Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin DiseasesSkin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Skin UlcerSkin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.FinlandCosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Libraries, MedicalHelsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)BooksAmaranth Dye: A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Temperature regulation and heat dissipation during flight in birds. (1/1118)

Core and skin temperature were measured by radiotelemetry in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) during 30 min flights in a wind tunnel. Core temperature was independent of ambient temperature from 0 to 28 degrees C. The temporal mean of the monitored core temperature during flight was 42-7 degrees C in one bird and 44-0 degrees C in another. These temperatures are 2-4 degrees C higher than the resting temperature in starlings, and are among the highest steady-state temperatures observed in any animal. Skin temperature on the breast was within a few degrees of core temperature. In some locations skin temperature was higher at low ambient temperatures than at intermediate ambient temperatures. An analysis of the data shows that a high core temperature does not function as an aid to head dissipation. On the contrary, insulation is adjusted to maintain a high temperature, presumably because it is necessary for flight. The increase in skin temperature at low ambient temperatures is believed to be a result of a decrease in heat flow through the breast feathers brought about by feather adjustments, to compensate for an unavoidable increase in heat flow in unfeathered or poorly feathered parts of the body.  (+info)

Topical gene delivery to murine skin. (2/1118)

We topically applied naked plasmid DNA containing the luciferase or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase cDNA directly to mouse skin. Gene expression was detected in skin samples as early as 4 h after DNA application, plateaued from 16 to 72 h post-application, and had decreased significantly by 7 d post-application. Reporter gene activity following topical DNA delivery was comparable with that produced by intradermal injection of DNA. Plasmid DNA at concentrations > or =0.25 microg per microl were required to achieve maximal expression levels. Reporter gene expression following topical administration was largely confined to the superficial layers of the epidermis and to hair follicles. Surprisingly, certain cationic liposomes inhibited the efficiency of cutaneous gene transfer. This technique provides a simple, clinically relevant approach to deliver genes to the skin, with potential application in treating a variety of cutaneous disorders.  (+info)

UVA exposure of human skin reconstructed in vitro induces apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts: subsequent connective tissue repair and implications in photoaging. (3/1118)

The skin reconstructed in vitro has been previously shown to be a useful model to investigate the effects of UVB exposure (Bernerd and Asselineau, 1997). The present study describes the response to UVA irradiation. Major alterations were observed within the dermal compartment. Apoptosis of fibroblasts located in the superficial area of the dermal equivalent was observed as soon as 6 h after irradiation, leading to their disappearance after 48 h. This effect was obtained without major alterations of epidermal keratinocytes suggesting a differential cell type sensitivity to UVA radiations. In addition, collagenase I was secreted by dermal fibroblasts. The UVA dermal effects could be observed even after removal of the epidermis during the post irradiation period, demonstrating that they were independent of the keratinocyte response. The analysis of the tissue regeneration during the following 2 weeks revealed a connective tissue repair via fibroblasts proliferation, migration and active synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and procollagen I. This cellular recolonization of the superficial part of the dermal equivalent was due to activation of surviving fibroblasts located deeply in the dermal equivalent. The direct damage in the dermis and the subsequent connective tissue repair may contribute to the formation of UVA-induced dermal alterations.  (+info)

Time-dependent ultrastructural changes to porcine stratum corneum following an electric pulse. (4/1118)

The morphological changes to heat-stripped porcine stratum corneum following an electroporating pulse were studied by time-resolved freeze fracture electron microscopy. Pulses at a supra-electroporation threshold of 80 volts and 300 microseconds were applied across the stratum corneum with a pair of copper plate electrodes, which also served as cooling contacts. Multilamellar vesicles of 0.1-5.5 mm in diameter in the intercellular lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum appeared in less than milliseconds after pulsing. Pulsed samples exhibited aggregations of vesicles, whereas only occasional single vesicles were seen in the unpulsed samples. Aggregates form in less than a millisecond and disappear within minutes after the pulse. Their size ranged from 0.3 to 700 mm2. The size of individual vesicles, aggregate density, and size were analyzed as functions of postpulse time. These aggregate formations seem to be a secondary reaction to the pulse-induced skin permeabilization, determined by the resistance drop and recovery after the pulse. Heating the samples to 65 degrees C also caused vesicle aggregates of similar appearance to form, suggesting that these aggregations are related to the heating effect of the pulse. Hydration is thought to play an important role in aggregate formation.  (+info)

