Skull Base Neoplasms
Skull Fracture, Depressed
Skull Fracture, Basilar
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Sex Determination by Skeleton
Head Injuries, Penetrating
Finite Element Analysis
Cranial Fossa, Posterior
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea
Body Weights and Measures
Head Injuries, Closed
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (1/2390)Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption. (+info)
Lipoma of the corpus callosum. (2/2390)Lipoma of the corpus callosum is a rare congenital condition, often asymptomatic, but which may present as epilepsy, hemiplegia, dementia, or headaches. This paper reviews the condition and reports the only two cases which are known to the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. The second case demonstrated the value of computerised axial tomography (EMI scan) in making the diagnosis and showing associated anomalies. (+info)
Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (3/2390)The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process. (+info)
Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. (4/2390)The lateral wall of the avian braincase, which is indicative of the primitive amniote condition, is formed from mesoderm. In contrast, mammals have replaced this portion of their head skeleton with a nonhomologous bone of neural crest origin. Features that characterize the local developmental environment may have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to be integrated into a mesodermal region of the braincase during the course of evolution. The lateral wall of the braincase lies along a boundary in the head that separates neural crest from mesoderm, and also, neural crest cells migrate through this region on their way to the first visceral arch. Differences in the availability of one skeletogenic population versus the other may determine the final composition of the lateral wall of the braincase. Using the quail-chick chimeric system, this investigation tests if populations of neural crest, when augmented and expanded within populations of mesoderm, will give rise to the lateral wall of the braincase. Results demonstrate that neural crest can produce cartilages that are morphologically indistinguishable from elements normally generated by mesoderm. These findings (1) indicate that neural crest can respond to the same cues that both promote skeletogenesis and enable proper patterning in mesoderm, (2) challenge hypotheses on the nature of the boundary between neural crest and mesoderm in the head, and (3) suggest that changes in the allocation of migrating cells could have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to replace a mesodermal portion of the braincase during evolution. (+info)
Intrameatal aneurysm successfully treated by meatal loop trapping--case report. (5/2390)A 77-year-old female presented with a rare intrameatal aneurysm manifesting as sudden onset of headache, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Meatal loop trapping was performed. After surgery, the patient's functions recovered almost completely, probably because of the preservation of the 7th and 8th cranial nerves and the presence of effective collaterals in the area supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. (+info)
New evidence from Le Moustier 1: computer-assisted reconstruction and morphometry of the skull. (6/2390)In this study, we present a new computerized reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 Neanderthal skull and discuss its significance for Neanderthal growth and variability. Because of the precarious state of preservation of the original material, we applied entirely noninvasive methods of fossil reconstruction and morphometry, using a combination of computed tomography, computer graphics, and stereolithography. After electronic restoration, the isolated original pieces were recomposed on the computer screen using external and internal anatomical clues to position the bone fragments and mirror images to complete missing parts. The inferred effects of general compressive deformation that occurred during fossilization were corrected by virtual decompression of the skull. The resulting new reconstruction of the Le Moustier 1 skull shows morphologic features close to the typical Neanderthal adult state. Residual asymmetry of skeletal parts can be traced to in vivo skeletal modification: the left mandibular joint shows signs of a healed condylar fracture, and the anatomy of the occipital region suggests mild plagiocephaly. Using micro-CT analysis, the left incus could be recovered from the matrix filling of the middle ear cavity. Its morphometric dimensions are similar to those of the La Ferrassie III incus. The morphometric characteristics of the inner ear deviate substantially from the condition reported as typical for Neanderthals and fall within the range of modern human variability. (+info)
Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. (7/2390)The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio. (+info)
CT examination of the head of the Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). (8/2390)We carried out a computerised tomographic (CT) examination to elucidate the modifications in the head related to orbital enlargement in the Baikal seal. Transverse CT images showed that (1) the external frontal contours and the frontal sinuses are compressed medially and ventrally by the orbital enlargement; (2) the caudal part of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx are compacted ventrally; and (3) the cranial cavity is displaced caudally. The neurocranium is obviously separated from the facial part in the transverse plane at the caudal region of the orbit. The disposition of the mandible, zygomatic arch, temporal bone, and the masseter, temporal, digastric and pterygoid muscles is changed by the enlarged orbit in the 3-dimensional reorganisation of the head in this species. It is suggested that adaptation for the Lake Baikal environment primarily resulted in orbital enlargement, and that the altered orbital design may subsequently have influenced the form and function of the masticatory and respiratory system. (+info)
Examples of Skull Neoplasms include:
1. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.
2. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: Tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Benign tumors that arise near the pituitary gland, which regulates hormone production.
5. Medulloblastoma: A malignant tumor that arises in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls movement and coordination.
6. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that arise from immature cells that form in the embryo. These can be benign or malignant.
7. PNETs (primitive neuroectodermal tumors): Malignant tumors that arise from early forms of nerve cells.
8. Astrocytomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called astrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
9. Oligodendrogliomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called oligodendrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors: Rare, malignant tumors that contain pigmented cells.
Types of Skull Base Neoplasms:
1. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
2. Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma): A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: Tumors that occur in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Benign tumors that arise from the cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Chordomas: Malignant tumors that arise from the cells of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spinal cord.
6. Chondrosarcomas: Malignant tumors that arise from cartilage cells.
7. Osteosarcomas: Malignant tumors that arise from bone cells.
8. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors: Rare tumors that are usually benign but can sometimes be malignant.
Causes and Symptoms of Skull Base Neoplasms:
The exact cause of skull base neoplasms is not always known, but they can be associated with genetic mutations or exposure to certain environmental factors. Some of the symptoms of skull base neoplasms include:
* Vision problems
* Hearing loss
* Balance and coordination difficulties
* Weakness or numbness in the face or limbs
* Endocrine dysfunction (in case of pituitary tumors)
Diagnosis of Skull Base Neoplasms:
The diagnosis of skull base neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue sampling through biopsy or surgery. The specific diagnostic tests will depend on the location and symptoms of the tumor.
Treatment of Skull Base Neoplasms:
The treatment of skull base neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Some of the treatment options for skull base neoplasms include:
* Surgery: The primary treatment for most skull base neoplasms is surgical resection. The goal of surgery is to remove as much of the tumor as possible while preserving as much normal tissue as possible.
* Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
* Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat skull base neoplasms that are aggressive or have spread to other parts of the body.
* Endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end (endoscope) to remove the tumor through the nasal cavity or sinuses.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a non-invasive procedure that uses highly focused radiation beams to destroy the tumor. It is typically used for small, well-defined tumors that are located in sensitive areas of the skull base.
Prognosis for Skull Base Neoplasms:
The prognosis for skull base neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis for patients with skull base neoplasms is good if the tumor is small, located in a accessible area, and has not spread to other parts of the body. However, the prognosis may be poorer for patients with larger or more aggressive tumors, or those that have spread to other parts of the body.
It's important to note that each patient is unique and the prognosis can vary depending on individual circumstances. It is best to consult a medical professional for specific information about the prognosis for your condition.
There are several different types of skull fractures, including:
1. Linear skull fractures: These are fractures that occur in a straight line and do not involve the brain.
2. Depressed skull fractures: These are fractures that cause the bone to be pushed inward, creating a depression in the skull.
3. Comminuted skull fractures: These are fractures that involve multiple pieces of bone breaking off and fragmenting.
4. Basilar skull fractures: These are fractures that occur at the base of the skull and can involve the brainstem or cranial nerves.
5. Cerebral edema: This is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain as a result of a head injury or other traumatic event.
6. Epidural hematoma: This is a collection of blood between the skull and the dura mater, which is the membrane that covers the brain.
