pain medicines.. Feedings are started through the NG tube as soon as your babys bowel starts functioning after ...
Feedings by mouth will start very slowly. Your baby may eat slowly and may need feeding therapy, lots of encouragement, and ... Oxygen. *Pain medicines. *A nasogastric (NG) tube placed through the nose into the stomach to drain the stomach and keep it ...
Sawgrass thrives in the slowly moving water, but may die in unusually deep floods if oxygen is unable to reach its roots. It is ... Bacteria decompose dead sawgrass slowly underwater without oxygen. When the water was drained in the 1920s and bacteria ... It also dissolved oxygen in the peat, promoted algae, and prohibited growth of native invertebrates on the bottom of the food ... The sheetflow travels so slowly that water is typically stored from one wet season to the next in the porous limestone ...
Slowly then, with Romis left arm over his shoulders, the young stranger dragged him to a spot nearer the man with the broken ... Oxygen tanks fell over. Bottles tumbled from shelves. Beds lurched one way, then spun in another. The E.R.s air-conditioner ... The earthquake started slowly, then intensified within a minute. Things began to move side to side like a clapper in a bell. ... After months of being bedridden, he slowly regained use of his legs, and since the early part of the year he has stayed in a ...
Without oxygen and nutrients, the nerves slowly die. Mild polyneuropathy may develop in persons with low thyroid hormone levels ... Recovery can take weeks to years, because neurons grow very slowly. Full recovery may not be possible and it may also not be ... blocking adequate blood supply of oxygen and nutrients to the nerve, and tearing the nerve. Pain may not always be immediately ...
Ytterbium metal tarnishes slowly in air. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. Mixtures of ... It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air.[6] ... Ytterbium reacts with oxygen to form ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3), which crystallizes in the "rare-earth C-type sesquioxide" ... Ytterbium is quite electropositive, and it reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium(III ...
Oxygen Tank -- What if the persons flow rate is too high? (2l/min. vs 4l/min.). Jul 23, 2021 ... Human ES cells progress slowly in myelins direction. Scientists from the University of Wisconsin, USA, report in the journal ... phys.org/news/2009-04-human-es-cells-slowly-myelin.html ... Human ES cells progress slowly in myelins direction. Your ... Citation: Human ES cells progress slowly in myelins direction (2009, April 9) retrieved 25 July 2021 from https:// ...
The impact of slowly biodegradable organic compounds on the oxygen uptake rate in activated sludge systems The hydrolysis ... Measurement of oxygen utilization rates (OURs) and corresponding chemical oxygen demand (COD) is accepted as a very useful tool ... Modeling hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable organic compounds in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems ... The influence of the readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand fraction in biological wastewater treatment systems has been ...
Open the oxygen and the acetylene valves very slowly. Make sure you can see the cylinder-pressure gauges, but dont stand ... Turn the oxygen regulator pressure-adjusting screw. Slowly do this until you reach the desired pressure. The pressure will be ... Attach the oxygen hose to the oxygen regulator and to the torch. The torch should have identifying marks on the body or the ... Fasten oxygen and acetylene cylinders in an upright position. If you have a cylinder cart, place both the oxygen and acetylene ...
The comparative efficacy of 100% normobaric oxygen compared with that of hyperbaric oxygen has not been definitively studied. ... Methylene chloride is metabolized slowly to carbon monoxide.. *There is no antidote for methylene chloride. Treatment consists ... Oxygen is an antagonist of metabolically released carbon monoxide.. Hot Zone. Rescuers should be trained and appropriately ... Oxygen is an antagonist of metabolically released carbon monoxide.. Decontamination Area. Previously decontaminated patients ...
Its getting more oxygen to the brain, said Karen. Asked about its efficacy, Jim said, I really dont think it has changed ...
