'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A species of CAPRIPOXVIRUS causing a cattle disease occurring in Africa.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.
Any inflammation of the skin.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
A skin ulcer is a breakdown of the skin's surface and underlying tissues, often caused by prolonged pressure, infection, or poor circulation, leading to a loss of continuity in the epidermis and dermis, potentially extending into deeper layers such as subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
Coloration of the skin.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising poxviruses infecting sheep, goats, and cattle. Transmission is usually mechanical by arthropods, but also includes contact, airborne routes, and non-living reservoirs (fomites).
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.
A mitosporic fungal genus that causes a variety of skin disorders. Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare) causes TINEA VERSICOLOR.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Hand dermatoses is a general term referring to various inflammatory skin conditions primarily affecting the hands, such as eczema, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis, characterized by erythema, scaling, vesiculation, fissuring, or lichenification.
A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
Diseases of the skin associated with underlying metabolic disorders.
'Military hygiene' is the practice of maintaining health and cleanliness standards within military forces to prevent the spread of diseases, ensure physical fitness, and promote overall well-being of soldiers in both training and combat environments.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
A chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine glands occurring chiefly in the axillae in women and in the groin and anal regions in men. It is characterized by poral occlusion with secondary bacterial infection, evolving into abscesses which eventually rupture. As the disease becomes chronic, ulcers appear, sinus tracts enlarge, fistulas develop, and fibrosis and scarring become evident.
Scalp dermatoses refer to various inflammatory skin conditions affecting the scalp, including seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and tinea capitis, often characterized by symptoms such as redness, scaling, itching, and hair loss.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.
An idiopathic, rapidly evolving, and severely debilitating disease occurring most commonly in association with chronic ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by the presence of boggy, purplish ulcers with undermined borders, appearing mostly on the legs. The majority of cases are in people between 40 and 60 years old. Its etiology is unknown.
The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
47-amino acid peptides secreted by ECCRINE GLANDS and having a role in innate cutaneous defense, being antimicrobial to some pathogenic BACTERIA. They are overexpressed by some primary BREAST CANCER cells. They are derived from 110 residue PROTEIN PRECURSORS.
The term applied to a group of relatively uncommon inflammatory, maculopapular, scaly eruptions of unknown etiology and resistant to conventional treatment. Eruptions are both psoriatic and lichenoid in appearance, but the diseases are distinct from psoriasis, lichen planus, or other recognized dermatoses. Proposed nomenclature divides parapsoriasis into two distinct subgroups, PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES and parapsoriasis en plaques (small- and large-plaque parapsoriasis).
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.
Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An autosomal dominant skin disease characterized by transient and variable noninflammatory ERYTHEMA and hyperkeratosis. It has been associated with mutations in the genes that code for CONNEXINS. Erythrokeratodermia variabilis inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion has also been reported. Affected individuals often develop PALMOPLANTAR KERATODERMA.
A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.
Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Most common form of ICHTHYOSIS characterized by prominent scaling especially on the exterior surfaces of the extremities. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.
Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms. All forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa result from mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE VII, a major component fibrils of BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPIDERMIS.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.

C5a receptor and interleukin-6 are expressed in tissue macrophages and stimulated keratinocytes but not in pulmonary and intestinal epithelial cells. (1/2324)

The anaphylatoxin derived from the fifth component of the human complement system (C5a) mediates its effects by binding to a single high-affinity receptor (C5aR/CD88), the expression of which has been traditionally thought to be restricted to granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (Mphi), and cell lines of myeloid origin. Recent immunohistochemical data suggested that human bronchial and alveolar cells express C5aR as well. To reexamine the tissue distribution of human C5aR expression, transcription of the C5aR gene was investigated in normal and pathologically affected human lung (bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis), large intestine (acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease), and skin (pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus) using in situ hybridization. In contrast to previous evidence, C5aR mRNA could not be detected in pulmonary or intestinal epithelial cells, whereas keratinocytes in inflamed but not in normal skin revealed detectable levels of C5aR transcripts. Additionally, it could be documented that only migrating Mphi express C5aR mRNA, whereas sessile Mphi in normal tissues and epithelioid/multinucleated Mphi found in granulomatous lesions do not. Because C5a has been demonstrated to upregulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human monocytes, we also studied IL-6 gene transcription in parallel to the C5aR. IL-6 mRNA was detectable in many tissue Mphi. Surprisingly, a tight co-expression of C5aR and IL-6 mRNA was observed in keratinocytes from lesions of pyogenic granuloma and lichen planus. These results point to an as yet unknown role for C5a in the pathogenesis of skin disorders beyond its well-defined function as a chemoattractant and activator of leukocytes.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (2/2324)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Hyper-IgE syndrome with recurrent infections--an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. (3/2324)

BACKGROUND: The hyper-IgE syndrome with recurrent infections is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin and pulmonary abscesses and extremely elevated levels of IgE in serum. Associated facial and skeletal features have been recognized, but their frequency is unknown, and the genetic basis of the hyper-IgE syndrome is poorly understood. METHODS: We studied 30 patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome and 70 of their relatives. We took histories, reviewed records, performed physical and dental examinations, took anthropometric measurements, and conducted laboratory studies. RESULTS: Nonimmunologic features of the hyper-IgE syndrome were present in all patients older than eight years. Seventy-two percent had the previously unrecognized feature of failure or delay of shedding of the primary teeth owing to lack of root resorption. Common findings among patients were recurrent fractures (in 57 percent of patients), hyperextensible joints (in 68 percent), and scoliosis (in 76 percent of patients 16 years of age or older). The classic triad of abscesses, pneumonia, and an elevated IgE level was identified in 77 percent of all patients and in 85 percent of those older than eight. In 6 of 23 adults (26 percent), IgE levels declined over time and came closer to or fell within the normal range. Autosomal dominant transmission of the hyper-IgE syndrome was found, but with variable expressivity. Of the 27 relatives at risk for inheriting the hyper-IgE syndrome, 10 were fully affected, 11 were unaffected, and 6 had combinations of mild immunologic, dental, and skeletal features of the hyper-IgE syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-IgE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that affects the dentition, the skeleton, connective tissue, and the immune system. It is inherited as a single-locus autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity.  (+info)

Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century. (4/2324)

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

Delayed osteon formation in long-bone diaphysis of an 11-year-old giant cow with dermal dysplasia. (5/2324)

The transverse sections of radius diaphysis in an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia of a collagen disorder-related skin fragility (Cow 1), probably based on increasing turnover of the dermal collagen as reported previously, were morphologically and physico-chemically investigated. Cow 1 had about one and a half times as much as the body weight of normal Holstein cows, aged 5 to 6.5 years with stabilized growth. The bone samples were compared with those of a 12-year-old Holstein cow as controls (Cow 2). It has been reported that the long-bone diaphysis of young calves and some herbivorous dinosaurs are occupied with laminar bone showing a concentric appositional formation, and that such a laminar bone is characteristically seen during the growing period of some farm animals and large dogs that show very rapid growth rates. Cow 1 had a smaller number of osteons than Cow 2 in the outer-half layer of the diaphysis, and showed an intermediate type between Cow 2 and a 1-year-old Holstein ox in the entire layers, although their bone volumes were similar among them. There were no significant differences in Ca and P concentrations and the Vickers microhardness values between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and Cow 2. The bone-collagen fibrils of Cow 1 showed uneven diameters and a disordered arrangement. Thus, there may be some relation in collagen formation between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and the dermis. From the remaining volume of laminar bone, Cow 1, aged 11 years, had probably shown growth until quite recently, so that we consider that Cow 1 became a giant animal, in the same way as some herbivorous dinosaurs.  (+info)

Depletion of cutaneous peptidergic innervation in HIV-associated xerosis. (6/2324)

Severe xerosis occurs in approximately 20% of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. Changes in cutaneous innervation have been found in various inflammatory skin diseases and in xerotic skin in familial amyloid. We have therefore carried out a quantitative examination of the cutaneous peptidergic innervation in human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis quantitation were used to compare total cutaneous innervation (protein gene product 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide peptidergic fibers, at two sites in the skin of human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis patients (upper arm, n = 12; upper leg, n = 11) and site-matched seronegative controls (upper arm, n = 10; upper leg, n = 10). Measurement of lengths of fibers of each type was carried out for each subject in the epidermis and papillary dermis, and around the sweat glands. Immunostained mast cells in these areas were counted. Epidermal integrity and maturation were assessed by immunostaining for involucrin. There were significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.02) decreases in total lengths of protein gene product 9.5 fibers in both epidermis/papillary dermis and sweat gland fields; of calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation in the epidermis/papillary dermis; and of substance P innervation of the sweat glands. There were no differences in the distribution of mast cells, or in the epidermal expression of involucrin. Depletion of the calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation may affect the nutrient blood supply of the upper dermis, and the integrity and function of basal epidermis and Langerhans cells. Diminished substance P innervation of the sweat glands may affect their secretory activity. Both of these changes may be implicated in the development of xerosis.  (+info)

Faecal composition after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. (7/2324)

Diarrhoea and perianal excoriation occur frequently after the endorectal pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. A new method of faecal analysis was performed on 3-day stool collections in 17 postoperative Hirschsprung patients and in 14 normal children, in order to define the faecal abnormality and to establish the cause of perianal excoriation in these patients. Loose stools in postoperative patients were deficient in dry solid content and contained an excess of extractable faecal water. This also had a raised electrolyte concentration, particularly with respect to sodium. Total daily output of faecal water was normal. Formed stools from postoperative patients were also deficient in drysolids but had a normal extractable water content. Excess extractable faecal water, the main abnormality of loose stools in these patients, is the result of abnormal water absorption from the distal colon. Perianal excoriation in these patients is most closely associated with the concentration of sodium in faecal water.  (+info)

Inflammatory pseudotumor in a cat with cutaneous mycobacteriosis. (8/2324)

A 5-year-old, castrated male, domestic Shorthair Cat had an ulcerated mass with fistulous tracts on the left hind paw. Homogeneous tan tissue diffusely infiltrated the dermis and subcutis of the paw and extended proximally so that, short of amputation, complete excision was not feasible. Biopsy specimens consisted of granulation tissue with marked proliferation of spindle cells. Neutrophils and histiocytic cells were scattered among the spindle cells. The histiocytic cells had abundant foamy or vacuolated cytoplasm, but features of granulomatous inflammation, such as epithelioid macrophages or granuloma formation, were not observed. The initial impression was inflammatory granulation tissue, but the degree of fibroplasia prompted inclusion of fibrosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous mycobacteriosis was diagnosed when numerous acid-fast bacteria were identified with Kinyoun's stain; Mycobacterium avium was subsequently cultured. The cat was euthanatized because of lack of response to enrofloxacin therapy. At necropsy, lesions were localized to the hind limb. Not only is mycobacteriosis an uncommon cause of cutaneous masses in cats, but this case was unusual because of the lack of granuloma formation and the similarity of the mass to a spindle cell tumor.  (+info)

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family and Capripoxvirus genus. It is the causative agent of Lumpy Skine Disease (LSD), a severe vector-borne viral disease affecting cattle. The virus is transmitted through blood-sucking insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through direct contact with infected animals.

The clinical signs of LSD include the development of nodules or lumps on the skin, particularly on the head, neck, and limbs, which can vary in size from small papules to large tumors. Other symptoms may include fever, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, excessive salivation, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, LSD can lead to death due to secondary bacterial infections or complications related to the respiratory system.

LSDV is a significant concern for the global cattle industry, as it can cause significant economic losses due to reduced milk production, weight loss, decreased fertility, and increased mortality rates. It is endemic in many African countries, but has also been reported in several countries in the Middle East, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Vaccination is an effective strategy for controlling LSD, and several vaccines are available for use in affected regions.

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of red, scaly patches on the skin. The scales are typically silvery-white and often occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back, but they can appear anywhere on the body. The exact cause of psoriasis is unknown, but it is believed to be related to an immune system issue that causes skin cells to grow too quickly.

There are several types of psoriasis, including plaque psoriasis (the most common form), guttate psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and erythrodermic psoriasis. The symptoms and severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

While there is no cure for psoriasis, various treatments are available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include topical medications, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologics. Lifestyle measures such as stress reduction, quitting smoking, and avoiding triggers (such as certain foods or alcohol) may also be helpful in managing psoriasis.

Vesiculobullous skin diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the formation of blisters (vesicles) and bullae (larger blisters) on the skin. These blisters form when there is a separation between the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) and the dermis (layer beneath the epidermis) due to damage in the area where they join, known as the dermo-epidermal junction.