Keratinocyte growth regulation in fibroblast cocultures via a double paracrine mechanism. (5/1118)

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play an important role in regulating tissue homeostasis and repair. For skin, the regulatory mechanisms of epidermal-dermal interactions were studied in cocultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NEK) and dermal fibroblasts (HDF) rendered postmitotic by alpha-irradiation (HDFi). The expression kinetics of different cytokines and their receptors with presumed signalling function in skin were determined at the RNA and protein level in mono- and cocultured NEK and HDFi. In cocultured HDFi, mRNA and protein synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) (FGF-7) was strongly enhanced, whereas in cocultured keratinocytes interleukin (IL)-1alpha and -1beta mRNA expression increased compared to monocultures. Thus we postulated that IL-1, which had no effect on keratinocyte proliferation, induced in fibroblasts the expression of factors stimulating keratinocyte proliferation, such as KGF. The functional significance of this reciprocal modulation was substantiated by blocking experiments. Both IL-1alpha and -1beta-neutralizing antibodies and IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferation supposedly through abrogation of KGF production, because IL-1 antibodies blocked the induced KGF production. These data indicate a regulation of keratinocyte growth by a double paracrine mechanism through release of IL-1 which induces KGF in cocultured fibroblasts. Thus IL-1, in addition to its proinflammatory function in skin, may play an essential role in regulating tissue homeostasis.  (+info)

Injection of pre-psoriatic skin with CD4+ T cells induces psoriasis. (6/1118)

Psoriasis is an immunologically mediated skin disease linked to several different class I major histocompatibility complex alleles. However, the phenotype of the pathogenic lymphocyte and nature of the T cell activating event which triggers conversion of symptomless (PN) skin into psoriatic plaques (PP skin) is unknown. This study extends our previous observations in which autologous blood-derived immunocytes were injected into PN skin engrafted onto SCID mice to produce full-fledged PP lesions. The first question addressed is whether injected CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells were responsible for phenotypic conversion of PN to PP skin. In five different patients only CD4+ but not CD8+ T cell lines produced psoriatic lesions. Next, immunological events occurring within PN skin following injection of CD4+ T cells in grafts that had sufficient tissue available for detailed analysis was examined. In two patients, intraepidermal resident CD8+ T cells were induced to proliferate during lesion development, expressing acute activation markers CD25 and CD69. In another patient, injection of CD4+ T cells revealed CD69 expression by intraepidermal CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. To explore the molecular basis for local T cell activation and proliferation, we discovered that intraepidermal immunocytes, including both CD4 and CD8+ T cells, expressed surface receptors (ie, CD94, CD158a, CD158b) typically confined to natural killer cells (ie, natural killer receptors; NKRs) accumulated immediately before onset of acute lesions. The presence of NKR bearing immunocytes was also observed in 10 of 15 different biopsies of chronic plaques taken directly from patients, whereas PN skin (n = 8) or normal skin from healthy donors (n = 8), did not contain such NKR positive immunocytes. Of particular relevance to psoriasis is that these NKRs recognize various class I alleles including those typically inherited by psoriatic family members such as HLA-C and HLA-B allotypes. We conclude that injection of CD4+ T cells into PN skin triggers a series of local immunologically mediated stimulatory events that produce further T cell activation and appearance of both CD4 and CD8+ T cells that express NKRs.  (+info)

Local and systemic delivery of a stable aspirin-triggered lipoxin prevents neutrophil recruitment in vivo. (7/1118)

Aspirin (ASA) triggers a switch in the biosynthesis of lipid mediators, inhibiting prostanoid production and initiating 15-epi-lipoxin generation through the acetylation of cyclooxygenase II. These aspirin-triggered lipoxins (ATL) may mediate some of ASA's beneficial actions and therefore are of interest in the search for novel antiinflammatories that could manifest fewer unwanted side effects. Here, we report that design modifications to native ATL structure prolong its biostability in vivo. In mouse whole blood, ATL analogs protected at carbon 15 [15(R/S)-methyl-lipoxin A4 (ATLa1)] and the omega end [15-epi-16-(para-fluoro)-phenoxy-LXA4 (ATLa2)] were recoverable to approximately 90 and 100% at 3 hr, respectively, compared with a approximately 40% loss of native lipoxin A4. ATLa2 retains bioactivity and, at levels as low as approximately 24 nmol/mouse, potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced leukocyte recruitment into the dorsal air pouch. Inhibition was evident by either local intra-air pouch delivery (approximately 77% inhibition) or systemic delivery by intravenous injection (approximately 85% inhibition) and proved more potent than local delivery of ASA. Rank order for inhibiting polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was: ATLa2 (10 micrograms, i.v.) approximately ATLa2 (10 micrograms, local) approximately dexamethasone (10 micrograms, local) >ASA (1.0 mg, local). Applied topically to mouse ear skin, ATLa2 also inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration induced by leukotriene B4 (approximately 78% inhibition) or phorbol ester (approximately 49% inhibition), which initiates endogenous chemokine production. These results indicate that this fluorinated analog of natural aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 is bioavailable by either local or systemic delivery routes and is a more potent and precise inhibitor of neutrophil accumulation than is ASA.  (+info)