7. Subdural hematoma: This is a collection of blood between the dura mater and the brain.
8. Intracerebral hematoma: This is a collection of blood within the brain tissue.
Skull fractures can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for skull fractures may involve observation, medication, or surgery, depending on the severity of the injury and any other complications that may have arisen.
Complications of skull fractures can include:
1. Cerebral edema
2. Epidural hematoma
3. Subdural hematoma
4. Intracerebral hematoma
5. Brain contusion
6. Skull base fractures
7. Facial trauma
8. Sinus fractures
9. Orbital blowout fractures
10. Meningitis or sepsis.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any of the following symptoms are present:
1. Severe headache
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
4. Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
5. Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
6. Difficulty with balance or coordination
7. Seizures or convulsions
9. Stiff neck
10. Loss of consciousness or coma.
Symptoms of a depressed skull fracture may include headache, dizziness, confusion, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, and difficulty with hearing or speaking. In severe cases, depressed skull fractures can lead to brain injury, including concussion, hemorrhage, or cerebral edema (swelling of the brain).
Diagnosis of a depressed skull fracture is typically made using X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment may involve managing symptoms and monitoring for signs of brain injury, as well as surgery to repair the fracture and relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, a depressed skull fracture may require admission to an intensive care unit for close observation and management.
Preventing depressed skull fractures can be challenging, but wearing protective headgear during activities that involve risk of head injury, such as football or biking, can help reduce the risk. In addition, using safety equipment, such as seatbelts and airbags, in vehicles can also help prevent depressed skull fractures.
The symptoms of a basilar skull fracture can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:
* Nausea and vomiting
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Double vision or other eye problems
* Weakness or numbness in the face or limbs
* Difficulty hearing or ringing in the ears
The diagnosis of a basilar skull fracture is typically made using a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI, and other tests. Treatment for this type of fracture may include observation, anticonvulsant medication to prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any damage to the skull or underlying structures. In some cases, a basilar skull fracture can be a life-threatening injury and requires prompt medical attention.
Source: Dorland's Medical Dictionary, 32nd edition.
Causes of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Skull fracture or depression: Trauma to the skull can cause a tear in the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, leading to CSF leakage.
2. Spinal tap or lumbar puncture: This medical procedure can sometimes result in a small amount of CSF leaking into the nasopharynx.
3. Infection: Meningitis or encephalitis can cause CSF to leak into the nose and throat.
4. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the sinuses or nose.
5. Cerebral aneurysm: A ruptured aneurysm in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the nose or sinuses.
6. Vasculitic diseases: Conditions such as Wegener's granulomatosis or Takayasu arteritis can cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels, leading to CSF leakage.
7. Congenital conditions: Some individuals may have a congenital skull defect or abnormality that allows CSF to escape into the nasopharynx or sinuses.
Symptoms of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Clear, colorless discharge from the nose or sinuses
2. Thick, sticky discharge or pus in the nose or sinuses
3. Headache, fever, or neck stiffness
4. Nausea, vomiting, or dizziness
5. Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Change in mental status or consciousness
Diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to rule out other possible causes of nasal discharge. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery to repair any defects or obstructions in the skull or sinuses.
In medical terms, craniocerebral trauma is defined as any injury that affects the skull, brain, or both, as a result of an external force. This can include fractures of the skull, intracranial hemorrhages (bleeding inside the skull), and diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), which are tears in the fibers of the brain.
Craniocerebral trauma can be classified into two main categories: closed head injury and open head injury. Closed head injury occurs when the skull does not fracture, but the brain is still affected by the impact, such as from whiplash or shaking. Open head injury, on the other hand, involves a fracture of the skull, which can cause the brain to be exposed to the outside environment and increase the risk of infection.
Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury and may include observation, medication, surgery, or a combination of these. In severe cases, craniocerebral trauma can lead to long-term cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, and may require ongoing rehabilitation and support.