There are several types of vesiculobullous diseases, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Some of the most common types include:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks proteins that help to hold the skin together, causing blisters to form.
2. Bullous pemphigoid: another autoimmune disorder, but in this case, the immune system attacks a different set of proteins, leading to large blisters and inflammation.
3. Dermatitis herpetiformis: a skin condition associated with celiac disease, where gluten ingestion triggers an immune response that leads to the formation of itchy blisters.
4. Pemphigoid gestationis: a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs during pregnancy and causes blisters on the abdomen and other parts of the body.
5. Epidermolysis bullosa: a group of inherited disorders where there is a fragile skin structure, leading to blistering and wound formation after minor trauma or friction.

Treatment for vesiculobullous diseases depends on the specific diagnosis and may include topical or systemic medications, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or antibiotics, as well as wound care and prevention of infection.

Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a viral disease that affects cattle and water buffalo. It is caused by the Capripoxvirus, which is a double-stranded DNA virus. The disease is characterized by the development of nodules or lumps in the skin and other organs of the infected animal. These nodules are typically found on the head, neck, limbs, and perineal region of the animal.

The LSD virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed and water, and mechanical vectors such as insects, particularly mosquitoes and biting flies. The incubation period for LSD ranges from 2 to 4 weeks. In addition to skin nodules, the disease can also cause fever, decreased milk production, difficulty breathing, and lameness.

Lumpy Skin Disease is not generally fatal, but it can result in significant economic losses due to reduced milk production, weight loss, and decreased fertility. The disease is endemic in many parts of Africa and has also been reported in the Middle East, Asia, and Eastern Europe. There is no specific treatment for LSD, but vaccination can help prevent the spread of the disease.

Dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation of the skin. It is often characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and tenderness. There are many different types of dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nummular dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition that often affects people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever. It typically causes dry, scaly patches on the skin that can be extremely itchy.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen, such as poison ivy or certain chemicals. This type of dermatitis can cause redness, swelling, and blistering.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes a red, itchy rash, often on the scalp, face, or other areas of the body where oil glands are located. It is thought to be related to an overproduction of oil by the skin's sebaceous glands.

Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes round, coin-shaped patches of dry, scaly skin. It is more common in older adults and often occurs during the winter months.

Treatment for dermatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or lotions may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. Prescription medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, may be necessary in more severe cases. Avoiding triggers and irritants can also help prevent flare-ups of dermatitis.

Parasitic skin diseases are conditions caused by parasites living on or in the skin. These parasites can be insects, mites, or fungi that feed off of the host for their own survival. They can cause a variety of symptoms including itching, rashes, blisters, and lesions on the skin. Examples of parasitic skin diseases include scabies, lice infestations, and ringworm. Treatment typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Skin diseases of viral origin are conditions that affect the skin caused by viral infections. These infections can lead to various symptoms such as rashes, blisters, papules, and skin lesions. Some common examples of viral skin diseases include:

1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection: This causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are characterized by small, painful blisters on the skin.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection: This causes chickenpox and shingles, which are characterized by itchy, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection: This causes warts, which are small, rough growths on the skin.
4. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, raised, and pearly white bumps on the skin.
5. Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a rash that spreads all over the body.
6. Rubella: Also known as German measles, this viral infection causes a red rash on the face and neck that spreads to the rest of the body.

Viral skin diseases can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or bedding. Some viral skin diseases can be prevented through vaccination, while others can be treated with antiviral medications or other therapies.

Skin aging, also known as cutaneous aging, is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by various visible changes in the skin's appearance and function. It can be divided into two main types: intrinsic (chronological or natural) aging and extrinsic (environmental) aging.

Intrinsic aging is a genetically determined and time-dependent process that results from internal factors such as cellular metabolism, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. The primary features of intrinsic aging include gradual thinning of the epidermis and dermis, decreased collagen and elastin production, reduced skin cell turnover, and impaired wound healing. Clinically, these changes present as fine wrinkles, dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased fragility of the skin.

Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is caused by external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Exposure to these environmental elements leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage, which accelerate the aging process. The main features of extrinsic aging are coarse wrinkles, pigmentary changes (e.g., age spots, melasma), irregular texture, skin laxity, and increased risk of developing skin cancers.

It is important to note that intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes often interact and contribute to the overall appearance of aged skin. A comprehensive approach to skincare should address both types of aging to maintain healthy and youthful-looking skin.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

Dermatology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who has completed specialized training in this field. They are qualified to treat a wide range of skin conditions, including acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cancer, and many others. Dermatologists may also perform cosmetic procedures to improve the appearance of the skin or to treat signs of aging.

Occupational dermatitis is a specific type of contact dermatitis that results from exposure to certain substances or conditions in the workplace. It can be caused by direct contact with chemicals, irritants, or allergens present in the work environment. This condition typically affects the skin on the hands and forearms but can also involve other areas of the body, depending on the nature of the exposure.

There are two main types of occupational dermatitis:

1. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD): This type occurs when the skin comes into direct contact with an irritating substance, leading to redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering. Common irritants include solvents, detergents, oils, and other industrial chemicals.
2. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD): This type is a result of an allergic reaction to a specific substance. The immune system identifies the allergen as harmful and mounts a response, causing skin inflammation. Common allergens include latex, metals (such as nickel), and certain plants (like poison ivy).

Prevention measures for occupational dermatitis include using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) like gloves, masks, and aprons, as well as practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding touching the face with contaminated hands. If you suspect you have developed occupational dermatitis, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Genetic skin diseases are a group of disorders caused by mutations or alterations in the genetic material (DNA), which can be inherited from one or both parents. These mutations affect the structure, function, or development of the skin and can lead to various conditions with different symptoms, severity, and prognosis.

Some examples of genetic skin diseases include:

1. Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB): A group of disorders characterized by fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister and tear easily, leading to painful sores and wounds. There are several types of EB, each caused by mutations in different genes involved in anchoring the epidermis to the dermis.
2. Ichthyosis: A family of genetic disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly, or rough skin. The severity and symptoms can vary widely, depending on the specific type and underlying genetic cause.
3. Neurofibromatosis: A group of conditions caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which regulates cell growth and division. The most common types, NF1 and NF2, are characterized by the development of benign tumors called neurofibromas on the skin and nerves, as well as other symptoms affecting various organs and systems.
4. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): A genetic disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which control cell growth and division. TSC is characterized by the development of benign tumors in multiple organs, including the skin, brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs.
5. Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP): A rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes responsible for repairing DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. People with XP are extremely sensitive to sunlight and have a high risk of developing skin cancer and other complications.
6. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP): A genetic disorder that affects the development and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and eyes. IP is caused by mutations in the IKBKG gene and primarily affects females.
7. Darier's Disease: An inherited skin disorder characterized by greasy, crusted, keratotic papules and plaques, usually located on the trunk, scalp, and seborrheic areas of the body. Darier's disease is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene.

These are just a few examples of genetic skin disorders. There are many more, each with its unique set of symptoms, causes, and treatments. If you or someone you know has a genetic skin disorder, it is essential to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, composed mainly of stratified squamous epithelium. It forms a protective barrier that prevents water loss and inhibits the entry of microorganisms. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and its cells are nourished by diffusion from the underlying dermis. The bottom-most layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale, is responsible for generating new skin cells that eventually move up to replace dead cells on the surface. This process of cell turnover takes about 28 days in adults.

The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells called squames, which are constantly shed and replaced. The exact rate at which this happens varies depending on location; for example, it's faster on the palms and soles than elsewhere. Melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells, are also located in the epidermis, specifically within the stratum basale layer.

In summary, the epidermis is a vital part of our integumentary system, providing not only physical protection but also playing a crucial role in immunity and sensory perception through touch receptors called Pacinian corpuscles.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

Infectious skin diseases are conditions characterized by an infection or infestation of the skin caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These organisms invade the skin, causing inflammation, redness, itching, pain, and other symptoms. Examples of infectious skin diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: Cellulitis, impetigo, folliculitis, and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections are examples of bacterial skin infections.
2. Viral infections: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and molluscum contagiosum are common viruses that can cause skin infections.
3. Fungal infections: Tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea corporis (ringworm), candidiasis (yeast infection), and pityriasis versicolor are examples of fungal skin infections.
4. Parasitic infestations: Scabies, lice, and bed bugs are examples of parasites that can cause infectious skin diseases.

Treatment for infectious skin diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal treatments, or insecticides to eliminate parasitic infestations. Proper hygiene, wound care, and avoiding contact with infected individuals can help prevent the spread of infectious skin diseases.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

Prurigo is a dermatological condition characterized by the development of persistent, itchy papules (small, solid, raised bumps) on the skin. These lesions often result in scratching or rubbing, which can further exacerbate the itching and lead to the formation of new papules. The exact cause of prurigo is not well understood, but it may be associated with various underlying conditions such as atopic dermatitis, diabetes, HIV infection, or chronic renal failure.

There are two main types of prurigo: acute and chronic. Acute prurigo typically lasts for less than six months and is often triggered by an insect bite, drug reaction, or other short-term factors. Chronic prurigo, on the other hand, can persist for years and may be more resistant to treatment.

Prurigo can significantly affect a person's quality of life due to constant itching, discomfort, and potential sleep disturbances. Dermatological evaluation, identification of underlying causes, and appropriate management strategies are essential in addressing this condition effectively.

Pemphigus is a group of rare, autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against desmoglein proteins, which are crucial for maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis (outermost layer of the skin). This results in the loss of keratinocyte cohesion and formation of flaccid blisters filled with serous fluid.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris - The most common form, primarily affecting middle-aged to older adults, with widespread erosions and flaccid blisters on the skin and mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, nose, genitals).
2. Pemphigus foliaceus - A more superficial form, mainly involving the skin, causing crusted erosions and scaly lesions without mucosal involvement. It is more prevalent in older individuals and in certain geographical regions like the Middle East.
3. Paraneoplastic pemphigus - A rare type associated with underlying neoplasms (cancers), such as lymphomas or carcinomas, characterized by severe widespread blistering of both skin and mucous membranes, along with antibodies against additional antigens besides desmogleins.
4. IgA pemphigus - A less common form characterized by localized or generalized erosions and blisters, with IgA autoantibodies targeting the basement membrane zone.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves high-dose systemic corticosteroids, often in combination with immunosuppressive agents (e.g., azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab) to control the disease activity and prevent complications. Regular follow-ups with dermatologists and oral specialists are essential for monitoring treatment response and managing potential side effects.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Eczema is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the skin, which leads to symptoms such as redness, itching, scaling, and blistering. It is often used to describe atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing form of eczema, although there are several other types of eczema with different causes and characteristics.

Atopic dermatitis is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and it often affects people with a family history of allergic conditions such as asthma or hay fever. The condition typically begins in infancy or childhood and can persist into adulthood, although it may improve over time.

Eczema can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly found on the hands, feet, behind the knees, inside the elbows, and on the face. The rash of eczema is often accompanied by dry, scaly skin, and people with the condition may experience periods of flare-ups and remissions.

Treatment for eczema typically involves a combination of moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated, topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and antihistamines to relieve itching. In severe cases, systemic immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary. It is also important for people with eczema to avoid triggers that can worsen their symptoms, such as harsh soaps, scratchy fabrics, and stress.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common, inflammatory skin condition that mainly affects the scalp, face, and upper part of the body. It causes skin irritation, flaking, and redness, often in areas where the skin is oily or greasy. The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and microbial factors.

The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis can vary in severity and may include:

* Greasy or flaky scales on the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, ears, or beard
* Redness and inflammation of the skin
* Itching, burning, or stinging sensations
* Yellow or white crusty patches on the scalp or other affected areas
* Hair loss (in severe cases)

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that tends to flare up and then subside over time. While there is no cure for seborrheic dermatitis, various treatments can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medicated shampoos, topical creams or ointments, and lifestyle changes such as stress reduction and avoiding triggers that worsen symptoms.

It is important to note that seborrheic dermatitis should not be confused with other skin conditions, such as psoriasis or eczema, which may have similar symptoms. A healthcare professional can provide a proper diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options based on the individual's specific needs.

Pruritus is a medical term derived from Latin, in which "prurire" means "to itch." It refers to an unpleasant sensation on the skin that provokes the desire or reflex to scratch. This can be caused by various factors, such as skin conditions (e.g., dryness, eczema, psoriasis), systemic diseases (e.g., liver disease, kidney failure), nerve disorders, psychological conditions, or reactions to certain medications.

Pruritus can significantly affect a person's quality of life, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Proper identification and management of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment.