Histamine response and local cooling in the human skin: involvement of H1- and H2-receptors. (8/1118)

AIMS: Histamine may contribute locally to cutaneous blood flow control under normal and pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to observe the influence of skin temperature on histamine vasodilation, and the roles of H1-and H2-receptors using novel noninvasive methods. METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects received, double-blind, single doses of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine (10 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) plus the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (400 mg), or placebo on separate occasions. Histamine was dosed cumulatively by iontophoresis to the forearm skin at 34 degrees C and 14 degrees C. Laser-Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the same sites using customised probeholder/iontophoretic chambers with Peltier cooling elements. Finger mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated as LDF/MAP. RESULTS: Histamine vasodilation was reduced in cold skin. Cetirizine shifted the histamine dose-response at both temperatures: statistically significantly at 14 degrees C only. Combined H1- and H2-receptor antagonism shifted the response significantly at both temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: H1- and H2-receptors mediate histamine-induced skin vasodilation. The sensitivity of these receptors, particularly the H1- receptor, is attenuated at low skin temperature. Whether the reduced effect in cold skin represents specific receptor or postreceptor desensitization, or nonspecific attenuation of cutaneous vasodilation remains to be elucidated.  (+info)

  • Recording MF activity during the PREP sessions was more difficult than I imagined, as there were several confounding factors limiting my analysis of the data, with the two more important as follows: 1) The trainers led the students through about 5 different Focus levels (i.e., different audio frequencies) in less than one hour, which led to very complex responses in the physiological markers. (
  • Electrodes are placed on the student's fingers to measure skin temperature, galvanic skin response (GSR) and skin potential voltage. (
  • We introduce materials, device designs, wireless power delivery and communication strategies, and overall system architectures for skin-like, battery-free sensors of temperature and pressure that can be used across the entire body. (
  • Earlier research has shown that the brain has an internal spatial image of the body, which is continuously updated based on touch, pain, temperature and pressure - known as the somatosensory system - received from skin, joints and muscles, as well as from visual and auditory signals. (
  • Decrease of skin blood flow in fingers to 6.3 milligrams per 100 grams of tissue per minute, an increase in peripheral resistance, and a drop of skin temperature were observed. (
  • Accordingly, Exergen, incorporating a patented and well-proven arterial heat balance method, developed instrumentation for non-invasive arterial temperature assessment on the skin over temporal artery. (
  • The TAT detects the heat naturally emitting from the skin surface over the temporal artery using a patented arterial heat balance system to automatically account for the effects of ambient temperature on the skin. (
  • Using a powerful concentration of sandalwood oil (at a much higher intensity that you would find in the average bottle), researchers measured an array of physiological responses such as respiration rate, skin temperature, blood pressure, and the like. (
  • Dr. Davis is interested in physiological responses to body-core temperature stresses and local temperature stresses placed on the body. (
  • These temperature-sensitive nociceptor neurons become activated when the temperature at their free endings in the skin or mucosae reaches noxious levels, provoking acute pain and rapid avoidance reflexes. (
  • In humans at rest, a skin temperature of around 33°C is experienced as thermoneutral, with lower temperatures felt as cool/cold and higher temperatures as warm/hot (Vriens, Nilius, & Voets, 2014 ). (
  • This study suggests that pericytes represent a potent stem cell population in the skin that is capable of modifying the ECM microenvironment and promoting epidermal tissue renewal from non-stem cells, a previously unsuspected role for pericytes. (
  • The extract also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in an epidermal skin model, and induced the expression of VEGF-A to promote the microcirculation in a dermal microtissue model. (
  • The permeability of ondansetron from an aqueous suspension through shed snake skin as a model membrane was very low and in order to improve it, several enhancers were tested. (
  • The permeability coefficient increased after pretreatment of the shed snake skin with Azone, oleic acid or lauryl alcohol. (
  • The ultrasonic wave stimulates skin tissue and improves permeability of the membrane to promoted collagen tissue, reduces wrinkles and fine lines Ultrasound will also lift the skin resulting in a younger and healthier look. (
  • We then present the main arguments that have been used to provide theoretical support for polygraph testing and evaluate them in relation to current understanding of human psychological and physiological responses. (