Make research projects and school reports about oxygen easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Suppose liquid air in a container warms up slowly. When its temperature reaches -195.79°C, liquid nitrogen changes back to a ... There are three naturally occurring isotope of oxygen: oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Isotopes are two or more forms of ... The three allotropes of oxygen are normal oxygen, or diatomic oxygen, or dioxygen; nascent, atomic, or monatomic oxygen; and ...
This is when youre breathing more slowly than normal. It can mean your body isnt getting enough oxygen. ... It can happen during exercise or because of a medical condition that makes it harder for your body to get oxygen, like heart ... In those cases, your doctor might recommend special breathing exercises, or he may give you oxygen. ... You breathe faster to keep the same amount of oxygen flowing into your body. ...
... and infections in which tissues are starved for oxygen. ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or HBOT, is a type of treatment used ... It is slowly pressurized with 100% oxygen.. * Multiplace chamber. This chamber, or room, can fit two or more people at once. ... HBOT helps wound healing by bringing oxygen-rich plasma to tissue starved for oxygen. Wound injuries damage the bodys blood ... Types of hyperbaric oxygen chambers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses 2 types of chambers:. * Monoplace chamber. This is a ...
Lyrics to My Oxygen by Avalon: I take each breath as if it is my first / I hold it there, so deep inside me / Til Im about to ... You never know what came so slowly. Could leave us, oh, so fast. I take each step as if it is to You. I hear Your voice. I feel ... You are my oxygen. I breathe You in. I breathe You out. You are my oxygen. You are my love. You are what lifes about. I take ... You are my oxygen. I breathe You in. I breathe You out. You are my oxygen. You are my love. You are what lifes about. The air ...
Propelled to dispel our oxygen. Slowly seizing up our lungs. And choking the ground we depend upon. Silent screams from an ...
Oxygen Therapy. If your lungs cannot transfer enough oxygen into the blood, oxygen therapy may be needed. Oxygen therapy is ... Breathe in slowly through your nose with your mouth closed. Try to breathe in a normal amount of air. ... Oxygen therapy can also help you feel less short of breath, and you will be able to be more active. If you need oxygen therapy ... your health care provider will prescribe oxygen therapy. You will be instructed in how to use oxygen therapy correctly. ...
... it makes use of two forms of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen to replace organic carbon. They are; slowly and rapidly oxidizing ... oxygen (DO), 5 days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Total nitrogen (TN), Total phosphorus (TP), Nitrite + Nitrate-nitrogen ( ... sediment oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic phosphorus, total nitrogen, bottom algae, phytoplankton, ... Dissoloved oxygen profile along river Tungabhadra with different BOD and 0.3 mg/l TN limits at point load. ...
OXYGEN [Vagabond Welding Supply]: description, uses, side effects and safety, label, interactions, warnings , BioPortfolio ... Open valve slowly. Store and use with adequate ventilation. Use only with equipment cleaned for Oxygen service and rated for ... Oxygen toxicity in acute care settings.. Oxygen therapy is widespread in acute care settings as adequate oxygen supplementation ... A glucose/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) that can operate continuously under oxygen-free conditions is described. The oxygen-deficit ...
Oxygen [Northern Illinois Home Medical Supply]: description, uses, side effects and safety, label, interactions, warnings , ... Use only with equipment cleaned for oxygen service and rated for cylinder pressure. Open valve slowly. Close valve after each ... Oxygen toxicity in acute care settings.. Oxygen therapy is widespread in acute care settings as adequate oxygen supplementation ... A glucose/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) that can operate continuously under oxygen-free conditions is described. The oxygen-deficit ...
It decomposes slowly in storage to yield water and oxygen.. It can decompose rapidly in the presence of catalysts.. It is ... Molar volume of oxygen prepared with hydrogen peroxide: 13.1.6. Prepare hydrogen peroxide solution: 12.12.3. Prepare oxygen gas ... It readily parts with one of its two oxygen atoms and forms water.. These oxygen atoms cause the disinfecting and bleaching ... oxygen.. As a hydrogen peroxide 20 volume solution contains 6% H2O2, 60g of H2O2 in 1000g of solution, atomic mass of H2O2 (H ...