A skin ulcer is a defined as a loss of continuity or disruption of the skin surface, often accompanied by inflammation and/or infection. These lesions can result from various causes including pressure, venous or arterial insufficiency, diabetes, and chronic dermatological conditions. Skin ulcers are typically characterized by their appearance, depth, location, and underlying cause. Common types of skin ulcers include pressure ulcers (also known as bedsores), venous leg ulcers, arterial ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers. Proper evaluation, wound care, management of underlying conditions, and prevention strategies are crucial in the treatment of skin ulcers to promote healing and prevent complications.

Bacterial skin diseases are a type of infectious skin condition caused by various species of bacteria. These bacteria can multiply rapidly on the skin's surface when given the right conditions, leading to infection and inflammation. Some common bacterial skin diseases include:

1. Impetigo: A highly contagious superficial skin infection that typically affects exposed areas such as the face, hands, and feet. It is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria.
2. Cellulitis: A deep-skin infection that can spread rapidly and involves the inner layers of the skin and underlying tissue. It is often caused by Group A Streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
3. Folliculitis: An inflammation of hair follicles, usually caused by an infection with Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria.
4. Furuncles (boils) and carbuncles: Deep infections that develop from folliculitis when the infection spreads to surrounding tissue. A furuncle is a single boil, while a carbuncle is a cluster of boils.
5. Erysipelas: A superficial skin infection characterized by redness, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. It is typically caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria.
6. MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections: Skin infections caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making it more difficult to treat.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil and characterized by flu-like symptoms and skin rashes.

Treatment for bacterial skin diseases usually involves the use of topical or oral antibiotics, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, drainage of pus-filled abscesses may be necessary to promote healing. Proper hygiene and wound care can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Rosacea is a chronic skin condition primarily characterized by persistent redness, inflammation, and visible blood vessels on the face, particularly the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin. It can also cause small, red, pus-filled bumps. Rosacea typically affects adults between 30 and 50 years old, with fair skin types being more susceptible. The exact cause of rosacea is unknown, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including abnormal facial blood vessels, immune system issues, and certain triggers (such as sun exposure, emotional stress, hot or cold weather, heavy exercise, alcohol consumption, spicy foods, and certain skin care products). There is no cure for rosacea, but various treatments can help control its symptoms and improve the appearance of the skin. These may include topical medications, oral antibiotics, laser therapy, and lifestyle modifications to avoid triggers.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) is a group of rare inherited skin disorders that are characterized by the development of blisters, erosions, and scarring following minor trauma or friction. The condition results from a genetic defect that affects the structural proteins responsible for anchoring the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) to the dermis (inner layer of the skin).

There are several types of EB, which vary in severity and clinical presentation. These include:

1. Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS): This is the most common form of EB, and it typically affects the skin's superficial layers. Blistering tends to occur after minor trauma or friction, and healing usually occurs without scarring. There are several subtypes of EBS, which vary in severity.
2. Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB): This form of EB affects the deeper layers of the skin, and blistering can occur spontaneously or following minor trauma. Healing often results in scarring, and affected individuals may also experience nail loss, dental abnormalities, and fragile mucous membranes.
3. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (DEB): DEB affects the deeper layers of the skin, and blistering can lead to significant scarring, contractures, and fusion of fingers and toes. There are two main subtypes of DEB: recessive DEB (RDEB), which is more severe and associated with a higher risk of skin cancer, and dominant DEB (DDEB), which tends to be milder.
4. Kindler Syndrome: This is a rare form of EB that affects both the epidermis and dermis. Blistering can occur spontaneously or following minor trauma, and affected individuals may experience photosensitivity, poikiloderma (a mottled skin appearance), and oral and gastrointestinal abnormalities.

Treatment for EB typically focuses on managing symptoms, preventing blister formation and infection, and promoting wound healing. There is currently no cure for EB, but research is ongoing to develop new therapies and treatments.

Keratosis, in general, refers to a skin condition characterized by the abnormal growth or development of keratin, a protein that forms part of the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). There are several types of keratosis, including:

1. Seborrheic Keratosis: benign, often pigmented, rough, and scaly growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They tend to increase in number with age.
2. Actinic Keratosis: rough, scaly patches or spots on the skin that are caused by long-term exposure to sunlight or artificial UV light. These have the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer.
3. Solar Keratosis: another term for actinic keratosis, as it is primarily caused by sun damage.
4. Keratosis Pilaris: a common condition where small, rough bumps appear on the skin, often on the arms, thighs, or cheeks. These are caused by excess keratin blocking hair follicles.
5. Follicular Keratosis: a disorder characterized by the formation of horny plugs within the hair follicles, leading to rough, sandpaper-like bumps on the skin.
6. Intraepidermal Keratosis: a term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of keratin in the epidermis, which can lead to various skin conditions.

It's important to consult with a healthcare professional or dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment if you suspect having any form of keratosis.

Dermatologic agents are medications, chemicals, or other substances that are applied to the skin (dermis) for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. They can be used to treat various skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, fungal infections, and wounds. Dermatologic agents include topical corticosteroids, antibiotics, antifungals, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and many others. They can come in various forms such as creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, and patches. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully to ensure safety and effectiveness.

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the National Organization for Rare Disorders, bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disorder characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters (bullae) on the skin and mucous membranes. This condition primarily affects older adults, with most cases occurring in individuals over 60 years of age.

In bullous pemphigoid, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against proteins called BP230 and BP180, which are found in the basement membrane zone – a layer that separates the epidermis (outer skin layer) from the dermis (inner skin layer). This autoimmune response leads to the formation of blisters, causing significant discomfort and potential complications if left untreated.

The symptoms of bullous pemphigoid typically include:

1. Large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin, often appearing on the trunk, arms, or legs. These blisters may be itchy or painful.
2. Blisters that rupture easily, leading to raw, open sores.
3. Mucous membrane involvement, such as blisters in the mouth, nose, eyes, or genital area.
4. Skin redness and irritation.
5. Fluid-filled bumps (papules) or pus-filled bumps (pustules).
6. Scarring and skin discoloration after blisters heal.

Treatment for bullous pemphigoid usually involves a combination of medications to control the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote healing. These may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or other targeted therapies. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help manage secondary infections that can occur due to blister formation.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan if you suspect you have bullous pemphigoid or are experiencing related symptoms.

Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CLE) is a skin manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease, but it can also occur without systemic involvement. It is characterized by various skin lesions that differ in appearance and distribution. The three main subtypes of CLE are:

1. Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (ACLE): This form is typically associated with SLE and is characterized by a classic malar or "butterfly" rash on the face, which is often photosensitive and can be accompanied by discoid lesions. The rash may also appear on other sun-exposed areas of the body.

2. Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (CCLE): This subtype includes Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and other less common forms such as lupus panniculitis and chilblain lupus. DLE is characterized by well-circumscribed, erythematous, scaly plaques that can cause scarring and pigmentation changes, often found on the face, scalp, and ears. Lupus panniculitis presents as deep subcutaneous nodules or indurated plaques, typically located on the trunk and proximal extremities. Chilblain lupus is characterized by violaceous, tender, and swollen lesions on acral areas, often triggered by cold exposure.

3. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (SCLE): This form of CLE presents as non-scarring, papulosquamous or annular polycyclic rashes, often located on the trunk and proximal extremities. The lesions are typically photosensitive and may appear in patients with SLE or those with isolated cutaneous disease.

The diagnosis of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus is based on clinical presentation, histopathological findings, and sometimes direct immunofluorescence. Treatment depends on the severity and extent of skin involvement and may include topical therapies, antimalarials, corticosteroids, immunomodulatory agents, or photoprotection measures.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of inflammatory skin reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance (allergen) that the immune system recognizes as foreign and triggers an allergic response. This condition is characterized by redness, itching, swelling, blistering, and cracking of the skin, which usually develops within 24-48 hours after exposure to the allergen. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics. It is important to note that a person must first be sensitized to the allergen before developing an allergic response upon subsequent exposures.

Ultraviolet (UV) therapy, also known as phototherapy, is a medical treatment that uses ultraviolet light to treat various skin conditions. The UV light can be delivered through natural sunlight or artificial sources, such as specialized lamps or lasers.

In medical settings, controlled doses of UV light are used to target specific areas of the skin. The most common type of UV therapy is narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy, which uses a specific wavelength of UVB light to treat conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and dermatitis.

The goal of UV therapy is to reduce inflammation, slow skin cell growth, and improve the overall appearance of the skin. It is important to note that while UV therapy can be effective in treating certain skin conditions, it also carries risks such as skin aging and an increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Capripoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. This genus includes three species of poxviruses that primarily infect members of the Artiodactyla order (even-toed ungulates), such as sheep, goats, and cattle. The three species are:

1. Sheeppox virus (SPPV) - causes sheeppox in sheep and goatpox in goats
2. Goatpox virus (GTPV) - causes goatpox in goats and sometimes in sheep
3. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) - causes lumpy skin disease in cattle

These viruses are large, complex, enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with a linear genome of approximately 150 kilobases. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and can cause severe diseases in their respective hosts, characterized by fever, lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, and secondary bacterial infections. Vaccination is an important control strategy for capripoxviruses.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Tinea Pedis, also known as athlete's foot, is a fungal infection that affects the skin on the feet, particularly between the toes. The causative agents are dermatophytes, which thrive in warm and damp environments. Common symptoms include itching, burning, cracked, blistered, or scaly skin, and sometimes painful peeling or cracking of the skin. It is contagious and can spread to other parts of the body or to other people through direct contact or via contaminated surfaces. Proper hygiene, keeping the feet dry, and using antifungal medications are common methods of preventing and treating this condition.

Malassezia is a genus of fungi (specifically, yeasts) that are commonly found on the skin surfaces of humans and other animals. They are part of the normal flora of the skin, but under certain conditions, they can cause various skin disorders such as dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, and atopic dermatitis.

Malassezia species require lipids for growth, and they are able to break down the lipids present in human sebum into fatty acids, which can cause irritation and inflammation of the skin. Malassezia is also associated with fungal infections in people with weakened immune systems.

The genus Malassezia includes several species, such as M. furfur, M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sympodialis, and others. These species can be identified using various laboratory methods, including microscopy, culture, and molecular techniques.

PUVA therapy is a type of treatment that uses both medication and light to treat certain skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The name "PUVA" stands for Psoralen + UVA, which refers to the two main components of the therapy:

1. Psoralen: This is a medication that makes the skin more sensitive to light. It can be taken orally or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream or bath.
2. UVA: This stands for Ultraviolet A, which is a type of light that is part of the natural sunlight spectrum. In PUVA therapy, the skin is exposed to a controlled dose of UVA light in a special booth or room.

When psoralen is introduced into the body, it absorbs into the skin and makes it more sensitive to UVA light. When the skin is then exposed to UVA light, it triggers a chemical reaction that slows down the growth of affected skin cells. This helps to reduce inflammation, scaling, and other symptoms associated with the skin condition being treated.

It's important to note that PUVA therapy can have side effects, including sunburn, itching, redness, and an increased risk of skin cancer over time. As such, it is typically used as a second-line treatment when other therapies have not been effective, and it is closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the infestation of the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The female mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin, where it lays its eggs and causes an intensely pruritic (itchy) rash. The rash is often accompanied by small red bumps and blisters, typically found in areas such as the hands, wrists, elbows, armpits, waistline, genitals, and buttocks. Scabies is transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual or through sharing of contaminated items like bedding or clothing. It can affect people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic backgrounds, but it is particularly common in crowded living conditions, nursing homes, and child care facilities. Treatment usually involves topical medications or oral drugs that kill the mites and their eggs, as well as thorough cleaning and laundering of bedding, clothing, and towels to prevent reinfestation.

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Non-fibrillar collagens are a type of collagen that do not form fibrous structures, unlike the more common fibrillar collagens. They are a group of structurally diverse collagens that play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Non-fibrillar collagens include types IV, VI, VIII, X, XII, XIV, XVI, XIX, XXI, and XXVIII. They are often found in basement membranes and other specialized extracellular matrix structures.

Type IV collagen is a major component of the basement membrane and forms a network-like structure that provides a scaffold for other matrix components. Type VI collagen has a beaded filament structure and is involved in the organization of the extracellular matrix. Type VIII collagen is found in the eyes and helps to maintain the structural integrity of the eye. Type X collagen is associated with cartilage development and bone formation. Type XII and XIV collagens are fibril-associated collagens that help to regulate the organization and diameter of fibrillar collagens. The other non-fibrillar collagens have various functions, including cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation.

Overall, non-fibrillar collagens are important structural components of the extracellular matrix and play critical roles in various biological processes.

