The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
In anatomical terms, "tail" is not used as a medical definition to describe any part of the human body; it is however used in veterinary medicine to refer to the distal portion of the spine in animals possessing tails.
Involuntary erection or bristling of hairs.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.
Coloration of the skin.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of CELLS.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.

Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. (1/911)

1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors.  (+info)

Absorption of solar radiation by an ellipsoid sensor simulated the human body. (2/911)

Assessment of heat gain in man caused by solar radiation is one of the most important problems in research of the human heat balance outdoors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a new method for estimation of solar heat income. Absorption of short wave radiation (direct, diffuse and reflected) was measured with an ellipsoid sensor representing a simple, physical model of man. Measurements were performed in climatic chamber with the use of an iodide CSI solar lamp. The absorbed quantity of solar radiation varied as a result of sun altitude as well as of a colour and insulation of fabric covering the ellipsoid sensor. The new coefficients derived from our investigations for estimating doses of absorbed solar radiation should be applicable for a standing man. They correlate better with mean skin temperature observed on subjects outdoor than previous results obtained based on a cylinder as an analogue model of man. The ellipsoid sensor covered by a black fabric absorbed about 6 times more of solar radiation than when covered by a white textile.  (+info)

Perfusion of the human finger during cold-induced vasodilatation. (3/911)

We have investigated the effect of severe local cooling on the vasomotor activity of the arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and other finger vessels. The right third finger was subjected to local cooling (3 degrees C) for 30-45 min in 21 healthy, thermoneutral subjects. Blood velocity in the third finger arteries of both hands was simultaneously recorded using ultrasound Doppler, and skin temperature and laser-Doppler flux from the pulp of the cooled finger were also recorded. The results demonstrate that the initial cold-induced vasoconstriction during severe local cooling involves constriction of the AVAs as well as the two main arteries supplying this finger. During cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), the maximum velocity values were not significantly different from those before cooling. Furthermore, the velocity fluctuations in the cooled finger were in most subjects found to be synchronous with the velocity fluctuations in the control finger. This indicates that the large blood flow to the finger and the high skin temperature during CIVD are caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of the AVAs.  (+info)

Paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects: peripherally conducted by A delta or C fibres? (4/911)

Paradoxical heat sensation upon cooling of the skin has been reported in central as well as in peripheral neurological conditions. In our study, we examined this phenomenon in 35 naive healthy test subjects, of whom 23 experienced paradoxical heat sensation under test conditions. We measured the peripheral conduction velocities of cold sensation, warm sensation and of paradoxical heat sensation by using a quantitative sensory testing model of indirect peripheral conduction velocity measurement. This was based on comparison of measurements at a proximal and a distal site using two measurement methods, one inclusive and the other exclusive of reaction time. We found that the conduction velocity of paradoxical heat sensation (0.70 m/s) was similar to that of warm sensation (0.68 m/s), and that the conduction velocity of cold sensation (7.74-8.01 m/s) was considerably faster. Thus, we conclude that paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects is conducted peripherally via slow unmyelinated C fibres and not via the faster A delta fibres. Consequently, we propose that paradoxical heat sensation is encoded via the heat sensing pathway, in accordance with the labelled-line code theory. The mechanisms proposed suggest a malfunctioning cold-sensing pathway disinhibiting the heat-sensing pathway, at peripheral, central or both levels, thus facilitating a paradoxical heat sensation.  (+info)

Peripheral blood flow rates and microvascular responses to orthostatic pressure changes in claudicants before and after revascularisation. (5/911)

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of arterial reconstruction for occlusive atherosclerotic disease with intermittent claudication on blood flow rate during rest and on microvascular responses to orthostatic pressure changes in the pulp skin of the first toe where arteriovenous anastomoses are numerous. MATERIAL: Eleven patients with Fontaine IIa claudication (ankle blood pressure index > 0.30) before and 7 (range: 2-11) months after intervention. METHODS: Blood flow rate was measured by the heat washout method with the toe at heart level and after passive lowering to 50 cm below this level using a Clark type electrode with thermostatically controlled cap that was fixed to the pulp of the first toe by adhesive tape. RESULTS: At heart level, blood flow rate was lower in claudicants before reconstruction as compared to a group of previously published control subjects (p = 0.0076, Wilcoxon), blood flow rate increased in claudicants from before to after intervention (p = 0.0128), and postoperative blood flow rate was like that of normals (N.S.). Before surgery, blood flow rate in claudicants increased in median with a factor of 1.79 during lowering (p < 0.0051). CONCLUSIONS: The disturbance of the microcirculatory responses to orthostatically induced pressure changes in claudicants reverted towards normal after arterial reconstruction.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide in the vascular effects of local warming of the skin in humans. (6/911)

Local warming of skin induces vasodilation by unknown mechanisms. To test whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved, we examined effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on vasodilation induced by local warming of skin in six subjects. Two adjacent sites on the forearm were instrumented with intradermal microdialysis probes for delivery of L-NAME and sodium nitroprusside. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at microdialysis sites. Local temperature (Tloc) of the skin at both sites was controlled with special LDF probe holders. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finapres) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated (CVC = LDF/MAP = mV/mmHg). Data collection began with a control period (Tloc at both sites = 34 degrees C). One site was then warmed to 41 degrees C while the second was maintained at 34 degrees C. Local warming increased CVC from 1.44 +/- 0.41 to 4.28 +/- 0.60 mV/mmHg (P < 0.05). Subsequent L-NAME administration reduced CVC to 2.28 +/- 0.47 mV/mmHg (P < 0.05 vs. heating), despite the continued elevation of Tloc. At a Tloc of 34 degrees C, L-NAME reduced CVC from 1.17 +/- 0.23 to 0.75 +/- 0.11 mV/mmHg (P < 0.05). Administration of sodium nitroprusside increased CVC to levels no different from those induced by local warming. Thus NOS inhibition attenuated, and sodium nitroprusside restored, the cutaneous vasodilation induced by elevation of Tloc; therefore, the mechanism of cutaneous vasodilation by local warming requires NOS generation of NO.  (+info)

How dolphins use their blubber to avoid heat stress during encounters with warm water. (7/911)

Dolphins have been observed swimming in inshore tropical waters as warm as 36-38 degrees C. A simple protocol that mimicked the thermal conditions encountered by a dolphin moving from cool pelagic to warm inshore water was used to determine how dolphins avoid hyperthermia in water temperatures (Tw) at and above their normal core temperature (Tc). Tw (2 sites), rectal temperature (Tre; 3 depths), and skin temperature (Tsk; 7 sites) and rate of heat flow (4-5 sites) between the skin and the environment were measured while the dolphin rested in a chamber during a 30-min baseline and 40-60 min while water was warmed at approximately 0.43 degrees C/min until temperatures of 34-36 degrees C were attained. Instead of the expected increase, Tre consistently showed declines during the warming ramp, sometimes by amounts that were remarkable both in their magnitude (1.35 degrees C) and rapidity (8-15 min). The reduction in Tre occurred even while heat loss to the environment was prevented by continued controlled warming of the water that kept Tw slightly above Tsk and while metabolic heat production alone should have added 1.6-2 degrees C/h to the Tc. This reduction in Tc could only be due to a massive redistribution of heat from the core to the blubber layer.  (+info)

Relative contribution of core and cutaneous temperatures to thermal comfort and autonomic responses in humans. (8/911)

Subjective thermal comfort plays a critical role in body temperature regulation since this represents the primary stimulus for behavioral thermoregulation. Although both core (Tc) and skin-surface (Tsk) temperatures are known afferent inputs to the thermoregulatory system, the relative contributions of Tc and Tsk to thermal comfort are unknown. We independently altered Tc and Tsk in human subjects while measuring thermal comfort, vasomotor changes, metabolic heat production, and systemic catecholaminergic responses. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relative Tc/Tsk contribution to thermal comfort and the autonomic thermoregulatory responses, by using the ratio of regression coefficients for Tc and Tsk. The Tc/Tsk contribution ratio was relatively lower for thermal comfort (1:1) than for vasomotor changes (3:1; P = 0.008), metabolic heat production (3.6:1; P = 0.001), norepinephrine (1.8:1; P = 0.03), and epinephrine (3:1; P = 0.006) responses. Thus Tc and Tsk contribute about equally toward thermal comfort, whereas Tc predominates in regulation of the autonomic and metabolic responses.  (+info)

Skin temperature is the measure of heat emitted by the skin, which can be an indicator of the body's core temperature. It is typically lower than the body's internal temperature and varies depending on factors such as environmental temperature, blood flow, and physical activity. Skin temperature is often used as a vital sign in medical settings and can be measured using various methods, including thermal scanners, digital thermometers, or mercury thermometers. Changes in skin temperature may also be associated with certain medical conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or nerve damage.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Body temperature is the measure of heat produced by the body. In humans, the normal body temperature range is typically between 97.8°F (36.5°C) and 99°F (37.2°C), with an average oral temperature of 98.6°F (37°C). Body temperature can be measured in various ways, including orally, rectally, axillary (under the arm), and temporally (on the forehead).

Maintaining a stable body temperature is crucial for proper bodily functions, as enzymes and other biological processes depend on specific temperature ranges. The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates body temperature through feedback mechanisms that involve shivering to produce heat and sweating to release heat. Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevated body temperature above the normal range, often as a response to infection or inflammation.

Thermography, also known as digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses an infrared camera to convert heat emitted from the body into electrical signals that produce images called thermograms. These images visually represent the temperature differences across the surface of the body, which can help identify abnormalities such as inflammation, injury, or disease.

Thermography is not a standalone diagnostic tool but rather an adjunctive one, used in conjunction with other medical tests and clinical evaluations to support diagnosis and treatment planning. It has been used in various medical fields, including breast oncology, rheumatology, neurology, and pain management. However, its effectiveness and accuracy are still a subject of ongoing research and debate within the medical community.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Sweating, also known as perspiration, is the production of sweat by the sweat glands in the skin in response to heat, physical exertion, hormonal changes, or emotional stress. Sweat is a fluid composed mainly of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, lactate, and urea. It helps regulate body temperature by releasing heat through evaporation on the surface of the skin. Excessive sweating, known as hyperhidrosis, can be a medical condition that may require treatment.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Shivering is a physical response to cold temperature or emotional stress, characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. It's a part of the body's thermoregulation process, which helps to generate heat and maintain a normal body temperature. During shivering, the muscles rapidly contract and relax, producing kinetic energy that is released as heat. This can be observed as visible shaking or trembling, often most noticeable in the arms, legs, and jaw. In some cases, prolonged or intense shivering may also be associated with fever or other medical conditions.