Meningioma can occur in various locations within the brain, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The most common type of meningioma is the meningothelial meningioma, which arises from the arachnoid membrane, one of the three layers of the meninges. Other types of meningioma include the dural-based meningioma, which originates from the dura mater, and the fibrous-cap meningioma, which is characterized by a fibrous cap covering the tumor.
The symptoms of meningioma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they often include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in vision, memory, or cognitive function. As the tumor grows, it can compress the brain tissue and cause damage to the surrounding structures, leading to more severe symptoms such as difficulty speaking, walking, or controlling movement.
The diagnosis of meningioma typically involves a combination of imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and tissue sampling through biopsy or surgery. Treatment options for meningioma depend on the size, location, and aggressiveness of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Overall, the prognosis for meningioma is generally good, with many patients experiencing a good outcome after treatment. However, some types of meningioma can be more aggressive and difficult to treat, and the tumor may recur in some cases.
Penetrating head injuries can cause significant damage to the brain and surrounding tissues, leading to a range of neurological symptoms and complications. Treatment for penetrating head injuries typically involves emergency surgery to remove the foreign object and repair any damaged tissue. The prognosis for these types of injuries depends on the severity of the injury, the location and extent of damage, and the promptness and quality of medical treatment received.
Some common causes of penetrating head injuries include:
1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by high-velocity projectiles that can penetrate the skull and cause extensive damage to the brain.
2. Stabbing: This can occur with a sharp object, such as a knife or ice pick, that is inserted into the skull.
3. Impalement: This occurs when an object, such as a wooden stake or metal rod, is driven through the skull and into the brain.
4. Blunt trauma: This can occur when the head is struck with a blunt object, such as a hammer or baseball bat, causing a penetrating injury.
Symptoms of penetrating head injuries can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury. Some common symptoms include:
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Dizziness or loss of balance
4. Weakness or numbness in the face or limbs
5. Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
6. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
7. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
8. Difficulty with coordination and balance
If you suspect that someone has sustained a penetrating head injury, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Prompt treatment can help to minimize damage to the brain and improve outcomes.
* Sleeping on their back: Prolonged sleeping on the back can cause the back of the head to become flatter, leading to plagiocephaly.
* Poor posture: Infants who spend too much time in a seat or carrier with their heads leaning forward can develop flat spots on the back of their heads.
* Positional torticollis: This is a condition where an infant's neck muscles are tight and cause them to favor one side, leading to flatness on the opposite side of the head.
Plagiocephaly can be diagnosed by a physician or a specialist such as a pediatrician or a cranial orthotist. Treatment for plagiocephaly usually involves changing the infant's sleeping position to their stomach or side, using a helmet or other device to reshape the skull, and physical therapy to improve head and neck mobility. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct more severe cases of plagiocephaly.
It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their infant's head shape and seek medical attention if they notice any abnormalities or flat spots. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent more severe cases of plagiocephaly and ensure that the infant's skull develops normally.
Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with an osteoma in her pelvis, which was successfully removed through surgery."
Definition: A benign tumor of bone that is usually small and round, made up of compact, dense bone tissue, often with a central cavity.
The disorder is characterized by a range of symptoms, including:
1. Enlarged head size and abnormal shape of the skull, which can lead to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Premature fusion of certain skull sutures, resulting in a rigid and inflexible skull.
3. Abnormal development of the brain, including underdeveloped cerebral hemispheres, enlarged cerebellum, and abnormalities in the structure of the brain's corpus callosum.
4. Webbed fingers and/or toes (syndactyly), which can range from mild to severe.
5. Limb malformations, such as clubfoot or missing digits.
6. Intellectual disability, developmental delays, and/or seizures.
The exact prevalence of acrocephalosyndactylia is not known, but it is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 200,000 births. The disorder is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous genetic mutations.