"Mycobacterium ulcerans" is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is the causative agent of a chronic infection known as Buruli ulcer. This bacterium is naturally found in aquatic environments and can infect humans through minor traumas or wounds on the skin. The infection typically begins as a painless nodule or papule, which may progress to form necrotic ulcers if left untreated. The bacteria produce a unique toxin called mycolactone, which is responsible for the extensive tissue damage and destruction observed in Buruli ulcers.

Lichen Planus is a chronic, autoimmune skin condition that can also affect the mucous membranes inside the mouth, genitals, and eyes. It is characterized by the appearance of purplish, flat-topped bumps or lesions on the skin, which may be itchy. The exact cause of Lichen Planus is unknown, but it is believed to occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks cells in the skin or mucous membranes. Certain medications, viral infections, and genetic factors may increase the risk of developing this condition. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and may include topical corticosteroids, oral medications, or light therapy.

Vitiligo is a medical condition characterized by the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, resulting in irregular white depigmented areas. It's caused by the destruction of melanocytes, the cells responsible for producing melanin, which gives our skin its color. The exact cause of vitiligo is not fully understood, but it's thought to be an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes. It can affect people of any age, gender, or ethnicity, although it may be more noticeable in people with darker skin tones. The progression of vitiligo is unpredictable and can vary from person to person. Treatment options include topical creams, light therapy, oral medications, and surgical procedures, but the effectiveness of these treatments varies depending on the individual case.

The dermis is the layer of skin located beneath the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. It is composed of connective tissue and provides structure and support to the skin. The dermis contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. It is also responsible for the production of collagen and elastin, which give the skin its strength and flexibility. The dermis can be further divided into two layers: the papillary dermis, which is the upper layer and contains finger-like projections called papillae that extend upwards into the epidermis, and the reticular dermis, which is the lower layer and contains thicker collagen bundles. Together, the epidermis and dermis make up the true skin.

Hand dermatoses is a general term used to describe various inflammatory skin conditions that affect the hands. These conditions can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, blistering, scaling, and cracking of the skin on the hands. Common examples of hand dermatoses include:

1. Irritant contact dermatitis: A reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with irritants such as chemicals, soaps, or detergents.
2. Allergic contact dermatitis: A reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with allergens, such as nickel, rubber, or poison ivy.
3. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic skin condition characterized by dry, itchy, and inflamed skin.
4. Psoriasis: A chronic skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches that can occur anywhere on the body, including the hands.
5. Dyshidrotic eczema: A type of eczema that causes small blisters to form on the sides of the fingers, palms, and soles of the feet.
6. Lichen planus: An inflammatory skin condition that can cause purple or white patches to form on the hands and other parts of the body.
7. Scabies: A contagious skin condition caused by mites that burrow into the skin and lay eggs, causing intense itching and a rash.

Treatment for hand dermatoses depends on the specific diagnosis and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, phototherapy, or avoidance of triggers.

Localized scleroderma, also known as morphea, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and connective tissues. It is characterized by thickening and hardening (sclerosis) of the skin in patches or bands, usually on the trunk, limbs, or face. Unlike systemic scleroderma, localized scleroderma does not affect internal organs, although it can cause significant disfigurement and disability in some cases.

There are two main types of localized scleroderma: plaque morphea and generalized morphea. Plaque morphea typically presents as oval or circular patches of thickened, hard skin that are often white or pale in the center and surrounded by a purple or darker border. Generalized morphea, on the other hand, is characterized by larger areas of sclerosis that can cover much of the body surface.

The exact cause of localized scleroderma is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an overactive immune system response that leads to inflammation and scarring of the skin and underlying tissues. Treatment typically involves a combination of topical therapies (such as corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors), phototherapy, and systemic medications (such as methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil) in more severe cases.

Skin physiological processes refer to the functions and changes that occur in the skin, which are necessary for its maintenance, repair, and regulation of body homeostasis. These processes include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external factors such as microorganisms, chemicals, and UV radiation. It also helps to prevent water loss from the body.
2. Temperature Regulation: The skin plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Immunological Function: The skin contains immune cells that help to protect the body against infection and disease.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is able to synthesize vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Sensory Perception: The skin contains nerve endings that allow for the perception of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
6. Wound Healing: When the skin is injured, a complex series of physiological processes are initiated to repair the damage and restore the barrier function.
7. Excretion: The skin helps to eliminate waste products through sweat.
8. Hydration: The skin maintains hydration by regulating water loss and absorbing moisture from the environment.
9. Pigmentation: The production of melanin in the skin provides protection against UV radiation and determines skin color.
10. Growth and Differentiation: The skin constantly renews itself through a process of cell growth and differentiation, where stem cells in the basal layer divide and differentiate into mature skin cells that migrate to the surface and are eventually shed.

Desmoglein 1 is a type of desmosomal cadherin, which is a transmembrane protein involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. It is primarily expressed in the upper layers of the epidermis and plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and stability of the skin. Desmoglein 1 forms desmosomes, specialized intercellular junctions that connect adjacent keratinocytes and help to resist shearing forces.

Desmoglein 1 is also a target for autoantibodies in certain blistering diseases, such as pemphigus foliaceus, where the binding of these antibodies to desmoglein 1 results in the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and formation of skin blisters.

Artificial Skin is a synthetic substitute or equivalent that is used to replace, support, or enhance the function of damaged or absent skin. It can be made from various materials such as biopolymers, composites, or biosynthetic materials. The main purpose of artificial skin is to provide a temporary or permanent covering for wounds, burns, or ulcers that cannot be healed with conventional treatments. Additionally, it may serve as a platform for the delivery of medications or as a matrix for the growth of cells and tissues during skin grafting procedures. Artificial skin must possess properties such as biocompatibility, durability, flexibility, and permeability to air and water vapor in order to promote optimal healing and minimize scarring.

Eczematous skin diseases are a group of inflammatory skin conditions characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. These patches can also become red, swollen, and blistered, and may ooze and crust over during the course of the disease. The term "eczema" is often used interchangeably with "dermatitis," although dermatitis is a broader term that includes any inflammation of the skin.

Eczematous skin diseases can have many different causes, including genetics, environmental factors, allergies, and immune system dysfunction. Common types of eczematous skin diseases include atopic dermatitis (the most common form of eczema), contact dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.

Treatment for eczematous skin diseases typically involves a combination of self-care measures, such as avoiding triggers, keeping the skin moisturized, and taking lukewarm baths, as well as medical treatments, such as topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, phototherapy or systemic medications may be necessary to control severe or widespread eczema.

Ichthyosis is a group of skin disorders that are characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin. The name "ichthyosis" comes from the Greek word "ichthys," which means fish, as the skin can have a fish-like scale appearance. These conditions can be inherited or acquired and vary in severity.

The medical definition of ichthyosis is a heterogeneous group of genetic keratinization disorders that result in dry, thickened, and scaly skin. The condition may affect any part of the body, but it most commonly appears on the extremities, scalp, and trunk. Ichthyosis can also have associated symptoms such as redness, itching, and blistering.

The severity of ichthyosis can range from mild to severe, and some forms of the condition may be life-threatening in infancy. The exact symptoms and their severity depend on the specific type of ichthyosis a person has. Treatment for ichthyosis typically involves moisturizing the skin, avoiding irritants, and using medications to help control scaling and inflammation.

Metabolic skin diseases are a group of cutaneous disorders that result from abnormalities in the metabolism of cells or systemic substances affecting the skin. These conditions can be caused by genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, or other underlying medical issues. Examples of metabolic skin diseases include:

1. Diabetic dermopathy: A condition characterized by the appearance of brown, scaly patches on the shins due to changes in small blood vessels caused by diabetes.
2. Porphyria cutanea tarda: A genetic disorder affecting heme biosynthesis, leading to blistering and scarring of sun-exposed skin.
3. Xanthomas: Deposits of fatty material (lipids) under the skin or in other tissues, often associated with high cholesterol levels or other lipid metabolism disorders.
4. Calciphylaxis: A rare condition characterized by calcification of small blood vessels and subsequent tissue death, typically affecting patients with chronic kidney disease.
5. Erythropoietic protoporphyria: A genetic disorder affecting heme biosynthesis, leading to photosensitivity, burning, itching, and scarring after sun exposure.
6. Gout: A form of arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid crystals in joints, which can also lead to the formation of tophi (nodules) on the skin.
7. Amyloidosis: A group of diseases characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid proteins in various organs and tissues, including the skin.

Treatment for metabolic skin diseases often involves addressing the underlying metabolic issue or disorder, as well as managing symptoms and preventing complications.

"Military hygiene" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the same way that terms like "cardiology" or "pulmonology" do. However, it generally refers to the practices and measures taken to maintain health and prevent disease among military personnel. This can include topics such as:

* Environmental health, including sanitation, water supply, food safety, and housing conditions
* Personal hygiene, including bathing, laundry, and grooming standards
* Medical surveillance and screening of personnel for infectious diseases and other health issues
* Immunizations and preventive medicine measures
* Occupational health and safety, including protection from chemical, biological, and physical hazards
* Health promotion and education programs to encourage healthy behaviors and lifestyles.

The goal of military hygiene is to maintain the health and readiness of military personnel, reduce absenteeism due to illness or injury, and prevent the spread of infectious diseases within military populations and between military and civilian communities.

Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin that occurs when it comes into contact with a substance that the individual has developed an allergic reaction to or that causes irritation. It can be divided into two main types: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by an immune system response to a substance, known as an allergen, which the individual has become sensitized to. When the skin comes into contact with this allergen, it triggers an immune reaction that results in inflammation and characteristic symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and blistering. Common allergens include metals (such as nickel), rubber, medications, fragrances, and cosmetics.

Irritant contact dermatitis, on the other hand, is caused by direct damage to the skin from a substance that is inherently irritating or corrosive. This can occur after exposure to strong acids, alkalis, solvents, or even prolonged exposure to milder irritants like water or soap. Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis include redness, pain, burning, and dryness at the site of contact.

The treatment for contact dermatitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen or irritant, as well as managing symptoms with topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, or other medications as needed. In some cases, patch testing may be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the reaction.

Skin abnormalities refer to any changes in the skin that deviate from its normal structure, function, or color. These can manifest as various conditions such as lesions, growths, discolorations, or textural alterations. Examples include moles, freckles, birthmarks, rashes, hives, acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, skin cancer, and many others. Some skin abnormalities may be harmless and require no treatment, while others might indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and management.

Keratoderma, palmoplantar is a medical term that refers to a group of skin conditions characterized by thickening and hardening (hyperkeratosis) of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. This condition can affect people of all ages, but it's most commonly seen in children.

The thickening of the skin is caused by an overproduction of keratin, a protein that helps to form the tough, outer layer of the skin. In palmoplantar keratoderma, this excess keratin accumulates in the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, leading to the formation of rough, scaly, and thickened patches on the palms and soles.

There are several different types of palmoplantar keratoderma, each with its own specific symptoms and causes. Some forms of the condition are inherited and present at birth or develop in early childhood, while others may be acquired later in life as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, or psoriasis.

Treatment for palmoplantar keratoderma typically involves the use of emollients and keratolytic agents to help soften and remove the thickened skin. In some cases, oral retinoids or other systemic medications may be necessary to manage more severe symptoms. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Acantholysis is a medical term that refers to the separation of the cells in the upper layer of the skin (the epidermis), specifically between the pickle cell layer (stratum spinosum) and the granular cell layer (stratum granulosum). This separation results in the formation of distinct, round, or oval cells called acantholytic cells, which are typically seen in certain skin conditions.

Acantholysis is a characteristic feature of several skin disorders, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: A rare autoimmune blistering disorder where the immune system produces antibodies against desmoglein-1 and -3 proteins, leading to acantholysis and formation of flaccid blisters.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: Another autoimmune blistering disorder that specifically targets desmoglein-1 protein, causing superficial blisters and erosions on the skin.
3. Hailey-Hailey disease (familial benign chronic pemphigus): An autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting ATP2C1 gene, leading to defective calcium transport and abnormal keratinocyte adhesion, resulting in acantholysis and recurrent skin eruptions.
4. Darier's disease (keratosis follicularis): An autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting ATP2A2 gene, causing dysfunction of calcium transport and abnormal keratinocyte adhesion, resulting in acantholysis and characteristic papular or keratotic skin lesions.
5. Grover's disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis): An acquired skin disorder of unknown cause, characterized by the development of pruritic, red, and scaly papules and vesicles due to acantholysis.

The presence of acantholysis in these conditions can be confirmed through histopathological examination of skin biopsies.

