Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A specific category of drugs that prevent sleepiness by specifically targeting sleep-mechanisms in the brain. They are used to treat DISORDERS OF EXCESSIVE SOMNOLENCE such as NARCOLEPSY. Note that this drug category does not include broadly-acting central nervous system stimulants such as AMPHETAMINES.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
The presence of an excessively large tongue, which may be congenital or may develop as a result of a tumor or edema due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels, or it may occur in association with hyperpituitarism or acromegaly. It also may be associated with malocclusion because of pressure of the tongue on the teeth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The position or attitude of the body.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
The act of BREATHING in.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)

Improvement of factor VII clotting activity following long-term NCPAP treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (1/1461)

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a very common disorder. Patients with OSAS are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has also been reported that a 25% rise in factor VII clotting activity (FVIIc) is associated with a 55% increase in ischaemic heart disease death during the first 5 years. We examined the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatment on FVIIc in patients with OSAS. FVIIc was investigated prospectively in 15 patients with OSAS before (mean +/- SEM apnoea and hypopnoea index (AHI) 61.5 +/- 4.2 and after (AHI 3.0 +/- 0.9) NCPAP treatment for immediate relief, at 1 month after treatment and at over 6 months. FVIIc levels gradually decreased after NCPAP treatment. After 6 months of NCPAP treatment, FVIIc levels had decreased significantly (before 141.1 +/- 11.7% vs. after 6 months 110.7 +/- 6.2%; p < 0.01). Six of the seven patients whose FVIIc levels were over 140% before the NCPAP treatment had FVIIc levels below 130% after 6 months or 1 year of NCPAP treatment. This decrease in FVIIc after long-term NCPAP treatment could improve mortality in OSAS patients. If patients, especially obese ones, present with high FVIIc of unknown origin, it would be prudent to check for OSAS.  (+info)

Effect of obesity and erect/supine posture on lateral cephalometry: relationship to sleep-disordered breathing. (2/1461)

Craniofacial and upper airway anatomy, obesity and posture may all play a role in compromising upper airway patency in patients with the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity, facial structure and severity of sleep-disordered breathing using lateral cephalometric measurements and to assess the effect of body posture on cephalometric measurements of upper airway calibre variables in obese and non-obese subjects. Lateral cephalometry was carried out in erect and supine postures in 73 awake male subjects randomly selected from patients referred for polysomnography who had a wide range of apnoea/hypopnoea frequencies (1-131 events x h sleep(-1)). Subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg x m(-2); n=42) and obese (BMI > or = 30 kg x m(-2); n=31) groups. Significant but weak correlations were found between apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and measurements reflecting upper airway dimensions: uvular protrusion-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=-0.26, p<0.05) and hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall (r=0.26, p<0.05). Multiple regression using both upper airway dimensions improved the correlation to AHI (r=0.34, p=0.01). Obese subjects had greater hyoid-posterior pharyngeal wall distances than non-obese subjects, both erect (42+/-5 versus 39+/-4 mm, respectively (mean+/-SD) p<0.01) and supine (43+/-5 versus 40+/-4 mm, p<0.05). Skeletal craniofacial structure was similar in obese and non-obese subjects. In conclusion, measurements reflecting upper airway size were correlated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Differences in upper airway size measurements between obese and non-obese subjects were independent of bony craniofacial structure.  (+info)

Cephalometric abnormalities in non-obese and obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. (3/1461)

The aim of this work was to comprehensively evaluate the cephalometric features in Japanese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and severity of apnoea. Forty-eight cephalometric variables were measured in 37 healthy males and 114 male OSA patients, who were classed into 54 non-obese (body mass index (BMI) <27 kg x m(-2), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)=25.3+/-16.1 events x h(-1)) and 60 obese (BMI > or = 27 kg x m(-2), AHI=45.6+/-28.0 events h(-1)) groups. Diagnostic polysomnography was carried out in all of the OSA patients and in 19 of the normal controls. The non-obese OSA patients showed several cephalometric defects compared with their BMI-matched normal controls: 1) decreased facial A-P distance at cranial base, maxilla and mandible levels and decreased bony pharynx width; 2) enlarged tongue and inferior shift of the tongue volume; 3) enlarged soft palate; 4) inferiorly positioned hyoid bone; and 5) decreased upper airway width at four different levels. More extensive and severe soft tissue abnormalities with a few defects in craniofacial bony structures were found in the obese OSA group. For the non-obese OSA group, the stepwise regression model on AHI was significant with two bony structure variables as determinants: anterior cranial base length (S-N) and mandibular length (Me-Go). Although the regression model retained only linear distance between anterior vertebra and hyoid bone (H-VL) as an explainable determinant for AHI in the obese OSA group, H-VL was significantly correlated with soft tissue measurements such as overall tongue area (Ton), inferior tongue area (Ton2) and pharyngeal airway length (PNS-V). In conclusion, Japanese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have a series of cephalometric abnormalities similar to those described in Caucasian patients, and that the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese patients may be different from that in non-obese patients. In obese patients, upper airway soft tissue enlargement may play a more important role in the development of obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas in non-obese patients, bony structure discrepancies may be the dominant contributing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea.  (+info)

Craniofacial modifications in children with habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: a case-control study. (4/1461)

Habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in children, which are frequently associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, may begin early in life and in relation with orocraniofacial features. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of early bone craniofacial modifications in young children with a long history of habitual snoring. Twenty-six habitually snoring children (mean age 4.6 yrs) were studied by nocturnal portable recording or diurnal polysomnography, cephalometry and orthodontic evaluation. A comparison of cephalometric findings was made between the studied group and 26 age-matched children (mean age 5.1 yrs) with no history of snoring or respiratory problems during sleep. The cephalometric analyses showed a significant increase in craniomandibular intermaxillar, lower and upper goniac angles with a retroposition and posterior rotation of the mandible (high angle face) and a reduction in the rhinopharynx space caused by higher thickness of adenoids in habitually snoring children compared with controls. Cross-bites and labial incompetence as well as daytime symptoms and familiarity for habitual snoring were found in most of the studied group of snorers compared with controls. The results indicate that upper airway obstruction during sleep is associated with mild but significant cephalometric and craniofacial modifications in children complaining of habitual snoring. Whether this skeletal conformation is genetically determined or influenced by the early onset of habitual snoring remains to be assessed.  (+info)

Depression of peripheral chemosensitivity by a dopaminergic mechanism in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (5/1461)

In the present study, respiratory drives to chemical stimuli and peripheral chemosensitivity were evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS). The effects of oral administration of domperidone, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, were also examined, to study the respiratory effects of endogenous dopamine on peripheral chemoreceptors. Sixteen patients with OSAS and nine normal control subjects were studied. Respiratory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were measured using the rebreathing method and isocapnic progressive hypoxia method, respectively. The hypoxic withdrawal test, which measures the decrease in ventilation caused by two breaths of 100% O2 under mild hypercapnic hypoxic conditions (end-tidal oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions approximately 8.0 kPa and 5.3-6.7 kPa, respectively), was used to evaluate peripheral chemosensitivity. In the patients with OSAS, ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were significantly decreased compared with those of control subjects. Hypoxic withdrawal tests showed that peripheral chemosensitivity was significantly lower in patients with OSAS than in normal subjects. Hypercapnic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity were enhanced by administration of domperidone in the patients with OSAS, although no changes in either of these were observed in the control subjects. The hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity in the patients with OSAS were each significantly correlated with severity of hypoxia during sleep. These findings suggest that peripheral chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may be decreased as a result of abnormality in dopaminergic mechanisms and that the reduced chemosensitivity observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may affect the severity of hypoxia during sleep.  (+info)

Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. (6/1461)

BACKGROUND: The chemoreflexes are an important mechanism for regulation of both breathing and autonomic cardiovascular function. Abnormalities in chemoreflex mechanisms may be implicated in increased cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex function is altered in patients with OSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared ventilatory, sympathetic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and the cold pressor test in 16 untreated normotensive patients with OSA and 12 normal control subjects matched for age and body mass index. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was higher in the patients with OSA than in the control subjects (43+/-4 versus 21+/-3 bursts per minute; P<0. 001). During hypoxia, patients with OSA had greater increases in minute ventilation (5.8+/-0.8 versus 3.2+/-0.7 L/min; P=0.02), heart rate (10+/-1 versus 7+/-1 bpm; P=0.03), and mean arterial pressure (7+/-2 versus 0+/-2 mm Hg; P=0.001) than control subjects. Despite higher ventilation and blood pressure (both of which inhibit sympathetic activity) in OSA patients, the MSNA increase during hypoxia was similar in OSA patients and control subjects. When the sympathetic-inhibitory influence of breathing was eliminated by apnea during hypoxia, the increase in MSNA in OSA patients (106+/-20%) was greater than in control subjects (52+/-23%; P=0.04). Prolongation of R-R interval with apnea during hypoxia was also greater in OSA patients (24+/-6%) than in control subjects (7+/-5%) (P=0.04). Autonomic, ventilatory, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and the cold pressor test in OSA patients were not different from those observed in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is associated with a selective potentiation of autonomic, hemodynamic, and ventilatory responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by hypoxia.  (+info)

The association between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents. Cooperative Group Burgos-Santander. (7/1461)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Drowsiness and lack of concentration may contribute to traffic accidents. We conducted a case-control study of the relation between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents. The case patients were 102 drivers who received emergency treatment at hospitals in Burgos or Santander, Spain, after highway traffic accidents between April and December 1995. The controls were 152 patients randomly selected from primary care centers in the same cities and matched with the case patients for age and sex. Respiratory polygraphy was used to screen the patients for sleep apnea at home, and conventional polysomnography was used to confirm the diagnosis. The apnea-hypopnea index (the total number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea divided by the number of hours of sleep) was calculated for each participant. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 44 years; 77 percent were men. As compared with those without sleep apnea, patients with an apnea-hypopnea index of 10 or higher had an odds ratio of 6.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.4 to 16.2) for having a traffic accident. This relation remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders, such as alcohol consumption, visual-refraction disorders, body-mass index, years of driving, age, history with respect to traffic accidents, use of medications causing drowsiness, and sleep schedule. Among subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index of 10 or more, the risk of an accident was higher among those who had consumed alcohol on the day of the accident than among those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between sleep apnea, as measured by the apnea-hypopnea index, and the risk of traffic accidents.  (+info)

Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. (8/1461)

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and it may be associated with sympathetic activation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether CSR could affect prognosis in patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-two CHF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction /=30/h and left atria >/=25 cm2. CONCLUSIONS: The AHI is a powerful independent predictor of poor prognosis in clinically stable patients with CHF. The presence of an AHI >/=30/h adds prognostic information compared with other clinical, echocardiographic, and autonomic data and identifies patients at very high risk for subsequent cardiac death.  (+info)

Sleep apnea syndromes refer to a group of disorders characterized by abnormal breathing patterns during sleep. These patterns can result in repeated pauses in breathing (apneas) or shallow breaths (hypopneas), causing interruptions in sleep and decreased oxygen supply to the body. There are three main types of sleep apnea syndromes:

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common form, caused by the collapse or obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, often due to relaxation of the muscles in the throat and tongue.

