Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Skull Fracture, Depressed: A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Plagiocephaly: The condition characterized by uneven or irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head. It can either result from the premature CRANIAL SUTURE closure (CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS) or from external forces (NONSYNOSTOTIC PLAGIOCEPHALY).Osteoma: A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acrocephalosyndactylia: Congenital craniostenosis with syndactyly.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Craniofacial Dysostosis: Autosomal dominant CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS with shallow ORBITS; EXOPHTHALMOS; and maxillary hypoplasia.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.LizardsParanasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Neuronavigation: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Famous PersonsHistory, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (1/2390)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Lipoma of the corpus callosum. (2/2390)

Lipoma of the corpus callosum is a rare congenital condition, often asymptomatic, but which may present as epilepsy, hemiplegia, dementia, or headaches. This paper reviews the condition and reports the only two cases which are known to the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. The second case demonstrated the value of computerised axial tomography (EMI scan) in making the diagnosis and showing associated anomalies.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (3/2390)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. (4/2390)

The lateral wall of the avian braincase, which is indicative of the primitive amniote condition, is formed from mesoderm. In contrast, mammals have replaced this portion of their head skeleton with a nonhomologous bone of neural crest origin. Features that characterize the local developmental environment may have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to be integrated into a mesodermal region of the braincase during the course of evolution. The lateral wall of the braincase lies along a boundary in the head that separates neural crest from mesoderm, and also, neural crest cells migrate through this region on their way to the first visceral arch. Differences in the availability of one skeletogenic population versus the other may determine the final composition of the lateral wall of the braincase. Using the quail-chick chimeric system, this investigation tests if populations of neural crest, when augmented and expanded within populations of mesoderm, will give rise to the lateral wall of the braincase. Results demonstrate that neural crest can produce cartilages that are morphologically indistinguishable from elements normally generated by mesoderm. These findings (1) indicate that neural crest can respond to the same cues that both promote skeletogenesis and enable proper patterning in mesoderm, (2) challenge hypotheses on the nature of the boundary between neural crest and mesoderm in the head, and (3) suggest that changes in the allocation of migrating cells could have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to replace a mesodermal portion of the braincase during evolution.  (+info)

Intrameatal aneurysm successfully treated by meatal loop trapping--case report. (5/2390)

A 77-year-old female presented with a rare intrameatal aneurysm manifesting as sudden onset of headache, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Meatal loop trapping was performed. After surgery, the patient's functions recovered almost completely, probably because of the preservation of the 7th and 8th cranial nerves and the presence of effective collaterals in the area supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery.  (+info)

New evidence from Le Moustier 1: computer-assisted reconstruction and morphometry of the skull. (6/2390)

In this study, we present a new computerized reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 Neanderthal skull and discuss its significance for Neanderthal growth and variability. Because of the precarious state of preservation of the original material, we applied entirely noninvasive methods of fossil reconstruction and morphometry, using a combination of computed tomography, computer graphics, and stereolithography. After electronic restoration, the isolated original pieces were recomposed on the computer screen using external and internal anatomical clues to position the bone fragments and mirror images to complete missing parts. The inferred effects of general compressive deformation that occurred during fossilization were corrected by virtual decompression of the skull. The resulting new reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 skull shows morphologic features close to the typical Neanderthal adult state. Residual asymmetry of skeletal parts can be traced to in vivo skeletal modification: the left mandibular joint shows signs of a healed condylar fracture, and the anatomy of the occipital region suggests mild plagiocephaly. Using micro-CT analysis, the left incus could be recovered from the matrix filling of the middle ear cavity. Its morphometric dimensions are similar to those of the La Ferrassie III incus. The morphometric characteristics of the inner ear deviate substantially from the condition reported as typical for Neanderthals and fall within the range of modern human variability.  (+info)

Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. (7/2390)

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)

CT examination of the head of the Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). (8/2390)

We carried out a computerised tomographic (CT) examination to elucidate the modifications in the head related to orbital enlargement in the Baikal seal. Transverse CT images showed that (1) the external frontal contours and the frontal sinuses are compressed medially and ventrally by the orbital enlargement; (2) the caudal part of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx are compacted ventrally; and (3) the cranial cavity is displaced caudally. The neurocranium is obviously separated from the facial part in the transverse plane at the caudal region of the orbit. The disposition of the mandible, zygomatic arch, temporal bone, and the masseter, temporal, digastric and pterygoid muscles is changed by the enlarged orbit in the 3-dimensional reorganisation of the head in this species. It is suggested that adaptation for the Lake Baikal environment primarily resulted in orbital enlargement, and that the altered orbital design may subsequently have influenced the form and function of the masticatory and respiratory system.  (+info)