Thermosensing refers to the ability of living organisms to detect and respond to changes in temperature. This is achieved through specialized proteins called thermosensors, which are capable of converting thermal energy into chemical or electrical signals that can be interpreted by the organism's nervous system. Thermosensing plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, such as body temperature, metabolism, and development. In medicine, understanding thermosensing mechanisms can provide insights into the treatment of conditions associated with impaired temperature regulation, such as fever or hypothermia.

A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature. In the medical field, thermometers are commonly used to take the body temperature of patients to assess their health status. There are several types of medical thermometers available, including:

1. Digital thermometers: These are electronic devices that provide a digital readout of the temperature. They can be used orally, rectally, or under the arm (axillary).
2. Temporal artery thermometers: These thermometers use infrared technology to measure the temperature of the temporal artery in the forehead.
3. Infrared ear thermometers: These thermometers measure the temperature of the eardrum using infrared technology.
4. Pacifier thermometers: These are designed for infants and young children, and measure their temperature through the pacifier.
5. Forehead strip thermometers: These are adhesive strips that stick to the forehead and provide a temperature reading.

Medical thermometers should be properly cleaned and disinfected between uses to prevent the spread of infection. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use and storage to ensure accurate readings.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

Clothing is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe items worn on the body for various reasons such as protection from the elements, modesty, or fashion. In a medical context, clothing may be referred to in relation to certain conditions or treatments that require special garments, such as compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis or protective gear for athletes. However, there is no specific medical definition for 'clothing'.

Heat-related illnesses, also known as heat stress disorders, encompass a range of medical conditions that occur when the body is unable to cool down properly in hot environments. These conditions can vary in severity from mild heat rash or cramps to more serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Heat rash, also known as prickly heat, is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather. It typically occurs on the neck, chest, and thighs and appears as small red bumps or blisters.

Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms that can occur during or after intense physical activity in hot weather. They are often accompanied by heavy sweating and are most common in the legs, arms, and abdomen.

Heat exhaustion is a more severe form of heat-related illness that occurs when the body loses too much water and salt through excessive sweating. Symptoms may include weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and fainting. If left untreated, heat exhaustion can lead to heat stroke.

Heat stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when the body's core temperature rises above 104°F (40°C) due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures or strenuous physical activity in hot weather. Symptoms may include confusion, seizures, loss of consciousness, and even death if not treated promptly.

Prevention measures for heat-related illnesses include staying hydrated, wearing loose-fitting clothing, taking frequent breaks during physical activity, avoiding prolonged exposure to the sun, and seeking air-conditioned environments when possible.

In medical terms, fingers are not specifically defined as they are common anatomical structures. However, I can provide you with a general anatomy definition:

Fingers are the terminal parts of the upper limb in primates, including humans, consisting of four digits (thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers) and one opposable thumb. They contain bones called phalanges, connected by joints that allow for movement and flexibility. Each finger has a nail, nerve endings for sensation, and blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Fingers are crucial for various activities such as grasping, manipulating objects, and tactile exploration of the environment.

Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome, is a condition that affects the blood vessels, particularly in the fingers and toes. It is characterized by episodes of vasospasm (constriction) of the small digital arteries and arterioles, which can be triggered by cold temperatures or emotional stress. This results in reduced blood flow to the affected areas, causing them to become pale or white and then cyanotic (blue) due to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. As the episode resolves, the affected areas may turn red as blood flow returns, sometimes accompanied by pain, numbness, or tingling sensations.

Raynaud's disease can be primary, meaning it occurs without an underlying medical condition, or secondary, which is associated with connective tissue disorders, autoimmune diseases, or other health issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration tool usage, or smoking. Primary Raynaud's is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's.

Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves avoiding triggers, keeping the body warm, and using medications to help dilate blood vessels and improve circulation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications and smoking cessation may also be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Thermoreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings or neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature. They detect and respond to heat or cold stimuli by converting them into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain for interpretation. These receptors are found throughout the body, particularly in the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. There are two main types of thermoreceptors: warm receptors, which respond to increasing temperatures, and cold receptors, which react to decreasing temperatures. The information provided by thermoreceptors helps maintain homeostasis and protect the body from harmful temperature changes.

Infrared rays are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions. They are a type of electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, ranging from 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter. In the field of medicine, infrared radiation is sometimes used in therapeutic settings for its heat properties, such as in infrared saunas or infrared therapy devices. However, infrared rays themselves are not a medical condition or diagnosis.

A "cold climate" is not a medical term, but rather a geographical and environmental term. However, it is often used in the context of discussing health and medical issues, as cold climates can have various effects on human health.

In general, a cold climate is defined as a region where the average temperature remains below 15°C (59°F) throughout the year or where winter temperatures are consistently below freezing. These climates can be found in high latitudes, such as in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, as well as in mountainous areas at higher altitudes.

Exposure to cold temperatures can have both positive and negative effects on human health. On the one hand, cold weather can help to reduce inflammation and may have some benefits for people with certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. However, exposure to extreme cold can also increase the risk of hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries.

Additionally, cold climates can exacerbate respiratory problems, such as asthma and bronchitis, and may increase the risk of developing respiratory infections like the common cold or flu. People with heart conditions may also be at greater risk in cold weather, as their blood vessels constrict to conserve heat, which can increase blood pressure and put additional strain on the heart.

Overall, while cold climates are not inherently "medical" in nature, they can have significant impacts on human health and well-being, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly, young children, and people with chronic medical conditions.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Skin aging, also known as cutaneous aging, is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by various visible changes in the skin's appearance and function. It can be divided into two main types: intrinsic (chronological or natural) aging and extrinsic (environmental) aging.

Intrinsic aging is a genetically determined and time-dependent process that results from internal factors such as cellular metabolism, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. The primary features of intrinsic aging include gradual thinning of the epidermis and dermis, decreased collagen and elastin production, reduced skin cell turnover, and impaired wound healing. Clinically, these changes present as fine wrinkles, dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased fragility of the skin.

Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is caused by external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Exposure to these environmental elements leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage, which accelerate the aging process. The main features of extrinsic aging are coarse wrinkles, pigmentary changes (e.g., age spots, melasma), irregular texture, skin laxity, and increased risk of developing skin cancers.

It is important to note that intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes often interact and contribute to the overall appearance of aged skin. A comprehensive approach to skincare should address both types of aging to maintain healthy and youthful-looking skin.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

Thermometry is the measurement of temperature. It involves the use of thermometers or other devices that can detect and quantify heat energy to determine the temperature of a body, object, environment, or substance. There are various types of thermometry techniques and thermometers, including mercury or alcohol-based clinical thermometers for measuring human body temperature, digital thermometers, infrared thermometers, and thermocouples or resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) for industrial or scientific applications. The choice of thermometry method depends on the required precision, temperature range, and the nature of the substance or object being measured.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Hypothermia is a medically defined condition where the core body temperature drops below 35°C (95°F). It is often associated with exposure to cold environments, but can also occur in cases of severe illness, injury, or immersion in cold water. Symptoms may include shivering, confusion, slowed heart rate and breathing, and if not treated promptly, can lead to unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and even death.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Cryotherapy is a medical treatment that uses low temperatures to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. It can be applied locally to a small area, or more widely to larger areas of the body. In local cryotherapy, a substance such as liquid nitrogen or argon gas is applied directly to the skin to freeze and destroy unwanted cells, such as in the treatment of warts, skin tags, or certain types of cancer. More widespread cryotherapy can be achieved through the use of cold chambers that lower the temperature of the air around the body, which has been used to treat conditions such as inflammation, pain, and muscle spasms.

The medical definition of cryotherapy is:

"The therapeutic application of cold temperatures to damaged tissues to reduce inflammation, promote healing, and provide pain relief."

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive, investigative technique used to measure microcirculatory blood flow in real time. It is based on the principle of the Doppler effect, which describes the change in frequency or wavelength of light or sound waves as they encounter a moving object or reflect off a moving surface.

In LDF, a low-power laser beam is directed at the skin or other transparent tissue. The light penetrates the tissue and scatters off the moving red blood cells within the microvasculature. As the light scatters, it undergoes a slight frequency shift due to the movement of the red blood cells. This frequency shift is then detected by a photodetector, which converts it into an electrical signal. The magnitude of this signal is directly proportional to the speed and concentration of the moving red blood cells, providing a measure of microcirculatory blood flow.

LDF has various clinical applications, including the assessment of skin perfusion in patients with peripheral arterial disease, burn injuries, and flaps used in reconstructive surgery. It can also be used to study the effects of drugs or other interventions on microcirculation in research settings.

Dry ice is not a medical term, but rather a common term used to describe solid carbon dioxide (CO2) when it is at a temperature below -109°F (-78.5°C). When dry ice is exposed to room temperature, it sublimates, or turns directly from a solid into a gas, bypassing the liquid phase.

In some medical applications, dry ice is used as a coolant for transporting temperature-sensitive biological samples, such as organs for transplantation, because of its extremely low temperature and ability to maintain that temperature for extended periods. However, it is important to handle dry ice with caution, as direct contact can cause frostbite or cold burns, and prolonged exposure to the gas can lead to suffocation due to the depletion of oxygen in the surrounding air.

"Controlled Environment" is a term used to describe a setting in which environmental conditions are monitored, regulated, and maintained within certain specific parameters. These conditions may include factors such as temperature, humidity, light exposure, air quality, and cleanliness. The purpose of a controlled environment is to ensure that the conditions are optimal for a particular activity or process, and to minimize the potential for variability or contamination that could affect outcomes or results.

In medical and healthcare settings, controlled environments are used in a variety of contexts, such as:

* Research laboratories: To ensure consistent and reproducible experimental conditions for scientific studies.
* Pharmaceutical manufacturing: To maintain strict quality control standards during the production of drugs and other medical products.
* Sterile fields: In operating rooms or cleanrooms, to minimize the risk of infection or contamination during surgical procedures or sensitive medical operations.
* Medical storage: For storing temperature-sensitive medications, vaccines, or specimens at specific temperatures to maintain their stability and efficacy.

Overall, controlled environments play a critical role in maintaining safety, quality, and consistency in medical and healthcare settings.

Protective clothing refers to specialized garments worn by healthcare professionals, first responders, or workers in various industries to protect themselves from potential hazards that could cause harm to their bodies. These hazards may include biological agents (such as viruses or bacteria), chemicals, radiological particles, physical injuries, or extreme temperatures.