2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): This type is less common and results from the brain's failure to send proper signals to the breathing muscles. It can be associated with conditions such as heart failure, stroke, or certain medications.

3. Complex/Mixed Sleep Apnea: In some cases, a person may experience both obstructive and central sleep apnea symptoms, known as complex or mixed sleep apnea.

Symptoms of sleep apnea syndromes can include loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, morning headaches, difficulty concentrating, and mood changes. Diagnosis typically involves a sleep study (polysomnography) to monitor breathing patterns, heart rate, brain activity, and other physiological factors during sleep. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, oral appliances, positive airway pressure therapy, or even surgery in severe cases.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder that occurs when the upper airway becomes partially or completely blocked during sleep, leading to pauses in breathing or shallow breaths. These episodes, known as apneas or hypopneas, can last for 10 seconds or longer and may occur multiple times throughout the night, disrupting normal sleep patterns and causing oxygen levels in the blood to drop.

The obstruction in OSA is typically caused by the relaxation of the muscles in the back of the throat during sleep, which allows the soft tissues to collapse and block the airway. This can result in snoring, choking, gasping for air, or awakening from sleep with a start.

Contributing factors to OSA may include obesity, large neck circumference, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of sedatives or muscle relaxants. Untreated OSA can lead to serious health consequences such as high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cognitive impairment. Treatment options for OSA include lifestyle changes, oral appliances, positive airway pressure therapy, and surgery.

Polysomnography (PSG) is a comprehensive sleep study that monitors various body functions during sleep, including brain activity, eye movement, muscle tone, heart rate, respirations, and oxygen levels. It is typically conducted in a sleep laboratory under the supervision of a trained technologist. The data collected during PSG is used to diagnose and manage various sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), movement disorders (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder), parasomnias, and narcolepsy.

The study usually involves the attachment of electrodes to different parts of the body, such as the scalp, face, chest, and legs, to record electrical signals from the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, and heartbeats. Additionally, sensors may be placed on or near the nose and mouth to measure airflow, and a belt may be worn around the chest and abdomen to monitor breathing efforts. Oxygen levels are also monitored through a sensor attached to the finger or ear.

Polysomnography is often recommended when a sleep disorder is suspected based on symptoms or medical history, and other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive. The results of the study can help guide treatment decisions and improve overall sleep health.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a mode of non-invasive ventilation that delivers pressurized room air or oxygen to maintain airway patency and increase functional residual capacity in patients with respiratory disorders. A CPAP device, which typically includes a flow generator, tubing, and a mask, provides a constant positive pressure throughout the entire respiratory cycle, preventing the collapse of the upper airway during inspiration and expiration.

CPAP is commonly used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repetitive narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, and sleep fragmentation. By delivering positive pressure, CPAP helps to stent open the airway, ensuring unobstructed breathing and reducing the frequency and severity of apneic events.

Additionally, CPAP can be used in other clinical scenarios, such as managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, or postoperative respiratory insufficiency, to improve oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing. The specific pressure settings and device configurations are tailored to each patient's needs based on their underlying condition, severity of symptoms, and response to therapy.

Snoring is defined as the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. It occurs when the tissues at the back of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, partially blocking the airway. The airflow causes these tissues to vibrate, leading to the snoring sound. Snoring can be a sign of various conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea or other respiratory disorders. It can also be influenced by factors such as alcohol consumption, obesity, and sleeping position.

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a type of sleep-disordered breathing characterized by repeated cessations in breathing during sleep due to the brain's failure to transmit signals to the respiratory muscles that control breathing. Unlike obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which results from airway obstruction, CSA occurs when the brain fails to send the necessary signals to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to initiate or maintain respiratory efforts during sleep.

Central sleep apneas are usually associated with decreased oxygen saturation levels and can lead to frequent arousals from sleep, causing excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and impaired cognitive function. CSA is often related to underlying medical conditions such as heart failure, stroke, or brainstem injury, and it may also be caused by the use of certain medications, including opioids.

There are several types of central sleep apnea, including:

1. Primary Central Sleep Apnea: This type occurs without any underlying medical condition or medication use.
2. Cheyne-Stokes Breathing: A pattern of central sleep apnea commonly seen in individuals with heart failure or stroke. It is characterized by a crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing, with periods of hyperventilation followed by hypoventilation and apnea.
3. High-Altitude Periodic Breathing: This type occurs at high altitudes due to the reduced oxygen levels and is usually reversible upon returning to lower altitudes.
4. Complex or Mixed Sleep Apnea: A combination of both central and obstructive sleep apneas, often observed in patients with OSA who are treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. In some cases, the central component may resolve over time with continued CPAP use.

Diagnosis of CSA typically involves a sleep study (polysomnography), which monitors various physiological parameters during sleep, such as brain waves, eye movements, muscle activity, heart rate, and breathing patterns. Treatment options for central sleep apnea depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, adjustments in medication dosages, or the use of devices that assist with breathing, such as adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy.

The uvula is a small, conical piece of soft tissue that hangs down from the middle part of the back of the soft palate (the rear-most portion of the roof of the mouth). It contains muscle fibers and mucous glands, and its function is associated with swallowing, speaking, and protecting the airway. During swallowing, the uvula helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity by blocking the opening between the oral and nasal cavities (the nasopharynx). In speech, it plays a role in shaping certain sounds like "a" and "u."

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

Adenoidectomy is a surgical procedure in which the adenoids are removed. The adenoids are a patch of tissue located behind the nasal cavity, near the roof of the mouth. They help to filter out germs that are breathed in through the nose. However, sometimes the adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as difficulty breathing through the nose, recurrent ear infections, and sleep apnea. In these cases, an adenoidectomy may be recommended to remove the adenoids and alleviate these symptoms.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis, which means that the patient can go home the same day as the surgery. The surgeon will use a special instrument to remove the adenoids through the mouth, without making any external incisions. After the surgery, the patient may experience some discomfort, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing for a few days. However, these symptoms usually resolve within a week or two.

It is important to note that an adenoidectomy is not the same as a tonsillectomy, which is the surgical removal of the tonsils. While the tonsils and adenoids are both part of the immune system and located in the same area of the mouth, they serve different functions and may be removed separately or together depending on the individual's medical needs.

A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils, two masses of lymphoid tissue located on both sides of the back of the throat, are removed. This procedure is typically performed to treat recurrent or severe cases of tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), sleep-disordered breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea, and other conditions where the tonsils are causing problems or complications. The surgery can be done under general anesthesia, and there are various methods for removing the tonsils, including traditional scalpel excision, electrocautery, and laser surgery. After a tonsillectomy, patients may experience pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing, but these symptoms typically improve within 1-2 weeks post-surgery.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Mandibular advancement is a treatment approach used in dentistry and sleep medicine, which involves the surgical or non-surgical forward movement of the mandible (lower jaw) to address certain medical conditions. The most common use of mandibular advancement is in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where the tongue and soft tissues at the back of the throat can collapse into the airway during sleep, causing obstruction and breathing difficulties.

Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are often used in non-surgical treatments. These custom-made oral appliances look similar to mouthguards or sports guards and are worn during sleep. They work by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, which helps to keep the airway open and prevents the tongue and soft tissues from collapsing into it.

Surgical mandibular advancement is another option for patients with severe OSA who cannot tolerate or do not respond well to MADs or other treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In this procedure, the jaw is surgically moved forward and stabilized in that position using plates, screws, or wires. This creates more space in the airway and reduces the risk of obstruction during sleep.

In summary, mandibular advancement refers to the movement of the lower jaw forward, either through non-surgical means like MADs or surgical interventions, with the primary goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea by maintaining a patent airway during sleep.

Disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are a group of medical conditions characterized by an increased tendency to fall asleep or experience excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), despite having adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. These disorders are typically classified as central disorders of hypersomnolence according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3).

The most common DES is narcolepsy, a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. Other DES include idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and recurrent hypersomnia. These disorders can significantly impact an individual's daily functioning, quality of life, and overall health.

Narcolepsy is further divided into two types: narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). NT1 is characterized by the presence of cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions, while NT2 does not include cataplexy. Both types of narcolepsy involve excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

Idiopathic hypersomnia is a DES without the presence of REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Individuals with idiopathic hypersomnia experience excessive daytime sleepiness and prolonged nighttime sleep, often lasting 10 to 14 hours, but do not feel refreshed upon waking.

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare DES characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive sleepiness, often accompanied by cognitive impairment, altered perception, hyperphagia (excessive eating), and hypersexuality during the episodes. These episodes can last days to weeks and typically occur multiple times per year.

Recurrent hypersomnia is another rare DES with recurring episodes of excessive sleepiness lasting for several days, followed by a period of normal or reduced sleepiness. The episodes are not as predictable or consistent as those seen in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

Treatment for DES typically involves pharmacological interventions to manage symptoms and improve daytime alertness. Modafinil, armodafinil, and traditional stimulants like amphetamine salts are commonly used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, antidepressants may be prescribed to manage REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as scheduled napping and good sleep hygiene practices, can also help improve symptoms.

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is the rear portion of the roof of the mouth that is made up of muscle and mucous membrane. It extends from the hard palate (the bony front part of the roof of the mouth) to the uvula, which is the small piece of tissue that hangs down at the back of the throat.

The soft palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing. During swallowing, it moves upward and backward to block off the nasal cavity, preventing food and liquids from entering the nose. In speech, it helps to direct the flow of air from the mouth into the nose, which is necessary for producing certain sounds.

Anatomically, the soft palate consists of several muscles that allow it to change shape and move. These muscles include the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and palatoglossus. The soft palate also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide sensation and help regulate its function.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Adenoids are a pair of masses of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx, which is the upper part of the throat behind the nose. They are part of the immune system and help to protect against infection. Adenoids are largest in children and tend to shrink in size as people get older. In some cases, adenoids can become enlarged or infected, leading to problems such as breathing difficulties, ear infections, and sleep disorders. Treatment for enlarged or infected adenoids may include antibiotics, medications to reduce swelling, or surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy).

Wakefulness is a state of consciousness in which an individual is alert and aware of their surroundings. It is characterized by the ability to perceive, process, and respond to stimuli in a purposeful manner. In a medical context, wakefulness is often assessed using measures such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate brain activity patterns associated with consciousness.

