Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Disorders of Excessive Somnolence: Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Sleep Paralysis: A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sleep Phase Chronotherapy: A progressive advance or delay of bedtime until the desired bedtime is achieved.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (1/4912)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (2/4912)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (3/4912)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

Effects of truss mattress upon sleep and bed climate. (4/4912)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a truss mattress upon sleep and bed climate. The truss mattress which has been designed to decrease the pressure and bed climate humidity was tested. Six healthy female volunteers with a mean age of 23.3 years, served as subjects. The experiment was carried out under two conditions: a truss mattress (T) and a futon (F) (Japanese bedding). The ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 19-20 degrees C, and RH 50-60% respectively. Sleep was monitored by an EEG machine and the rectal temperature, skin temperature and bed climate were also measured continuously. Subjective evaluations of bed and sleep were obtained before and after the recording sessions. No significant difference was observed in the sleep parameters and time spent in each sleep stage. Rectal temperature was significantly lower in T than F. Although there was no significant difference in bed climate over the T/F, the temperature under T/F was significantly higher in T. No significant difference was observed in subjective sleep evaluation. The subjective feeling of the mattress was significantly warmer in F than T before sleep. These results suggest that although T does not disturb the sleep parameters and the bed climate is maintained at the same level as with F, it may affect rectal temperature which can be due to low thermal insulation.  (+info)

Effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions in engineers in an electronics manufacturing company. (5/4912)

A field survey of 147 engineers (23-49 years) in an electronics manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions (urinary catecholamines, heart rate variability and blood pressure). The subjects were divided into 3 groups by age: 23-29 (n = 49), 30-39 (n = 74) and 40-49 (n = 24) year groups. Subjects in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups according to the median of weekly working hours. In the 30-39 year group, urinary noradrenaline in the afternoon for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH and a similar tendency was found in the LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability at rest. Because these two autonomic nervous indices are related to sympathetic nervous activity, the findings suggested that sympathetic nervous activity for LWH was lower than that for SWH in the 30-39 year group. Furthermore, there were significant relationships both between long working hours and short sleeping hours, and between short sleeping hours and high complaint rates of "drowsiness and dullness" in the morning in this age group. Summarizing these results, it appeared that long working hours might lower sympathetic nervous activity due to chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

Ethanol as a hypnotic in insomniacs: self administration and effects on sleep and mood. (6/4912)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low ethanol doses on sleep and mood and to assess its reinforcing effects used as a hypnotic. Twenty healthy adults, aged 21-45 yrs, all moderate social drinkers, were studied: eleven subjects had insomnia and nine were normal sleepers, as documented by clinical polysomnography. On two sampling nights each, ethanol (0.5 g/kg) or placebo was administered before sleep in color-coded cups presented in three doses (0.2, 0.2, and 0.1 g/kg) separated by 15 min. On three subsequent nights subjects chose their preferred presleep beverage (0.2 g/kg ethanol or placebo) based on cup color and were given an opportunity for 3 additional refills (0.2 g/kg each) of the chosen beverage at 15 min intervals, yielding a total possible dose of 0.8 g/kg. Insomniacs chose ethanol 67% of nights and normals 22%. Insomniacs chose significantly more ethanol refills than normals for an average nightly dose of 0.45 g/kg and normals took significantly more placebo refills. On the sampling nights 0.5 g/kg ethanol reduced REM sleep for both groups for the 8-hr sleep period and in insomniacs increased stage 3-4 sleep and reduced stage 1 sleep during the first half of the night to the level seen in the normals. Other sleep variables were not altered in either group or halves of the night. Presleep improvements in the Profile of Mood States tension and concentration factors were also associated with ethanol administration. Thus, acutely, both sleep and mood effects appear to be associated with the reinforcing effects of ethanol as a hypnotic for insomniacs.  (+info)

Intrapreoptic microinjection of GHRH or its antagonist alters sleep in rats. (7/4912)