  • The Northside Skull + Bone Gang continues a 200-year African-American Creole tradition of waking you up on Mardi Gras morning with one intention. (
  • "Fontanelles are a regular feature of infant development in which two segments of bone remain separated, leaving an area of fibrous membrane or a "soft spot" that acts to accommodate growth of the brain without compression by the skull. (
  • Most individual bones of the skull are joined together by sutures, which are immovable joints that grow together through ossification. (
  • The skull is a unique skeletal structure in several ways: embryonic cellular origin ( neural crest and mesoderm ), form of ossification (intramembranous and ) and flexibility (fibrous sutures). (
  • See also notes on Head Development ) In humans, ossification within the skull continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20's and in old age the sutures separating the vault plates are often completely ossified. (
  • Use this unique transparent replica of the human skull to study inner structures that are, otherwise, only visible on x-rays.Highly accurate representation of the fissures, foramina, processes, sutures etc. (
  • The Broken Hill or Kabwe skull model is the finest casting produced from scientifically made copies of specimens featured in the collection at the Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics for Biologists at the Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. (
  • S even years ago, a box containing 12 human skulls and a hyena skeleton arrived at Henry Scragg's front door in Essex. (
  • He arranged the craniums, took some photos and uploaded them on Instagram, adding hashtags: #skull #skeleton #curiosity. (
  • Somewhere in the midst of this madness, Dre Skull found time to release singles with dancehall heavy-hitters Beenie Man and Popcaan, and soca chart-topper Machel Montano. (
  • Six human skulls were found in the hand luggage of two unnamed American men at the security check point at Athens international airport and have since been charged with desecrating the dead. (
  • The men were due to catch a connecting flight from Mykonos to the United States, when their luggage was scanned and the skulls were found. (
  • A police official who requested anonymity said: 'The skulls were found in a scanner check during a stop-over in Athens on their way back to the United States. (
  • Taylor said Native American bones are found from time to time, but she admitted that having a skull donated to a Goodwill store is a bit unusual. (
  • This is evidenced in the picture of one of those skulls, from a woman found in the Tilshead Long Barrow, and photographed by British dowser Maria Wheatley (below left). (
  • This Beautiful large skull is stunning with its defined features weighing a massive 700grams, All organic soy wax is used in any colour you wish from the natural soy colour to our rainbow skull design, This Skull will make a statement to any Skull lovers décor. (
  • This part deals with several physical features that are typical for elongated skulls, and that distinguishes them from normal human, Homo sapiens, skulls. (
  • I have included pictures to illustrate these features, and you can see many more pictures if you follow the links to the different continents on the Elongated Skulls from Ancient Races on Earth page. (
  • Nevertheless, the latter also show features that are different from normal human (round skulls) skulls. (
  • It is an example of the early human, of the species Homo sapiens rhodesiensis or a Homo erectus rhodesiensis , the skull having features that point to both these classifications. (
  • Daily Mail reports that his skull is 16 millimeters in thickness, compared to the average of 6.5 millimeters. (
  • As the human skull is so resistant to outside forces, it is much more likely for an individual to suffer serious head injuries from intracranial pressure. (
  • Should I be worried about any head skull injury or anything serious. (
  • For the other races of people with long skulls which were medium large, sometimes in the horizontal plane, sometimes the forehead was slanted upwards at an angle, the archaeologists of the 19th and early 20th century based themselves on the cephalic index to measure skulls, and to distinguish these long head races from normal humans. (
  • These skulls are called dolichocephalic skulls , or long head skulls, or elongated skulls. (
  • All SKULL products and fashion are designed and produced from our Head Office and Production Factories in Bali, Indonesia. (
  • The two adult skulls appeared to have been previously used at a medical clinic or for instruction purposes, the Times noted, because they were bleached and wired together at parts. (
  • If you have pain at back of skull when pressed, it might be due to muscular weakness and warm compress facilitates faster flow of blood thereby strengthening the muscles. (
  • The model successfully describes the development of known skull deformities and helps explain the ways in which growing bones react to mechanical cues. (
  • The Skull Project by Matthew Amey A limited edition of 2000 hardcover books signed and numbered by the author. (
  • Guggisberg 1972, Alderton 1991), so these authors evidently weren't aware of these giant skulls (Steel (1989) specifically referred to the giant NHM skull however, noting as a result that Tomistoma might attain a length of 5.5 m). (