An oxygen absorbing product is produced by dispersing an oxygen absorbent in an emulsion to form an oxygen absorbing ... An oxygen absorbing composition having an effective amount of at least one oxygen absorbent contained in an emulsion. ... composition and transferring the oxygen absorbing composition onto a substrate. ... The xanthan gum was slowly added to the water alone. The addition took 5-10 minutes with the mixer on med-low speed. The result ...
"The CO2 will slowly build up in the mask over time. However, the level of CO2 likely to build up in the mask is mostly ... The claim: Putting a face mask on a baby or small child will cause them to pass out or die of lack of oxygen. It also happens ... But oxygen intake can cause discomfort for those wearing N95 respirators, which medical professionals wear to reduce exposure ... According to a Stanford University article about the project, N95 respirators can reduce oxygen intake by 5% to 20%. ...
Slowly.. Police arrested Kenneth Ray Dean in the parking lot between the bank and a restaurant in a matter of moments. Dean is ...
Arrhythmias: the heart beats irregularly, either too fast or too slowly.. * Cardiogenic shock: a persons blood pressure drops ... Angina: not enough oxygen reaches the heart, causing chest pain.. * Congestive heart failure: the heart can only beat very ... Coronary heart disease: What you need to know The coronary arteries supply oxygen and blood to the heart. They can narrow, ... Angina: This causes chest pain due to lack of oxygen or blood supply to the heart. ...
  • It can mean your body isn't getting enough oxygen. (webmd.com)
  • The goal is to fill the blood with enough oxygen to repair tissues and restore normal body function. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • With emphysema, lung tissue is destroyed, making it difficult for the body to get enough oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • Now, they may not be so "springy" and can't move enough oxygen to your blood. (webmd.com)
  • When the blood supply is limited, cells do not get enough oxygen. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The FDA has approved hyperbaric therapy for treatment of decompression sickness, gangrene, brain abscesses and injuries in which tissues are not getting enough oxygen. (hollandsentinel.com)
  • Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing the heart muscle from receiving enough oxygen. (mayoclinic.org)
  • So they must breathe faster and harder to get enough oxygen into the lungs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Oxygen moves from the lungs to the blood through tiny blood vessels that line the walls of the air sacs. (cdc.gov)
  • She takes rapid, strong breaths to flush carbon dioxide from her lungs and replace it with oxygen. (eduplace.com)
  • Damage to the lungs and symptoms slowly worsen over time. (annals.org)
  • Before birth, a developing fetus does not use the lungs to breathe - all oxygen comes from the blood vessels of the placenta. (kidshealth.org)
  • Babies with TTN have extra fluid in their lungs or the fluid leaves too slowly. (kidshealth.org)
  • A baby who gets extra oxygen but still struggles to breathe might need continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to keep the lungs from collapsing. (kidshealth.org)
  • You breathe faster to keep the same amount of oxygen flowing into your body. (webmd.com)
  • The elevated pressure in the chamber increases in the amount of oxygen in the blood. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The higher pressure in the chamber increases the amount of oxygen in the blood. (ahealthyme.com)
  • A 30-minute walk or swim a few times a week can boost the amount of oxygen in your system. (webmd.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment uses high pressure to increase the amount of oxygen you can breathe. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The low blood flow decreases the amount of oxygen your heart muscle receives. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or HBOT, is a type of treatment used to speed up healing of carbon monoxide poisoning, gangrene, stubborn wounds, and infections in which tissues are starved for oxygen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • HBOT reduces swelling while flooding the tissues with oxygen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • That's the severe tissue damage that happens when the blood supply returns to the tissues after they have been deprived of oxygen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It also increases oxygen concentration in the tissues. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • [ 1 ] Other influences are the site of the hemorrhage, the local partial pressure of oxygen in the tissues, the local pH, the patient's hematocrit, the local glucose concentration, the hemoglobin concentration, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and the patient's temperature. (medscape.com)