Previous reports indicate that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is involved in sleep regulation. The site of action mediating the nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS)-promoting effects of GHRH is not known, but it is independent from the pituitary. GHRH (0.001, 0. 01, and 0.1 nmol/kg) or a competitive antagonist of GHRH (0.003, 0.3, and 14 nmol/kg) was microinjected into the preoptic area, and the sleep-wake activity was recorded for 23 hr after injection in rats. GHRH elicited dose-dependent increases in the duration and in the intensity of NREMS compared with that in control records after intrapreoptic injection of physiological saline. The antagonist decreased the duration and intensity of NREMS and prolonged sleep latency. Consistent alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and in brain temperature were not found. The GHRH antagonist also attenuated the enhancements in NREMS elicited by 3 hr of sleep deprivation. Histological verification of the injection sites showed that the majority of the effective injections were in the preoptic area and the diagonal band of Broca. The results indicate that the preoptic area mediates the sleep-promoting activity of GHRH.  (+info)

Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants. (8/4912)

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the primary determinants of body weight at 1 y of age are genetic background, as represented by parental obesity, and low total energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the relative contributions of genetic background and energy intake and expenditure as determinants of body weight at 1 y of age. DESIGN: Forty infants of obese and 38 infants of lean mothers, half boys and half girls, were assessed at 3 mo of age for 10 risk factors for obesity: sex, risk group (obese or nonobese mothers), maternal and paternal body mass index, body weight, feeding mode (breast, bottle, or both), 3-d energy intake, nutritive sucking behavior during a test meal, total energy expenditure, sleeping energy expenditure, and interactions among them. RESULTS: The only difference between risk groups at baseline was that the high-risk group sucked more vigorously during the test meal. Four measures accounted for 62% of the variability in weight at 12 mo: 3-mo weight (41%, P = 0.0001), nutritive sucking behavior (9%, P = 0.0002), 3-d food intake (8%, P = 0.0002), and male sex (3%, P = 0.05). Food intake and sucking behavior at 3 mo accounted for similar amounts of variability in weight-for-length, body fat, fat-free mass, and skinfold thickness at 12 mo. Contrary to expectations, neither total nor sleeping energy expenditure at 3 mo nor maternal obesity contributed to measures of body size at 12 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Energy intake contributes significantly to measures of body weight and composition at 1 y of age; parental obesity and energy expenditure do not.  (+info)