Wakefulness is regulated by several interconnected neural networks that promote arousal and attention. These networks include the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which consists of a group of neurons located in the brainstem that project to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as other regions involved in regulating arousal and attention, such as the basal forebrain and hypothalamus.

Disorders of wakefulness can result from various underlying conditions, including neurological disorders, sleep disorders, medication side effects, or other medical conditions that affect brain function. Examples of such disorders include narcolepsy, insomnia, hypersomnia, and various forms of encephalopathy or brain injury.

Sleep stages are distinct patterns of brain activity that occur during sleep, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG). They are part of the sleep cycle and are used to describe the different types of sleep that humans go through during a normal night's rest. The sleep cycle includes several repeating stages:

1. Stage 1 (N1): This is the lightest stage of sleep, where you transition from wakefulness to sleep. During this stage, muscle activity and brain waves begin to slow down.
2. Stage 2 (N2): In this stage, your heart rate slows, body temperature decreases, and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity becomes slower, with occasional bursts of electrical activity called sleep spindles.
3. Stage 3 (N3): Also known as deep non-REM sleep, this stage is characterized by slow delta waves. It is during this stage that the body undergoes restorative processes such as tissue repair, growth, and immune function enhancement.
4. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep: This is the stage where dreaming typically occurs. Your eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, heart rate and respiration become irregular, and brain wave activity increases to levels similar to wakefulness. REM sleep is important for memory consolidation and learning.

The sleep cycle progresses through these stages multiple times during the night, with REM sleep periods becoming longer towards morning. Understanding sleep stages is crucial in diagnosing and treating various sleep disorders.

The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the musculature of the pharynx, are a group of skeletal muscles that make up the walls of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat located just above the esophagus and behind the nasal and oral cavities. These muscles play a crucial role in several vital functions, including:

1. Swallowing (deglutition): The pharyngeal muscles contract in a coordinated sequence to propel food or liquids from the mouth through the pharynx and into the esophagus during swallowing.
2. Speech: The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help shape the sounds produced by the vocal cords, contributing to the production of speech.
3. Respiration: The pharyngeal muscles assist in maintaining an open airway during breathing, especially during sleep and when the upper airways are obstructed.

The pharyngeal muscles consist of three layers: the outer circular muscle layer, the middle longitudinal muscle layer, and the inner inferior constrictor muscle layer. The specific muscles that make up these layers include:

1. Superior constrictor muscle (outer circular layer)
2. Middle constrictor muscle (middle longitudinal layer)
3. Inferior constrictor muscle (inner inferior constrictor layer)
4. Stylopharyngeus muscle
5. Salpingopharyngeus muscle
6. Palatopharyngeus muscle
7. Buccinator muscle (partially contributes to the middle longitudinal layer)

These muscles work together to perform their various functions, and any dysfunction in these muscles can lead to problems like swallowing difficulties (dysphagia), speech impairments, or respiratory issues.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2) and pulse rate. It uses a device called a pulse oximeter, which measures the amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the blood compared to the amount of hemoglobin that is not carrying oxygen. This measurement is expressed as a percentage, known as oxygen saturation (SpO2). Normal oxygen saturation levels are generally 95% or above at sea level. Lower levels may indicate hypoxemia, a condition where there is not enough oxygen in the blood to meet the body's needs. Pulse oximetry is commonly used in hospitals and other healthcare settings to monitor patients during surgery, in intensive care units, and in sleep studies to detect conditions such as sleep apnea. It can also be used by individuals with certain medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to monitor their oxygen levels at home.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Mouth breathing is a condition characterized by the regular habit of breathing through the mouth instead of the nose during awake states and sometimes during sleep. This can occur due to various reasons such as nasal congestion, deviated septum, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, or structural abnormalities in the jaw or airway. Prolonged mouth breathing can lead to several oral and general health issues, including dry mouth, bad breath, gum disease, and orthodontic problems. It can also affect sleep quality and cognitive function.

Nasal obstruction is a medical condition that refers to any blockage or restriction in the normal flow of air through the nasal passages. This can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, swelling, or physical abnormalities in the nasal cavity. Common causes of nasal obstruction include allergies, sinusitis, deviated septum, enlarged turbinates, and nasal polyps. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, and nasal discharge. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

The oropharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that is located immediately behind the mouth and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and is also an important area for the immune system due to the presence of tonsils.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) is a medical condition characterized by the presence of obesity (generally defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher) and chronic hypoventilation, which means that the person is not breathing adequately, resulting in low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

In OHS, the excess weight of the chest walls makes it difficult for the respiratory muscles to work effectively, leading to reduced lung volumes and impaired gas exchange. This results in chronic hypoxemia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels) during wakefulness and sleep.

OHS is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, which can further exacerbate hypoventilation. However, not all patients with OHS have OSA, and vice versa.

The diagnosis of OHS is typically made based on the presence of obesity, chronic hypoventilation (as evidenced by elevated arterial carbon dioxide levels), and the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. Treatment usually involves the use of non-invasive ventilation to support breathing and improve gas exchange, as well as weight loss interventions to address the underlying obesity.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night. This category includes:

1. Insomnia disorder: A persistent difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, which causes clinically significant distress or impairment.
2. Narcolepsy: A chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions), hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid, dream-like experiences that occur while falling asleep) and sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
3. Breathing-related sleep disorders: A group of disorders that involve abnormal breathing patterns during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, which can lead to difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: A group of disorders that involve a misalignment between the individual's internal circadian rhythm and the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep at desired times.
5. Parasomnias: A group of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder, which can disrupt sleep initiation and maintenance.

These disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, daytime functioning, and overall health, and should be evaluated and managed by a healthcare professional with expertise in sleep medicine.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Apnea is a medical condition defined as the cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more. It can occur during sleep (sleep apnea) or while awake (wakeful apnea). There are different types of sleep apnea, including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and complex sleep apnea syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the airway becomes blocked during sleep, while central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Complex sleep apnea syndrome, also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apneas. Sleep apnea can lead to various complications, such as fatigue, difficulty concentrating, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

The palatine tonsils, also known as the "tonsils," are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx, at the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body from inhaled or ingested pathogens. Each tonsil has a surface covered with crypts and follicles that contain lymphocytes, which help to filter out bacteria and viruses that enter the mouth and nose.

The palatine tonsils are visible through the mouth and can be seen during a routine physical examination. They vary in size, but typically are about the size of a large olive or almond. Swelling or inflammation of the tonsils is called tonsillitis, which can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In some cases, enlarged tonsils may need to be removed through a surgical procedure called a tonsillectomy.

Retrognathia is a dental and maxillofacial term that refers to a condition where the mandible (lower jaw) is positioned further back than normal, relative to the maxilla (upper jaw). This results in the chin appearing recessed or set back, and can lead to various functional and aesthetic problems. In severe cases, retrognathia can interfere with speaking, chewing, and breathing, and may require orthodontic or surgical intervention for correction.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. It's characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), where people experience sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. These "sleep attacks" can occur at any time - while working, talking, eating, or even driving.

In addition to EDS, narcolepsy often includes cataplexy, a condition that causes loss of muscle tone, leading to weakness and sometimes collapse, often triggered by strong emotions like laughter or surprise. Other common symptoms are sleep paralysis (a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up), vivid hallucinations during the transitions between sleep and wakefulness, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

The exact cause of narcolepsy is not fully understood, but it's believed to involve genetic and environmental factors, as well as problems with certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as hypocretin/orexin, which regulate sleep-wake cycles. Narcolepsy can significantly impact a person's quality of life, making it essential to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and management.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A negative pressure ventilator, also known as an iron lung, is a type of mechanical ventilator that creates a negative pressure environment around the patient's chest and abdomen to assist with breathing. This technology was widely used during the polio epidemic in the mid-20th century to help patients with respiratory paralysis caused by the disease.

In a negative pressure ventilator, the patient is placed inside an airtight chamber that is connected to a pump. The pump changes the air pressure within the chamber, creating a vacuum effect that causes the chest and abdomen to expand and contract, which in turn facilitates breathing. As the pressure around the chest decreases, the chest wall expands, allowing the lungs to fill with air. When the pressure increases, the chest wall contracts, pushing air out of the lungs.

Negative pressure ventilators have largely been replaced by positive pressure ventilators, which are more commonly used today. Positive pressure ventilators work by actively pushing air into the lungs, rather than relying on negative pressure to create a vacuum effect. However, negative pressure ventilators may still be used in certain situations where positive pressure ventilation is not appropriate or feasible.

The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals, separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. It consists of two portions: the anterior hard palate, which is composed of bone, and the posterior soft palate, which is composed of muscle and connective tissue. The palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing, as it helps to direct food and air to their appropriate locations during these activities.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs. The condition worsens during periods of rest, particularly when lying or sitting.

The symptoms typically include:

1. An uncontrollable need or urge to move the legs to relieve uncomfortable sensations such as crawling, creeping, tingling, pulling, or painful feelings.
2. Symptoms begin or intensify during rest or inactivity.
3. Symptoms are partially or totally relieved by movement, such as walking or stretching, at least as long as the activity continues.
4. Symptoms are worse in the evening or night, often leading to disturbed sleep.

The exact cause of RLS is unknown, but it may be related to abnormalities in the brain's dopamine pathways that control muscle movements. It can also be associated with certain medical conditions like iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and pregnancy. Treatment often involves addressing any underlying conditions and using medications to manage symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Wakefulness-promoting agents are a class of medications that are used to promote and maintain alertness and wakefulness. They work by stimulating the brain's arousal centers, increasing the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, which help to counteract the effects of sleep-promoting substances in the brain.

Wakefulness-promoting agents are typically used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness associated with conditions such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, shift work sleep disorder, and other disorders that cause disrupted sleep patterns. Some examples of wakefulness-promoting agents include modafinil, armodafinil, pitolisant, and solriamfetol.

It is important to note that while these medications can help to promote alertness and reduce excessive daytime sleepiness, they are not a substitute for getting adequate amounts of quality sleep. It is also important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Macroglossia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally large tongue in relation to the size of the oral cavity. It can result from various conditions, including certain genetic disorders (such as Down syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome), hormonal disorders (such as acromegaly), inflammatory diseases (such as amyloidosis), tumors or growths on the tongue, or neurological conditions. Macroglossia can cause difficulties with speaking, swallowing, and breathing, particularly during sleep. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include corticosteroids, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

The Stroop Test is a neuropsychological test that measures the ability to inhibit cognitive interference, or the ability to selectively focus on one task while suppressing irrelevant information. It was developed by John Ridley Stroop in 1935.