  • Without oxygen, our organs and tissues slowly suffocate. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your blood carries the extra oxygen throughout the body, infusing the injured tissues that need more oxygen so they can start healing. (ahealthyme.com)
  • HBO treatment can help in situations where body tissues have been affected by a decrease in oxygen levels. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • This extra oxygen can help where healing is slowed down by infection or where blood supply is limited by damage to the tissues. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Radiotherapy can cause changes in the oxygen supply to tissues in the treated area. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • When this happens, it becomes more difficult for the oxygen and nutrients we need to reach the tissues. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen to all tissues of the body. (cancer.ca)
  • The outcome(s) will greatly reduce the aeration needs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and provide insight into emerging biological nitrogen removal processes using low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Yellow leaves can be caused by many things including lack of nitrogen, insufficient light, water-logged soil (plant roots need oxygen to thrive), dry soil, or iron deficiency. (garden.org)
  • The process would involve slowly replacing oxygen with nitrogen. (rawstory.com)
  • Nitrogen hypoxia causes a quick loss of consciousness, followed by death from lack of oxygen. (rawstory.com)
  • This includes organic fundamental atoms like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Oxygen, Nitrogen) UN3156 Medical Gas Mixture 50% Oxygen, USP CAS: 7782-44-7 Balance Nitrogen, NF CAS: 7727-37-9 CAUTION: Federal law prohibits dispensing without a prescription. (drugs.com)
  • Your doctor may recommend using supplemental oxygen or procedures that can improve your ability to breathe. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Because when there is a loss of cabin pressure, there is supplemental oxygen for each passenger, which may last between 10-15 minutes, after which passengers begin to experience hypoxia, that is oxygen starvation. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Treatment is primarily supportive using a mechanical respirator and supplemental oxygen. (medhelp.org)
  • Combined with acidification - another global impact of our carbon emissions - the loss of oxygen could have a major impact on marine life. (yale.edu)
  • Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mass transfer processes are reaeration (re), settling (s), sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sediment exchange (se), and sediment inorganic carbon flux (cf). (scirp.org)
  • Theoretical models predicted that if stars around 7 - 10 times the mass of our own Sun don't end their lives as supernovae, the other option is that they will consume all of their hydrogen, helium and carbon, and end their lives as white dwarfs with very oxygen-rich cores. (universetoday.com)
  • Most stellar models producing white dwarfs with such oxygen and neon cores also predict that a sufficiently thick carbon-rich layer should surround the core and avoid upward diffusion of large amounts of oxygen. (universetoday.com)
  • Xisco Gràcia said he began hallucinating from carbon dioxide poisoning and kept his knife handy so he could "die quickly" rather than slowly when he finally ran out of oxygen. (nypost.com)
  • ABSTRACT Many wastewater treatment plants use more than 50% of their total energy budget in the aeration basin and, when nutrient removal is included in the activated sludge process, it is very common that the majority of oxygen uptake goes to the nitrification process. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The cardiorespiratory system also profits by increasing its oxygen uptake and efficient use. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Easy trotting further improves oxygen uptake and cardiac output. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Exertional oxygen uptake kinetics: a stamen of stamina? (portlandpress.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was first used in the U.S. in the early 20th century. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The therapy was tried again in the 1940s when the U.S. Navy used hyperbaric oxygen to treat deep-sea divers who had decompression sickness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Medicare, Medicaid, and many insurance companies generally cover hyperbaric oxygen therapy for these conditions, but may not do so in every circumstance. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Only a healthcare provider should prescribe hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A number of hospitals offer hyperbaric oxygen chambers. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) involves giving the body extra oxygen. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • This is done by sitting in a chamber known as a hyperbaric oxygen chamber and using a mask or hood. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Rather than relying on blood to distribute oxygen to cells, hyperbaric treatments use pressure to push oxygen directly into cells. (hollandsentinel.com)