Desmoglein 3 is a type of desmoglein protein that is primarily found in the upper layers of the epidermis, specifically in the desmosomes of the skin. Desmogleins are part of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and cohesion of tissues, particularly in areas subjected to mechanical stress.

Desmoglein 3 is essential for the formation and maintenance of desmosomal junctions in stratified squamous epithelia, such as the skin and mucous membranes. It is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion by forming calcium-dependent homophilic interactions with other Desmoglein 3 molecules on adjacent cells.

Mutations in the gene encoding Desmoglein 3 have been associated with several skin disorders, including pemphigus vulgaris, a severe autoimmune blistering disease that affects the mucous membranes and skin. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies target Desmoglein 3 (and sometimes Desmoglein 1) molecules, leading to loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and formation of blisters and erosions.

A patch test is a method used in clinical dermatology to identify whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of the skin (contact dermatitis). It involves applying small amounts of potential allergens to patches, which are then placed on the skin and left for a set period of time, usually 48 hours. The skin is then examined for signs of an allergic reaction such as redness, swelling or blistering. This helps in identifying the specific substances that an individual may be allergic to, enabling appropriate avoidance measures and treatment.

Staphylococcal skin infections are a type of skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria, which commonly live on the skin and inside the nose without causing harm. However, if they enter the body through a cut or scratch, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of staphylococcal skin infections, including:

1. Impetigo: A highly contagious superficial skin infection that typically affects children and causes red, fluid-filled blisters that burst and leave a yellowish crust.
2. Folliculitis: An inflammation of the hair follicles that causes red, pus-filled bumps or pimples on the skin.
3. Furunculosis: A deeper infection of the hair follicle that forms a large, painful lump or boil under the skin.
4. Cellulitis: A potentially serious bacterial infection that affects the deeper layers of the skin and can cause redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area.
5. Abscess: A collection of pus that forms in the skin, often caused by a staphylococcal infection.

Treatment for staphylococcal skin infections typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, drainage of pus or other fluids may be necessary to promote healing. Preventing the spread of staphylococcal skin infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, covering wounds and cuts, and avoiding sharing personal items like towels or razors.

Mite infestations refer to the presence and multiplication of mites, which are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, on or inside a host's body. This can occur in various sites such as the skin, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract, depending on the specific mite species.

Skin infestations by mites, also known as dermatophilosis or mange, are common and may cause conditions like scabies (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei) or demodecosis (caused by Demodex spp.). These conditions can lead to symptoms such as itching, rash, and skin lesions.

Lung infestations by mites, although rare, can occur in people who work in close contact with mites, such as farmers or laboratory workers. This condition is called "mite lung" or "farmer's lung," which is often caused by exposure to high levels of dust containing mite feces and dead mites.

Gastrointestinal infestations by mites can occur in animals but are extremely rare in humans. The most common example is the intestinal roundworm, which belongs to the phylum Nematoda rather than Arachnida.

It's important to note that mite infestations can be treated with appropriate medical interventions and prevention measures.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

Erythema multiforme is a skin condition that typically presents as symmetric, red, raised spots or bumps on the skin and mucous membranes. The rash can vary in appearance, but it often has a target-like or irregular shape with central dusky or necrotic areas surrounded by pale rings and red flares. The rash usually begins on the extremities, such as the hands and feet, and then spreads to involve other parts of the body, including the trunk and face.

Erythema multiforme can be caused by various triggers, including infections (most commonly herpes simplex virus), medications, and other medical conditions. The condition is thought to represent a hypersensitivity reaction, where the immune system attacks the skin and mucous membranes.

The severity of erythema multiforme can range from mild to severe, with some cases causing significant pain and discomfort. In more severe cases, the rash may be accompanied by fever, mouth sores, and other systemic symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, if known, as well as providing supportive care for the skin lesions. Topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and pain relievers may be used to help manage symptoms.

Ectoparasitic infestations refer to the invasion and multiplication of parasites, such as lice, fleas, ticks, or mites, on the outer surface of a host organism, typically causing irritation, itching, and other skin disorders. These parasites survive by feeding on the host's blood, skin cells, or other bodily substances, leading to various health issues if left untreated.

Ectoparasitic infestations can occur in humans as well as animals and may require medical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms include redness, rash, inflammation, and secondary bacterial or viral infections due to excessive scratching. Preventive measures such as personal hygiene, regular inspections, and avoiding contact with infested individuals or environments can help reduce the risk of ectoparasitic infestations.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that typically affects areas of the body where there are sweat glands, such as the armpits, groin, and buttocks. The main features of HS are recurrent boil-like lumps or abscesses (nodules) that form under the skin. These nodules can rupture and drain pus, leading to painful, swollen, and inflamed lesions. Over time, these lesions may heal, only to be replaced by new ones, resulting in scarring and tunnel-like tracts (sinus tracts) beneath the skin.

HS is a debilitating condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, causing physical discomfort, emotional distress, and social isolation. The exact cause of HS remains unclear, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Treatment options for HS include topical and oral antibiotics, biologic therapies, surgical interventions, and lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and smoking cessation.

Scalp dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the scalp. These can include inflammatory conditions such as seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff, cradle cap), psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (eczema), and lichen planus; infectious processes like bacterial folliculitis, tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp), and viral infections; as well as autoimmune conditions such as alopecia areata. Symptoms can range from mild scaling and itching to severe redness, pain, and hair loss. The specific diagnosis and treatment of scalp dermatoses depend on the underlying cause.

Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.

These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.

Irritant contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) that results from exposure to an external substance that directly damages the skin. It can be caused by both chemical and physical agents, such as solvents, detergents, acids, alkalis, friction, and extreme temperatures. The reaction typically occurs within hours or days of exposure and can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and pain. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which requires sensitization to a specific allergen, irritant contact dermatitis can occur after a single exposure to an irritant in sufficient concentration or after repeated exposures to lower concentrations of the substance.

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, inflammatory skin condition that typically begins as a small pustule or blister, which then rapidly progresses to form painful ulcers with a characteristic violaceous (bluish-purple) undermined border. The etiology of pyoderma gangrenosum is not entirely clear, but it's often associated with an underlying systemic disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or hematologic disorders.

The pathophysiology of pyoderma gangrenosum involves a dysregulated immune response and neutrophil-mediated tissue damage. Diagnosis is often based on the clinical presentation and exclusion of other conditions with similar lesions. Treatment typically includes systemic immunosuppressive therapy, such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or biologic agents, along with local wound care to promote healing and prevent infection.

It's important to note that pyoderma gangrenosum can be a challenging condition to manage, and a multidisciplinary approach involving dermatologists, internists, and surgeons may be necessary for optimal care.

Exfoliative dermatitis is a severe form of widespread inflammation of the skin (dermatitis), characterized by widespread scaling and redness, leading to the shedding of large sheets of skin. It can be caused by various factors such as drug reactions, underlying medical conditions (like lymphoma or leukemia), or extensive eczema. Treatment typically involves identifying and removing the cause, along with supportive care, such as moisturizers and medications to control inflammation and itching. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and management of fluid and electrolyte balance.

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects the skin and occasionally the bones and joints. The infection typically begins with a painless nodule or papule that may progress to a large, painful ulcer with undermined edges if left untreated. In severe cases, it can lead to permanent disfigurement and disability. Buruli ulcer is primarily found in rural areas of West and Central Africa, but also occurs in other parts of the world including Australia, Asia, and South America. It is transmitted through contact with contaminated water or soil, although the exact mode of transmission is not fully understood. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can cure the disease and prevent complications.

Warts are small, rough growths on the skin or mucous membranes caused by one of several types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They can appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on the hands, fingers, and feet. Warts are benign, non-cancerous growths, but they can be unsightly, uncomfortable, or painful, depending on their location and size.

Warts are caused by HPV infecting the top layer of skin, usually through a small cut or scratch. The virus triggers an overproduction of keratin, a protein in the skin, leading to the formation of a hard, rough growth. Warts can vary in appearance depending on their location and type, but they are generally round or irregularly shaped, with a rough surface that may be flat or slightly raised. They may also contain small black dots, which are actually tiny blood vessels that have clotted.

Warts are contagious and can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact or by sharing personal items such as towels or razors. They can also be spread by touching a wart and then touching another part of the body. Warts may take several months to develop after exposure to HPV, so it may not always be clear when or how they were contracted.

There are several types of warts, including common warts, plantar warts (which occur on the soles of the feet), flat warts (which are smaller and smoother than other types of warts), and genital warts (which are sexually transmitted). While most warts are harmless and will eventually go away on their own, some may require medical treatment if they are causing discomfort or are unsightly. Treatment options for warts include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen), and surgical removal.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Keratolytic agents are substances that cause the softening and sloughing off of excess keratin, the protein that makes up the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum). These agents help to break down and remove dead skin cells, increase moisture retention, and promote the growth of new skin cells. They are commonly used in the treatment of various dermatological conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, warts, calluses, and ichthyosis. Examples of keratolytic agents include salicylic acid, urea, lactic acid, and retinoic acid.

Keratin-14 is a type of keratin protein that is specifically expressed in the suprabasal layers of stratified epithelia, including the epidermis. It is a component of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton and plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity and stability of epithelial cells. Mutations in the gene encoding keratin-14 have been associated with several genetic skin disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex and white sponge nevus.

Diffuse scleroderma is a medical condition that falls under the systemic sclerosis category of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. It is characterized by thickening and hardening (sclerosis) of the skin and involvement of internal organs. In diffuse scleroderma, the process affects extensive areas of the skin and at least one internal organ.

The disease process involves an overproduction of collagen, a protein that makes up connective tissues in the body. This excessive collagen deposition leads to fibrosis (scarring) of the skin and various organs, including the esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, and kidneys.

Diffuse scleroderma can present with a rapid progression of skin thickening within the first few years after onset. The skin involvement may extend to areas beyond the hands, feet, and face, which are commonly affected in limited scleroderma (another form of systemic sclerosis). Additionally, patients with diffuse scleroderma have a higher risk for severe internal organ complications compared to those with limited scleroderma.

Early diagnosis and appropriate management of diffuse scleroderma are crucial to prevent or slow down the progression of organ damage. Treatment typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, focusing on symptom management, immunosuppressive therapy, and addressing specific organ involvement.

Urticaria, also known as hives, is an allergic reaction that appears on the skin. It is characterized by the rapid appearance of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin, which are often accompanied by itching, stinging, or burning sensations. These wheals can vary in size and shape, and they may change location and appear in different places over a period of hours or days. Urticaria is usually caused by an allergic reaction to food, medication, or other substances, but it can also be triggered by physical factors such as heat, cold, pressure, or exercise. The condition is generally harmless, but severe cases of urticaria may indicate a more serious underlying medical issue and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

Dermatomyositis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and weakness in the muscles and skin. It is a type of inflammatory myopathy, which means that it causes muscle inflammation and damage. Dermatomyositis is often associated with a distinctive rash that affects the skin around the eyes, nose, mouth, fingers, and toes.

The symptoms of dermatomyositis can include:

* Progressive muscle weakness, particularly in the hips, thighs, shoulders, and neck
* Fatigue
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Skin rash, which may be pink or purple and is often accompanied by itching
* Muscle pain and tenderness
* Joint pain and swelling
* Raynaud's phenomenon, a condition that affects blood flow to the fingers and toes

The exact cause of dermatomyositis is not known, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune response in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. Treatment for dermatomyositis typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as physical therapy to help maintain muscle strength and function.

Carcinoma, basal cell is a type of skin cancer that arises from the basal cells, which are located in the lower part of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). It is also known as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and is the most common form of skin cancer.

BCC typically appears as a small, shiny, pearly bump or nodule on the skin, often in sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, neck, hands, and arms. It may also appear as a scar-like area that is white, yellow, or waxy. BCCs are usually slow growing and rarely spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, they can be locally invasive and destroy surrounding tissue if left untreated.

The exact cause of BCC is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds. People with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes are at increased risk of developing BCC.

Treatment for BCC typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue. Other treatment options may include radiation therapy, topical chemotherapy, or photodynamic therapy. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from UV radiation by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen, and avoiding tanning beds.

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Langerhans cells are specialized dendritic cells that are found in the epithelium, including the skin (where they are named after Paul Langerhans who first described them in 1868) and mucous membranes. They play a crucial role in the immune system as antigen-presenting cells, contributing to the initiation of immune responses.