There is no cure for acrocephalosyndactylia, but various treatments can help manage the associated symptoms and complications. These may include surgery to relieve intracranial pressure, physical therapy to improve limb function, and medical management of seizures and other neurological issues. With appropriate support and care, individuals with acrocephalosyndactylia can lead fulfilling lives, although they may face unique challenges and limitations.
Types of Craniofacial Abnormalities:
1. Cleft lip and palate: A congenital deformity that affects the upper jaw, nose, and mouth.
2. Premature fusion of skull bones: Can result in an abnormally shaped head or face.
3. Distraction osteogenesis: A condition where the bones fail to grow properly, leading to abnormal growth patterns.
4. Facial asymmetry: A condition where one side of the face is smaller or larger than the other.
5. Craniosynostosis: A condition where the skull bones fuse together too early, causing an abnormally shaped head.
6. Micrognathia: A condition where the lower jaw is smaller than normal, which can affect breathing and feeding.
7. Macroglossia: A condition where the tongue is larger than normal, which can cause difficulty swallowing and breathing.
8. Oculofacial dysostosis: A condition that affects the development of the eyes and face.
9. Treacher Collins syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the face, particularly the eyes, ears, and jaw.
Causes of Craniofacial Abnormalities:
1. Genetics: Many craniofacial abnormalities are inherited from one or both parents.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain drugs, alcohol, or infections during pregnancy can increase the risk of craniofacial abnormalities.
3. Premature birth: Babies born prematurely are at a higher risk for craniofacial abnormalities.
4. Trauma: Head injuries or other traumatic events can cause craniofacial abnormalities.
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause craniofacial abnormalities.
Treatment of Craniofacial Abnormalities:
1. Surgery: Many craniofacial abnormalities can be treated with surgery to correct the underlying deformity.
2. Orthodontic treatment: Braces or other orthodontic devices can be used to align teeth and improve the appearance of the face.
3. Speech therapy: Certain craniofacial abnormalities, such as micrognathia, can affect speech development. Speech therapy can help improve communication skills.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage symptoms associated with craniofacial abnormalities, such as pain or breathing difficulties.
5. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy and occupational therapy can help individuals with craniofacial abnormalities regain function and mobility after surgery or other treatments.
It is important to note that the treatment of craniofacial abnormalities varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. A healthcare professional, such as a pediatrician, orthodontist, or plastic surgeon, should be consulted for proper diagnosis and treatment.
It is also important to remember that craniofacial abnormalities can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their self-esteem, social relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Therefore, it is essential to provide appropriate support and resources for individuals with these conditions, including psychological counseling, social support groups, and education about the condition.
The symptoms of meningeal neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in vision, memory, or behavior. As the tumor grows, it can compress or displaces the brain tissue, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
There are several different types of meningeal neoplasms, including:
1. Meningioma: This is the most common type of meningeal neoplasm, accounting for about 75% of all cases. Meningiomas are usually benign and grow slowly, but they can sometimes be malignant.
2. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the meninges from another part of the body, such as the lung or breast.
3. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can spread to the meninges.
4. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors (MNTs): These are rare, malignant tumors that usually occur in children and young adults.
5. Hemangiopericytic hyperplasia: This is a rare, benign condition characterized by an overgrowth of blood vessels in the meninges.
The diagnosis of meningeal neoplasms is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor.
Treatment options for meningeal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, and may involve removing as much of the tumor as possible or using a laser to ablate (destroy) the tumor cells. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in combination with surgery to treat malignant meningeal neoplasms.
Prognosis for meningeal neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the patient's overall health. In general, early diagnosis and treatment improve the prognosis, while later-stage tumors may have a poorer outcome.
There are several different types of craniofacial dysostosis, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some of the most common include:
1. Crouzon syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the skull and facial bones. It is characterized by a distinctive head shape, cleft palate, and other facial abnormalities.
2. Apert syndrome: This is another rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the skull and facial bones. It is characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including cleft palate, misshapen head shape, and other malformations.