Examples of protective clothing include:

1. Medical/isolation gowns: Fluid-resistant garments worn by healthcare workers during medical procedures to protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
2. Lab coats: Protective garments typically worn in laboratories to shield the wearer's skin and clothing from potential chemical or biological exposure.
3. Coveralls: One-piece garments that cover the entire body, often used in industries with high exposure risks, such as chemical manufacturing or construction.
4. Gloves: Protective hand coverings made of materials like latex, nitrile, or vinyl, which prevent direct contact with hazardous substances.
5. Face masks and respirators: Devices worn over the nose and mouth to filter out airborne particles, protecting the wearer from inhaling harmful substances.
6. Helmets and face shields: Protective headgear used in various industries to prevent physical injuries from falling objects or impact.
7. Fire-resistant clothing: Specialized garments worn by firefighters and those working with high temperatures or open flames to protect against burns and heat exposure.

The choice of protective clothing depends on the specific hazards present in the work environment, as well as the nature and duration of potential exposures. Proper use, maintenance, and training are essential for ensuring the effectiveness of protective clothing in minimizing risks and maintaining worker safety.

Insensible water loss is the unnoticeable or unperceived loss of water from the body through processes such as respiration, evaporation from the skin, and perspiration that is too fine to be seen or felt. It is a normal physiological process and typically accounts for about 400-800 milliliters (ml) of water loss per day in a healthy adult at rest. However, this amount can increase with factors such as environmental temperature, humidity, and altitude, as well as physical activity or illness that increases metabolic rate or alters body temperature regulation.

Insensible water loss is an important factor to consider in maintaining fluid balance in the body, particularly in individuals who are unable to regulate their own fluid intake, such as critically ill patients or those with impaired consciousness. Prolonged or excessive insensible water loss can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can have serious consequences on various organ systems and overall health.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

In the context of human anatomy, the term "tail" is not used to describe any part of the body. Humans are considered tailless primates, and there is no structure or feature that corresponds directly to the tails found in many other animals.

However, there are some medical terms related to the lower end of the spine that might be confused with a tail:

1. Coccyx (Tailbone): The coccyx is a small triangular bone at the very bottom of the spinal column, formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae. It's also known as the tailbone because it resembles the end of an animal's tail in its location and appearance.
2. Cauda Equina (Horse's Tail): The cauda equina is a bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord, just above the coccyx. It got its name because it looks like a horse's tail due to the numerous rootlets radiating from the conus medullaris (the tapering end of the spinal cord).

These two structures are not tails in the traditional sense but rather medical terms related to the lower end of the human spine.

Piloerection, also known as "goosebumps" or "horripilation," is a medical term that refers to the erectile response of hair follicles. It's a reflex caused by the contraction of tiny muscles called arrector pili attached to each hair follicle, causing the hairs to stand on end.

This reflex is often associated with cold temperature or emotional responses such as fear or excitement. While it's most noticeable in humans on the arms and back of the neck, it can occur all over the body. In animals, especially those with thick fur, piloerection can make them appear larger and more threatening, which is often a part of their defense mechanism.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

The tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external auditory canal from the middle ear. It serves to transmit sound vibrations from the air to the inner ear, where they are converted into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain as sound. The tympanic membrane is composed of three layers: an outer layer of skin, a middle layer of connective tissue, and an inner layer of mucous membrane. It is held in place by several small bones and muscles and is highly sensitive to changes in pressure.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

In medical terms, toes are the digits located at the end of the foot. Humans typically have five toes on each foot, consisting of the big toe (hallux), second toe, third toe, fourth toe, and little toe (fifth toe). The bones of the toes are called phalanges, with the exception of the big toe, which has a different bone structure and is composed of a proximal phalanx, distal phalanx, and sometimes a sesamoid bone.

Toes play an essential role in maintaining balance and assisting in locomotion by helping to push off the ground during walking or running. They also contribute to the overall stability and posture of the body. Various medical conditions can affect toes, such as ingrown toenails, bunions, hammertoes, and neuromas, which may require specific treatments or interventions to alleviate pain, restore function, or improve appearance.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Finger injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the fingers, which can include cuts, bruises, dislocations, fractures, and sprains. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or direct blows to the finger. Symptoms of finger injuries may include pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, numbness, or inability to move the finger. The treatment for finger injuries varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, immobilization, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Athletic performance refers to the physical and mental capabilities and skills displayed by an athlete during training or competition. It is a measure of an individual's ability to perform in a particular sport or activity, and can encompass various factors such as strength, power, endurance, speed, agility, coordination, flexibility, mental toughness, and technique.

Athletic performance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, training, nutrition, recovery, lifestyle habits, and environmental conditions. Athletes often engage in rigorous training programs to improve their physical and mental abilities, with the goal of enhancing their overall athletic performance. Additionally, sports scientists and coaches use various methods and technologies to assess and analyze athletic performance, such as timing systems, motion analysis, and physiological testing, to help optimize training and competition strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "touch" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the context you've provided. In a general sense, touch refers to the ability to perceive things through physically contacting them, which is a function of our nervous system. However, it's not a term used to describe a specific medical condition, diagnosis, treatment, or procedure. If you have any more specific context or question in mind, I'd be happy to try and help further!

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are the portion of the sympathetic nervous system's nerve fibers that originate from the cell bodies located in the ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside the spinal cord. After leaving the ganglia, these postganglionic fibers travel to and innervate target organs such as sweat glands, blood vessels, and various smooth muscles, releasing neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y to regulate physiological functions. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released by postganglionic fibers that innervate sweat glands.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

Hyperthermia, induced, is a medically controlled increase in core body temperature beyond the normal range (36.5-37.5°C or 97.7-99.5°F) to a target temperature typically between 38-42°C (100.4-107.6°F). This therapeutic intervention is used in various medical fields, including oncology and critical care medicine. Induced hyperthermia can be achieved through different methods such as whole-body heating or localized heat application, often combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to enhance treatment efficacy.

In the context of oncology, hyperthermia is used as a sensitizer for cancer treatments by increasing blood flow to tumors, enhancing drug delivery, and directly damaging cancer cells through protein denaturation and apoptosis at higher temperatures. In critical care settings, induced hyperthermia may be applied in therapeutic hypothermia protocols to protect the brain after cardiac arrest or other neurological injuries by decreasing metabolic demand and reducing oxidative stress.

It is essential to closely monitor patients undergoing induced hyperthermia for potential adverse effects, including cardiovascular instability, electrolyte imbalances, and infections, and manage these complications promptly to ensure patient safety during the procedure.

"Ice" is a slang term that is commonly used to refer to crystal methamphetamine, which is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant drug. It gets its name from its crystalline appearance. Medically, methamphetamine is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity, but only under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects.

Crystal methamphetamine, on the other hand, is an illegal drug that is produced and sold on the black market. It can be smoked, injected, snorted or swallowed, and it produces a euphoric rush followed by a long-lasting high. Long-term use of crystal methamphetamine can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, psychosis, dental problems (meth mouth), memory loss, aggression, and cardiovascular damage.

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

Eccrine glands are the most numerous type of sweat glands in the human body, found in virtually all skin locations. They play a crucial role in thermoregulation by producing a watery sweat that cools the body when it evaporates on the skin surface. These glands are distributed over the entire body, with a higher concentration on the soles of the feet, palms of the hands, and forehead.

Structurally, eccrine glands consist of two main parts: the coiled secretory portion located in the dermis and the straight duct that extends through the dermis and epidermis to reach the skin surface. The secretory portion is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium, while the duct is lined with a simple squamous or low cuboidal epithelium.

Eccrine glands are stimulated to produce sweat by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, particularly through the release of acetylcholine at the neuro-glandular junction. The sweat produced is primarily water with small amounts of electrolytes, such as sodium, chloride, and potassium. This composition helps maintain the body's electrolyte balance while facilitating heat loss during physical exertion or in hot environments.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic pain condition that most often affects a limb after an injury or trauma. It is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and sensitivity, along with changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling.

The symptoms of RSD/CRPS are thought to be caused by an overactive sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nerves are believed to send incorrect signals to the brain, causing it to perceive intense pain even in the absence of any actual tissue damage.

RSD/CRPS can be classified into two types: Type 1, which occurs after an injury or trauma that did not directly damage the nerves, and Type 2, which occurs after a distinct nerve injury. The symptoms of both types are similar, but Type 2 is typically more severe and may involve more widespread nerve damage.

Treatment for RSD/CRPS usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies such as spinal cord stimulation or sympathetic nerve blocks. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

In medical terms, sensation refers to the ability to perceive and interpret various stimuli from our environment through specialized receptor cells located throughout the body. These receptors convert physical stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, pressure, and chemicals into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via nerves. The brain then interprets these signals, allowing us to experience sensations like sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

There are two main types of sensations: exteroceptive and interoceptive. Exteroceptive sensations involve stimuli from outside the body, such as light, sound, and touch. Interoceptive sensations, on the other hand, refer to the perception of internal bodily sensations, such as hunger, thirst, heartbeat, or emotions.

Disorders in sensation can result from damage to the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. Examples include numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in specific body parts, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Protective gloves are a type of personal protective equipment (PPE) used to shield the hands from potential harm or contamination. They can be made from various materials such as latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl, or polyethylene and are designed to provide a barrier against chemicals, biological agents, radiation, or mechanical injuries. Protective gloves come in different types, including examination gloves, surgical gloves, chemical-resistant gloves, and heavy-duty work gloves, depending on the intended use and level of protection required.

East Asian traditional medicine (ETAM) refers to the traditional medical systems that have been practiced in China, Japan, Korea, and other countries in this region for centuries. The most well-known forms of ETAM are Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Kampo (Japanese traditional medicine), and Korean traditional medicine (KTM).

TCM is a comprehensive medical system that includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, dietary therapy, tuina (Chinese massage), and qigong (breathing exercises) among its modalities. TCM is based on the concept of balancing the flow of qi (vital energy) through a system of channels or meridians in the body.

Kampo is a Japanese adaptation of Chinese medicine that emphasizes the use of herbal formulas to treat illness and maintain health. Kampo practitioners often prescribe individualized herbal formulas based on the patient's unique pattern of symptoms, which are determined through careful diagnosis and examination.

KTM is a traditional Korean medical system that combines elements of Chinese and Japanese medicine with indigenous Korean practices. KTM includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, cupping, and various forms of manual therapy.