These cells contain Birbeck granules, unique organelles that are involved in the transportation of antigens from the cell surface to the lysosomes for processing and presentation to T-cells. Langerhans cells also produce cytokines, which help regulate immune responses and attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

It is important to note that although Langerhans cells are a part of the immune system, they can sometimes contribute to the development of certain skin disorders, such as allergic contact dermatitis and some forms of cancer, like Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Alopecia Areata is a medical condition characterized by the sudden loss of hair in round or oval patches on the scalp or other parts of the body. It is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the immune system mistakenly attacks the hair follicles, leading to hair loss. The condition can affect both adults and children, and it can cause significant emotional distress and impact a person's quality of life. In some cases, the hair may grow back on its own, while in others, treatment may be necessary to promote hair regrowth.

Neurodermatitis, also known as lichen simplex chronicus, is a skin condition characterized by chronic itching and scratching of the skin. It typically affects areas that are easy to reach and can be triggered by stress, anxiety, or other underlying skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis. The constant scratching leads to thickening and darkening of the skin, which can cause discomfort and distress. Treatment usually involves a combination of topical medications, lifestyle changes, and behavioral modifications to reduce scratching and alleviate symptoms.

A "drug eruption" is a general term used to describe an adverse skin reaction that occurs as a result of taking a medication. These reactions can vary in severity and appearance, and may include symptoms such as rash, hives, itching, redness, blistering, or peeling of the skin. In some cases, drug eruptions can also cause systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or joint pain.

The exact mechanism by which drugs cause eruptions is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to the medication. There are many different types of drug eruptions, including morphilliform rashes, urticaria (hives), fixed drug eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), which is a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction.

If you suspect that you are experiencing a drug eruption, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider can help determine the cause of the reaction and recommend appropriate treatment. In some cases, it may be necessary to discontinue the medication causing the reaction and switch to an alternative therapy.

Papulosquamous skin diseases are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the skin characterized by the development of papules (small, solid, often conical bump) and scales. These diseases include psoriasis, lichen planus, and seborrheic dermatitis among others. The skin lesions in these conditions are often red, scaly, and may be pruritic (itchy). They can vary in severity and distribution, and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. The exact cause of these diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to involve an abnormal immune response and genetic factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of topical therapies, phototherapy, and systemic medications.

Emollients are medical substances or preparations used to soften and soothe the skin, making it more supple and flexible. They work by forming a barrier on the surface of the skin that helps to prevent water loss and protect the skin from irritants and allergens. Emollients can be in the form of creams, lotions, ointments, or gels, and are often used to treat dry, scaly, or itchy skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis. They may contain ingredients such as petroleum jelly, lanolin, mineral oil, or various plant-derived oils and butters. Emollients can also help to reduce inflammation and promote healing of the skin.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Desmogleins are a group of proteins that are part of the desmosomes, which are structures that help to strengthen and maintain the integrity of epithelial tissues. Desmogleins play a crucial role in cell-to-cell adhesion by forming intercellular junctions known as desmoglein adherens junctions. These junctions help to anchor intermediate filaments, such as keratin, to the plasma membrane and provide structural support to epithelial cells.

There are four main types of desmogleins (Dsg1-4), each with distinct expression patterns in different tissues. For example, Dsg1 is primarily expressed in the upper layers of the epidermis, while Dsg3 is found in the lower layers and in mucous membranes. Mutations in desmoglein genes have been associated with several skin disorders, including pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, which are autoimmune blistering diseases characterized by the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Antipruritics are a class of medications or substances that are used to relieve or prevent itching (pruritus). They work by reducing the sensation of itchiness and can be applied topically to the skin, taken orally, or administered intravenously. Some common antipruritics include diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, and corticosteroids.

Chemokine CCL27, also known as CTACK (Cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine) or Exodus-3, is a small signaling protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or cell signaling molecules, that play an important role in immune function and inflammation by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue injury.

Chemokine CCL27 is primarily produced by keratinocytes, the major cell type in the epidermis, and it plays a crucial role in skin immunity by attracting specific subsets of T cells to the skin. It binds to and activates the CCR10 receptor on the surface of these T cells, leading to their migration towards the site of chemokine production.

In addition to its role in skin immunity, Chemokine CCL27 has also been implicated in several diseases, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and certain types of cancer.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Dermcidin is a group of antimicrobial peptides that are produced by the human body. These peptides are expressed in the sweat glands and are released through sweat. They play an important role in the body's defense against microbial infections, as they have been shown to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Dermcidin is particularly important for protecting the skin, which is constantly exposed to potential pathogens.

The gene that encodes dermcidin is located on chromosome 8 in humans. The protein produced by this gene is cleaved into several smaller peptides, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some of these peptides are stored in the sweat glands and released upon stimulation, while others are produced and secreted on demand.

Dermcidin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the context of wound healing and infection prevention. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential uses of this important group of peptides.

Parapsoriasis is a term used to describe two uncommon, chronic, and relatively benign inflammatory skin conditions. These are small plaque parapsoriasis (SPP) and large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP), also known as retiform or digitate dermatosis of Köbner.

Small plaque parapsoriasis is characterized by scaly, thin, pink to red patches or plaques, usually less than 3-5 cm in diameter. The lesions are often asymptomatic or mildly pruritic and can be found on the trunk and proximal extremities.

Large plaque parapsoriasis presents as larger, irregularly shaped, scaly patches or thin plaques, typically greater than 5 cm in diameter. The lesions are often asymptomatic but may occasionally be pruritic. LPP is considered a precursor to a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma called mycosis fungoides, especially when the lesions become thicker or more numerous over time.

It's important to note that these conditions can sometimes be challenging to diagnose and may require a skin biopsy for accurate diagnosis. Dermatologists and pathologists should carefully evaluate the clinical presentation, histopathological features, and any potential progression to ensure appropriate management.

Coal tar is a thick, dark liquid that is a byproduct of coal manufacturing processes, specifically the distillation of coal at high temperatures. It is a complex mixture of hundreds of different compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known to be carcinogenic.

In medical terms, coal tar has been used topically for various skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis due to its anti-inflammatory and keratolytic properties. Coal tar can help reduce scaling, itching, and inflammation of the skin. However, its use is limited due to potential side effects such as skin irritation, increased sun sensitivity, and potential risk of cancer with long-term use. Coal tar products should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and according to the instructions on the label.

Lamellar Ichthyosis is a rare, inherited genetic skin disorder characterized by widespread, persistent scaling of the skin. It is caused by mutations in genes responsible for maintaining the barrier function and hydration of the skin. The condition is present from birth and can vary in severity.

In lamellar ichthyosis, the skin cells do not shed properly and instead accumulate in plates or scales that cover the entire body. These scales are large, dark brown or gray, and have a cracked appearance, resembling fish scales. The scales may be present at birth (congenital) or develop within the first few weeks of life.

The skin is also prone to redness, irritation, and infection due to the impaired barrier function. Other symptoms can include overheating, dehydration, and difficulty with sweating. The condition may improve in warmer, more humid environments.

Treatment for lamellar ichthyosis is aimed at managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include topical creams and ointments to moisturize the skin, medications to reduce inflammation and infection, and avoiding environmental triggers that can worsen symptoms. In some cases, oral retinoids may be prescribed to help regulate skin cell growth and shedding.

Folliculitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of one or more hair follicles, typically appearing as small red bumps or pimples that surround the affected follicle. It can occur anywhere on the body where hair grows, but it's most common in areas exposed to friction, heat, and tight clothing such as the neck, back, legs, arms, and buttocks.

Folliculitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or fungal infections, irritation from shaving or waxing, ingrown hairs, and exposure to chemicals or sweat. The severity of folliculitis ranges from mild cases that resolve on their own within a few days to severe cases that may require medical treatment.

Treatment for folliculitis depends on the underlying cause. For bacterial infections, antibiotics may be prescribed, while antifungal medications are used for fungal infections. In some cases, topical treatments such as creams or gels may be sufficient to treat mild folliculitis, while more severe cases may require oral medication or other medical interventions.

Alopecia is a medical term that refers to the loss of hair or baldness. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it's most commonly used to describe hair loss from the scalp. Alopecia can have several causes, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, and aging.

There are different types of alopecia, such as:

* Alopecia Areata: It is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. The immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing the hair to fall out.
* Androgenetic Alopecia: Also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness, it's a genetic condition that causes gradual hair thinning and eventual hair loss, typically following a specific pattern.
* Telogen Effluvium: It is a temporary hair loss condition caused by stress, medication, pregnancy, or other factors that can cause the hair follicles to enter a resting phase, leading to shedding and thinning of the hair.

The treatment for alopecia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as with telogen effluvium, hair growth may resume without any treatment. However, other forms of alopecia may require medical intervention, including topical treatments, oral medications, or even hair transplant surgery in severe cases.

Methoxsalen is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as psoralens. It is primarily used in the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis and vitiligo.

Methoxsalen works by making the skin more sensitive to ultraviolet light A (UVA) after it is absorbed. This process helps to slow down the growth of affected skin cells, reducing the symptoms of the condition.

The medication is typically taken orally or applied topically to the affected area before UVA light therapy. It's important to note that methoxsalen can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts with long-term use, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Sebaceous glands are microscopic, exocrine glands that are found in the dermis of mammalian skin. They are attached to hair follicles and produce an oily substance called sebum, which is composed of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells (fatty acids, cholesterol). Sebum is released through a duct onto the surface of the skin, where it forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent water loss, keeps the skin and hair moisturized, and has antibacterial properties.

Sebaceous glands are distributed throughout the body, but they are most numerous on the face, scalp, and upper trunk. They can also be found in other areas of the body such as the eyelids (where they are known as meibomian glands), the external ear canal, and the genital area.

Abnormalities in sebaceous gland function can lead to various skin conditions, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and certain types of skin cancer.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

An ointment is a semi-solid preparation, typically composed of a mixture of medicinal substance with a base, which is usually greasy or oily. The purpose of the base is to act as a vehicle for the active ingredient and allow it to be applied smoothly and evenly to the skin or mucous membranes.

Ointments are commonly used in dermatology to treat various skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, rashes, burns, and wounds. They can also be used to deliver medication for localized pain relief, muscle relaxation, and anti-inflammatory or antibiotic effects.

The base of an ointment may consist of various ingredients, including petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, beeswax, or a combination of these. The choice of the base depends on the desired properties such as consistency, spreadability, and stability, as well as the intended route of administration and the specific therapeutic goals.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Larva migrans is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of certain nematode (roundworm) species. The term "larva migrans" is used to describe two distinct clinical syndromes: cutaneous larva migrans and visceral larva migrans.

1. Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM): Also known as creeping eruption, it is caused by the hookworm species that typically infect dogs and cats (Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma caninum). The larvae penetrate human skin, usually through bare feet in contact with contaminated soil or sand, and cause an intensely pruritic (itchy) serpiginous (snake-like) track as they migrate under the skin.

2. Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM): It is caused by the migration of larvae from certain roundworm species, such as Toxocara spp., which primarily infect canids (dogs and related animals). Humans become accidental hosts when they ingest embryonated eggs present in contaminated soil, water, or undercooked meat. The larvae then migrate through various organs, causing inflammation and damage to tissues. VLM often affects the liver, lungs, eyes, and less commonly the central nervous system. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the organs involved but may include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and eye inflammation.

It is important to note that these infections are not transmitted from person-to-person. Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, washing hands thoroughly after contact with soil or pets, cooking meat properly, and avoiding the ingestion of dirt or sand by young children.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Desmosomes are specialized intercellular junctions that provide strong adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells and help maintain the structural integrity and stability of tissues. They are composed of several proteins, including desmoplakin, plakoglobin, and cadherins, which form complex structures that anchor intermediate filaments (such as keratin) to the cell membrane. This creates a network of interconnected cells that can withstand mechanical stresses. Desmosomes are particularly abundant in tissues subjected to high levels of tension, such as the skin and heart.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare, serious and potentially life-threatening skin reaction that usually occurs as a reaction to medication but can also be caused by an infection. SJS is characterized by the detachment of the epidermis (top layer of the skin) from the dermis (the layer underneath). It primarily affects the mucous membranes, such as those lining the eyes, mouth, throat, and genitals, causing painful raw areas that are prone to infection.

SJS is considered a severe form of erythema multiforme (EM), another skin condition, but it's much more serious and can be fatal. The symptoms of SJS include flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and fatigue, followed by a red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters, eventually leading to the detachment of the top layer of skin.

The exact cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is not always known, but it's often triggered by medications such as antibiotics, anti-convulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antiretroviral drugs. Infections caused by herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also trigger SJS.

Treatment for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome typically involves hospitalization, supportive care, wound care, and medication to manage pain and prevent infection. Discontinuing the offending medication is crucial in managing this condition. In severe cases, patients may require treatment in a burn unit or intensive care unit.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the abnormal growth and accumulation of keratin, a protein found in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). This condition results in widespread blistering and peeling of the skin, particularly in areas prone to friction such as the hands, feet, knees, and elbows.