3. Frontonasal dysplasia: This is a rare condition that affects the development of the nasal passages and sinuses. It can result in a variety of physical abnormalities, including a misshapen nose, cleft palate, and other malformations.
4. Craniosynostosis: This is a condition in which the bones of the skull fuse together too early in development, leading to an abnormal head shape. It can be caused by a variety of genetic mutations or other factors.
Craniofacial dysostosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging (such as X-rays or CT scans), and genetic testing. Treatment for these disorders depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include surgery, orthodontic treatment, and other therapies to help correct physical abnormalities and improve function and appearance.
In addition to the physical challenges posed by craniofacial dysostosis, individuals with these conditions may also experience emotional and social difficulties due to their appearance or limitations in function. As such, it is important for healthcare providers to provide comprehensive care that addresses both the physical and psychosocial aspects of these disorders.
Overall, craniofacial dysostosis is a diverse group of conditions that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve outcomes for individuals with these conditions, and ongoing research is working to advance our understanding of the causes and management of craniofacial dysostosis.
Some common examples of cranial nerve diseases include:
1. Bell's palsy: A condition that affects the facial nerve, causing weakness or paralysis of one side of the face.
2. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disease that damages the protective covering of nerve fibers, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
3. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing facial pain and numbness.
4. Meningitis: An inflammation of the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord, which can damage the cranial nerves.
5. Acoustic neuroma: A type of non-cancerous tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
6. Cranial polyneuropathy: A condition where multiple cranial nerves are damaged, leading to a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, numbness, and pain.
7. Tumors: Both benign and malignant tumors can affect the cranial nerves, causing a variety of symptoms depending on their location and size.
8. Trauma: Head injuries or trauma can damage the cranial nerves, leading to a range of symptoms.
9. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections such as meningitis or encephalitis can damage the cranial nerves, leading to a range of symptoms.
10. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease can affect the cranial nerves, leading to a range of symptoms.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other causes of cranial nerve damage. If you are experiencing any symptoms that you think may be related to cranial nerve damage, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
* Cerebral encephalocele: when the brain tissue protrudes through the skull.
* Meningoencephalocele: when the meninges (the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord) protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.
* Mesenchymal encephalocele: when other tissues such as skin, muscle or bone protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.
Symptoms of encephalocele can vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include:
* Protrusion of the brain or meninges through a opening in the skull
* Abnormal appearance of the head or face
* Delayed developmental milestones such as sitting, standing or walking
* Poor muscle tone
* Vision and hearing problems
Diagnosis of encephalocele is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and genetic testing. Treatment for encephalocele usually involves surgery to repair the opening in the skull and relieve any pressure on the brain. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to correct other defects such as hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation in the brain).
Encephalocele is a rare condition, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated. Early detection and intervention are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
There are different types of hyperostosis, including:
1. Hyperostosis fibrosa: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the thickening of the cortical bone, leading to a hard and firm consistency. It can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skull, spine, or long bones.
2. Hyperostosis iritis: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the iris of the eye, leading to symptoms such as vision loss, pain, and light sensitivity.
3. Hyperostosis mediastinitis: This is a rare condition where there is excessive bone growth in the mediastinum, a region between the lungs and the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
4. Hyperostosis of the sacrum: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as lower back pain, sciatica, and difficulty walking.
Hyperostosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, or surgery to remove excess bone growth.
The term "otorrhea" specifically refers to the leakage of fluid from the inner ear into the middle ear, which can be caused by various conditions such as a tear in the eardrum, a perforated eardrum, or a hole in the bone around the inner ear. When CSF flows into the middle ear, it can cause a range of symptoms due to the pressure difference between the two compartments and the presence of CSF in the middle ear.
CSF otorrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma to the head or ear
2. Infections such as meningitis or inner ear infections
3. Tumors or cysts in the inner ear or brain
4. Agerelated wear and tear on the eardrum or other structures
5. Certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis or Eustachian tube dysfunction.
Diagnosis of CSF otorrhea typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and hearing tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve antibiotics, surgery to repair any tears or defects in the eardrum or other structures, or observation and monitoring.