  • Young children with hydrocephalus typically have an abnormally large head, as fluid pressure causes individual skull bones to bulge outward. (
  • In several ancient cultures, such as the Maya , it was tradition to constrain the heads of infants in ways that would cause their skulls to develop abnormally. (
  • This interactive activity gives students the opportunity to be a scientist and choose between four unidentified fossil skulls. (
  • Once the student chooses an unidentified skull, he or she will have the chance to compare the unidentified fossil skull with other skulls that have already been identified as early human species. (
  • AP) - A dinosaur skull seized from a Wyoming home is related to an investigation into fossil smuggling from Mongolia, indicating that efforts to stem the illegal trade are making progress, an attorney said Monday. (
  • A fossil skull from a site called Gawis in Ethiopia is apparently intermediate in form between Homo erectus and our own species, Homo sapiens. (
  • One of the highlight specimens in our Human Evolution gallery is the fossil skull known as Gibraltar 1. (
  • The sensation this caused meant the first skull was revisited, and it too was found to be a Neanderthal fossil. (
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The lemon-sized fossil skull of an infant ape nicknamed Alesi that inhabited a Kenyan forest about 13 million years ago is offering a peek at what the long-ago common ancestor of people and all modern apes may have looked like. (
  • Scientists on Wednesday announced the discovery of the most complete extinct ape skull fossil ever found, allowing them to study such characteristics as its brain cavity, inner-ear structure and unerupted adult teeth beneath the roots of its baby teeth. (
  • The skull of the newly discovered extinct ape species called Nyanzapithecus alesi is pictured in this handout photo obtained by Reuters August 8, 2017. (
  • Mathematician Alain Goriely of Oxford University in the UK and biomechanical engineer Ellen Kuhl of Stanford University in California, along with colleagues, have now developed computational tools to simulate the growth and evolving shape of the cranial vault-the "brain space" within the skull-in a way that is entirely based on mechanical effects. (
  • Treating the skull as a semi-ellipsoid divided into patches that represented the bones of the cranial vault, they simulated volumetric expansion of the brain, thickness changes of the bones, and area growth along the sutures with so-called finite-element simulations. (
  • The human skull is generally considered to consist of twenty-two bones -eight cranial bones and fourteen facial skeleton bones. (
  • Neurologist Steven Novella of Yale University Medical School says that the cranium exhibits all of the characteristics of a child who has died as a result of congenital hydrocephalus , and the cranial deformations were the result of accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid within the skull. (
  • A skull fracture is a fracture or break in the cranial (skull) bones. (
  • It provides an anatomical background to the skull, as well as morphological variation, sexual dimorphism, changes with age and development, and cranial pathology. (
  • They base this assertion on a plot of cranial capacity of 109 fossilised human skulls against the corresponding paleontological record of two million years of changing climate. (
  • The geometry of the skull base and its fossae, the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae changes rapidly. (
  • The anterior cranial fossa changes especially during the first trimester of pregnancy and skull defects can often develop during this time. (
  • A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma. (
  • The human skull is anatomically divided into two parts: the neurocranium, formed by eight cranial bones that houses and protect the brain-and the facial skeleton (viscerocranium) composed of fourteen bones, not including the three ossicles of the inner ear. (
  • The middle cranial fossa, a depression at the base of the cranial cavity forms the thinnest part of the skull and is thus the weakest part. (
  • This area of the cranial floor is weakened further by the presence of multiple foramina as a result this section is at higher risk for basilar skull fractures to occur. (
  • Compound depressed skull fractures occur when there is a laceration over the fracture, putting the internal cranial cavity in contact with the outside environment, increasing the risk of contamination and infection. (
  • With this simple DIY upgrade, you can take a cheap plastic skull and turn it into a spooky, sparkly showstopper. (
  • Skull based on the book of William Cheselden: Osteographia, or The anatomy of the bones. (
  • The recently perambulating skull and foot have been loaned to the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, in the Science Center on the Cambridge side of the Harvard establishment, where they will be part of Body of Knowledge: A History of Anatomy (in Three Parts) , on view from March 6 to December 5, 2014. (
  • Practice drawing skulls from other views, like a true front view or side view, to get fully acquainted with the anatomy. (