  • Using fructose to keep cells functioning in the absence of oxygen could help people who suffer from heart disease and strokes, conditions that starve the brain of oxygen. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Reduced oxygen levels from natural gas and oil could also starve creatures of oxygen. (presstelegram.com)
  • The light surface water will be less likely to sink - and thus the deep ocean will get less oxygen. (yale.edu)
  • As you continue to consume alcohol, your BAL continues to rise and less and less oxygen is able to reach all the parts of your body which need it in order to function effectively. (ehow.co.uk)
  • With less oxygen travelling around your bloodstream, your body begins to suffer from what is known as oxygen desaturation. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Exercise Training - With PAD, your muscles get less oxygen. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Over time, regular exercise can train muscles to use less oxygen more efficiently. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Cyanide shuts down body's ability to carry or absorb oxygen. (prezi.com)
  • The more alcohol you consume, the higher your BAL will be and this has an immediate effect on your body's ability to absorb oxygen. (ehow.co.uk)
  • As ocean currents oscillate naturally, upwellings of deep-ocean water can deliver nutrients to coastal waters, triggering an explosion of growth and driving down oxygen levels. (yale.edu)
  • Clogged carotid arteries have trouble delivering oxygen and nutrients to vital brain structures that are responsible for your day-to-day functioning. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The materials released could be large amounts of nutrients of organic materials and their introduction into rivers or streams accelerates eutrophication processes and reduces dissolved oxygen values. (scirp.org)
  • Abundance of oxygen improves the rate of exchange of both nutrients and waste. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In many cases, this "extra oxygen" keeps people alive after they would otherwise have died. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Breathing in pure (100%) oxygen under increased pressure, called HBO, allows extra oxygen to be taken up by the bloodstream and dissolved more quickly. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Babies with transient tachypnea are closely watched in the hospital, and some might need extra oxygen for a few days. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some babies with TTN need extra oxygen. (kidshealth.org)
  • Scientists predict declining oxygen levels could have a major effect on marine life. (yale.edu)
  • Fluctuations in oxygen levels, on the other hand, are a lot noisier. (yale.edu)
  • Volcanoes can alter oxygen levels, too, by creating a haze that blocks sunlight, thus temporarily cooling the ocean's surface and allowing more oxygen to dissolve into the water. (yale.edu)
  • In 2006, for example, oxygen levels off the coast of Oregon dropped to record lows. (yale.edu)
  • If you undergo this therapy, you will enter a special chamber to breathe in pure oxygen in air pressure levels 1.5 to 3 times higher than average. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • levels of oxygen in the blood become too low. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pressures and oxygen levels are slowly reduced. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Now a new study finds that the mammal, which lives in highly populated underground burrows, can tolerate hours of very low oxygen levels and survive up to 18 minutes of anoxia, or total oxygen deprivation. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • After photosystem II appeared, environmental oxygen levels rose very slowly. (nih.gov)
  • His condition was so precarious that he wrote goodbye letters to our daughters and me from his hospital bed when his oxygen levels dropped. (ktvu.com)
  • His doctor suggested he start by walking while wearing an oximeter, a device which measured his oxygen levels. (ktvu.com)
  • just to see what it did to my oxygen levels. (ktvu.com)
  • In conclusion, the results suggest that bioactive oligomeric TNF is unstable at picomolar levels and slowly converts into inactive monomers, supporting the hypothesis that quaternary-structure changes in TNF may contribute to the fine regulation of TNF cytotoxicity. (portlandpress.com)
  • There, doctors check babies' heart rates, breathing rates, and oxygen levels to make sure breathing slows down and oxygen levels are normal. (kidshealth.org)