While ETAM has been practiced for centuries and has a rich cultural heritage, it is important to note that its safety and efficacy have not always been rigorously studied using modern scientific methods. As such, it is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before pursuing any form of traditional medicine.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

A bath generally refers to the act of immersing or cleaning the body in a mixture of water and sometimes other substances, such as soap or essential oils. In a medical context, there are several types of therapeutic baths that may be prescribed for various purposes:

1. Sitz bath: A shallow bath that only covers the hips and buttocks, used to treat conditions like hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or other localized infections.
2. Hydrotherapy bath: A therapeutic bath using water at different temperatures, pressures, or with added substances (e.g., Epsom salts, essential oils) for relaxation, pain relief, or to improve circulation and promote healing.
3. Balneotherapy: The use of mineral-rich waters from natural springs or artificial mineral baths for therapeutic purposes, often used in the treatment of skin conditions, arthritis, or musculoskeletal disorders.
4. Medicated bath: A bath with added medical substances (e.g., medicated oils, salts) to treat various skin conditions, promote relaxation, or relieve pain.
5. Whirlpool bath: A therapeutic bath using water jets to create a swirling motion and provide hydrotherapy benefits for relaxation, pain relief, or improved circulation.

It is essential to follow medical advice when taking therapeutic baths, as incorrect usage can lead to adverse effects.

A hot flash is a sudden, intense feeling of heat, particularly in the face, neck and chest regions, which is often accompanied by perspiration, reddening of the skin (flush or blush), and rapid heartbeat. It is a common symptom experienced by individuals, especially women during menopause or perimenopause, although it can also occur in other medical conditions or as a side effect of certain medications. The exact cause of hot flashes is not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to changes in hormone levels and the body's regulation of temperature.

Bicycling is defined in medical terms as the act of riding a bicycle. It involves the use of a two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled by pedaling, with the power being transferred to the rear wheel through a chain and sprocket system. Bicycling can be done for various purposes such as transportation, recreation, exercise, or sport.

Regular bicycling has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular fitness, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, reducing stress and anxiety, and helping with weight management. However, it is important to wear a helmet while bicycling to reduce the risk of head injury in case of an accident. Additionally, cyclists should follow traffic rules and be aware of their surroundings to ensure their safety and the safety of others on the road.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Cytostatic agents are a type of medication used in cancer treatment that work by inhibiting or suppressing the growth and division of cancer cells. Unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy, which kills cancer cells outright, cytostatic agents aim to keep cancer cells from dividing and multiplying, effectively halting or slowing down the progression of the disease.

These agents target specific pathways involved in cell division and growth, such as the cell cycle, DNA replication, or protein synthesis. By interfering with these processes, cytostatic agents can prevent cancer cells from multiplying while minimizing harm to healthy cells.

Examples of cytostatic agents include hormonal therapies, targeted therapies, and some types of immunotherapy. While cytostatic agents may not cure cancer, they can help manage the disease, improve quality of life, and extend survival for patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.

Sweat, also known as perspiration, is the fluid secreted by the sweat glands in human skin. It's primarily composed of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, potassium, and other electrolytes. Sweat helps regulate body temperature through the process of evaporation, where it absorbs heat from the skin as it turns from a liquid to a gas.

There are two types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are found all over the body and produce a watery, odorless sweat in response to heat, physical activity, or emotional stress. Apocrine glands, on the other hand, are mainly located in the armpits and groin area and become active during puberty. They produce a thicker, milky fluid that can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

It is important to note that while sweating is essential for maintaining normal body temperature and overall health, excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis can be a medical condition requiring treatment.

Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating beyond the normal requirement for thermoregulation. It can affect various parts of the body, but it primarily occurs in the palms, soles, underarms, and face. The sweating can be so profuse that it can interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress or embarrassment. Hyperhidrosis can be primary (idiopathic), meaning there is no underlying medical condition causing it, or secondary, due to a known cause such as anxiety, certain medications, infections, or medical conditions like diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the body's natural healing processes. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, energy (known as "qi" or "chi") flows through the body along pathways called meridians. Acupuncture is believed to help restore the flow of qi and improve the balance of the body's energy.

In modern medical practice, acupuncture is often used to treat pain, including chronic pain, muscle stiffness, and headaches. It is also sometimes used to treat conditions such as nausea and vomiting, insomnia, and addiction. The precise mechanism by which acupuncture works is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the release of natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins, as well as other physiological changes in the body. Acupuncture is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner, and side effects are typically mild and temporary.

The vasomotor system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that controls the diameter of blood vessels, particularly the smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles and precapillary sphincters. It regulates blood flow to different parts of the body by constricting or dilating these vessels. The vasomotor center located in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem controls the system, receiving input from various sensory receptors and modulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems' activity. Vasoconstriction decreases blood flow, while vasodilation increases it.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness and controls visceral functions. It is divided into two main subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations, often referred to as the "fight or flight" response. It increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolic rate, while also decreasing digestive activity. This response helps the body respond quickly to perceived threats.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS), on the other hand, promotes the "rest and digest" state, allowing the body to conserve energy and restore itself after the stress response has subsided. It decreases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while increasing digestive activity and promoting relaxation.

These two systems work together to maintain balance in the body by adjusting various functions based on internal and external demands. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, and cardiac arrhythmias, among others.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Transition temperature is a term used in the field of biophysics and physical chemistry, particularly in relation to the structure and properties of lipids and proteins. It does not have a specific application in general medicine or clinical practice. However, in the context of biophysics, transition temperature refers to the critical temperature at which a lipid bilayer or a protein molecule changes its phase or conformation.

For example, in the case of lipid bilayers, the transition temperature (Tm) is the temperature at which the membrane transitions from a gel phase to a liquid crystalline phase. In the gel phase, the lipid acyl chains are tightly packed and relatively immobile, while in the liquid crystalline phase, they are more disordered and can move more freely.

In the case of proteins, the transition temperature can refer to the temperature at which a protein undergoes a conformational change that affects its function or stability. For example, some proteins may denature or unfold at high temperatures, leading to a loss of function.

Overall, the transition temperature is an important concept in understanding how biological membranes and proteins respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors.

An arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis is a connection or short channel between an artery and a vein that bypasses the capillary bed. In a normal physiological condition, blood flows from the arteries to the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with the surrounding tissues, and then drains into veins. However, in an AV anastomosis, blood flows directly from the artery to the vein without passing through the capillary network.

AV anastomoses can occur naturally or be created surgically for various medical purposes. For example, they may be created during bypass surgery to reroute blood flow around a blocked or damaged vessel. In some cases, AV anastomoses may also develop as a result of certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). AVMs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can lead to the formation of an AV anastomosis.

It is important to note that while AV anastomoses can be beneficial in certain medical situations, they can also have negative consequences if they occur inappropriately or become too large. For example, excessive AV anastomoses can lead to high-flow shunts, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