  • and it is difficult to disentangle the roles of physiological responses, interrogators' skill, and examinees' beliefs in order to make clear attributions of practical results to the validity of the test. (
  • Pulse and respiration, as two indispensable components of vital signs, can provide both an accurate assessment of the physiological state and remarkable insights into the diagnosis and prognosis of related diseases ( 12 - 21 ). (
  • citation needed] In other applications, excess skin is grown purposely by expansion on the back or the buttocks, so that it can be harvested later for transplantation to another site where skin was lost due to trauma, extensive wounds, surgery, burns, etc. (
  • This work is revealing that the control of body and organ size does not reside in any specific cellular or molecular mechanism but that it is a systems property in which cellular, physiological and environmental signals all contribute in inextricable ways to produce the final phenotype. (
  • Some people experience prickling skin, hallucinations, dizziness, or even hiccups as signals that a brutal migraine is on the way. (
  • However, most reported textile electronics can either periodically target a single physiological signal or miss the explicit details of the signals, leading to a partial health assessment. (
  • To date, most wearable electronics for detecting subtle physiological signals are based on ultrathin substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate, polydimethylsiloxane, polyimide, glass, and silicone ( 22 - 26 ). (
  • Of course, longevity is a genetic, hereditary phenomenon. (
  • Here, we examined whether autophagy contributes to the longevity of NMRs by assessing the effects of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) on autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. (
  • That group has also shown that NMRs have evolved a higher concentration of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan in the skin to provide the skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels, which may confer added benefits of cancer resistance and longevity [ 12 ]. (
  • Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study. (
  • Uremic pruritus is still a common phenomenon in patients with end-stage renal failure, however, there is no effective treatment of choice for this condition.This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of the cream with structured physiological lipids (DMS, Derma Membrane Structure) and endogenous cannabinoids in controlling pruritus in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. (
  • Free radical concept of aging discusses the biochemical phenomenon of aging. (
  • Free radicals are not new to the body and are a part of the destruction in the biochemical and physiological process in tissue repair and cellular replication as people age. (
  • Detailed biochemical profiling of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in tumors, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), after a single administration of 5 mg/kg RAD001, indicated that RAD001 treatment blocked phosphorylation of the translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and inactivated the translational activator ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). (
  • LAMA5 was of particular interest as we had previously shown that it promotes skin regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • LPS-Stimulated Human Skin-Derived Stem Cells Enhance Neo-Vascularization during Dermal Regeneration. (
  • Thus, current and future research efforts of his laboratory are geared towards using adult skin-derived ABCB5+ stem cells as a transplantable cell source for novel therapeutic applications in tissue engineering and regeneration, and for stem cell-based modulation of transplant allograft rejection and autoimmune disorders. (
  • Frank and his colleagues were interested in a particular protein called ABCB5, which is expressed on the surface of some progenitor skin cells and has been shown to confer cancer drug resistance to melanoma. (
  • His laboratory has cloned and characterized a novel human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCB5, which marks mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subpopulations in human and murine skin. (
  • His work has demonstrated a unique regulatory role of ABCB5 in the newly recognized phenomenon of stem cell fusion, and in cell fusion-dependent growth and differentiation. (
  • The identification and characterization of ABCB5 P-glycoprotein as a marker of adult skin-associated stem cells has allowed Markus to initiate studies regarding the differentiation plasticity and immunomodulatory capacity of this unique cell subset in vitro and in vivo. (
  • 35 degrees C, potentially reducing respiratory water loss by approximately 65% at T(a)=10 degrees C to approximately 30% at T(a)=35 degrees C. Cutaneous evaporative cooling was significant for both species, with skin resistance decreasing as T(a) increased. (
  • The Crested Pigeon had a lower skin resistance than the Brush Bronzewing at T(a)=45 degrees C. The Brush Bronzewing had apparently reached its maximum cutaneous water loss at 30 degrees C and relied on panting to cool at higher T(a). (