  • Supplementary oxygen is routinely administered to patients, even those with adequate oxygen saturations, in the belief that it increases oxygen delivery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • People with COPD have damaged airways and slowly die from lack of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • This exercise slows your breathing, keeps your airways open, and helps boost oxygen. (webmd.com)
  • Cyanide shreds energy mechanisms, breaks down cellular respiration, and causes rapid cell death due to oxygen deprivation. (prezi.com)
  • HBOT encourages the body's oxygen radical scavengers to seek out the problem molecules and allow healing to continue. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • After the gas molecules are produced, they undergo a series of chemical reactions that ultimately form molecular hydrogen and oxygen. (hubblesite.org)
  • The relatively lightweight hydrogen gas escapes into space, while the heavier oxygen molecules accumulate to form an atmosphere which may extend 125 miles (200 kilometers) above the surface. (hubblesite.org)
  • Overwatering drowns roots, as they need oxygen to survive and constantly wet soil forces out the oxygen molecules. (garden.org)
  • Open valve slowly. (drugs.com)
  • Department proceedures required him to open the oxygen cylinder post valve, check the cylinder's pressure to verify it was sufficiently full for service, close the cylinder's post valve, and then release the oxygen remaining in the regulator. (cdc.gov)
  • As the victim lifted the oxygen cylinder from the airway supply bag, he opened the oxygen post valve and the system immediately flashed, releasing two 4-foot flames from the regulator. (cdc.gov)
  • He pulled the airway supply bag from the airway equipment compartment of the Engine, removed the oxygen cylinder from the airway supply bag, and opened the cylinder post valve to check the cylinder pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • The claim: Putting a face mask on a baby or small child will cause them to pass out or die of lack of oxygen. (usatoday.com)
  • The CO2 will slowly build up in the mask over time. (usatoday.com)
  • Some passengers aboard the flight could not effectively use their Oxygen mask that are normally deployed when there is such cabin loss of pressure. (vanguardngr.com)
  • What we saw on the video was that some passengers over pulled the masks with excessive force which disconnects the mask from the tubes and some did not pull the masks to activate the oxygen Generators because the flow valves are still on the clamp. (vanguardngr.com)
  • With CPAP, a machine pushes a steady stream of pressurized air or oxygen through a nasal cannula or mask. (kidshealth.org)
  • HBOT aims to break the cycle of swelling, oxygen starvation, and tissue death. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They also developed mechanisms to defend themselves against superoxide (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide, partially reduced oxygen species that are generated as inadvertent by-products of aerobic metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Blood sludging, a medical term, is used to describe what happens to the red blood cells (which are responsible for carrying oxygen around your body) once alcohol has entered the bloodstream. (ehow.co.uk)
  • It doesn't have the water required to continue diluting the alcohol being consumed and this results in a disproportionate amount of alcohol in the bloodstream in comparison to oxygen. (ehow.co.uk)
  • This puts more oxygen into the bloodstream, which can help the healing process. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Any remaining fluid is then coughed out or slowly absorbed through the bloodstream and lymphatic system . (kidshealth.org)
  • But claims have been circulating about the dangers of face masks to people who wear them, including that they cause hypoxia, or a lack of oxygen in the body's tissue. (usatoday.com)
  • Large-scale warming events at about 14,700, and again 11,500, years ago occurred rapidly and triggered loss of oxygen in the North Pacific, raising concern that low-oxygen areas will expand again as the oceans warm in the future. (medindia.net)
  • When blood flow is interrupted by a crush injury, for instance, a series of events inside the damaged cells leads to the release of harmful oxygen radicals. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • monitoring its effect on oxygen content of arterial blood, may be harmful. (bioportfolio.com)
  • prescription .Uninterrupted use of high concentrations of oxygen over a long duration, without monitoring its effect on oxygen content of arterial blood, may be harmful. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The red blood cells react to the alcohol by clumping together and therefore reducing their capabilities for carrying oxygen around the body. (ehow.co.uk)