In this test, individuals are presented with three cards in each trial:

1. The first card displays a list of color names (e.g., "red," "green," "blue") printed in black ink.
2. The second card shows rectangles filled with different colors (e.g., red rectangle, green rectangle, blue rectangle).
3. The third card has words from the first card, but each word is written in a color that does not match its name (e.g., "red" may be printed in green ink, "green" in blue ink, and "blue" in red ink).

Participants are asked to name the color of the ink for each word on the third card as quickly and accurately as possible while ignoring the written word itself. The time it takes to complete this task is compared to the time taken to perform a control task (e.g., reading the words on the first card or naming the colors on the second card).

The difference in reaction times between these tasks reflects cognitive interference, which occurs when there is a conflict between two simultaneously competing mental processes. The Stroop Test has been widely used in both clinical and research settings to assess various aspects of cognition, including attention, executive function, and processing speed.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Morocco" is not a medical term. It is the constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary national unity government located in North Africa. It has a population of over 33 million and an area of 446,550 km2. The capital city is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Morocco's official languages are Arabic and Berber, with French widely spoken as well.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness and controls visceral functions. It is divided into two main subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations, often referred to as the "fight or flight" response. It increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolic rate, while also decreasing digestive activity. This response helps the body respond quickly to perceived threats.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS), on the other hand, promotes the "rest and digest" state, allowing the body to conserve energy and restore itself after the stress response has subsided. It decreases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while increasing digestive activity and promoting relaxation.

These two systems work together to maintain balance in the body by adjusting various functions based on internal and external demands. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, and cardiac arrhythmias, among others.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a pattern of breathing characterized by cyclical changes in the depth and rate of respirations. It is often associated with various medical conditions that affect the brainstem, such as stroke, brain injury, or certain neurological disorders.

In Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the individual's breathing starts with a series of deeper and faster breaths (hyperventilation), which gradually become shallower and slower (hypoventilation). This cycle repeats every few minutes, resulting in a pattern of waxing and waning of the depth and rate of respirations.

The underlying mechanism for Cheyne-Stokes respiration is related to the regulation of breathing by the brainstem. When there are abnormalities in this area, it can lead to instability in the control of breathing, resulting in the cyclical pattern of hyperventilation and hypoventilation.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be a sign of serious underlying medical conditions, and it is important to seek medical attention if you or someone else experiences this type of breathing pattern. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as managing heart failure or reducing intracranial pressure in patients with brain injury or stroke.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Occlusal splints, also known as bite guards or night guards, are removable dental appliances that are used to provide protection and stabilization for the teeth and jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ). They are typically made of hard acrylic or soft materials and are custom-fit to a patient's mouth.

Occlusal splints work by covering and separating the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact with each other. This can help to reduce tooth grinding and clenching (bruxism), which can cause tooth wear, sensitivity, and TMJ disorders. They may also be used to help stabilize the jaw joint and muscles in patients with TMJ disorders or to provide protection for teeth that have undergone restorative dental work.

It is important to note that occlusal splints should only be worn under the guidance of a dentist, as improper use can lead to further dental problems.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Ambulatory electrocardiography, also known as ambulatory ECG or Holter monitoring, is a non-invasive method of recording the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period of time (typically 24 hours or more) while the patient goes about their daily activities. The device used to record the ECG is called a Holter monitor, which consists of a small, portable recorder that is attached to the patient's chest with electrodes.

The recorded data provides information on any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or electrical activity during different stages of activity and rest, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and evaluate various cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias, ischemia, and infarction. The ability to monitor the heart's activity over an extended period while the patient performs their normal activities provides valuable information that may not be captured during a standard ECG, which only records the heart's electrical activity for a few seconds.

In summary, ambulatory electrocardiography is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and manage various cardiac conditions.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Sleep disorders, intrinsic, refer to a group of sleep disorders that are caused by underlying medical conditions within an individual's body. These disorders originate from internal physiological or psychological factors and can significantly impact the quality, duration, and timing of sleep. The most common types of intrinsic sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders (such as sleep apnea), central hypersomnias (like narcolepsy), circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and parasomnias (including nightmares and sleepwalking).

Intrinsic sleep disorders can lead to various negative consequences, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of accidents or injuries. Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve addressing the underlying medical condition and implementing appropriate treatment strategies, which may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, or medical devices.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome, also known as Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), is a condition characterized by recurring involuntary jerking movements of the limbs during sleep, particularly the legs. These movements typically occur every 20-40 seconds and can last for an hour or more throughout the night. They often disrupt normal sleep patterns, causing insomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness.

The movements are usually jerky, rapid, and rhythmic, involving extension of the big toe and flexion of the ankle, knee, or hip. In some cases, these movements can be so forceful that they cause the person to wake up, although often individuals with this condition may not be aware of their nighttime leg movements.

Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is different from another common sleep disorder called Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), as RLS primarily causes discomfort or an irresistible urge to move the legs while awake and still, whereas Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome involves involuntary movements during sleep. However, up to 80% of people with RLS also have PLMD.

The exact cause of Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome is not fully understood, but it may be associated with abnormalities in the brain's regulation of muscle activity during sleep. Certain medications, neurological conditions, and iron deficiency anemia have been linked to an increased risk of developing this disorder. Treatment options include medication, lifestyle changes, and addressing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development or worsening of symptoms.

Actigraphy is a non-invasive method used to estimate sleep-wake patterns and physical activity levels over extended periods, typically ranging from several days to weeks. It involves the use of a small device called an actigraph, which is usually worn on the wrist like a watch.

The actigraph contains an accelerometer that detects movement and records the intensity and duration of motion. This data is then analyzed using specialized software to provide information about sleep and wake times, as well as patterns of physical activity.

Actigraphy can be useful in assessing various sleep disorders, such as insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders. It can also help evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it is important to note that actigraphy is not a substitute for a formal sleep study (polysomnography) and should be used in conjunction with other assessment tools and clinical evaluations.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the eye and the changes in this potential that occur with eye movements. It involves placing electrodes near the eyes to detect the small electric fields generated by the movement of the eyeball within the surrounding socket. This technique is used in research and clinical settings to study eye movements and their control, as well as in certain diagnostic applications such as assessing the function of the oculomotor system in patients with neurological disorders.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.

Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that indicate kidney damage, specifically damage to the glomeruli—the tiny blood vessel clusters in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. The main features of nephrotic syndrome are:

1. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine): Large amounts of a protein called albumin leak into the urine due to damaged glomeruli, which can't properly filter proteins. This leads to low levels of albumin in the blood, causing fluid buildup and swelling.
2. Hypoalbuminemia (low blood albumin levels): As albumin leaks into the urine, the concentration of albumin in the blood decreases, leading to hypoalbuminemia. This can cause edema (swelling), particularly in the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Edema (fluid retention and swelling): With low levels of albumin in the blood, fluids move into the surrounding tissues, causing swelling or puffiness. The swelling is most noticeable around the eyes, face, hands, feet, and abdomen.
4. Hyperlipidemia (high lipid/cholesterol levels): The kidneys play a role in regulating lipid metabolism. Damage to the glomeruli can lead to increased lipid production and high cholesterol levels in the blood.

Nephrotic syndrome can result from various underlying kidney diseases, such as minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control inflammation, manage high blood pressure, and reduce proteinuria. In some cases, dietary modifications and lifestyle changes are also recommended.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Sleep arousal disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve the partial or complete awakening from sleep, often accompanied by confusion and disorientation. These disorders are characterized by an abnormal arousal process during sleep, which can result in brief periods of wakefulness or full awakenings. The most common types of sleep arousal disorders include sleepwalking (somnambulism), sleep talking (somniloquy), and night terrors (pavor nocturnus).

In sleepwalking, the individual may get out of bed and walk around while still asleep, often with a blank stare and without any memory of the event. Sleep talking can occur in various levels of sleep and may range from simple sounds to complex conversations. Night terrors are episodes of intense fear and agitation during sleep, often accompanied by screams or cries for help, rapid heart rate, and sweating.

These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, fever, certain medications, alcohol consumption, and underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome. They can also occur as a result of genetic predisposition. Sleep arousal disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, leading to fatigue, daytime sleepiness, impaired cognitive function, and decreased overall well-being. Treatment options may include behavioral therapy, medication, or addressing any underlying medical conditions.

The supine position is a term used in medicine to describe a body posture where an individual is lying down on their back, with their face and torso facing upwards. This position is often adopted during various medical procedures, examinations, or when resting, as it allows for easy access to the front of the body. It is also the position automatically assumed by most people who are falling asleep.

It's important to note that in the supine position, the head can be flat on the surface or raised with the use of pillows or specialized medical equipment like a hospital bed. This can help to alleviate potential issues such as breathing difficulties or swelling in the face and head.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Fluid shifts, in a medical context, refer to the movement or redistribution of fluids between different compartments within the body. The human body is composed of two main fluid compartments: the intracellular fluid (ICF), which is present inside the cells, and the extracellular fluid (ECF), which is outside the cells. The ECF is further divided into interstitial fluid (present in the spaces between cells) and intravascular fluid (present within the blood vessels).

Fluid shifts can occur due to various physiological and pathological conditions, such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, oncotic pressure, or permeability of the capillary membranes. These shifts can have significant impacts on various body systems, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems. For example, fluid shifting from the intravascular space to the interstitial space can lead to edema (swelling), while fluid shifts into the alveoli in the lungs can cause pulmonary edema and impair breathing.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals monitor and manage fluid shifts through various strategies, such as administering intravenous fluids, using diuretics, or implementing mechanical ventilation, depending on the underlying cause and the specific effects of the fluid shift on the patient's condition.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures are surgeries that are performed on the head and neck region, specifically involving the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) regions. This field is also known as otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. The procedures can range from relatively minor ones, such as removing a small nasal polyp or inserting ear tubes, to more complex surgeries like cochlear implantation, endoscopic sinus surgery, or removal of tumors in the head and neck region. These surgical procedures are typically performed by specialized physicians called otorhinolaryngologists (also known as ENT surgeons) who have completed extensive training in this area.

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep-related problems such as snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, and unusual behaviors during sleep are among the conditions that sleep medicine physicians diagnose and treat.

Sleep medicine specialists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other healthcare professionals such as neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, and dentists to provide comprehensive care for patients with sleep disorders. They use various diagnostic tools, including polysomnography (sleep studies), actigraphy, and multiple sleep latency tests, to evaluate patients' sleep patterns and diagnose their conditions accurately. Based on the diagnosis, they develop individualized treatment plans that may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, medical devices, or surgery.