  • We further showed that skin pericytes could also act as mesenchymal stem cells, exhibiting the capacity to differentiate into bone, fat, and cartilage lineages in vitro. (
  • Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm. (
  • This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. (
  • In this study, stem cells derived from human skin (SDSC) were activated with LPS and seeded in a commercially available dermal substitute to examine vascularization in vivo. (
  • Its morphological features suggest that it is an active, inherently programmed phenomenon, and it has been shown that it can be initiated or inhibited by a variety of environmental stimuli, both physiological and pathological.The structural changes take place in two discrete stages. (
  • Since it has been suggested that 40-Hz EEG activity is the physiological expression of focused arousal (Sheer, 1989), the increase of 40-Hz activity in high hypnotizables during hypnosis was interpreted as indicating the greater capacity of these subjects in focussing of attention on relevant stimuli. (
  • In addition to the effects of chronological ageing, sunlight exposure and other environmental and endogenous stimuli, the climacteric appears to exert some dramatic consequences on skin biology and aspect. (
  • A compression/ischemia-induced (differential) nerve block in conjunction with repeated quantitative sensory testing of A-delta and C-fibre function using cold and warm stimuli was used to assess which nerve fibre population that contributes to pain at perception threshold level using 1 s (vF1) and 10 s (vF10) von Frey filament stimulation of the skin. (
  • Furthermore, by examining how Purkinje cells respond to two distinct conditional stimuli and to a compound stimulus, we provide evidence that could potentially help explain the somewhat counterintuitive overexpectation phenomenon, which was derived from the Rescorla-Wagner model. (
  • The superficial temporal artery demonstrates the necessary requirements for the skin thermometry method: it is easily accessible, contains no mucous membranes, and notably, it has no or very few arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA).1,2 Lack of AVA's means that perfusion rate is reliable under essentially all conditions, and the blood flow is relatively free of vasomotor control in response to thermomoregulatory stimuli. (
  • Continuum mechanics approaches can be used to model skin growth during tissue expansion and non-linear finite element methods can be used to computationally simulate different tissue growth scenarios. (
  • In future experiments, I hope to measure both MF activity and REG output to determine if these methods are measuring the same phenomenon. (
  • A test with good construct validity is one that uses methods that are defensible in light of the best theoretical and empirical understanding of those mechanisms, the external factors that may alter the mechanisms and affect test results, and the measurement issues affecting the ability to detect the signal of the phenomenon being measured and exclude extraneous influences. (
  • Equally, studies of the physiological and genetic mechanisms underpinning colour variation are burgeoning. (
  • Confidence in polygraph testing, especially for security screening, therefore also requires evidence of its construct validity, which depends, as we have noted, on an explicit and empirically supported theory of the mechanisms that connect test results to the phenomenon they purport to be diagnosing. (
  • Although phenomena associated with the model have previously been linked to nucleo-olivary inhibition, many questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the model still remain. (
  • Neural mechanisms for several phenomena related to the Rescorla-Wagner model have already been proposed ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 16 ). (
  • His laboratory research focuses on the physiological and pathological roles of the human P-glycoprotein family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. (
  • However, a combination of family history and CB IgE and skin assessment may be used to identify babies at high risk of allergy for participation in prevention studies. (
  • Analysis using immunogold localization revealed that pericytes synthesized and secreted LAMA5 in human skin. (
  • In turn this has allowed us to reinterpret human skin coloration and even fashion and military camouflage. (
  • When a goose's feathers are plucked, its skin has protrusions where the feathers were, and these bumps are what the human phenomenon resembles. (
  • Studies with human subjects in clinical sleep laboratories and in adjustable hospital beds demonstrate functionality of the sensors, with potential implications for monitoring of circadian cycles and mitigating risks for pressure-induced skin ulcers. (
  • As a result, tapes, Band-Aids, or other mechanical fixtures are required to establish a compact contact between wearable electronics and human skin, which can cause irritation and inconvenience during extended periods of use ( 27 , 28 ). (
  • Changes in skin blood circulation in human subjects were examined by occlusive plethysmography, rheography, thermometry, sphygmography, and capillaroscopy. (
  • and b) immediate early and inflammatory response genes were up-regulated in transitional fish, a response that parallels some human skin disorders such as melanoma formation and psoriasis. (