  • As blood sludging and oxygen desaturation occurs, our brain cells are attacked and killed, we lose memory and in severe cases we pass out. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Oxygen is carried around the body by the blood. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The red blood cells that are freed in this natural process immediately give back oxygen. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This painless test measures how much oxygen is in the blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • As warming intensifies, scientists warn, the oxygen content of oceans across the planet could be more and more diminished, with serious consequences for the future of fish and other sea life. (yale.edu)
  • Nearly 90 percent of the weight of the oceans is due to oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Oceans have responded more slowly than land environments. (medindia.net)
  • Candace Major said, "This work tackles a long-standing debate about what causes expansion of Oxygen Minimum Zones, also known as dead zones, in the oceans. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have raised concerns that low-oxygen areas will expand again as the oceans warm in the future. (medindia.net)
  • Chronic leukemias develop slowly over months or years. (cancer.ca)
  • Myocardial ischemia can develop slowly as arteries become blocked over time. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In some places, the oxygen is getting so scarce that fish and other animals cannot survive. (yale.edu)
  • This makes them the only mammal known to enter a state of suspended animation in order to survive being deprived of oxygen. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Oxygen Tank -- What if the person's flow rate is too high? (phys.org)
  • This swelling deprives the damaged cells of oxygen, and tissue starts to die. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Instead, more of the oxygen will linger near the surface, where it will be used up by oxygen-breathing organisms. (yale.edu)
  • To help prevent chlorosis, always water slowly, deeply and infrequently. (garden.org)
  • As stated earlier, always water slowly, deeply and as infrequently as possible. (garden.org)
  • In any case, water slowly and deeply to ensure water penetration and to leach salts below the root zone. (garden.org)
  • Carotid artery disease develops slowly. (mayoclinic.org)
  • CML starts in abnormal myeloid stem cells and develops slowly. (cancer.ca)
  • It's also important to note that the brain is an organ which requires huge amounts of oxygen to be able to function properly. (ehow.co.uk)
  • During this time, microorganisms acquired oxygen tolerance by jettisoning enzymes that use glycyl radicals and exposed low-potential iron-sulfur clusters, which can be directly poisoned by oxygen. (nih.gov)
  • Despite its critical importance, to our knowledge, there is no data available in the literature regarding brain tissue pO 2 (oxygen partial pressure) changes with age. (nature.com)
  • But oxygen intake can cause discomfort for those wearing N95 respirators, which medical professionals wear to reduce exposure to airborne droplets. (usatoday.com)
  • Alcohol is certainly one of the most socially acceptable forms of drug use, but how much does the average person really know about the effects of alcohol and, in particular, the ways in which oxygen absorption is affected due to alcohol intake? (ehow.co.uk)
  • This death could stem from extreme anaerobic conditions caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations [3]. (scirp.org)
  • Everytime, the ventilator is taken out and replace with the oxygen, he start having difficulty to breath. (medhelp.org)
  • in your opinion, is the thrombocyte level a part of stroke problem or is it caused by removing the ventilator/low level oxygen or is it different disease that he might have? (medhelp.org)
  • The entire ocean gets its oxygen from the surface - either from the atmosphere, or from photosynthesizing algae floating at the top of the sea. (yale.edu)
  • Oxygen also makes up about one-fifth of the Earth's atmosphere. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This animation depicts the presence of an extremely tenuous atmosphere of molecular oxygen around Jupiter's moon, Europa. (hubblesite.org)
  • So the biggest challenge to life with COPD is often lack of oxygen. (webmd.com)
  • Oxygen therapy can help some people with COPD. (annals.org)
  • Keep oil, grease, and combustibles away.Use only with equipment cleaned for oxygen service.Store and use with adequate ventilation.Do not get liquid in eyes, on skin, or clothing.For liquid withdraw, wear face shield and gloves.Do not drop. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This invention relates in general to oxygen-absorbing compositions and in particular to oxygen-absorbing compositions having an oxygen absorbent dispersed in an emulsion that may be printed or coated onto a substrate and used to remove oxygen from a container, thus increasing the preservation stability within the container of a foodstuff, beverage, pharmaceutical, chemical, or other substance that can be adversely affected by the presence of oxygen. (google.com)