  • In this sample, 11.5% of participants met the criteria for Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome as indicated by late sleep onset times, little or no difficulty staying asleep, and significantly later sleep and awakening times during the weekend than during the week. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The specialist uses your sleep history to evaluate symptoms such as difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, daytime sleepiness or fatigue, breathing problems during sleep, restless legs at night and other various troublesome behaviors. (providence.org)
  • Before you fall asleep, the sleep technologist will place the CPAP mask and make sure it is a comfortable fit. (providence.org)
  • Individuals who experience excessive daytime sleepiness or who fall asleep at inappropriate times may be referred by their physician to a sleep center for a Multiple Sleep Latency Test or a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. (providence.org)
  • Develop environmental cues to help you associate bed-time and your bed with sleep, for example: Do not use your bed as an activity centre, No TV in bed room Go to bed only when you are sleepy If you don't fall asleep within 10 - 15 minutes, get out of bed and go into another room. (speakingtree.in)
  • Do not return to bed until you are sleepy Repeat as often as necessary until you fall asleep within 15 - 20 minutes Get up the same time each morning, regardless of how little sleep you had. (speakingtree.in)
  • The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances. (modafinil.com)
  • Having a late sleep pattern puts you at odds with the standard societal days, which can lead to a range of adverse outcomes - from daytime sleepiness to poorer mental wellbeing," study co-author Dr Andrew Bagshaw said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies have shown that following a Mediterranean diet plus exercise can reduce sleep disturbances in those with OSA during the rapid eye movement stage of sleep, which accounts for about 25% of sleep time. (whittierdailynews.com)
  • A sleep study, or Polysomnogram (PSG), is an overnight recording of sleep patterns and behaviors associated with sleep. (providence.org)
  • During these naps, a sleep technologist monitors the patient's sleep/wake patterns. (providence.org)
  • In his book, Walker, who heads up U.C. Berkeley's Center for Human Sleep Science, dives into his own research into sleep as well as the work of others with the aim of finding answers to questions like what really happens during REM sleep, and how substances like alcohol and caffeine affect our sleep patterns. (scpr.org)
  • Numerous studies have documented the potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the general population, which include better sleep quality among normal weight and overweight adults. (whittierdailynews.com)
  • Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by (modafinil.com)
  • abstract = "Genetic determinants may contribute to the large variability in arterial blood pressure responses to changes in sleep/wake state in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • REM Sleep : This occurs about 90 minutes after Stage 1 of Non-REM Sleep and reoccurs every 90 minutes. (speakingtree.in)
  • As with most centers who are accredited by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, there is always a physician on call at night for the technologists and there are two patients per one technologist. (ocregister.com)
  • Our sleep centers are set up like bedrooms and are furnished with select comfort beds. (providence.org)
  • However, some patients may return for a treatment visit if they had trouble sleeping the first night and we were unable to establish an effective therapy. (ocregister.com)
  • A trained sleep technologist explains the procedure, operates the diagnostic equipment and is stationed all night in an adjacent control room. (providence.org)
  • This waking is often a pattern of snoring, choking and gasping that can last all night, leading to poor quality sleep. (whittierdailynews.com)
  • However, many people experience problems getting to sleep, waking in the middle of the night, or waking early and not being able to get back to sleep. (speakingtree.in)
  • We move in and out of between 4 and 5 cycles of specific sleep stages each night. (speakingtree.in)
  • Overall 25% of our night-time sleeping is spent in REM sleep. (speakingtree.in)
  • Studies have shown that napping cannot substitute for a solid night of good sleep. (speakingtree.in)
  • The ability to sleep through the night usually does not develop until at least 3 to 6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • The animals were then allowed to cycle naturally through sleep/wake states over a 3- to 4-h period while continuous polysomnography and arterial pressure measurements were made. (elsevier.com)
  • During the holy month, the drivers may suffer from fatigue because of late sleep , which directly affects their attention, focus and the ability to control the vehicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Having a late sleep pattern puts you at odds with the standard societal days, which can lead to a range of adverse outcomes-from day time sleepiness to poorer mental well-being" (https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325429.php) explained Andrew Bagshaw, Ph.D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Develop a routine of going to sleep and waking up the same time every day. (speakingtree.in)
  • A consistent wake-up time will help your body develop a regular sleep pattern Do not nap. (speakingtree.in)
  • Establish a regular bed-time routine so that your body knows that you are going to sleep. (speakingtree.in)
  • Further high-quality research is required to determine whether there is a true difference in sleep between those with and without PTSD. (ntvp.nl)
  • Sleep studies help determine what stages of sleep an individual achieves and whether any sleep-related abnormalities are present. (providence.org)
  • An individual can go through stages of sleep such as mild sleep to deep sleep states, but in between the sleep cycles, there are sleep disorders than an individual might experience, yet be completely unaware of it. (humehealth.com.au)
  • As you progress through cycles of NON-REM and REM sleep, deep sleep becomes increasingly shorter and REM sleep becomes increasingly longer (it is longest after 12pm), which is why you can often recall dreams just after waking. (speakingtree.in)
  • The findings are integrated with your sleep history to determine a diagnosis and make the appropriate treatment recommendations. (providence.org)
  • Non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep Stage 1 - During this stage you become drowsy, your thoughts become incoherent and you may feel like your are floating or falling. (speakingtree.in)