  • A search for arteriovenous anastomoses in human skin using ultrasound Doppler. (
  • This means that human newborns have a physiological need for "skin to skin" contact. (
  • A similar phenomenon has been shown to occur in human infants. (
  • 13. Danielou, A. The influence of sound phenomena on human consciousness. (
  • Application of Cutometer area parameters for the study of human skin fatigue. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare the informativeness of Cutometer standard R-parameters with new area parameters regarding the age-related changes in human skin fatigue. (
  • The mechanical parameters R4 and F3 are most indicative of human skin fatigue. (
  • The phenomena of perceptual alterations in hypnosis as those of positive and negative hallucinations are some of the most compelling experiences of highly hypnotizable subjects. (
  • Adrenaline, which in humans is produced in two small beanlike glands that sit atop the kidneys, not only causes the contraction of skin muscles but also influences many other body reactions. (
  • Glucose is implicated because humans with diabetes accumulate CML and pentosidine in skin collagen faster than age- and sex-matched control subjects ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Chemical peels, for instance, are known for their ability to reduce the appearance of fine lines under the eyes and around the mouth, wrinkles caused by sun damage and aging, mild scars, certain types of acne, age spots, freckles, and dark patches (such as melasma caused by pregnancy and birth control pills) while improving the overall look and feel of skin. (
  • Skin microcirculation consists of two vascular plexuses: superficial at a depth of 400-500 μm and deep located at a depth of 1.9 mm below the skin surface. (
  • Skin microcirculation may be affected both in systemic pathologies and specific skin disorders. (
  • Septic and allergic shocks, global hypoxia, hypoxia-reperfusion injuries, coagulation disorders and activation of the immune system affect the skin microcirculation function. (
  • Currently, several non-invasive techniques are available to assess the skin microcirculation. (
  • During a hyperinsulinemic clamp, we measured leg blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, skin capillary density with capillaroscopy, endothelium-(in)dependent vasodilatation of skin microcirculation with iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside combined with laser Doppler fluxmetry, and skin vasomotion by Fourier analysis of microcirculatory blood flow. (
  • The skin microcirculation is impaired. (
  • According to the journal, Maglie and Caproni diagnosed hematohidrosis, a rare disease marked by spontaneous discharge of "blood sweat" through intact skin. (
  • Disorders of thermoregulating function of skin circulation seem to be the cause of vibration disease. (
  • At other times the sudden narrowing of the blood vessels is related to some underlying disease and is then referred to as secondary Raynaud phenomenon. (
  • the old symbol of eternity), skin aging and the Church's position on the issue of elderly care, and explain how this palliative responsibility is ontological and bioethical grounded for the elderly and not someone else's interests. (
  • Lasers , which help tighten loose skin and even out skin tone (one of the most identifiable signs of aging in most studies). (
  • Skin aging, like most physiological phenomena, is the result of many things. (
  • The non-invasive method applied can be useful for objective and quantitative investigation of age-related changes in skin fatigue and evaluation of the effects of cosmetic and anti-aging topical products. (
  • Some of the physiological factors that influence microvessels may be used as provocative tests. (
  • Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. (
  • They reported that the normal component of the grip force is influenced by three important factors: (i) the weight of the object, (ii) the friction between the object and the skin, and (iii) the safety margin set by the individual based on prior experience. (
  • Since under neutral conditions there is some steady sympathetic activity to the skin, reduction of the sympathetic effects allows vasodilation. (
  • We examined the effects of systemic hyperinsulinemia on skin microvascular function in eight healthy nondiabetic subjects. (
  • In addition, the effects of locally administered insulin on skin blood flow were assessed in 10 healthy subjects. (
  • Insulin iontophoresis was used to study the local effects of insulin on skin blood flow. (
  • Collagen and elastin are the major elements that maintain firmness of the skin which are destroyed by free radicals, giving rise to deep wrinkles. (
  • In this paper, we present evidence from our eyeblink setup that builds on and advances prior thinking regarding the physiological basis of the Rescorla-Wagner model. (
  • This allowed mould to flourish unseen and undetected, until it made its presence felt by outbreaks of eye, nose, throat and skin irritations and eventually the smell from the emitted chemicals. (
  • These ultrasonic propagation properties were determined from measurements through the intercostal tissues, from the surface of the skin to the parietal pleura. (