EH is caused by mutations in the KRT1 or KRT10 genes, which provide instructions for making keratin proteins that are essential for maintaining the structure and integrity of the epidermis. When these genes are mutated, the keratin proteins become unstable and form clumps, leading to the formation of blisters and areas of thickened, scaly skin (hyperkeratosis).

EH is typically present at birth or appears in early childhood, and it can range from mild to severe. In addition to the skin symptoms, individuals with EH may also experience nail abnormalities, hair loss, and an increased risk of skin infections. Treatment for EH is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications, and may include topical creams or ointments, wound care, and protection from friction and injury.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Vascular skin diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels in the skin. These disorders can be caused by problems with the structure or function of the blood vessels, which can lead to various symptoms such as redness, discoloration, pain, itching, and ulcerations. Some examples of vascular skin diseases include:

1. Rosacea: a chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels in the face.
2. Eczema: a group of inflammatory skin conditions that can cause redness, itching, and dryness. Some types of eczema, such as varicose eczema, are associated with problems with the veins.
3. Psoriasis: an autoimmune condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin. Some people with psoriasis may also develop psoriatic arthritis, which can affect the blood vessels in the skin and joints.
4. Vasculitis: a group of conditions that cause inflammation of the blood vessels. This can lead to symptoms such as redness, pain, and ulcerations.
5. Livedo reticularis: a condition that causes a net-like pattern of discoloration on the skin, usually on the legs. It is caused by abnormalities in the small blood vessels.
6. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: a rare condition that causes inflammation of the small blood vessels, leading to purple spots on the skin and joint pain.
7. Raynaud's phenomenon: a condition that affects the blood vessels in the fingers and toes, causing them to become narrow and restrict blood flow in response to cold temperatures or stress.

Treatment for vascular skin diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus (LSEA) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect both males and females, but it's most commonly found in women after menopause. It can occur at any age, including children. The condition typically affects the genital and anal areas, though it can appear elsewhere on the body as well.

The medical definition of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus is:

A skin disorder characterized by white patches (plaques) that can be smooth or wrinkled, thickened, and easily bruised. These patches may merge to form larger areas of affected skin. The condition can cause itching, burning, pain, and blistering. In women, the vulva is often affected, and sexual intercourse may become painful. In men, it can affect the foreskin and glans penis, leading to difficulty urinating or having sex.

The exact cause of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus remains unknown, but it's believed that hormonal imbalances, genetics, and an overactive immune system may play a role in its development. Treatment usually involves topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, other medications or phototherapy might be recommended. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic, autoimmune blistering skin disorder that is characterized by the presence of symmetrical, pruritic (itchy), papulo-vesicular (papules and small fluid-filled blisters) eruptions on the extensor surfaces of the body, such as the elbows, knees, buttocks, and shoulders. It is often associated with gluten sensitivity or celiac disease, a condition that causes an abnormal immune response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye.

The exact cause of DH is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from the interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The disorder is characterized by the presence of IgA antibodies in the skin, which trigger an immune response that leads to the formation of the characteristic rash.

DH is typically treated with a gluten-free diet, which can help to control the symptoms and prevent complications such as malabsorption and nutritional deficiencies. Medications such as dapsone may also be used to control the itching and blistering associated with the disorder. In some cases, topical corticosteroids or other anti-inflammatory medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

It is important to note that DH is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management and monitoring. People with DH should work closely with their healthcare provider to develop an appropriate treatment plan and monitor their progress over time.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected blackflies (Simulium spp.) that breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams. The larvae of the worms mature into adults in nodules under the skin, where females release microfilariae that migrate throughout the body, including the eyes.

Symptoms include severe itching, dermatitis, depigmentation, thickening and scarring of the skin, visual impairment, and blindness. The disease is also known as river blindness due to its association with riverside communities where blackflies breed. Onchocerciasis can lead to significant social and economic consequences for affected individuals and communities. Preventive chemotherapy using mass drug administration of ivermectin is the primary strategy for controlling onchocerciasis in endemic areas.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A hair follicle is a part of the human skin from which hair grows. It is a complex organ that consists of several layers, including an outer root sheath, inner root sheath, and matrix. The hair follicle is located in the dermis, the second layer of the skin, and is surrounded by sebaceous glands and erector pili muscles.

The hair growth cycle includes three phases: anagen (growth phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). During the anagen phase, cells in the matrix divide rapidly to produce new hair fibers that grow out of the follicle. The hair fiber is made up of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the outer layers of the skin and nails.

Hair follicles are important for various biological functions, including thermoregulation, sensory perception, and social communication. They also play a role in wound healing and can serve as a source of stem cells that can differentiate into other cell types.

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection that mainly affects infants and children. It is caused by two types of bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus). The infection typically occurs in areas of the body with broken or damaged skin, such as cuts, scrapes, insect bites, or rashes.

There are two forms of impetigo: non-bullous and bullous. Non-bullous impetigo, also known as crusted impetigo, begins as small blisters or pimples that quickly rupture, leaving a yellowish-crusted, honey-colored scab. These lesions can be itchy and painful, and they often occur around the nose, mouth, and hands. Non-bullous impetigo is more commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

Bullous impetigo, on the other hand, is characterized by larger fluid-filled blisters that are usually painless and do not itch. These blisters can appear anywhere on the body but are most common in warm, moist areas such as the armpits, groin, or diaper region. Bullous impetigo is primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Impetigo is typically treated with topical antibiotics, such as mupirocin (Bactroban) or retapamulin (Altabax), applied directly to the affected area. In more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is essential to cover the lesions and maintain good hygiene practices to prevent the spread of impetigo to others.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that results in small, round, painless, and pearly or flesh-colored bumps on the skin. These bumps have a dimple in the center and can appear anywhere on the body but are most commonly found in warm, moist areas such as the armpits, behind the knees, and in the groin area. The virus that causes molluscum contagiosum is called the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) and is part of the poxvirus family.

The infection spreads through direct contact with an infected person or through contact with contaminated objects such as towels, clothing, or toys. It can also be transmitted through sexual contact, making it a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in adults. The incubation period for molluscum contagiosum ranges from two weeks to six months, and the bumps typically appear 2-7 weeks after exposure.

Molluscum contagiosum is generally a self-limiting condition that resolves on its own within 6-12 months without scarring. However, treatment may be recommended for cosmetic reasons or to prevent the spread of infection. Treatment options include cryotherapy (freezing the bumps with liquid nitrogen), curettage (scrapping off the bumps), topical medications, and laser therapy.

Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, avoiding sharing personal items, covering lesions, and practicing safe sex can help prevent the spread of molluscum contagiosum.

Bowen's disease is a skin condition that is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells on the outermost layer of the skin (the epidermis). It is also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The affected area often appears as a red, scaly patch or plaque, and it can develop anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on sun-exposed areas such as the face, hands, arms, and legs.

Bowen's disease is considered a precancerous condition because there is a risk that the abnormal cells could eventually develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. However, not all cases of Bowen's disease will progress to cancer, and some may remain stable or even regress on their own.

The exact cause of Bowen's disease is not known, but it is thought to be associated with exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Treatment options for Bowen's disease include cryotherapy, topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, curettage and electrodessication, and surgical excision. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is recommended to monitor the condition and ensure that it does not progress to cancer.

Autoantigens are substances that are typically found in an individual's own body, but can stimulate an immune response because they are recognized as foreign by the body's own immune system. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy tissues and organs because it recognizes some of their components as autoantigens. These autoantigens can be proteins, DNA, or other molecules that are normally present in the body but have become altered or exposed due to various factors such as infection, genetics, or environmental triggers. The immune system then produces antibodies and activates immune cells to attack these autoantigens, leading to tissue damage and inflammation.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the development of scaly, thickened (hyperkeratotic) patches of skin that are often red (erythematous). These patches can change in size, shape, and location over time, and may be triggered or worsened by heat, cold, emotional stress, or physical trauma. The condition typically begins in infancy or early childhood and affects both sexes equally.

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis is caused by mutations in the GJB3 or GJB4 gene, which provide instructions for making proteins called connexins that are important for normal skin function. These genetic changes lead to abnormal communication between skin cells, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of the condition.

The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child can inherit the condition from one affected parent. However, some cases may be due to new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no family history of the disorder.

There is no cure for erythrokeratodermia variabilis, but treatment can help alleviate symptoms. Treatment options include topical medications such as emollients, keratolytics, and corticosteroids to moisturize and soften the skin, reduce inflammation, and remove excess scales. Systemic treatments such as retinoids or methotrexate may be used in severe cases.

Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), a rare cancer that affects the skin's immune system. It is characterized by the infiltration of malignant CD4+ T-lymphocytes into the skin, leading to the formation of patches, plaques, and tumors. The disease typically progresses slowly over many years, often starting with scaly, itchy rashes that can be mistaken for eczema or psoriasis. As the disease advances, tumors may form, and the lymphoma may spread to other organs, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, or spleen. Mycosis fungoides is not contagious and cannot be spread from person to person. The exact cause of mycosis fungoides is unknown, but it is thought to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors.

Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB) is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the presence of blisters and erosions on the skin and mucous membranes. It results from a defect in one of the proteins that anchors the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) to the dermis (the underlying layer of connective tissue). This defect causes the layers to separate easily, leading to blistering with minor friction or trauma.

JEB is usually apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. The severity of the condition can vary widely, even among members of the same family. There are several subtypes of JEB, each caused by mutations in different genes. These include:

1. Herlitz JEB: This is the most severe form, often lethal in infancy. It's characterized by widespread blistering over the entire body, including the mucous membranes, and severe growth retardation.

2. Non-Herlitz JEB: Less severe than Herlitz JEB, this form can still cause significant disability. Blistering tends to be localized to specific areas of the body, such as the hands, feet, and knees.

3. JEB with Pyloric Atresia: This subtype includes gastrointestinal abnormalities like pyloric atresia (a blockage in the lower part of the stomach), in addition to skin fragility.

Treatment for JEB typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may involve wound care, prevention of infection, pain management, nutritional support, and physical therapy. There is currently no cure for JEB.

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in some people with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by scaly, red, and itchy patches. The Arthritis Foundation defines psoriatic arthritis as "a chronic disease characterized by swelling, pain, and stiffness in and around the joints. It usually affects the fingers and toes but can also affect the lower back, knees, ankles, and spine."

Psoriatic arthritis can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
* Swollen fingers or toes (dactylitis)
* Tenderness, pain, and swelling where tendons and ligaments attach to bones (enthesitis)
* Changes in nail growth, such as pitting, ridging, or separation from the nail bed
* Fatigue and weakness
* Reduced range of motion and mobility

The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent joint damage.

Intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are a type of cytoskeletal protein that form the intermediate filaments (IFs), which are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, along with microtubules and microfilaments. These proteins have a unique structure, characterized by an alpha-helical rod domain flanked by non-helical head and tail domains.

Intermediate filament proteins are classified into six major types based on their amino acid sequence: Type I (acidic) and Type II (basic) keratins, Type III (desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and peripherin), Type IV (neurofilaments), Type V (lamins), and Type VI (nestin). Each type of IFP has a distinct pattern of expression in different tissues and cell types.

Intermediate filament proteins play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and mechanical strength of cells, providing resilience to mechanical stress, and regulating various cellular processes such as cell division, migration, and signal transduction. Mutations in IFP genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic skin fragility disorders.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Dermatologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed by dermatologists, which are aimed at treating and managing conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These procedures can be divided into several categories, including:

1. Excisional surgery: This involves removing a lesion or growth by cutting it out with a scalpel. The resulting wound is then closed with stitches, sutures, or left to heal on its own.
2. Incisional biopsy: This is a type of excisional surgery where only a portion of the lesion is removed for diagnostic purposes.
3. Cryosurgery: This involves using extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy abnormal tissue, such as warts or precancerous growths.
4. Electrosurgical procedures: These use heat generated by an electric current to remove or destroy skin lesions. Examples include electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), which involves scraping away the affected tissue with a sharp instrument and then applying heat to seal the wound.
5. Laser surgery: Dermatologic surgeons use various types of lasers to treat a wide range of conditions, such as removing tattoos, reducing wrinkles, or treating vascular lesions.
6. Mohs micrographic surgery: This is a specialized surgical technique used to treat certain types of skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. It involves removing the tumor in thin layers and examining each layer under a microscope until no cancer cells remain.
7. Scar revision surgery: Dermatologic surgeons can perform procedures to improve the appearance of scars, such as excising the scar and reclosing the wound or using laser therapy to minimize redness and thickness.
8. Hair transplantation: This involves removing hair follicles from one area of the body (usually the back of the head) and transplanting them to another area where hair is thinning or absent, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
9. Flap surgery: In this procedure, a piece of tissue with its own blood supply is moved from one part of the body to another and then reattached. This can be used for reconstructive purposes after skin cancer removal or trauma.
10. Liposuction: Dermatologic surgeons may perform liposuction to remove excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, or chin.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS) is a group of genetic skin disorders characterized by the development of blisters and erosions on the skin following minor trauma or friction. It is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins responsible for anchoring the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) to the dermis (inner layer of the skin).