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Body temperature 37 degrees Celsius. Skin of the face still weeping. - Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an ... Sixty minutes later the pulse was 106 per minute and the temperature was 39.4 degrees. Two hours later the temperature was 37.7 ... the temperature of the first rise after immersion, and the time until the temperature first rises after immersion. In a number ... whose pulse was 87 per minute and temperature was 35.4 degrees C, 30 minutes later the temperature rose to 38.6 degrees with ...
"Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation". Acta Physiologica. 210 (3): 498-507. doi:10.1111/apha.12231. PMC 4159593. PMID ... If the core temperature exceeds its optimal temperature greatly, blood flow is constricted to limit the amount of blood going ... If the ambient temperature is either 15 degrees above or below the optimal body temperature, the blood vessels will dilate. ... In a rabbit, the optimal body temperature is around 38.5-40 °C. If their body temperature exceeds or does not meet this optimal ...
Other common symptoms include changes in the skin texture, color, and temperature; changes in hair and nail growth; skin ... Visual changes in AMPS can include swelling; skin texture, color, and temperature changes; and changes in nail and hair growth ... Common symptoms of CRPS include musculoskeletal pain; swelling; changes to the skin texture, color, or temperature; and limited ... This type cannot include symptoms such as swelling; skin texture, color, or temperature changes; or perspiration. Observation ...
The skin becomes red, then purple. This is avoided by the two finger rule; where the tie is loose enough for two fingers to be ... The symptoms are numbness, temperature drop and color change. This happens gradually and tissue damage takes place slowly; if ... A crotch rope may be tied over clothing or directly onto the skin; it can be worn under clothing or in full view. While crotch ... Breast bondage can be applied over clothing or directly to the skin, and can be worn under clothing or in full view. 1⁄4 inch ( ...
Low skin percentage and skin thickness is 1 mm and very resistant. Cumbe Cuero Dechando Dedo de Dama Deliciosa Long-conical, ... Flavor suggests banana, sweetness varies with temperature while maturing. Mossman Ñamas Names Nata Tree vigorous, bears quickly ... Skin soft, practically edible. Flavor among the finest. Favourite Favourite Mt Fino de Jete Has skin type Impressa, are smooth ... Relatively thick skin, tan to yellow in maturity. Excellent organoleptic quality, with many seeds. Bronceada Mt Burtons Mt ...
... galvanic skin response, and body temperature. The bioinstrumentation required would add 3.5 pounds (1.6 kg) per crewmember, ... Mercury 7 was postponed a third time because of irregularities in the temperature control device on a heater in the Atlas ...
Satellite measurements of skin temperature (uppermost layer; a fraction of a millimetre thick) in the infrared or the top ... 2248 The temperature further below that is called ocean temperature or deeper ocean temperature. Ocean temperatures (more than ... Sea surface temperature (SST), or ocean surface temperature, is the ocean temperature close to the surface. The exact meaning ... Sea surface temperature (SST), or ocean surface temperature, is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact ...
Hjollund, Niels Henrik I.; Bonde, Jens Peter E.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Olsen, Jorn (1990). "Diurnal scrotal skin temperature and ... The compression of the genitals in briefs, boxer briefs, or thongs may cause the temperature to rise and sperm production to ... The testicles are outside the body for cooling because they operate for sperm production at a slightly lower temperature than ... Some studies have suggested that tight underpants (like briefs) and high temperature are not optimally conductive for sperm ...
Hjollund, Niels Henrik I.; Bonde, Jens Peter E.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Olsen, Jorn (1990). "Diurnal scrotal skin temperature and ... may cause the temperature to rise and sperm production to fall. There is a similar theory regarding testicular cancer risk. ... The testicles are outside the body for cooling because they operate for sperm production at a slightly lower temperature than ... Some studies have suggested that tight underpants like boxer briefs and high temperature are not optimally conductive for sperm ...
Others measure the temperature of the skin. However, some machines just use a random generator. Love meters could be found in ... Many love testers measure the moisture on the skin surface of the subject's hands by electrically testing the skin conductance ...
The arctic temperature compresses the heat and makes it visible. This gives them their pink skin. It is noticeable among the ... Turks were described as "broad faced people with small eyes", having light-colored, often reddish hair, and with pink skin, as ... This is because while they were warm their blood expanded, and then the cold temperature caused it to amass." Lee & Kuang (2017 ... According to Gardizi, the Kyrgyz were mixed with "Saqlabs" (Slavs), which explains the red hair and white skin among the Kyrgyz ...
It may ignite even at ambient temperatures. Above 32 °C (90 °F), explosive mixtures with air may be formed. Strong oxidizing ... Butyl propionate may irritate skin and eyes. Exposure to its vapor may cause eye and respiratory system irritation. Upon ...
Jin, Menglin (2004). "Analysis of Land Skin Temperature Using AVHRR Observations". Bulletin of the American Meteorological ... Atmospheric sounding Instrumental temperature record Sea surface temperature Temperature record National Research Council (U.S ... The resulting temperature profiles depend on details of the methods that are used to obtain temperatures from radiances. As a ... Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and ...
The ankle skin becomes sensitive to temperature changes. When weather is cold, ankle is cold, blue and often tender. In hot ...
Both variants include the skin, called pork rind. The pork rind is too hard to eat, but it is cooked in some traditional German ... It is typically served at room temperature. Black Forest bacon (German: Schwarzwälder Speck) is bacon produced the same way, ...
Mildrexler, David J.; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W. (2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". ... Desert climate Heat wave Highest temperatures ever recorded Lowest temperature recorded on Earth Lowest temperatures ever ... Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F). The theoretical maximum ... Mildrexler, David J.; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W. (2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". ...
Running, Steven W.; Zhao, Maosheng; Mildrexler, David J. (2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". ... Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C. A ground temperature of 84 °C (183.2 ° ... Europe: Highest Temperature Archived 29 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine WMO "Western Hemisphere: Lowest Temperature". Wmo.asu. ... Although this is not comparable to an air temperature, it is believed that the air temperature at this location would have been ...
"Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2011 (7): 855-860. ... Highest dew point temperature: A dew point of 35 °C (95 °F) - while the temperature was 42 °C (108 °F) - was observed at ... Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F). The highest natural ... See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details. It is reported by local news outlet that temperatures Mount Pulag which ...
Mildrexler, David J.; Zhao, Maosheng; Running, Steven W. (2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". ... The average temperature of July 2018 was 108.1 °F (42.3 °C), which is the highest temperature of any month for any place in the ... Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 50 to 90 °F (30 to 50 °C).) The former world record ... Furnace Creek had an average high temperature of 91.4 °F (33.0 °C) and an average low temperature of 62.9 °F (17.2 °C). During ...
Mildrexler, D.; M. Zhao; S. W. Running (2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth". Bull. Amer. Meteor. ... with land surface temperatures reaching 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), though the air temperature is cooler. The precision of measurements ... The surface of its sand has been measured at temperatures as high as 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), making it one of the world's driest ... Hottest Place On Earth (0:29) University of Montana scientists found Iran's Lut Desert reached the hottest temperature of ...
Running, Steven W.; Zhao, Maosheng; Mildrexler, David J. (July 2011). "Satellite Finds Highest Land Skin Temperatures on Earth ... One of the largest thermometers in China is on display adjacent to the mountain, tracking the surrounding ground temperatures. ... An unconfirmed soil surface temperature of 66.8 °C (152.2 °F) was estimated by satellite measurement in 2008. Keay, John (2000 ... The mountain climate is harsh and the extremely high summer temperatures make this the hottest spot in China, frequently ...
A lipodystrophy can be a lump or small dent in the skin that forms when a person performs injections repeatedly in the same ... "Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome". Journal of the ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Torrelo A, Patel S, ... where patients have loss of fatty tissue under the skin and build-up of fat elsewhere in the body such as in the liver and ...
... it was found that submersion in water allowing for a higher skin temperature resulted in worse skin maceration and pain. Trench ... is a skin condition of the feet seen after continuous immersion of the feet in water or mud of temperature above 22 °C (72 °F) ... Scarring is permanent with dry, thin skin that appears red for up to a year or more. The padding of the feet returns but ... Immersion foot syndromes are a class of foot injury caused by water absorption in the outer layer of skin. There are different ...
The heat-regulatory function of the hypothalamus is also affected by inputs from temperature receptors in the skin. High skin ... temperature is much larger than the response to the same increase in average skin temperature.[citation needed] Sweating causes ... Nadel ER, Bullard RW, Stolwijk JA (July 1971). "Importance of skin temperature in the regulation of sweating". Journal of ... As high energy molecules evaporate from the skin, releasing energy absorbed from the body, the skin and superficial vessels ...
It has exploded when heated to room temperature. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. It is irritating to ... eyes, respiratory system and skin. Ethyl azide is used for organic synthesis. Campbell, H. C.; Rice, O. K. (1935). "The ...
Sensory: Reports of hyperesthesia Vasomotor: Reports of temperature asymmetry and/or skin color changes and/or skin color ... changes in skin temperature (alternating between overly warm and cold); changes in skin colouring (from white and mottled to ... Wasner G, Schattschneider J, Baron R (July 2002). "Skin temperature side differences--a diagnostic tool for CRPS?". Pain. 98 (1 ... Evidence of temperature asymmetry (>1 °C) and/or skin color changes and/or asymmetry Sudomotor/Edema: Evidence of edema and/or ...
A multipath heart rate sensor boasts more accurate readings; a skin temperature sensor tracks sleep but not menstruation; while ...
Skin temperature is the temperature of the outermost surface of the body. Normal human skin temperature on the trunk of the ... At a given core temperature, higher skin temperature improves the sweat rate, whilst cooler skin temperature inhibits sweat ... Skin tissue itself is subject to a maintaining function within a range of tissue temperatures (skin temperature), which are the ... Temperatures of these parts typically are consistent with internal body temperature. Patterns in skin temperature often provide ...
SP can cause many clinical skin diseases, such as solar freckle-like nevus, solar keratosis, cutaneous melanoma, and squamous ... Preparation of Cod Skin Collagen Peptides/Chitosan-Based Temperature-Sensitive Gel and Its Anti-Photoaging Effect in Skin Drug ... Keywords: ROS/NF-κB; chitosan; cod skin collagen peptides; skin photoaging; temperature-sensitive gel. ... It also increased the moisture content, causing the skin to become glossy and elastic. Pathological skin analysis revealed that ...
... and screening for elevated skin temperatures. These highly configurable smart camera systems provide accurate, non-contact ... temperature monitoring across a wide range of disciplines: manufacturing process control, product development, emissions ... series camera to professionals using it in elevated skin temperature screening as an adjunct to other elevated body temperature ... FLIR Launches Smart Thermal Sensor Solution for Industrial Monitoring and Elevated Skin Temperature Screening. Initial ...
... utilizing Samsung Privileged Health SDK to obtain skin temperature measurement results. ... Get skin temperature status value * - Get wrist skin temperature value - its named "OBJECT_TEMPERATURE" in the library * - Get ... TEMPERATURE); } Initialization of skin temperature tracker. Before starting the measurement, initialize the skin temperature ... function and read skin temperature data from DataPoint. :. *Get skin temperature status using DataPoint. API (key: ValueKey. ...
Today a patent granted to Apple points to skin temperature sensors coming to AirPods... ... Back in January Bloombergs Mark Gurman tweeted that he believed that a temperature sensor would likely be the next sensor ... 4 s a flow diagram of a method of fabricating the skin temperature sensor package. ... In an embodiment, a temperature sensor package includes a routing layer (e.g. circuit board) including a top side and a bottom ...