To become a sleep medicine specialist, physicians typically complete a residency in a related field such as neurology, pulmonology, psychiatry, or internal medicine and then pursue additional training and certification in sleep medicine. The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes sleep medicine as a subspecialty, and the American Board of Sleep Medicine offers certification to qualified physicians who pass a rigorous examination.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

The hypopharynx is the lower part of the pharynx, which is the muscular tube that extends from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and trachea. The hypopharynx lies posterior to the larynx and is divided into three regions: the pyriform (or piriform) sinuses, the postcricoid area, and the posterior pharyngeal wall. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and any abnormalities or diseases in this region can lead to swallowing difficulties, aspiration, and other serious medical conditions.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Hypoventilation is a medical condition that refers to the decreased rate and depth of breathing, which leads to an inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. As a result, there is an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a decrease in the levels of oxygen (hypoxemia) in the blood. Hypoventilation can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory muscle weakness, sedative or narcotic overdose, chest wall deformities, neuromuscular disorders, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing. Prolonged hypoventilation can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

Sleep bruxism is a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by the involuntary clenching or grinding of teeth and jaw muscle activity during sleep, which can lead to tooth wear, jaw pain, headaches, and other oral health issues. It is typically considered a parasomnia, which is a type of abnormal behavior that occurs during sleep. The exact causes of sleep bruxism are not fully understood, but it may be associated with stress, certain medications, alcohol and drug use, and other factors. Treatment options can include stress management techniques, dental guards to protect the teeth, and in some cases, medication.

Fatigue is a state of feeling very tired, weary, or exhausted, which can be physical, mental, or both. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors, including lack of sleep, poor nutrition, stress, medical conditions (such as anemia, diabetes, heart disease, or cancer), medications, and substance abuse. Fatigue can also be a symptom of depression or other mental health disorders. In medical terms, fatigue is often described as a subjective feeling of tiredness that is not proportional to recent activity levels and interferes with usual functioning. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or severe fatigue to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

Dreams are a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person's mind during sleep. They can be vivid or vague, positive or negative, and may involve memories, emotions, and fears. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. While the exact purpose and function of dreams remain a topic of debate among researchers, some theories suggest that dreaming may help with memory consolidation, problem-solving, emotional processing, and learning.

Dreams usually occur during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, although they can also happen in non-REM stages. They are typically associated with complex brain activities, involving areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the neocortex. The content of dreams can be influenced by various factors, including a person's thoughts, experiences, emotions, physical state, and environmental conditions.

It is important to note that dreaming is a natural and universal human experience, and understanding dreams can provide insights into our cognitive processes, emotional well-being, and mental health.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