  • It provides an anatomical background to the skull, as well as morphological variation, changes with age and development, and pathology, dealing specifically with the remains of Late Pleistocene and Holocene hominids, especially anatomically modern humans, but including Neanderthals. (
  • Practicals are to teach students the identification skills required, more general understanding of the anatomical structure of the skull, experience of sex and age estimation, measurement and non-metrical variation. (
  • Anatomical examinations of these skulls suggest they are more doglike than wolflike. (
  • The researchers don't mention whether or not the extra small human skull found on the island of Flores was included in the sample. (
  • There are four major types of skull fractures: Linear Depressed Diastatic Basilar Linear fractures are the most common, and usually require no intervention for the fracture itself. (
  • Basilar fractures are in the bones at the base of the skull. (
  • The mystical skull was supposedly discovered on New Year's Day of 1924, by Anna Mitchell-Hedges, an orphan from Port Colborne, Ont. (
  • Now aged 100, Anna Mitchell-Hedges still has the skull, though it is mostly kept locked away in a bank vault. (
  • There's still intense interest in the skull, Homann says - he and Mitchell-Hedges are planning to give a couple of lectures on it in New York and Arizona later this year. (
  • But controversy continues to swirl around the skull and the story of its discovery, particularly after it was revealed that Frederick Mitchell-Hedges had bought the skull at a Sotheby's auction in 1943. (
  • Strangely, F.A. Mitchell-Hedges only documented the skull once, in 'Danger, My Ally,' a book that he wrote describing his adventures. (
  • Near the end of the book, Mitchell-Hedges states that the crystal skull is a 'skull of doom' that dates 'back at least 3,600 years, and taking about 150 years to rub down with sand from a block of pure rock crystal. (
  • Mitchell-Hedges doesn't make any mention of his daughter's presence at Lubaantun in the book, nor does he give her credit as the finder of the skull. (
  • Two friends of Mitchell-Hedges who came along on the excavation of Lubaantum, Lady Richmond Brown and Dr. Thomas Gann, never spoke or wrote of the skull. (
  • Mitchell-Hedges died in 1959, and Anna has kept the skull ever since. (
  • In Mexican Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) holiday traditions, where late loved ones are remembered, the skull is an omnipresent symbol, represented in sugary treats and colorful art. (
  • Lighten up the fright by adding a bright, colorful floral tiara for the skull. (
  • We know that, perhaps surprisingly, the cephalic shield was not totally predator-proof as a specimen of Glyptotherium texanum was bitten (and presumably killed) by a large cat which pierced both the cephalic shield and skull roof with its upper canines. (
  • We know from fossils - including the Museum's Swanscombe skull specimen, which contains imprints of the folds and blood vessels on the brain's surface - that Neanderthals' brains were as big as ours but shaped differently. (
  • The Altai specimen, a well-preserved skull, represents one of the two oldest possible domestic dogs ever found. (
  • They also discuss a gigantic specimen killed in Cambodia in the 1800s: its skull is preserved and, with a dorsal head length of 76 cm (see their article to understand how there is more than one way to measure a croc skull! (
  • Then there are giant American crocs (one specimen, in the AMNH [= American Museum of Natural History, New York], is a true monster with a skull 73.5 cm long) and Nile crocs C. niloticus . (
  • The English word "skull" is probably derived from Old Norse "skulle", while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον ( kranion ). (
  • Do you remember the photo - provided courtesy of Colin McHenry - showing a variety of crocodilian skulls? (
  • Doctors in a Portland hospital were rather surprised when they examined a man who turned up on their doorstep complaining of a headache, only to find he had twelve nails embedded in his skull courtesy of a failed suicide attempt with a nail gun, AP reports. (
  • He hopes it betters chances at Harvard but The Skulls is not what he thought and comes at a price. (
  • If you happened to be outdoors on the Harvard Medical School campus last November, you might have noticed this 78-inch-tall model of a bisected human skull making its way down Shattuck Street by Gordon Hall to a staging area in the basement of the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. (
  • The first evidence of an artificially deformed skull in Peru was found near Uricocha, dated to the period between 6000 and 7000 BCE, suggesting that the ancient Peruvians introduced the practice on the continent. (
  • 1976_skull doesn't tweet all that much, with an average of 0 tweet(s) per day in the past 30 days. (
  • Furthermore, it lacks the inion , the bump at the back of the base of the skull , and it has severely reduced signs of neck muscles. (
  • Skull fractures occur more easily at the thin squamous temporal and parietal bones, the sphenoid sinus, the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull that the spinal cord passes through), the petrous temporal ridge, and the inner portions of the sphenoid wings at the base of the skull. (