2000 Skin temperatures during free-ranging swimming and diving in Antarctic fur seals. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203 (12 ... Temperature variability was measured at the surface of the skin of three Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at ... The study has shown that Antarctic fur seal skin temperature is highly dynamic and suggests that the thoracic surface is an ... Skin temperatures during free-ranging swimming and diving in Antarctic fur seals ...
Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue ... Mathur, Neha and Glesk, Ivan and Buis, Arjan (2015) Thermal time constant : improving the accuracy of skin temperature ... Text. Filename: Mathur_etal_POI2015_thermal_time_constant_improving_accuracy_skin_temperature.pdf Accepted Author Manuscript ... Thermal time constant : improving the accuracy of skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses ...
It would be great to see you at FLIR announce Smart Thermal Sensors for Industrial Monitoring and Elevated Skin Temperature ... Home » News » FLIR announce Smart Thermal Sensors for Industrial Monitoring and Elevated Skin Temperature Screening ... FLIR announce Smart Thermal Sensors for Industrial Monitoring and Elevated Skin Temperature Screening. April 9, 2020. Multipix ... Ideal for measuring elevated skin temperatures, they incorporate advanced measurement tools and alarms with edge computing to ...
Skin temperature data to predict cycle worked perfectly for about 8 days after the recent update on my Galaxy Watch 5, but it ... so it should be able to get the skin temperature data too. But when I go to watch to synchronise the temperature data, I get a ... Skin temperature data. in Wearables 10-09-2023. * Galaxy Watch default watch face not showing weather info. in Wearables 13-09- ... Skin temperature data to predict cycle worked perfectly for about 8 days after the recent update on my Galaxy Watch 5, but it ...
Wang, A., Barlage, M., Zeng, X., and Draper, C. S.: Comparison of land skin temperature from a land model, remote sensing, and ... Reichle, R., Kumar, S. V., Mahanama, S. P. P., Koster, R. D., and Liu, Q.: Assimilation of satellite-derived skin temperature ... Tsuang, B., Chou, M., Zhang, Y., Roesch, A., and Yang, K.: Evaluations of land ocean skin temperatures of the ISCCP satellite ... Bosilovich, M., Radakovich, J., Silva, A. D., Todling, R, and Verter, F.: Skin temperature analysis and bias correction in a ...
Skin sensor has very low thermal mass and so is ideal for measuring fast temperature changes and surface temperatures, such as ... Temperature Skin. £24.20. excl VAT. This sensor is ideal for measuring fast temperature changes and surface changes, due to its ... The Temperature Skin sensor has very low thermal mass and so is ideal for measuring fast temperature changes and surface ... Temperature Skin quantity. Add to basket. SKU: S1697 Category: Primary Sensors Tags: Biology, Core Practical, Environmental ...
Use this Reusable Skin Temperature Sensor to check the average skin temperature of your patients. The reusable sensor allows ... reusable temperature probe with male, mono plug connector. ... Reusable IR Skin Temperature Sensor to check the average skin ... Use this Reusable Skin Temperature Sensor to check the average skin temperature of your patients. The reusable sensor allows ... HomeMedical DevicesMedical Device AccessoriesPatient Monitoring AccessoriesReusable Skin Temperature Sensor. ...
We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we ... We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we ... We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we ... We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we ...
Our aims were to first develop standardised selection criteria to filter noisy time series of skin temperature and activity, to ... Here, we investigate such methods using simultaneous radio telemetry recordings of activity and skin temperature in a wild ... The estimates based on skin temperature varied between different approaches but were correlated to each other (onset: ... Currently, computational methods for deriving chronotype from skin temperature require further development, as time series are ...
SKIN TEMPERATURE PROBE (Disposable). For use with:. GE • OHMEDA • OHIO® MEDICAL - Giraffe® Incubator. (Infant Incubators & ... SKIN TEMPERATURE PROBE (Disposable). For use with:. GE • OHMEDA • OHIO® MEDICAL - Giraffe® Incubator. (Infant Incubators & ...
Chinas leading Intra Cavity Skin Temperature Sensor product, with strict quality control Mindray Temperature Sensor Probe ... High quality Reusable Mindray Intra Cavity Skin Temperature Probes from China, ... factories, producing high quality Mindray Temperature Sensor Probe products. ... Edan 10K Body Skin Temperature Probes For Medical Instruments Male / Mono Plug Connector Contact Now ...
... led to a record temperature of the surface of the oceans ... Keep your skin moisturized this fall with honey manuka … Skin ... When the ocean temperatures are as warm as they are now, ice melting happens, leading to an increase in ocean levels given ... How are the temperatures measured? Satellites take these readings about one meter (3.28 feet) below the surface. The results ... In early April, the average temperature of the oceans surface reached 69.98°/21.1°C. It beat the annual record of 69.8°/21° ...
A Wearable Skin Temperature Monitoring System for Early Detection of Infections. Baseline kin temperature measurement data ... from all 5 volunteers (subjects) who wore the wearable band for 3-5 days are included along with 5-day temperature measurement ... All the skin temperature and ambient temperature measurement and augmented (synthetic) data are in .csv file in each subfolder ... "A Wearable Skin Temperature Monitoring System for Early Detection of Infections". Baseline kin temperature measurement data ...
Galvinic Skin Response and Hand Temperature. Two biofeedback sensors I can probably get working faster than the EEG are hand ... Hand temperature biofeedback is mostly used to train relaxation. Adrenaline restricts bloodflow to the skin and hands, so by ... They are incredibly small, which gives them really fast response times and makes it easy to keep them around skin temperature. ... Sweating reduces skin resistance by providing a conductive channel into the skin. This effect happens in seconds, and is used ...
Keep your skin moisturized this fall with manuka … Skin Treatments / 9 hours ago. Manuka honey moisturizers can help restore ... Kay Ivey issues disaster designation for farmers affected by March cold temperatures by: Brett Greenberg ... From March 18 to March 20, the State of Alabama experienced "extreme cold temperatures resulting in total loss of blueberries ... "drop in temperatures during a period in March," according to a release. ...
Radiofrequency Facial tightening in Kiev with an automatic temperature control during treatment for proven results, efficacy ... Warming up the skin to a temperature of 40-60 ° C leads to the contraction of skin collagen molecules, like a spring. Thermal ... Each handpiece has a built-in sensor that detects the temperature in the skin, and the system controls that the temperature of ... Skin temperature control. The high power of the RF tightening system is combined with the presence of a dynamic thermal control ...
SpO2 & Skin Temperature. Spot changes in your blood oxygen levels and skin temperature to know more about your well-being.⁸ ... Device temperature sensor (skin temperature variation available in the Fitbit app).. Only available in the Fitbit app and only ... Significant changes in ambient temperature may negatively impact skin temperature tracking.. 9 Your compatible phone must be in ... After getting the band wet, we recommend drying the band because, as with any wearable device, its best for your skin if the ...
... cameras and screening software for the initial screening needed to help detect people with signs of elevated skin temperature, ... Screening for elevated skin temperature can both protect your staff and your customers from potential exposure to infection. ... Download The Complete Guidebook on Thermal Screening for Elevated Skin Temperature now and put yourself on the right track to ... Deployed for more than 17 years for elevated skin temperature screening, our recommended cameras are registered with the U.S. ...
YSI Compatible Reusable Temperature Probe at a low price. Excellent customer service + same-day shipping. Click now to verify ... 1 x YSI Compatible Reusable Temperature Probe Adult Skin Sensor has been added to your basket! View Basket or continue shopping ... CareFusion Compatible Disposable, Adhesive Temperature Probe Covers. Disposable, Adhesive Temperature Probe Covers Bag of 16. € ... CareFusion Compatible Disposable, Adhesive Temperature Probe Covers. Disposable, Adhesive Temperature Probe Covers Bag of 16. € ...
... room humidity and skin temperature in some body regions. Conclusion: The study established mean values for skin temperature in ... room humidity and skin temperature in some body regions. Conclusion: The study established mean values for skin temperature in ... room humidity and skin temperature in some body regions. Conclusion: The study established mean values for skin temperature in ... room humidity and skin temperature in some body regions. Conclusion: The study established mean values for skin temperature in ...
Mean skin temperature (MST) and thermal sensation (TS) were also recorded. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to ... Mean skin temperature (MST) and thermal sensation (TS) were also recorded. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to ... Mean Skin Temperature (MST). Skin temperatures were recorded using eight iButton skin thermochrons (Maxim Integrated, San Jose ... Mean Skin Temperature. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for condition [F(1,18) = 141.85, p , 0.001, η ... has one of the largest selections of new, used, and refurbished Temperature/Pressure equipment on the market. ... Find Temperature/Pressure Equipment For Sale, or Wanted from the worlds largest medical equipment marketplace. ... PACE TECH T-SKIN Patient Monitor Accessories For Sale. ... view more December 06 Asking Price:. $88 USD ... Temperature/pressure medical equipment refers to a range of devices designed to measure and monitor temperature and pressure in ...
... thermal screening solution detects and visualizes heat to quickly identify individuals with an elevated skin temperature. ... FLIR T560-EST Handheld Elevated Skin Temperature Screening Solution. FLIR T560-EST Handheld Elevated Skin Temperature Screening ... Decrease quantity for FLIR T560-EST Handheld Elevated Skin Temperature Screening Solution Increase quantity for FLIR T560-EST ...
Xiaomi Watch S2 can measure body composition and skin temperature. It has 2 buttons on the side capable of measuring your body ... According to Xiaomi, the Watch S2 also has the ability to measure skin temperature. In addition, you have your expected heart ...
  • ARLINGTON, Va. March 31, 2020 - FLIR Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: FLIR) today announced the FLIR A400/A700 Thermal Smart Sensor and Thermal Image Streaming fixed camera solutions for monitoring equipment, production lines, critical infrastructure, and screening for elevated skin temperatures. (
  • The Thermal Smart Sensor configuration, recommended for measuring elevated skin temperatures, incorporates advanced measurement tools and alarms with edge computing to enable faster critical decisions. (
  • Back in January Bloomberg's Mark Gurman tweeted that he believed that a temperature sensor would likely be the next sensor coming to Apple Watch. (
  • Body temperature should be next sensor. (
  • Today, the U.S. Patent Office granted Apple a patent titled 'Packaging technologies for temperature sensing in health care products,' which oddly points to AirPods and another wearable device described as one in which a temperature sensor package is secured within a fabric. (
  • FIG. 4 s a flow diagram of a method of fabricating the skin temperature sensor package. (
  • Embodiments in Apple's granted patent describe temperature sensor packages, methods of fabrication, and products incorporating such packages. (
  • In particular, embodiments describe temperature sensor packaging solutions that can be embedded into wearable heath devices for sensing temperature, such as skin temperature. (
  • In an embodiment, a temperature sensor package includes a routing layer, a chip (such as a digital controller) mounted face down on the routing layer, an insulating layer that encapsulates the chip on the routing layer, and a plurality of through vias through the insulating layer. (
  • An electrically conductive sensor pattern such as a resistance temperature detector (RTD) pattern or thermocouple is located over the insulating layer and is coupled to the plurality of through vias. (
  • In an embodiment, a temperature sensor package includes a routing layer that includes a chip contact area and a touch area adjacent the chip contact area. (
  • In another aspect, an infrared (IR) temperature sensor package is described. (
  • In an embodiment, a temperature sensor package includes a routing layer (e.g. circuit board) including a top side and a bottom side. (
  • Multipix launch the new FLIR A400/A700 Thermal Smart Sensor and Thermal Image Streaming fixed camera solutions for monitoring equipment, production lines, critical infrastructure and screening for elevated skin temperatures. (
  • This sensor is ideal for measuring fast temperature changes and surface changes, due to its low thermal mass. (
  • The Temperature Skin sensor has very low thermal mass and so is ideal for measuring fast temperature changes and surface temperatures, such as skin. (
  • Use this Reusable Skin Temperature Sensor to check the average skin temperature of your patients. (
  • This Reusable Skin Temperature Sensor is a highly accurate, reusable thermistor sensor that can be used in either medical or veterinary applications. (