In summary, CSF otorrhea is an abnormal flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the inner ear into the middle ear, which can cause a range of symptoms including hearing loss, tinnitus, balance difficulties, and facial weakness or paralysis. It can be caused by various factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and hearing tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition.
The exact cause of Osteitis Deformans is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition typically affects people over the age of 50, and is more common in men than women.
The symptoms of Osteitis Deformans can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pain in the affected bone, which can be aching or sharp
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the affected joint
* Deformity of the bone, such as curvature or thickening
* Fatigue and tiredness
* Increased risk of fractures
The diagnosis of Osteitis Deformans is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and blood tests to rule out other conditions.
There is no cure for Osteitis Deformans, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. Treatment options may include:
* Pain medication
* Physical therapy to maintain mobility and strength
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected bone
* Surgery to correct deformities or repair fractures
* Medications to prevent or treat complications such as osteoporosis.
It is important for individuals with Osteitis Deformans to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and maintain a good quality of life. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Osteitis Deformans are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Examples of closed head injuries include:
* Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)
* Brain hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain)
Closed head injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.
Symptoms of closed head injuries may include:
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or sensitivity to light
Closed head injuries can be difficult to diagnose, as there may be no visible signs of injury. However, a healthcare provider may use imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to look for evidence of damage to the brain. Treatment for closed head injuries typically involves rest, medication, and rehabilitation to help the patient recover from any cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged blood vessels.
Some common types of bone diseases include:
1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.
Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
Skull & Keys
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- Yale University's Skull and Bones ' Class of 1966 includes 2004 Presidential hopeful John Forbes Kerry . (sourcewatch.org)
- The skull is formed by the fusion of several flat bones held together by the cranial sutures. (medscape.com)
- To me they are as beautiful as anything I know," Georgia O'Keeffe said of the sun-bleached bones and skulls she found in the desert. (cdc.gov)
- If the force and deformation are excessive, the skull fractures at or near the site of impact. (medscape.com)
- Uncomplicated skull fractures themselves rarely produce neurologic deficit, but the associated intracranial injury may have serious neurologic sequelae. (medscape.com)
- Skull fractures may occur with no associated neurologic damage, and conversely, fatal injury to membranes, blood vessels, and brain may occur without overlying fracture. (medscape.com)
- However, skull fractures may be associated with intracranial hemorrhage, which may create an intracranial space-occupying lesion. (medscape.com)
- In addition, cerebral edema associated with skull fractures is a common and frequently fatal complication of head injury and may develop within minutes or hours of injury. (medscape.com)
- Linear fractures, the most common skull fractures, involve a break in the bone but no displacement, and generally no intervention is required. (medscape.com)
- These fractures are usually the result of low-energy transfer due to blunt trauma over a wide surface area of the skull. (medscape.com)
- Commercial motorcycling is a common means of transportation in Nigeria , and motorcycle road traffic accidents (MCRTAs) are commonly associated with multiple skull fractures . (bvsalud.org)
- The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of skull fractures on cranial CT scan in patients with head injury following MCRTA. (bvsalud.org)
- A total of 183 patients did not use crash helmet at the time of accident , out of which 168 (n = 88.4%) sustained skull fractures . (bvsalud.org)
- The skull is deformed by localized impact, which may damage the cranial contents even when the skull does not fracture. (medscape.com)