  • In addition, oxygen is thought to be the third most abundant element in the universe and in the solar system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you have a cylinder cart, place both the oxygen and acetylene cylinders into it. (wikihow.com)
  • Use only with equipment cleaned for Oxygen service and rated for cylinder pressure. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These radiation injuries can occur very slowly over months or years. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • HBO treatment for radiation injuries works by increasing the oxygen supply to damaged tissue. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Feedings by mouth will start very slowly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Start slowly and increase gradually to a brisk pace. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The research shows naked mole rats have a highly unusual mechanism that allows them to stop aerobic respiration and start metabolizing fructose, a sugar compound found in plants, when deprived of oxygen. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Oxygen therapy may start to interfere with the quality of your life. (healthline.com)
  • Start slowly! (webmd.com)
  • But if you start slowly with these tips and don't push yourself too fast, you should have an easier time with it. (webmd.com)
  • Slowly return to the start, extending your leg back to its slightly forward position, then repeat. (oxygenmag.com)
  • Slowly lower to the start and repeat. (oxygenmag.com)
  • It can happen during exercise or because of a medical condition that makes it harder for your body to get oxygen, like heart failure or sepsis (a serious overreaction by your immune system ). (webmd.com)
  • It is absorbed, distributed to the place of concern, metabolized to do its job, and is slowly excreted from the body, the A.D.M.E. pattern. (selfgrowth.com)
  • But just as rust slowly eats away at a nail, oxygen can age your body. (courant.com)
  • HBOT helps wound healing by bringing oxygen-rich plasma to tissue starved for oxygen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our data suggests that from young to middle-age, a well-regulated capillary oxygen supply maintains the oxygen availability in cerebral tissue, despite decreased tissue pO 2 next to arterioles. (nature.com)
  • Snow covered the steep path and I stumbled in my hiking boots-the lack of oxygen caused uncoordinated movements and a rapid heartbeat at 17,000 feet. (compassion.com.au)
  • He said: "I had a headache and although I was exhausted through lack of oxygen it was impossible to sleep. (nypost.com)
  • People who have trouble breathing are given extra doses of oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The difference is that people breathe pure oxygen through masks or hoods. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Oxygen is one of the gases in the air, and it is essential for life. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • A new study has found a link between abrupt ocean warming at the end of the last ice age and the sudden onset of low-oxygen, or hypoxic, conditions that led to the vast marine dead zones in the Pacific ocean. (medindia.net)
  • Clinical studies suggest that conditions which lead to restricted oxygen delivery to the brain promote the onset of cognitive disorders. (nature.com)
  • How do you fix an oxygen sensor on a 1997 Accord? (answers.com)
  • A small piece of tape with an oxygen sensor is placed around a baby's foot or hand, then connected to a monitor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Fasten oxygen and acetylene cylinders in an upright position. (wikihow.com)
  • Connect the oxygen and acetylene regulators to their cylinders. (wikihow.com)
  • The Bronchopulmonary growth exceptionally (BPD) is the chronic pulmonary tuberculosis typically occurs in the extremely low birth weight (VLBW) underage when the lung organization and the bigger air channel is damaged because oxygen toxicity and ventilation early in life. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Your baby may eat slowly and may need feeding therapy, lots of encouragement, and time to recover after a feeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The two discovered oxygen at nearly the same time in 1774, working independently of each other. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You might have difficulty carrying a large oxygen unit on errands and end up spending a lot of time at home. (healthline.com)
  • They spent a "precious" hour searching for it before heading to a nearby air pocket, by which time they had used up their oxygen tanks and most of their emergency supply. (nypost.com)
  • You would often hear in the pre-flight safety briefing, "Should there be sudden loss of cabin pressure, oxygen masks will drop down from the panel above your head. (vanguardngr.com)