  • REUSABLE: The Skin Temperature Sensor is reusable so that you can use it repeatedly. (
  • Our temperature sensor is reliable and durable, designed to last you years. (
  • We are a professional manufacturer for compatible spo2 sensor, ECG/EKG cable, NIBP/IBP cable, Temperature probe with good quality and competitive price. (
  • Each handpiece has a built-in sensor that detects the temperature in the skin, and the system controls that the temperature of the skin warming up is kept within the specified range. (
  • Device temperature sensor (skin temperature variation available in the Fitbit app). (
  • 1 x YSI Compatible Reusable Temperature Probe Adult Skin Sensor has been added to your basket! (
  • WHOOP 4.0 includes a skin temperature sensor that allows you to track your daily skin temperature in the new Health Monitor feature. (
  • 1 x CAS Med Compatible Disposable Temperature Probe Skin Sensor Box of 25 has been added to your cart! (
  • The TMP sensor acts as a temperature gauge for your skin, capturing its surface temperature. (
  • Additionally, the ventral EDA sensor detects subtle changes in skin electrical conductance, offering valuable insights into emotional states and stress levels, and empowering users to manage their mental well-being effectively. (
  • The Air Force Phase I STTR program would develop and demonstrate high temperature version of 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis flow characterization on air breathing hypersonic engines. (
  • Temperature measurement (thermometry) of the skin surface is a job that can be performed by several technologies. (
  • Create a health app for Galaxy Watch, operating on Wear OS powered by Samsung, utilizing Samsung Privileged Health SDK to obtain skin temperature measurement results. (
  • Ideal for measuring elevated skin temperatures, they incorporate advanced measurement tools and alarms with edge computing to enable faster critical decision making. (
  • Baseline kin temperature measurement data from all 5 volunteers (subjects) who wore the wearable band for 3-5 days are included along with 5-day temperature measurement data with anomalies of one volunteer who wore both the smart band and a heating pad. (
  • All the skin temperature and ambient temperature measurement and augmented (synthetic) data are in .csv file in each subfolder. (
  • Temperature measurement devices such as thermometers are commonly used to assess body temperature, detect fever, and monitor patients during surgeries or critical care. (
  • Samsung Electronics has announced that it is adding skin temperature measurement to its existing calendar-based Cycle Tracking feature for the Galaxy Watch5 and Galaxy Watch5 Pro . (
  • The addition of skin temperature measurement to the Cycle Tracking feature is a significant improvement in Samsung's efforts to offer women's health monitoring features in its smartwatch products. (
  • In this regard, the special temperature-sensitive paint developed for this study shows advantages with respect to more traditional wall temperature measurement techniques. (
  • As the world works together to face the global COVID-19 pandemic, given the need for this technology, FLIR will prioritize initial deliveries of this new A-series camera to professionals using it in elevated skin temperature screening as an adjunct to other elevated body temperature screening tools to help to fight the spread of the virus. (
  • Also, FLIR currently is in beta testing for an automated elevated skin temperature screening software solution that is fully integrated with its United States Food and Drug Administration-certified thermal cameras. (
  • FLIR have announce they will prioritise initial deliveries of this new A-series camera to professionals using it in elevated skin temperature screening and COVID-19 applications. (
  • It would be great to see you at FLIR announce Smart Thermal Sensors for Industrial Monitoring and Elevated Skin Temperature Screening, let us know your details so we know you'll be there. (
  • Deployed for more than 17 years for elevated skin temperature screening, our recommended cameras are registered with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (
  • From our free training resources for deployments, to the Infrared Training Center® certificate program for elevated skin temperature screening - we've got you covered. (
  • Skin temperature is the temperature of the outermost surface of the body. (
  • Normal human skin temperature on the trunk of the body varies between 33.5 and 36.9 °C (92.3 and 98.4 °F), though the skin's temperature is lower over protruding parts, like the nose, and higher over muscles and active organs. (
  • Although it is not a clear indicator of internal body temperature, skin temperature is significant in assessing the healthy function of skin. (
  • Temperatures of these parts typically are consistent with internal body temperature. (
  • Skin is the largest of the human body's organs, making up approximately 15-16% of total adult body weight. (
  • Consequently, a uniform temperature is not typically maintained by skin as a whole, as demonstrated by inconsistencies between different regions of the body even in spite of measurements taken under various external conditions. (
  • Lower temperatures are characteristically observed in proximity to superficial veins, relative to superficial arteries, and over protruding body parts including the toes, fingers, ears and nose. (
  • Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health [1]. (
  • In contrast, rhythmic patterns in physiological processes, such as body temperature, may provide more robust insights into the circadian basis of chronotypes. (
  • Diel rhythms not only occur in behaviour, but also in physiological processes, such as metabolic rate, immune defence and body temperature. (
  • For the most part, the resistance inside the body is low enough not to matter when measuring galvinic skin response. (
  • Thermal imaging solutions from FLIR can help screen for elevated body/skin temperature - a possible sign of infection. (
  • Objective: To identify the skin temperature in different body areas of hospitalized individuals in the surgical unit, without risk of developing a pressure ulcer (PU). (
  • Temperature was measured at the bony prominences including scapula, elbow, trochanters and heels, on both sides of the body, as well as occipital and sacral regions. (
  • All regions of the body measured presented differences in temperatures. (
  • There was a symmetry in temperatures on both sides of the body. (
  • There was a low degree of correlation between age, room temperature, room humidity and skin temperature in some body regions. (
  • Conclusion: The study established mean values for skin temperature in specific body regions in patients without risk of developing a PU, hospitalised in a surgical unit. (
  • Skin temperature plays a major role in regulating your body temperature and can increase and decrease daily. (
  • Learn how tracking your skin temperature can help you better understand your body. (
  • Having such large surface volume means that your skin plays a significant role in regulating your body temperature. (
  • This action allows your core temperature to slowly decrease, starting the sleep cycle, and prepares the body for other natural processes such as producing hormones, cell regeneration and immune system responses. (
  • Additionally, in cold conditions your body can draw heat away from the skin to keep your core temperature stable. (
  • Significantly low skin temperature may mean you are suffering from hypothermia, and the body is drawing off surface heat to keep your core temperature high. (
  • With the integration of Natural Cycles, the Cycle Tracking feature allows users to track skin temperature changes, which is a good estimate of basal body temperature during sleep right from their wrist. (
  • These devices can measure parameters such as heart rate, skin conductance, body temperature, and even sleep patterns. (
  • Infants, especially newborns, may get fevers if they're overdressed, wrapped in a blanket, or in a hot environment because they don't regulate their body temperature as well as older kids. (
  • A child who is teething might have a slight rise in body temperature, but it's probably not the cause if the temperature is higher than 100°F (37.8°C). (
  • Different ways of taking the temperature are more accurate than others at measuring the true body temperature. (
  • It occurs when the body can no longer control its temperature: the body's temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism fails, and the body is unable to cool down. (
  • When heat stroke occurs, the body temperature can rise to 106°F or higher within 10 to 15 minutes. (
  • Internal body temperature. (
  • In addition to dizziness, core body temperature may increase, which may lead to other symptoms (see list below) (NIOSH, 2016). (
  • In general, a fever means the body's temperature is 100.4°F (38°C) or higher. (
  • One for one replacement for YSI-400 Series thermistor temperature probes. (
  • Surface skin temperature in humans varies alongside ambient temperature, internal temperature and conditions affecting both the skin and underlying structures. (
  • Skin contains an array of thermoreceptors, which do not respond to the absolute ambient temperature, but rather to the rate of temperature change, where heat is exchanged between skin and the surrounding environment. (
  • Significant changes in ambient temperature may negatively impact skin temperature tracking. (
  • The heater has varied the sample temperature from ambient to 328 K, and the paint has permitted wall temperature measurements on the same area of the skin-friction measurements and during the same test. (
  • Since these resistances are directly related to skin temperature, we now have a relationship between ambient temperature and relative humidity versus skin (or apparent) temperature. (
  • Environmental factors, such as humidity and temperature, have a profound effect on the amount of water retained within the skin. (
  • External factors include cold temperatures and low humidity, especially during the winter when central heaters are used. (
  • The major means of heat dissipation are radiation while at rest and evaporation of sweat during exercise, both of which become minimal when air temperatures are above 95°F (35°C) and humidity is high. (
  • A function of the vapor-pressure difference across the skin (and, therefore, relative humidity). (
  • As a result of this procedure, there is a base relative humidity at which an apparent temperature (e.g., 90°F) 'feels' like the same air temperature (90°F). Increasing (decreasing) humidity and temperature result in increasing (decreasing) apparent temperature, and, yes, apparent temperature can be lower than air temperature. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of factors such as temperature, relative humidity and physical exertion on the skin perspiration/moisture levels and subjective perceived discomfort ratings. (
  • The skin conductance increased significantly with the increase in the temperature, relative humidity and presence of physical exertion. (
  • Other notable influences on skin surface temperature include instances of heat stress (in which significant portions of cardiac output are directed to the skin), lowered skinfold thickness (contributes to significantly greater surface temperature variation during exercise) and local thermal control of cutaneous blood vessels (local heating may prompt vasodilation whilst local cooling decreases blood flow to the skin). (
  • Pathological skin analysis revealed that this peptide-carrying gel can effectively inhibit epidermal thickening, reduce tissue inflammatory infiltration, suppress collagen fiber degradation, increase the collagen content, alleviate structural elastic fiber damage, and significantly inhibit abnormal MMP-3 expression. (
  • It can be significantly lower than your core temperature in the limbs and extremities. (
  • Fossil fuels burnt also tend to create fires or warm up the temperature significantly. (
  • Similar results were found for total sperm count, FSH, and inhibin B. Motility, morphology, pH, and testosterone were not significantly associated with temperature. (
  • Depends upon body's core temperature and salinity. (
  • The M8 Vital Signs Monitor uses a combination of non-contact sensors and cuff-based measurements to provide accurate results for temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and O2 sats in just seconds. (
  • While high temperature measurements usually use thermocouples, the easiest way to measure hand temperature is by using thermistors . (
  • Wind-tunnel skin-friction measurements with thin-oil-film interferometry have been taken on an aluminum sample to investigate the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of the technique. (
  • This comparison shows that the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of skin-friction measurements are sensible, and more so as wall temperature differs from 298 K. Nonetheless, they are effectively neutralized by the use of wall temperature measurements in combination with the correct oil viscosity-temperature law. (
  • Because malathion has a low vapor pressure, significant inhalation is unlikely at ordinary temperatures. (
  • Photoaging decreases quality of life and increases the risk of skin cancer, underscoring the urgent need to explore natural, high-efficacy, anti-skin photoaging (SP) active substances. (
  • When the handpiece is moved to a low-temperature area of ​​skin, the system automatically increases power for effective warming. (
  • Also, blood circulation in the skin increases, the skin receives more oxygen and nutrients, metabolic processes increase. (
  • With each procedure, you will see that the skin looks more toned, its elasticity increases, and the severity of wrinkles decreases. (
  • More and more men have a sedentary work position, which increases scrotal temperature. (