... - The Phantom of the Night: Overcome Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Win Your Hidden Struggle to Breathe, Sleep, and Live ... "Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Is It a Unique Clinical Syndrome?". Sleep. 29 (9): 1203-1209. doi:10.1093/sleep/29.9.1203. PMID ... "The Medical Cost of Undiagnosed Sleep Apnea". Sleep. 22 (6): 749-755. doi:10.1093/sleep/22.6.749. PMID 10505820. "Sleep Apnea ... Sleep apnea is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep study. For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour ...
The terms obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) may be used to refer to ... Obstructive sleep apnea is differentiated from central sleep apnea (CSA), which is characterized by episodes of reduction or ... "Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population-a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea". Journal of ... "Cognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a descriptive review". Sleep and Breathing. 25 (1): 29-40. doi: ...
"Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Following Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for Sleep Apnea". in "Abstracts Presented at the Thirty-First ... Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff syndrome. Due to the ... The syndrome is a combined manifestation of two namesake disorders, Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome. It involves ... "Korsakoff's syndrome" was coined. Although WE and AKS were discovered separately, these two syndromes are usually referred to ...
"The epiglottis and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome". The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 112 (10): 940-943. doi:10.1017/ ... Abnormal positioning of the epiglottis is a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnoea. The epiglottis is present in mammals, ...
... is associated with symptoms including global developmental delay, hypotonia, obstructive sleep apnea, ... "Orphanet: AHDC1 related intellectual disability obstructive sleep apnea mild dysmorphism syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved ... "Ahdc1-Related Intellectual Disability-Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Mild Dysmorphism Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles ... "Xia-Gibbs Syndrome - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database". rgd.mcw.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-18. "Xia-Gibbs Syndrome disease: ...
... sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy. Respiratory therapy Certified Respiratory Therapist American Association ... The sleep disorder specialist scores and performs polysomnography and also assists in diagnosing and preparing a treatment plan ... A Sleep disorder specialist (SDS) is a Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT-SDS) that has successfully passed the ... Some of the conditions the sleep disorder specialist helps evaluate and treat are; insomnia, ...
The Imperial College Healthcare shows attention to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and very few other sleep disorders. ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... Other forms of sleep apnea are less common. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical disorder that is caused by repetitive ... Several types of sleep apnea Snoring Upper airway resistance syndrome Restless leg syndrome Periodic limb movement disorder ...
The syndrome can be associated with sleep apnea. The physical characteristics of the syndrome can result in difficult ... "Obstructive sleep apnoea in a puerperal patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome". Eur. Respir. J. 14 (4): 974-7. doi:10.1034/j ... Syndromes of unknown causes, Rare diseases, Syndromes affecting the eye, Congenital disorders of eye, ear, face and neck, ... Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is a congenital disorder that affects growth, cranial development, hair-growth, and dental ...
Ahmed MH, Byrne CD (September 2010). "Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and fatty liver: association or causal link?". World J. ... Bhattacharjee R, Gozal D (September 2010). "Metabolic disease in sleep disordered breathing: puberty! puberty!". Sleep. 33 (9 ... and sleep apnea. Steatosis reflects an impairment of the normal processes of synthesis and elimination of triglyceride fat. ... obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), insulin resistance, or alcoholism. Nutrient malnutrition may also cause the mobilisation of fat ...
... pediatric Central sleep apnea syndromes Central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes breathing Central sleep apnea due to a medical ... G47.30 Alveolar hypoventilation syndrome G47.31 Central sleep apnoea G47.32 Obstructive sleep apnoea G47.38 Other sleep apnoea ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome M04 Central Sleep Apnea M05 Sleep-Related Hypoventilation M06 Circadian Rhythm Sleep- ... sleep apnea Primary central sleep apnea of infancy Primary central sleep apnea of prematurity Treatment-emergent central sleep ...
... obestatin and apelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome". Medical Science Monitor. 17 (3): CR159-164. ... In obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea, leptin level is increased, but decreased after the administration of continuous ... August 2003). "Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: effect of CPAP treatment". The European ... In non-obese individuals, however, restful sleep (i.e., 8-12 hours of unbroken sleep) can increase leptin to normal levels. All ...
"Effects of Oropharyngeal Exercises on Patients with Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome". American Journal of Respiratory ... "Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Sleep. 38 (5): 669-75. doi: ... In treatment of sleep apnea, oral myology therapy involves a series of exercises designed to improve tongue position and tongue ... Patients with sleep apnea and other breathing difficulties usually have decreased tone and mobility in the cheek, tongue, lip, ...
"A review of EPAP nasal device therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome". Sleep & Breathing. 19 (3): 769-74. doi:10.1007/ ... Nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (Nasal EPAP) is a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. ... In OSA it appears to be effective to reduce but not eliminate apnea for people with mild to moderate OSA (Apnea-hypopnea index ... "Treatments for Obstructive Sleep Apnea". J Clin Outcomes Manag. 23 (4): 181-192. PMC 4847952. PMID 27134515. (Articles with ...
"Didgeridoo playing as alternative treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 332 (7536 ... for demonstrating that regular playing of a didgeridoo is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring. ... to awaken sleeping people in case of a fire or other emergency, and for applying this knowledge to invent the wasabi alarm. ...
The presence of other sleep disorders (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea syndrome). Bruxism is derived from the Greek word βρύκειν ... such as obstructive sleep apnea, snoring, moderate daytime sleepiness,[medical citation needed] and insomnia Down syndrome ... normally used for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea) may reduce sleep bruxism, although its use may be associated with ... during sleep ("sleep bruxism"), or while awake ("awake bruxism"). This is the most widely used classification since sleep ...
Brugada syndrome Incubus Sleep apnea Sleep paralysis Pesanta Lietuvēns Ramos, Maximo D. (1971). Creatures of Philippine Lower ... The batibat forbids humans from sleeping near its post. When a person does sleep near it, the batibat transforms into its true ... Weidenfeld, Lisa (October 26, 2018). "Sabrina goes to sleep and finds a whole lot of terrifying adventures". The A.V. Club. ... form and attacks the person by suffocating their victim and invading their dream space, causing sleep paralysis and waking ...
... efficacy and side effects in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2009 Oct 15;5(5):431-8. "The ... Obstructive sleep apnea or sleep apnea is defined as either cessation of breathing (apnea) for 10 seconds, or a decrease in ... In obstructive sleep apnea, affected individuals are categorized based on how many apneas or hypopneas (apnea-hypopnea index or ... It is rare to have this procedure performed as the only surgical treatment for sleep apnea, as obstruction in sleep apnea is ...
"Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy as a Cause of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - Case Report". New Medicine. 19 (4): 130-132. doi: ... Enlarged or hypertrophic lingual tonsils have the potential to cause or exacerbate sleep apnea. Lingual tonsil Lingual tonsil ...
Apnea & hypopnea detection - Diagnostic components of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and periodic breathing. Apnea & hypopnea ... sleep), psychophysiology, psychiatric research, anxiety and stress research, anesthesia, cardiology and pulmonary research ( ... classification - Phase relation between thorax and abdomen classifies apnea/hypopnea events into central, mixed, and ...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction. Oxygen passively ... Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may cause morning headaches Circulatory Hypoxia: Caused by insufficient perfusion of the ... sleep apnea etc.) Low-inspired oxygen partial pressure, which may be caused by breathing normal air at low ambient pressures ... Method used in evaluation of respiratory function of the nasal cavity Sleep apnea - Disorder involving pauses in breathing ...
... individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, postmenopausal women,[non-primary source needed] type 2 diabetics, ... "The prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome". Journal of Oral and ... "The prevalence of carotid atheromas seen on panoramic radiographs of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and their relation ...
"Transoral robotic tongue base resection in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome: A preliminary report". ORL. 72 (1): 22- ... 2016). "Outcomes for multilevel surgery for sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea, transoral robotic surgery, and ... is one common way to measure the degree of a patient's sleep apnea. The higher the number, the worse the breathing during sleep ... TransOral Robotic Sleep Apnea (TORSA) surgery utilizes the same approach to open the upper airway of patients with obstructive ...
2005). "Didgeridoo playing as alternative treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: randomised controlled trial". BMJ. ... the British Medical Journal found that learning and practising the didgeridoo helped reduce snoring and obstructive sleep apnea ... by strengthening muscles in the upper airway, thus reducing their tendency to collapse during sleep. In the study, intervention ...
2005). "ACephalometric Comparison of Patients With the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome and Their Siblings". Sleep. Gungor; et al ... on adult men and women and found that location of the hyoid also correlates with the obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome ... Three of which indicated the importance of hyoid position in pediatric sleep apnea. Future studies are needed in this area. A ... It has been used for studies in obstructive sleep apnea. As cephalometry become more digitized by using different programs and ...
... and quality of sleep should be discussed to rule out any diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. ... "How to Sleep Better". Sleep Foundation. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2021. "CDC - Sleep Hygiene Tips - Sleep and Sleep ... The amount of sleep needed can depend on sleep quality, age, pregnancy, and level of sleep deprivation. Insufficient sleep has ... Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Hypnosis by Simon Green "Sleep Debt: Can You Catch up on Sleep?". Sleep Foundation. 20 January ...
"Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Patients with Empty Nose Syndrome". Diagnostics. 12 (7): 1720. doi:10.3390/ ... Sleep apnea was found to correlate with severity of ENS symptoms and high BMI in a 2022 study. The cause of ENS is due to the ... Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a clinical syndrome, the hallmark symptom of which is a sensation of suffocation despite a clear ... "Sleep impairment in patients with empty nose syndrome". Rhinology. 61 (1): 47-53. doi:10.4193/Rhin22.117. PMID 36306524. S2CID ...
Finally there is a lower complication rate, although obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated. Both techniques ... Acute obstructive sleep apnea as a complication of sphincter pharyngoplasty. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1996. 33(3):183-9. ... which can result in sleep apnea. Alternatively, a postoperative situation can be created with the same symptoms as before ... without causing upper airway obstruction and sleep apnea.Nowadays the procedure that is chosen the most from the palatoplasties ...
"Didgeridoo playing as alternative treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome". British Medical Journal. 2005-12-23. Camacho ... Obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep deprivation. Relaxants such as alcohol or other drugs relaxing throat muscles. Sleeping on one's ... "Quality of life in mild obstructive sleep apnea". Sleep. 16 (8 Suppl): S59-61. doi:10.1093/sleep/16.suppl_8.s59. PMID 8178027. ... Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of ...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in the Sao Paulo epidemiologic sleep study. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11(5), 441-446. Effects of ... Drowsiness Hypnic jerk Sleep apnea Sleep debt Vigilance International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Diagnostic and Coding ... Sleep apnea is by far the most significant disease tied to microsleeps in terms of prevalence, affecting roughly 10-15 million ... findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll." Journal of Sleep Research, 20(3), 487-494. National ...
January 2012). "The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature ... sleep apnea. It has also been used to prevent methotrexate-induced kidney damage by alkalinizing the urine, hence speeding up ... doi:10.5665/sleep.1580. PMC 3242685. PMID 22215916. Shamash J, Earl H, Souhami R (1991). "Acetazolamide for alkalinisation of ... April 2008). "Intracranial hypotension in a girl with Marfan syndrome: case report and review of the literature". Child's ...
In most cases, central sleep apnea is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes or is caused by an underlying medical ... The term central sleep apnea encompasses a heterogeneous group of sleep-related breathing disorders in which respiratory effort ... is diminished or absent in an intermittent or cyclical fashion during sleep. ... encoded search term (Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes) and Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes What to Read Next on Medscape ...
How do I address sleep disorders like sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome?. Discover effective ways to address sleep disorders ... What is Sleep Apnea?. Sleep apnea, my friend, can be a real party pooper when it comes to a good nights rest. Its like having ... Two common culprits in the sleep disorder world are sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. Curious about what they are? Stick ... Medical Tests for Sleep Apnea. When it comes to diagnosing sleep apnea, doctors have a few tricks up their sleeves. One common ...
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest immune system derangement in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome ( ... Lymphocyte subsets and early apoptosis in the peripheral blood of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (Preliminary ... BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest immune system derangement in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome ( ...
... with moderate carrier apnea syndrome and obstructive sleep hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), presented to the ATM Service - Service of ... ARAUJO, Laís Gomes de; COELHO, Patrícia Rocha GUIMARAES, Josemar Parreira. Apnea obstructive sleep syndrome treatment using ... insufficient nights sleep, waking up several times at night, morning headaches and neck pain, which treatment modality was the ...
Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow while you sleep. Discover sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ... Obstructive sleep apnea - adults (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Pediatric sleep apnea (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Getting a Sleep Apnea Diagnosis (American Sleep Apnea Association) * Pulse Oximetry (National Library of Medicine) Also in ...
Over the past few years, the criteria defining the sleep apnea syndrome have been well delineated. This syndrome is a common ... Role of ORL in the treatment of sleep apnea syndromes]. / Le rôle de lORL dans le traitement du syndrome dapnées du sommeil. ...
Sleep Apnea - The Phantom of the Night: Overcome Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Win Your Hidden Struggle to Breathe, Sleep, and Live ... "Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Is It a Unique Clinical Syndrome?". Sleep. 29 (9): 1203-1209. doi:10.1093/sleep/29.9.1203. PMID ... "The Medical Cost of Undiagnosed Sleep Apnea". Sleep. 22 (6): 749-755. doi:10.1093/sleep/22.6.749. PMID 10505820. "Sleep Apnea ... Sleep apnea is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep study. For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and sleep apnoea syndrome: a family study. Lancet. 2001 Jan 27. 357(9252):267-72. [QxMD MEDLINE ... 16] Sleep apnea was described in a French family with CMT1A (a feature previously reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type ... Whether it was incidental or part of the syndrome is controversial. Tremor with CMT is referred to as Roussy-Levy syndrome. ... but sleep apnea correlated with the severity of the neuropathy, possibly because of pharyngeal neuropathy. Two sisters had an ...
... after removal of their tonsils or adenoids due to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome ... for pain relief in children and adolescents after removal of their tonsils or adenoids due to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome ... If you are taking a benzodiazepine (used for the treatment of anxiety or sleep disorders) e.g. diazepam, clobazam, lorazepam, ... Benzodiazepines - used for treating anxiety or sleep disorders. *Domperidone or metoclopramide for feeling sick or being sick ( ...
... and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (1 case). ¶Data available for 98 patients. #Data available for 93 patients. **Data ... Other disorders include cardiopathy (5 cases), Down syndrome (3 cases; 1 with cardiopathy), hypothyroidism (3 cases), pregnancy ...
Sleep Medicine Specialty, Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Sleep Apnea Syndromes, Nasal Septum ... Sleep Medicine Specialty, Public Health, Delivery of Health Care, 50230, Health Promotion, Health Services, Otolaryngology, ...