  • Congenital deformities usually only affect one area of the skull, for example only the face. (
  • The common cause of injury is blunt force trauma where the impact energy transferred over a wide area of the skull. (
  • Now you'll cover the top half of the skull with gemstones. (
  • The bottom of the nasal cavity should hit right where the round upper half of the skull meets the lower portion. (
  • be able to identify confidently all the bones of the skull in both adult and juvenile remains. (
  • Draw a wide oval to represent the top portion of the skull. (
  • The term skull fracture typically means fractures to the neurocranium, while fractures of the facial portion of the skull are facial fractures, or if the jaw is fractured, a mandibular fracture. (
  • A sterling silver skull on a plain sterling chain, much like we imagine a biker might wear. (
  • Use the extra appliques to make more skulls or for other DIY projects. (
  • Students can drag the skulls and examine each from various angles and make side-by-side comparisons. (
  • a device that delivered a lethal shockwave inside the target's skull might make an effective death ray. (
  • We only need your help to make this dream come true and allow everyone to enjoy Skull Tales with friends or alone, and become the most legendary pirate of the Caribbean. (
  • DESIGN COUNCIL EXCLUSIVE Make no bones about it… our truly original skull creation will get everyone into the Halloween spirit. (
  • As intricate as they look, the little skulls are quite simple to make from affordable oven-bake clay. (
  • A preliminary report was issued on this subject with particular reference to three impact sites of the skull-the frontal, temporo-parietal, and zygomatic. (
  • A skull x-ray is a picture of the bones surrounding the brain, including the facial bones, the nose, and the sinuses. (
  • The dynamic responses of the human skull and facial bones have been determined by a series of impact experiments. (
  • The skull roof bones, comprising the bones of the facial skeleton and the sides and roof of the neurocranium, are dermal bones formed by intramembranous ossification, though the temporal bones are formed by endochondral ossification. (
  • A model for skull growth predicts the shape of a healthy head (left) along with several deformities that can occur when some skull bones fuse prematurely. (
  • The overall shape of this skull could only be explained by several deformities. (
  • The Administration yesterday released the official list of guests who stayed overnight at the White House between June 2002 and December 2003, and among the names are at least three members of Skull and Bones, the secret society that Bush belonged to while at Yale. (
  • Even though the skull will be covered in gemstone strips, some of the skull's plastic surface will show through the gaps between the strips. (
  • Skull's Rainbow Room is a tribute to David 'Skull' Schulman and the former fine dining establishments of Nashville's historic Printers Alley. (
  • The outrage Wednesday about photographs of German troops posing with a skull in Afghanistan swept through parliament just as Chancellor Angela Merkel 's administration announced a major restructuring of the military to handle increased international missions. (
  • Issue of 'Bild' with photos of German soldiers (epa) October 28, 2006 -- Two German soldiers who served in Afghanistan have been suspended after a newspaper printed photos of them with skulls, presumably from dead Afghans. (
  • It may not have the impact of photographs of U.S. soldiers abusing inmates at the notorious Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, but the publication by the German daily 'Bild' of photographs of two German soldiers holding skulls in Afghanistan while serving with the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in 2003 and 2005 has produced strong reactions in the German government. (
  • You may also have this x-ray if you have symptoms or signs of a structural problem inside the skull, such as a tumor or bleeding. (
  • My son had a benign tumor (Eosinophilic Granuloma) removed from the back left top part of his skull. (
  • I had a bome tumor in my skull and half of my skull had to be removed, and was replaced with a titanium plate, it has made such a difference, no longer get head chaes, dont have to restrict myself from what i am and are not alowed to do. (
  • Greenwell went on scientific expeditions all over the world-collecting everything from a tiny shrew to the skulls of twelve gray whales. (
  • The back of the skull is flattened. (
  • Apply a strong glue to the back of the applique and position it onto the forehead of the skull. (
  • Your Advanced Combat Helmet weighs seven pounds and the back pads press furiously into the corners of your skull . (
  • Petition · Bring Back Skull Trooper! (
  • Bring Back Skull Trooper so we can have another chance at getting this fan favourite skin! (
  • Chordomas can form anywhere in your back, neck, or skull. (
  • The skull that Charles Darwin studied and called 'wonderful' back in the nineteenth century still has secrets to reveal. (
  • On a human skull, the temple line next to the eye socket curves around toward the back to outline an indented area on the side of the head. (
  • Skulls have been used to signify danger, as religious icons, and to represent both piracy and secret societies. (