  • As radiation and convection from the skin increases, this value decreases. (
  • Ultrasound-guided lateral infraclavicular block evaluated by infrared thermography and distal skin temperature. (
  • Normal skin temperature for healthy adults ranges between 92.3 and 98.4 Fahrenheit or 33-37 Celsius, far lower than the 98.6 F average core temp. (
  • Study of skin conductance and perceived discomfort of the hand/finger system under controlled atmospheric conditions. (
  • The skin perspiration/moisture was measured using skin conductance meter. (
  • For the trials with physical exertion, the skin conductance was higher than similar trials with no physical exertion. (
  • Skin acts as both a medium and means for delivering mechanisms of thermoregulation, including insulation, sweating and control of blood flow. (
  • The study has shown that Antarctic fur seal skin temperature is highly dynamic and suggests that the thoracic surface is an organ used for active thermoregulation. (
  • When the ocean temperatures are as warm as they are now, ice melting happens, leading to an increase in ocean levels given water expands as it heats. (
  • believe the physiological significance of skin temperature has been overlooked, because clinical analysis has favoured measuring temperatures of the mouth, armpit, and/or rectum. (
  • Different ways of measuring a temperature - rectal, armpit, ear, forehead, mouth - get a slightly different number, so the number that means a child has a fever is a little different too. (
  • The tool, which will track skin temperature overnight, looks set to be a new addition to your device's suite of sleep-tracking tools, and should give you some interesting insights into your overall health. (
  • It was reported that 2023 bested 2016, the last year a global water temperature record was set. (
  • The measured wall temperatures have been used to calculate the correct oil viscosities, and these viscosities and the constant nominal viscosity at 298 K have been used to calculate two different sets of skin-friction coefficients. (
  • Skin temperature data to predict cycle worked perfectly for about 8 days after the recent update on my Galaxy Watch 5, but it suddenly stopped working. (
  • Interactions between skin and temperature occur constantly in relation to each of these functions and often hold considerable medical and physiological significance. (
  • Certain physiological changes and medical conditions may cause dry skin. (
  • Key types of skin-surface thermometers include infrared thermometers and thermistors. (
  • The surface of the organ exhibits significant regional temperature variation and often survives thermal extremities that would prove damaging to internal organs. (
  • Meanwhile, skin surface temperature has been observed to be higher over active organs rather than those at rest, as well as over muscles rather than tendons or bones. (
  • AUSTIN (KXAN) - Sea surface temperatures have been rising steadily due, in part, to climate change. (
  • In early April, the average temperature of the ocean's surface reached 69.98°/21.1°C. It beat the annual record of 69.8°/21° set in March 2016 and is half a degree above the global average in the 30-year period from 1982 to 2011. (
  • The peak in early April got its start in previous years, including 2022, which was another hot year for sea-surface temperatures. (
  • But our warming climate has contributed to this rise because the oceans have taken on a significant amount of unusual heat caused by the rise in greenhouse-gas emissions, leading to the rise in the global sea-surface temperature and that 69.98° record. (
  • The surface volume of skin means there are regional variations in temperature. (
  • Sea surface temperatures globally have broken records this year. (
  • A ratio that depends upon skin surface area. (
  • Angle between vectors influences convection from skin surface (below). (
  • Because of their relatively larger surface area:weight ratio, children are more vulnerable to toxicants absorbed through the skin. (
  • The effects of climate change range from rapid flooding to extremely humid temperatures. (
  • Heat rash is a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather. (
  • WHOOP uses data from your previous 90 nights to personalize a baseline for your skin temperature. (
  • Back in February one watch owner spotted a new section in the Garmin Connect app for monitoring overnight temperature, and in March another user noticed code in the app for displaying temperature trends and messages while your watch is calculating a baseline. (
  • There are three important aspects of the relationship between skin and temperature: Thermal sensations can be detected and communicated from localised sensory regions of the skin. (
  • This leads to a hypothesis that if the thermal properties of the socket & liner materials are known then the in-socket skin temperature could be accurately predicted by measuring between the socket and interface liner, rather than at the more technically challenging skin interface. (
  • Thermal action stimulates the natural reparative processes of the skin, which leads to skin tightening and the synthesis of new collagen. (
  • Download The Complete Guidebook on Thermal Screening for Elevated Skin Temperature now and put yourself on the right track to deploying the right solution to protect your frontline from the spread of infection. (
  • Mean skin temperature (MST) and thermal sensation (TS) were also recorded. (
  • The three primary functions performed by skin are protection, regulation and sensation. (
  • SP can cause many clinical skin diseases, such as solar freckle-like nevus, solar keratosis, cutaneous melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Skin deep: enhanced sleep depth by cutaneous temperature manipulation. (
  • It also demonstrates how skin temperature can be used as a clinical parameter in practice to support the prevention of PUs. (
  • The simplest way to measure skin resistance is to put a current through two electrodes in contact with the skin and measure the voltage difference. (
  • Temperature/pressure medical equipment refers to a range of devices designed to measure and monitor temperature and pressure in healthcare settings. (
  • According to Xiaomi, the Watch S2 also has the ability to measure skin temperature. (
  • By an iterative procedure which relies on the assumptions in the first list, the model is reduced to a relationship between dry bulb temperature (at different humidities) and the skin's resistance to heat and moisture transfer. (
  • infection with axillary temperature, bone pain, and headache. (
  • Patterns in skin temperature often provide crucial diagnostic data on pathological conditions, ranging from locomotion to vascular diseases. (
  • The world is going through variable temperatures and unpredictable weather patterns as of late. (
  • Four distinct patterns of skin temperature changes were revealed with highly significant changes in temperature , depending on block success. (
  • Skin temperature is a crucial aspect of human physiology and often plays a significant role in affecting thermoregulatory processes. (
  • From March 18 to March 20, the State of Alabama experienced "extreme cold temperatures resulting in total loss of blueberries in southwest Alabama and a significant loss of peaches in central Alabama. (
  • Inhalation is not a significant route of exposure to malathion at ordinary temperatures because of its low volatility, but toxic effects can occur after inhalation of malathion sprays or dusts. (
  • A significant interaction effect of temperature and exertion on perceived discomfort was also observed. (
  • Compared with CSCPs alone, the CS/CSCPs/β-GP gel more evidently improved typical photoaging characteristics on mouse dorsal skin. (
  • Scientists say average winter temperatures on Greenland's west coast have increased by about 9 degrees Fahrenheit over the past 15 years, making it one of the fastest-warming places on the planet. (
  • To track the data with the SDK, the device must support skin temperature, like the Galaxy Watch5. (
  • EXCELLENT BUILD: The device has excellent build quality, allowing effective and reliable temperature monitoring. (
  • The price range for temperature/pressure medical equipment can vary depending on the complexity and features of the device. (
  • Metallic Mercury is a dense liquid that vaporizes easily at room temperature. (
  • However, it vaporizes, even at room temperature. (
  • At room temperature, it is a combustible yellow to deep brown liquid that may be difficult to ignite. (
  • At room temperature, malathion is a yellow to deep brown liquid with an odor of garlic. (
  • High skin temperature may indicate fever or illness, but it may simply mean you are too close to a heat source, or you had too many blankets over you while you slept. (
  • What Is a Fever (High Temperature)? (
  • What Causes Fever (High Temperature)? (
  • When Is a Fever (High Temperature) a Sign of Something Serious? (
  • What Are the Signs of a Fever (High Temperature)? (
  • For any of these signs, take your child's temperature to know if they really have a fever. (
  • Treating a Fever (High Temperature): How Can I Help My Child Feel Better? (
  • That was especially apparent in 2022, leading to 68 days of triple-digit high temperatures. (
  • due to intense heating by high-frequency currents, metabolic processes in the skin and collagen synthesis increase. (
  • What Does High or Low Skin Temperature Mean? (
  • For example, if your skin temperature registers as high even on cold nights, you might consider taking off a blanket or turning on a fan. (
  • Ultra-hot Jupiters-named as such because of their physical similarities to the planet Jupiter-are exoplanets that orbit stars other than the sun with temperatures so high that the molecules in their atmospheres are completely torn apart . (
  • A high scrotal temperature is a common finding in infertile patients and experimental studies indicate that specific types of heat exposure reduce semen quality. (
  • A negative correlation was found between high scrotal temperature and sperm output. (
  • Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. (
  • This study tests the hypothesis that an endothermic homeotherm should minimise heat flux in cold polar waters by minimising skin temperature. (
  • This study investigates the formation mechanism of a tropopause cirrus cloud layer observed at extremely cold temperatures over Hyderabad in India during the 2017 Asian summer monsoon using balloon-borne sensors. (
  • For example, cold , dry air when heated by a furnace will produce dry skin by evaporating moisture on the skin. (
  • Regions with wide temperature fluctuation present risk for both heat and cold problems. (
  • Two biofeedback sensors I can probably get working faster than the EEG are hand temperature and galvinic skin response. (
  • Wearable blood pressure monitors use clever optical sensors to peek beneath your skin and estimate your blood pressure. (
  • Screening for elevated skin temperature can both protect your staff and your customers from potential exposure to infection. (
  • Here, we investigate such methods using simultaneous radio telemetry recordings of activity and skin temperature in a wild songbird model (Great Tit Parus major ) temporarily kept in outdoor aviaries. (
  • Skin tissue itself is subject to a maintaining function within a range of tissue temperatures (skin temperature), which are the result of several factors including heat loss from subcutaneous tissues via radiation, conduction and vaporisation of water. (
  • Looking at a global contrast, mean air temperatures trend cooler, allowing for more heat to accumulate deep in the oceans. (
  • decline in cognitive performance is larger when the air temperature is below 11.1°C than under heat stressor, indicating that cognitive performance may be worse in winter than in other seasons. (
  • and the skin, where sweating and heat exchange take place. (
  • Many chronic illnesses limit tolerance to heat and predispose people to heat-related illness, most importantly, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal disease, certain medications, and extensive skin disorders or scarring that limit sweating. (
  • Prickly heat (miliaria or heat rash) manifests as small, red, raised itchy bumps on the skin and is caused by obstruction of the sweat ducts. (
  • The Heat Index (or apparent temperature) is the result of extensive biometeorological studies. (
  • Malathion is rapidly absorbed by ingestion and through intact skin and the eyes, resulting in acute systemic toxicity. (
  • Since in animal and human studies skin warming has been found to increase neuronal activity in brain areas that are critically involved in sleep regulation, we investigated whether subtle skin temperature manipulations could improve human sleep. (
  • Pneumonia, UTI, ulcers, skin degradation, peritonitis - throw one of these subtle "past pertinent medical history" sample components into your patient's history and you're surely on the right track toward building the case for sepsis. (
  • The lipid portion of the epidermis along with specific epidermal proteins (for example, filaggrin) helps prevent skin dehydration . (
  • Temperature and heart rate increase in direct proportion to the level of dehydration. (
  • It also increased the moisture content, causing the skin to become glossy and elastic. (
  • When there are deficient proteins and/or lipids , the skin moisture evaporates more easily. (
  • Warming up the skin to a temperature of 40-60 ° C leads to the contraction of skin collagen molecules, like a spring. (
  • RF currents in the skin cause the collagen molecules to shrink. (
  • Occasionally, a dry skin problem can be a sign of an internal medical condition. (
  • Sweating reduces skin resistance by providing a conductive channel into the skin. (
  • In the morning of the second day after apheresis, the platelet count dropped, procalcitonine level was elevated, C-reactive protein level was elevated, and a slight skin rash developed. (