White coat hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Chest, 2004, 125(3):817-2. ... It is also frequent in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome [4]. ...
... and Response to Treatment of Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2005-2007 - ... diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women.. Sleep 1997;20(9):705-6. ... et al. Apnoea-hypopnea index during rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye. movement sleep in obstructive sleep apnoea. J Int Med ... Sleep Apnea (N = 596), Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2005-2007. Findings/Treatment. Obstructive Sleep Apnea. ...
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a severe form, while moderate and mild forms exist. A sleep study may be required to ... Central sleep apnea (CSA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are two different types of sleep apnea. How is sleep can be ... Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that can be divided into two categories: obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. ... or severe obstructive sleep apnea. A sleep specialist may recommend a sleep study to diagnose sleep apnea and determine the ...
Dr Swieca is open to a range of treatment strategies for sleep apnoea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias and ... He chairs the Sleep Physicians Council of the Australasian Sleep Association, the peak body representing sleep clinicians and ... Mindfulness-based therapies in sleep disorders, insomnia, central sleep apnoea in heart failure ... Dr John Swieca has been the medical director of the Melbourne Sleep Disorders Centre since returning from a Sleep Disorders ...
... and there is no clear consensus regarding association with risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (132). However ... Patients with Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Including Sleep Apnea. Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing include congestive ... opioid therapy can worsen central sleep apnea in obstructive sleep apnea patients, and it can cause further desaturation in ... risk is greater for patients with sleep apnea or other causes of sleep-disordered breathing, patients with renal or hepatic ...
6-Min walk-test data in severe obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome (OSAHS) under continuous-positive-airway-pressure ( ... RESULTS: The means +/- SD of age and apnea-hypopnea-index were, respectively, 49 +/- 10 Yr and 62 +/- 18/h. The profile of ... 2.63 x average oxy-sat during sleep (%) - 51.06 x Diuretic-use (0. No; 1. Yes) - 20.68 x Dyspnea (NYHA) (0. No; 1. Yes) - 38.09 ...
Florin Dumitru Mihaltan Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and arterial hypertension - a complicated relationship? In 2016 the ...
literature of Sleep Disordered Breathing. syndrome- of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in ia. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. nature ... Hypoventilation Syndrome. negative blends of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. rigorous online rabbit remembered one story from licks of ... Sleep Loss, Sleepiness, Performance, and Safety. online rabbit IV: get DISORDERED BREATHING SYNDROMES. ... Sleep Medicine ReviewsSelf-report classes build to like Positive Found in the thing and promise of list. While cell court about ...
But what happens when our sleep is disturbed by problems such as snoring or sleep apnea? How c ... We spend an average of 8 hours of the day sleeping, this helps us have the energy needed to face everyday challenges, but it ... Sleep is an essential component of our daily life. ... But what is sleep apnea?. Sleep apnea syndrome occurs when ... The causes of sleep apnea vary depending on the type. Obstructive apneas are often caused by excessive relaxation of the throat ...
Sleep Number Bed Reviews. *Glideaway Reviews. *Memory Foam Mattresses *Memory Foam vs Latex vs Spring ...
Try these things to help you ease your symptoms and sleep better. ... These include sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, TMJ disorder ... Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: "Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study." ... National Sleep Foundation: "Alcohols Effect on Sleep.". Molecular Medicine Reports: "Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past ... Sleep Medicine Reviews: "Psoriasis and sleep disorders: A systematic review.". The Arthritis Foundation: "Psoriatic Arthritis ...
Approach to the Patient With a Sleep or Wakefulness Disorder - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & ... Usually, consider sleep studies (eg, polysomnography) when sleep apnea syndromes, periodic limb movements, or other sleep ... Central sleep apnea Central Sleep Apnea Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by ... Obstructive sleep apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of multiple episodes of partial or ...
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome induced by testosterone administration. N. Engl. J. Med., 308, 508-510. Tente links no:* ...
Various oral appliances and sports mouthguards for the treatment of Sleep apnea syndrome, Various positioners, splints, etc. ...
This can be caused by pain, discomfort, the need to urinate, Restless Leg Syndrome, and sleep apnea. ... People with diabetes often experience problems getting to sleep and remaining asleep. ...
Our better sleep blog offers tips about living with sleep apnea, guides to shopping for CPAP supplies, lifestyle tips and so ... ASV machines stand out for their ability to improve peoples lives with complex sleep apnea syndromes. Read more about them. ... Which Is the Best for My Sleep Apnea Treatment? Are you looking for the best CPAP machine for your sleep apnea treatment? You ... ASV machines stand out for their ability to improve peoples lives with complex sleep apnea syndromes. Read more about them. ...
Were Here for You! We Offer Consultation Services and Treatments for a Variety of Sleeping Issues. ... If You Have Sleeping Problems, Seek Professional Help. ... clinical and home treatment of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( ... Obstructive sleep apnea and Central sleep apnea (both OSA and CSA), but its not used for life support. It can provide the ... Ventmed DF-25W-H BiPAP Machine for Obstructive Sleep Apnea or COPD in home and hospital. ...
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a severe form, while moderate and mild forms exist. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Many of the patients who have obstructive sleep apnea syndrome also have floppy eyelid syndrome, or develop it if their sleep apnea is left untreated. (respecteyecare.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome induced by testosterone administration. (bvsalud.org)
  • Oana Claudia Deleanu, Andra Elena Malaut, Ana Maria Nebunoiu, Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Florin Dumitru Mihaltan Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and arterial hypertension - a complicated relationship? (luxorlinens.com)
  • How do I address sleep disorders like sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome? (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Discover effective ways to address sleep disorders like sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • In this article, we'll dive deep into the realm of sleep disorders and explore how you can address pesky problems like sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Two common culprits in the sleep disorder world are sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Now, let's dive deeper into the fascinating world of sleep disorders and explore the peculiarities of sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • What is Restless Leg Syndrome? (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Now, let's talk about another nocturnal nuisance - restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Restless leg syndrome is like having an army of tiny ninjas attack your legs, leaving you with irresistible urges to move and kick, even when all you want to do is get your beauty sleep. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • So, if you find yourself playing involuntary leg gymnastics at bedtime, restless leg syndrome might be the mischievous culprit. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • But what causes restless leg syndrome? (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Now, you might be wondering, who is more likely to experience restless leg syndrome? (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • If you have a family history of restless leg syndrome, you might be more prone to developing it yourself. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • So, if you find yourself in a nightly battle with your legs, it might be time to investigate the possibility of restless leg syndrome. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Dr Swieca is open to a range of treatment strategies for sleep apnoea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias and narcolepsy. (epworth.org.au)
  • It's common for individuals with narcolepsy to also suffer from other sleep disorders, like obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, or insomnia. (check.in)
  • Heartburn , restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea can all put someone in a sleep-wake state where these sleep-sex behaviors might appear. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Medications for heartburn or restless legs syndrome. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on medical and family histories, a physical exam, and sleep study results. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Health care providers use sleep studies to diagnose sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with sleep apnea can experience daytime sleepiness, and if left untreated, can lead to sudden death. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • If left untreated, sleep apnea can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Sleep apnea is a silent condition that often goes undiagnosed, but it can have serious consequences for your health if left untreated. (livepositively.com)
  • While the types of sleep apnea differ in their causes, symptoms, and treatments, they all share one common feature: they disrupt normal breathing during sleep, leading to a host of health problems if left untreated. (livepositively.com)
  • What happens if sleep apnea is left untreated? (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Because the disorder disrupts normal sleep, those affected may experience sleepiness or feel tired during the day. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with sleep apnea have problems with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and impaired alertness. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with sleep apnea may experience daytime sleepiness. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • A sleep disorder that brings on excessive sleepiness, sleep paralysis, and even hallucinations or loss of muscle control, narcolepsy affects men, women, and children. (check.in)
  • The most commonly reported sleep-related symptoms are insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness can be aggravated by the use of alcohol, sedating antihistamines, CNS depressants, and some over-the-counter cold preparations. (medscape.com)
  • For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, surgery, and breathing devices can treat sleep apnea in many people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Positive airway pressure and other treatments can help diagnose and treat sleep apnea, helping to lower blood pressure and reduce risk factors. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • In the largest cross-sectional study to date, exploring a wide range of potential factors provoking the obesity hypoventilation syndrome, we have found that intra-abdominal obesity and a poor response to hypoxia appear to be the dominant factors associated with hypoventilation, thus providing further insights into the pathophysiology of this condition. (bmj.com)
  • 6 kPa), in the absence of any other discernible cause, define obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), while some also include the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the definition. (bmj.com)
  • This guideline covers the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with OSAHS (COPD-OSAHS overlap syndrome) in people over 16. (bvsalud.org)
  • Not all obese children develop obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). (medscape.com)
  • It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep. (medlineplus.gov)
  • these include a narrow, crowded, or collapsible upper airway, an ineffective pharyngeal dilator muscle function during sleep, airway narrowing during sleep, and unstable control of breathing (high loop gain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are one of the main ways of treating sleep apnea , a disorder involving interrupted breathing during sleep. (sleepapnea.org)
  • PAP therapy is often the initial treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) , which occurs when a person's airway becomes blocked by mouth or throat muscles that relax during sleep. (sleepapnea.org)
  • A PAP machine delivers pressurized air through a face mask while you sleep to maintain the upper airway open. (sleepapnea.org)
  • For people with obstructive sleep apnea, this helps keep the upper airway open to reduce breathing difficulties, snoring , and sleep disruptions. (sleepapnea.org)
  • The machine pumps air through the hose and mask and into your upper airway while you sleep. (sleepapnea.org)
  • The most common treatment for OSA, positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment, is frequently initiated to reduce sleep-related symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • To avoid this, treating sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is essential. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Sleep Apnea Solutions & Treatment can include CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) and other therapies prescribed by a sleep specialist. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Treating sleep apnea with CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) can help people with mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Treatment for sleep apnea includes positive airway pressure and emergent central sleep apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • How is sleep affected by losing weight, falling asleep, and upper airway resistance? (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Treating OSA with bilevel-positive airway pressure and central sleep apnea can help prevent stroke. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Sleep apnea happens when a person's upper airway is blocked, preventing them from getting enough oxygen during sleep. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Other treatments such as oral appliances, bilevel-positive airway pressure, and sleeping pills can also help. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • It occurs when the muscles in the back of the throat fail to keep the airway open, causing the person to snore or gasp for air during sleep. (livepositively.com)
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of multiple episodes of partial or complete closure of the upper airway that occur during sleep and lead to breathing cessation (defined as a period of. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Your brain will then sense your body's inability to breathe, and will briefly rouse you from sleep so you are able to open up your airway. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • The spectrum of sleep disordered breathing ranges from habitual snoring, to upper airway resistance syndrome, to obstructive sleep apnea, and to obstructive apnea/hypoventilation syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device for sleep apnea . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Common sleep apnea treatments include using breathing devices, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While CPAP machines are the most commonly used for OSA, knowing about different PAP devices, including CPAPs, APAPs, and BiPAPs, can help you understand the treatment options for sleep apnea and how they work. (sleepapnea.org)
  • Airflow from a CPAP remains constant or fixed throughout a night's sleep. (sleepapnea.org)
  • Sleep is characterized by elevation of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) and a higher PaCO 2 apneic threshold, the PaCO 2 below which apnea occurs. (medscape.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repeatedly interrupted breathing during sleep, occurs frequently in adults (1). (cdc.gov)
  • As the name suggests, floppy eyelid syndrome occurs when the upper lids of a person's eye turn inward or flip over. (respecteyecare.com)
  • Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs cyclically throughout the night every 90-120 min. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Like sleepwalking, sexsomnia is a parasomnia, a sleep-related disorder that occurs when you're in between deep, dreamless sleep and wakefulness. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The term central sleep apnea encompasses a heterogeneous group of sleep-related breathing disorders in which respiratory effort is diminished or absent in an intermittent or cyclical fashion during sleep. (medscape.com)
  • Before we delve into the nitty-gritty details, let's first understand what sleep disorders are all about. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Sleep disorders are sneaky little critters that can disrupt your precious sleep and leave you feeling groggy in the morning. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • However, for some unlucky individuals, sleep can be a constant battle, thanks to sleep disorders. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Now that we know what we're dealing with, let's explore how sleep disorders can turn our everyday life into a groggy mess. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Sleep disorders are like mischievous little gremlins that love to disrupt our lives. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Dr John Swieca has been the medical director of the Melbourne Sleep Disorders Centre since returning from a Sleep Disorders Fellowship at the CedarsSinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles in 1994. (epworth.org.au)
  • In his clinical practice, he cares for patients with a range of sleep disorders. (epworth.org.au)
  • Dr Swiecas clinical interests are broad, although he specialises in the management of complex multifactorial sleep disorders. (epworth.org.au)
  • Sleep disorders are the conditions that disrupt the normal sleep cycle and sleep quality. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The U.S. sleep aids market growth is driven by rise in prevalence of insomnia, increase in awareness about sleep disorders and its available treatments, and technological advancement in sleep aids. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Further, increase in awareness about sleep disorders also contribute toward the market growth. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • This further contributes toward the rise in incidence of sleep disorders and drives the market growth. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Nuvigil has gained popularity as a medication for treating sleep disorders and other conditions. (livepositively.com)