- The middle cranial fossa forms the thinnest part of the skull and thus represents the weakest part, which is further weakened by the presence of multiple foramina. (medscape.com)
- Whether you're looking for 8 Parts Brain Skull Models, CRANIAL NERVE SKULL ANATOMY MODEL, Human Fetal Skull Model etc, you can explore and find the best products from Tradeindia. (tradeindia.com)
- Six different skull fracture patterns were identified on cranial CT scan of these patients . (bvsalud.org)
- Unlike we Homo sapiens , who have tall, rounded skulls encasing our large brains, the remains before the researchers had features typical of older species of Homo that likely arrived in the Middle East around 450,000 years ago, a quarter-million years before Homo sapiens showed up. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Elsewhere, Jason Adasiewicz introduces "Skull Caves of Alderon," which becomes a mutant march theme led by Mitchell's piccolo before it turns to a chromatic riff bursting with Carlos Issa's wild guitar. (jazztimes.com)
- With a $61 million debut and solid reviews, 'Kong: Skull Island' properly introduces the latest generation of monster movie fans to King Kong. (scrippsnews.com)
- A person's work with the crystal skulls is greatly enhanced when he/she has their own personal crystal friend who can act as a teacher which will offer to them very special and profound insights into the world family of crystal skulls! (v-j-enterprises.com)
- The desert, the prairie, wide open spaces, O'Keeffe's chosen world, which inspired Cow's Skull with Calico Roses (on this month's cover of Emerging Infectious Diseases), contained all the elements essential to her art: eternal beauty, spirituality, and a timeless connection with the past. (cdc.gov)
- Diagram of the skull vault shows the location of various collections of fluid and/or blood. (medscape.com)
- Researchers used the scant skull remains from Nesher Ramla to create a a virtual reconstruction a hominin who lived relatively recently, but has very archaic features, including a lack of chin. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The skull vault is comparatively thinner than the base of the skull. (medscape.com)
- Midline mandibulotomy and interposition grafting for lesions involving the internal carotid artery below the skull base. (bvsalud.org)
- The distal part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) close to the skull base can be reached surgically with different approaches. (bvsalud.org)
- On this page are very very special crystal skulls we have that are either from the best carvers in Brazil and China that have been charged with our personal crystal skulls seeking their true guardians and new home. (v-j-enterprises.com)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Study of variation in atypical foramina of dry human skull. (who.int)
- Singh Praveen R, Raibagkar C J. Study of variation in atypical foramina of dry human skull. (who.int)
- Out of various skull foramina, we studied three atypical foramina named lacrimal, emissary sphenoidal & parietal in 103 dried human skulls. (who.int)
- When compared bilaterally 11% of the skulls showed difference of more than 0.5mm in emissary sphenoidal foramen while it was multiple in 2% of the skulls studied. (who.int)
- Here is a fnaf skull list! (planetminecraft.com)
- Another panelist noted the desire to identify a reproducible point on the skull. (cdc.gov)
- Lee Wagstaff plans to turn the chalky remains into a 3D-printed model of his own skull. (vice.com)
- Skull Model product price in India ranges from 120 to 29,661.01 INR and minimum order requirements from 1 to 100. (tradeindia.com)
- What is the price range for skull model offered by listed companies? (tradeindia.com)
- When they first laid eyes on the fragmentary remains of the dun-colored skull-part of a flat and low brain case, a nearly complete, chinless lower jaw, and one lonely tooth-the Israeli paleoanthropologists immediately realized it was not one of… us . (nationalgeographic.com)
- Exposure using the standard lateral incision is eventually limited by bony structures which preclude the wide-angled operative field necessary for en bloc resection of tumors or primary vascular pathology that abuts the parapharyngeal space . (bvsalud.org)
- Skull Sessions is another solid work from an inventive leader who can't stand still. (jazztimes.com)
- It delves into the history of the crystal skulls, the experiences of the three authors and includes information never published before. (v-j-enterprises.com)
- Skull thickness is not uniform, and therefore, the impact of forces required to cause a fracture depends on the site of the impact. (medscape.com)
- No permission is necessary to repost images from this site to your own blog, we just ask that you please give proper credit to the artist that created the piece and provide a link back to Skull-A-Day and/or the specific post it came from. (blogspot.com)