  • EDS is not a disorder but a symptom of various sleep-related disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Education about pediatric sleep disorders is limited in US medical schools. (medscape.com)
  • Attempts are under way to improve awareness of sleep disorders and their impact on the health of children with obesity. (medscape.com)
  • For patient education resources, see the Sleep Disorders Center . (medscape.com)
  • In some cases, if sleep apnea is not diagnosed or is untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as heart attack, glaucoma, diabetes, cancer, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can read about sleep apnea research and clinical trials that help improve sleep health at NIH's National Center on Sleep Disorders Research . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the U.S., characterized by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or getting a good quality sleep. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Surge in the prevalence of insomnia increases the demand for medications and drives the growth of the U.S. sleep aids market. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • For instance, according to the National Sleep Foundation (NSF), by 2021, about 10% and 30% of adults were suffering from insomnia in America. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • It remains unclear why only some obese patients develop hypoventilation syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • There are several treatments available for sleep apnea, depending on the type and severity of the condition. (livepositively.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest immune system derangement in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS), expressed by elevation in the circulating levels of proinflammatory markers and increase in the total number of neutrophils, but there is less information on possible alterations in lymphocyte expression. (pneumon.org)
  • Knowledge of normal ventilatory control mechanisms is important for understanding the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea. (medscape.com)
  • This syndrome is a common affliction whose pathophysiology is usually indicative of an obstacle in the upper respiratory tract . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most likely, complex interactions between obesity-related mechanical factors affecting lung function, altered respiratory drive, and sleep-disordered breathing contribute to the pathophysiology of OHS. (medscape.com)
  • However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common symptom of sleep apnea is snoring, but not everyone who snores has sleep apnea. (livepositively.com)
  • You should visit your dentist if you continue to snore loudly, as it is an indication of a potentially serious problem, but not everyone who has sleep apnea snores. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • CSA, on the other hand, is caused by a failure of the brain to signal the muscles to breathe during sleep. (livepositively.com)
  • Causes of central sleep apnea are the less common form of the two and occur when your brain fails to transmit signals to your breathing muscles. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Central sleep apnea happens when your brain doesn't properly send signals to your muscles for breathing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Those that affect adults include primary central sleep apnea, Cheyne-Stokes breathing-central sleep apnea (CSB-CSA) pattern, high-altitude periodic breathing, central sleep apnea due to medical conditions other than Cheyne-Stokes, and central sleep apnea due to drugs or substances. (medscape.com)
  • For instance, the National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 2021, reported that 89% of adults and 75% of children have at least one electronic device in their bedrooms. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • NREM sleep constitutes about 75 to 80% of total sleep time in adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1 in 3 adults do not regularly get the recommended amount of uninterrupted sleep. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosing and treating sleep apnea may help to reduce the risk of developing pulmonary hypertension, a condition in which the blood vessels in the lungs have changed due to breathing disruptions. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Diagnosing sleep apnea requires a sleep study, which can be done in a sleep lab or at home using a portable device. (livepositively.com)
  • The presence of sleep-disordered breathing is an additional risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in obese individuals and has been independently linked to metabolic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] describes several different entities grouped under central sleep apnea with varying signs, symptoms, and clinical and polysomnographic features. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with more sleep-related symptoms appear to receive greater benefit from treatment than do patients with fewer sleep-related symptoms (10). (cdc.gov)
  • If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with sleep apnea, it is important to consult with a sleep specialist to understand the signs, symptoms, and consequences of untreated sleep apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Let us explore the ins and outs of sleep apnea, including its symptoms, causes, and treatment options with Nuvigil. (livepositively.com)
  • If you or a loved one is experiencing any of these symptoms, it's essential to seek medical attention to determine if sleep apnea is the underlying cause. (livepositively.com)
  • If you have any of these risk factors and are experiencing symptoms of sleep apnea, it's crucial to speak with your doctor about your concerns. (livepositively.com)
  • For mild to moderate sleep apnea, lifestyle changes such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives, and sleeping on your side can be effective in reducing symptoms. (livepositively.com)
  • If you are showing any of the signs or symptoms as noted above for sleep apnea, talk to one of our dentists at Great Smiles Family Dentistry, they will be able to evaluate your symptoms and examine you to determine if you qualify for sleep apnea treatment options. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • A study published in the American Academy of Sleep Medicine found that men are three times more likely than women to exhibit sexsomnia symptoms. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • [ 1 ] In most cases, central sleep apnea is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndromes or is caused by an underlying medical condition, recent ascent to high altitude, or narcotic use. (medscape.com)
  • Primary central sleep apnea is a rare condition, the etiology of which is not entirely understood. (medscape.com)
  • In general, treatment of central sleep apnea is often more difficult than treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and treatment varies according to the specific syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Central sleep apnea is most often seen during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, when behavioral influence is least, followed by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, while a fully awake person is least likely to manifest it. (medscape.com)
  • Central apneic events commonly occur during the transition between wake and sleep, a period during which the PaCO 2 set point adjusts. (medscape.com)
  • Two types of pathophysiologic phenomena can cause central sleep apnea syndromes: 1) ventilatory instability or 2) depression of the brainstem respiratory centers or chemoreceptors. (medscape.com)
  • Ventilatory instability is the mechanism behind CSB-CSA, high-altitude periodic breathing, and probably primary central sleep apnea. (medscape.com)
  • The occurrence and perpetuation of ventilatory instability in the pathogenesis of central sleep apnea can be visualized in the context of loop gain, an engineering term that describes the overall gain of a system controlled by feedback loops. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep apnea may be either obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in which breathing is interrupted by a blockage of air flow, central sleep apnea (CSA), in which regular unconscious breath simply stops, or a combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, PAP machines may also be used to treat central sleep apnea (CSA), which is much less common than OSA. (sleepapnea.org)
  • Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that can be divided into two categories: obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Obstructive and central sleep apnea are the two main types. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Central sleep apnea is less common and is when the body can't initiate breathing. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Untreated Sleep Apnea can lead to developing more severe forms such as Treatment Emergent Central Sleep Apnea and Undiagnosed Sleep Apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Sleep apnea can be classified into three types: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea (CSA), and complex sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS). (livepositively.com)
  • Complex sleep apnea syndrome happens when someone has both obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's also called treatment-emergent central sleep apnea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They record how many times a person has slow or stopped breathing and the number of central sleep apnea events detected in an hour. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sleep apnea, my friend, can be a real party pooper when it comes to a good night's rest. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Whether you're a chronic snorer or simply curious about this mysterious condition, read on to learn more about how sleep apnea might be impacting your life and what you can do to get a better night's sleep. (livepositively.com)
  • Many who snore loudly and often feel tired after a full night's sleep may be dealing with sleep apnea, and not even know it. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Role of ORL in the treatment of sleep apnea syndromes]. (bvsalud.org)
  • The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of GWP42003-P as adjunctive treatment in reducing the number of drop seizures when compared with placebo in participants with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). (clinicaltrialsregister.eu)
  • These activities focus on testing procedures, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of sleep apnea. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Depending on the severity, sleep specialists may recommend mild, moderate, or severe sleep apnea treatment. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • A sleep study may be required to diagnose the disorder and determine the best treatment. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Treatment with oral appliances, sleeping pills, and clinical sleep medicine can help prevent OSA. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • If your floppy eye syndrome is more severe, however, you will likely need to undergo surgical treatment to reverse it. (respecteyecare.com)
  • If you're struggling with sleep apnea, it's essential to seek treatment to improve your physical and mental health. (livepositively.com)
  • Sleep Problems in Children For most children, sleep problems are intermittent or temporary and often do not require treatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The U.S. sleep aids market size was valued at $29,653.33 Million in 2022 and is projected to reach $54,729.19 Million by 2032, registering a CAGR of 6.3% from 2023 to 2032. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder in which pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep occur more often than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a sleep disorder that can cause loud snoring, pauses in breathing, and low oxygen levels. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sleep apnea is a disorder that causes breathing to temporarily stop or become restricted during sleep. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • So, if zombie-like exhaustion and snoring that could compete with a chainsaw are your constant companions, you might be dealing with sleep apnea. (beautyvibeguide.com)
  • Untreated sleep apnea may lead to loud snoring and can cause the patient to stop breathing at night. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Loud snoring and falling asleep during the day are risk factors for sleep apnea. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Effective lifestyle changes may include avoiding alcohol, losing weight, stopping smoking, and sleeping on one's side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent features of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) include intellectual disability, broad great toes, broad thumbs, and maxillary abnormality. (medscape.com)
  • The exact effects of the condition depend on how severe the apnea is and on the individual characteristics of the person having the apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer's disease and severe obstructive sleep apnea are connected because there is an increase in the protein beta-amyloid as well as white-matter damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the patient is suffering from a more severe case of floppy eye syndrome, then they will likely need to have surgical tightening of the eyelid. (respecteyecare.com)
  • People can fall asleep more easily when Sleep Apnea is diagnosed and treated. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • People with mild obstructive sleep apnea may fall asleep easily, but are at risk for developing sleep-disordered breathing. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with significant morbidity. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) awarded the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), a three-year grand (from 2021 to 2024), for a project to expand the national approach to chronic disease education and awareness. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The usual person suffering from floppy eyelid syndrome is older and overweight, though this can occur in younger individuals-it is simply less common for them. (respecteyecare.com)
  • Most dreams occur during REM sleep. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This figure includes an EEG tracing (showing characteristic sawtooth waves) and an eye tracing (showing rapid eye movements), which occur during REM sleep. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with sleep apnea often snore loudly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with sleep apnea are at higher risk for car crashes, work-related accidents, and other medical problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with sleep apnea are unaware they have the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea is somewhat more common in men than women, roughly a 2:1 ratio of men to women, and in general more people are likely to have it with older age and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, according to The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, in 2022, reported that more than 40% of people in the U.S. have obesity and about 21% of people have sleep disorder. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • 2 The pandemic profoundly disrupted everyday life for many people, altering their nutrition, sleep, physical activity, stress management, and social networks. (health.mil)
  • If so, you may be suffering from sleep apnea, a common sleep disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. (livepositively.com)
  • In fact, people with sleep apnea are two to three times more likely to develop heart disease than those without the condition. (livepositively.com)
  • Almost half of all people in the US report sleep-related problems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • people may perceive this stage as high-quality sleep. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In rare cases, some people exhibit sexual behaviors during a deep sleep and have no memory of it, says Dr. Horvat. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which a person can stop breathing while asleep. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • is difficulty falling or staying asleep, early awakening, or a sensation of unrefreshing sleep. (msdmanuals.com)
  • You will awaken with shortness of breath or have more difficulty sleeping or staying asleep. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Also known as sleep sex, sexsomnia is when you engage in sexual activity when you're asleep. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Dentists have the ability to offer sleep appliances to their patients who may be suffering from sleep apnea. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Investigators included 1325 patients with sleep apnea syndrome who had an ejection fraction of less than 45% and for whom the Apnea-Hypopnea Index showed more than 15 events per hour. (medscape.com)
  • It is also frequent in patients with a mercury sphygmomanometer with with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea appropriate cuff and after 5 minutes sitting syndrome [ 4 ]. (who.int)
  • This is demonstrated by cases of sleep apnea even being misdiagnosed as dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • OSA is the most common type, accounting for about 84% of all sleep apnea cases. (livepositively.com)
  • Other conditions that disrupt deep sleep can also lead to sexsomnia. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • It's possible to manage the disorder by addressing underlying conditions that disrupt sleep, Dr. Horvat notes. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Sleep apnea can become a serious sleep disorder where your breathing repeatedly stops and starts. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)
  • Sleep apnea happens when your breathing stops and starts while you are sleeping. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite these changes, ventilatory control during sleep remains similar to that during wakefulness. (medscape.com)
  • This was an open, cross-sectional study of obese participants, with and without chronic ventilatory failure, carried out between June 2011 and September 2013 in the Oxford Sleep Unit, Churchill Hospital, UK. (bmj.com)
  • The primary sleep apnea of infancy primarily affects premature newborns and is excluded from this discussion. (medscape.com)
  • This pattern can repeat itself at least five to 30 times or more each and every hour, all night, which then affects your sleep. (greatsmilesfamilydentistry.com)