There are several subtypes of EBS, which vary in severity and clinical presentation. The most common form is called "Dowling-Meara" EBS, which is characterized by blistering at or near birth, widespread blistering, and scarring. Other forms of EBS include "Weber-Cockayne" EBS, which is characterized by localized blistering and healing with minimal scarring, and "Kobner" EBS, which is characterized by blistering in response to heat or physical trauma.

Treatment for EBS typically involves wound care, prevention of infection, and pain management. In some cases, protein therapy or bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a treatment option. It's important to note that the prognosis for individuals with EBS varies depending on the severity and subtype of the disorder.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a type of cancer that affects T-cells, a specific group of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells play a crucial role in the body's immune system and help protect against infection and disease. In CTCL, the T-cells become malignant and accumulate in the skin, leading to various skin symptoms and lesions.

CTCL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which refers to a group of cancers that originate from lymphocytes. Within NHL, CTCL is categorized as a type of extranodal lymphoma since it primarily involves organs or tissues outside the lymphatic system, in this case, the skin.

The two most common subtypes of CTCL are mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome:

1. Mycosis fungoides (MF): This is the more prevalent form of CTCL, characterized by patches, plaques, or tumors on the skin. The lesions may be scaly, itchy, or change in size, shape, and color over time. MF usually progresses slowly, with early-stage disease often confined to the skin for several years before spreading to lymph nodes or other organs.
2. Sézary syndrome (SS): This is a more aggressive form of CTCL that involves not only the skin but also the blood and lymph nodes. SS is characterized by the presence of malignant T-cells, known as Sézary cells, in the peripheral blood. Patients with SS typically have generalized erythroderma (reddening and scaling of the entire body), pruritus (severe itching), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), and alopecia (hair loss).

The diagnosis of CTCL usually involves a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, and immunophenotyping to identify the malignant T-cells. Treatment options depend on the stage and subtype of the disease and may include topical therapies, phototherapy, systemic medications, or targeted therapies.

Photosensitivity disorders refer to conditions that cause an abnormal reaction to sunlight or artificial light. This reaction can take the form of various skin changes, such as rashes, inflammation, or pigmentation, and in some cases, it can also lead to systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, or joint pain.

The two main types of photosensitivity disorders are:

1. Phototoxic reactions: These occur when a substance (such as certain medications, chemicals, or plants) absorbs light energy and transfers it to skin cells, causing damage and inflammation. The reaction typically appears within 24 hours of exposure to the light source and can resemble a sunburn.

2. Photoallergic reactions: These occur when the immune system responds to the combination of light and a particular substance, leading to an allergic response. The reaction may not appear until several days after initial exposure and can cause redness, itching, and blistering.

It is important for individuals with photosensitivity disorders to avoid excessive sun exposure, wear protective clothing, and use broad-spectrum sunscreens with a high SPF rating to minimize the risk of phototoxic or photoallergic reactions.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), is a rare, chronic autoimmune disease that involves the abnormal growth and accumulation of collagen in various connective tissues, blood vessels, and organs throughout the body. This excessive collagen production leads to fibrosis or scarring, which can cause thickening, hardening, and tightening of the skin and damage to internal organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

Systemic Scleroderma is characterized by two main features: small blood vessel abnormalities (Raynaud's phenomenon) and fibrosis. The disease can be further classified into two subsets based on the extent of skin involvement: limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc).

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis affects the skin distally, typically involving fingers, hands, forearms, feet, lower legs, and face. It is often associated with Raynaud's phenomenon, calcinosis, telangiectasias, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis involves more extensive skin thickening and fibrosis that spreads proximally to affect the trunk, upper arms, thighs, and face. It is commonly associated with internal organ involvement, such as interstitial lung disease, heart disease, and kidney problems.

The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma remains unknown; however, it is believed that genetic, environmental, and immunological factors contribute to its development. There is currently no cure for Systemic Scleroderma, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

The ear is the sensory organ responsible for hearing and maintaining balance. It can be divided into three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and the external auditory canal, which directs sound waves toward the eardrum. The middle ear contains three small bones called ossicles that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The inner ear contains the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, and the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance.

A skin cream is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to a topical emollient preparation intended for application to the skin. It contains a mixture of water, oil, and active ingredients, which are formulated to provide various benefits such as moisturizing, protecting, soothing, or treating specific skin conditions. The exact definition and composition may vary depending on the product's intended use and formulation.

Examples of active ingredients in skin creams include:

1. Moisturizers (e.g., glycerin, hyaluronic acid) - help to retain water in the skin, making it feel softer and smoother.
2. Emollients (e.g., shea butter, coconut oil, petrolatum) - provide a protective barrier that helps prevent moisture loss and soften the skin.
3. Humectants (e.g., urea, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids) - attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin to hydrate the surface.
4. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., hydrocortisone, aloe vera) - help reduce redness, swelling, and itching associated with various skin conditions.
5. Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea extract) - protect the skin from free radical damage and environmental stressors that can lead to premature aging.
6. Sunscreen agents (e.g., zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, chemical filters) - provide broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
7. Skin lighteners (e.g., hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin) - help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation and even out skin tone.
8. Acne treatments (e.g., benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids) - target acne-causing bacteria, unclog pores, and regulate cell turnover to prevent breakouts.

It is essential to choose a skin cream based on your specific skin type and concerns, as well as any medical conditions or allergies you may have. Always consult with a dermatologist or healthcare provider before starting a new skincare regimen.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Croton oil is a highly toxic, irritant, and vesicant liquid that is derived from the seeds of the croton tiglium plant. It is a type of unsaturated fatty acid known as an octadecatrienoic acid, and it contains a mixture of various chemical compounds including crotonic acid, diglycerides, and phorbol esters.

Croton oil is commonly used in laboratory research as a pharmacological tool to study the mechanisms of inflammation, pain, and skin irritation. It can also be used as a veterinary medicine to treat certain types of intestinal parasites in animals. However, due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe burns and blisters on the skin, it is not used in human medicine.

It's important to note that croton oil should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting, as improper use or exposure can result in serious injury or death.

Photomicrography is not a medical term per se, but it is a technique often used in the field of medicine and pathology. It refers to the process of taking photographs through a microscope, using specialized equipment and techniques to capture detailed images of specimens or structures that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. These images can be used for various purposes, such as medical research, diagnosis, education, and publication.

In summary, photomicrography is the photography of microscopic subjects, which can have many applications in the medical field.

"Hairless mice" is a term used to describe strains of laboratory mice that lack a functional fur coat. This condition is also known as "nude mice." The hairlessness in these mice is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the absence or underdevelopment of hair follicles and a weakened immune system.

Hairless mice are often used in scientific research because their impaired immune systems make them more susceptible to certain diseases, allowing researchers to study the progression and treatment of those conditions in a controlled environment. Additionally, their lack of fur makes it easier to observe and monitor skin conditions and wounds. These mice are also used as models for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and autoimmune disorders.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Anti-allergic agents, also known as antihistamines, are a class of medications used to treat allergies. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

There are two main types of antihistamines: first-generation and second-generation. First-generation antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), can cause drowsiness and other side effects, such as dry mouth and blurred vision. They are typically used for the treatment of short-term symptoms, such as those caused by seasonal allergies or a mild reaction to an insect bite.

Second-generation antihistamines, such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec), are less likely to cause drowsiness and other side effects. They are often used for the long-term treatment of chronic allergies, such as those caused by dust mites or pet dander.

In addition to their use in treating allergies, antihistamines may also be used to treat symptoms of motion sickness, insomnia, and anxiety. It is important to follow the instructions on the label when taking antihistamines and to talk to a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using these medications.

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling and communication during the immune response. IL-17 is primarily produced by a subset of T helper cells called Th17 cells, although other cell types like neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer cells, and innate lymphoid cells can also produce it.

IL-17 has several functions in the immune system, including:

1. Promoting inflammation: IL-17 stimulates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes from different cell types, leading to the recruitment of immune cells like neutrophils to the site of infection or injury.
2. Defending against extracellular pathogens: IL-17 plays a critical role in protecting the body against bacterial and fungal infections by enhancing the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, which can engulf and destroy these microorganisms.
3. Regulating tissue homeostasis: IL-17 helps maintain the balance between immune tolerance and immunity in various tissues by regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and other structural components.

However, dysregulated IL-17 production or signaling has been implicated in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, targeting the IL-17 pathway with specific therapeutics has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these conditions.

"Sarcoptes scabiei" is a medical term that refers to a species of mite known as the human itch mite or simply scabies mite. This tiny arthropod burrows into the upper layer of human skin, where it lives and lays its eggs, causing an intensely itchy skin condition called scabies. The female mite measures about 0.3-0.5 mm in length and has eight legs. It is barely visible to the naked eye.

The mite's burrowing and feeding activities trigger an immune response in the host, leading to a characteristic rash and intense itching, particularly at night. The rash typically appears as small red bumps or blisters and can occur anywhere on the body, but is most commonly found in skin folds such as the wrists, elbows, armpits, waistline, and buttocks.

Scabies is highly contagious and can spread rapidly through close physical contact with an infected person, shared bedding or towels, or prolonged skin-to-skin contact. It is important to seek medical treatment promptly if scabies is suspected, as the condition can cause significant discomfort and lead to secondary bacterial infections if left untreated. Treatment typically involves topical medications that kill the mites and their eggs, as well as thorough cleaning of bedding, clothing, and other items that may have come into contact with the infected person.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Ichthyosis Vulgaris is a genetic skin disorder, which is characterized by dry, scaly, and rough skin. It is one of the most common forms of ichthyosis and is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning only one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition.

The term "ichthyosis" comes from the Greek word "ichthys," which means fish, reflecting the scaly appearance of the skin in individuals with this disorder.

In people with Ichthyosis Vulgaris, the skin cells do not shed properly and instead, they accumulate in scales on the surface of the skin. These scales are typically small, white to grayish-brown, and polygonal in shape. The scales are most often found on the legs, arms, and trunk but can affect any part of the body.

The condition usually appears during early childhood and tends to get worse in dry weather. In many cases, it improves during adulthood, although the skin remains rough and scaly.

Ichthyosis Vulgaris is caused by mutations in the gene called filaggrin, which is responsible for maintaining a healthy barrier function in the skin. This leads to dryness and increased susceptibility to skin infections.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Histamine H1 antagonists, also known as H1 blockers or antihistamines, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine at the H1 receptor. Histamine is a chemical mediator released by mast cells and basophils in response to an allergic reaction or injury. It causes various symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheal and flare reactions (hives).

H1 antagonists prevent the binding of histamine to its receptor, thereby alleviating these symptoms. They are commonly used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever, hives, and eczema, as well as motion sickness and insomnia. Examples of H1 antagonists include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec), and doxylamine (Unisom).

Collagen type VII is a type of collagen that is a major component of the anchoring fibrils, which are structures that help to attach the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) to the dermis (the layer of skin directly below the epidermis). Collagen type VII is composed of three identical chains that are encoded by the COL7A1 gene. Mutations in this gene can lead to a group of inherited blistering disorders known as autosomal recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, which is characterized by fragile skin and mucous membranes that blister and tear easily, often from minor trauma or friction.

Histamine H1 antagonists, non-sedating, also known as second-generation antihistamines, are medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor without causing significant sedation. Histamine is a chemical mediator released by mast cells and basophils in response to an allergen, leading to allergic symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and hives.

The non-sedating antihistamines have a higher affinity for the H1 receptor and are less lipophilic than first-generation antihistamines, which results in less penetration of the blood-brain barrier and reduced sedative effects. Examples of non-sedating antihistamines include cetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, and rupatadine. These medications are commonly used to treat allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and angioedema.

Telepathology is the practice of pathology at a distance. It involves the use of telecommunication and digital imaging technologies to transmit pathological information, such as images of microscopic slides or gross specimens, from one location to another for the purpose of diagnosis, consultation, or education. This allows pathologists to provide expert opinions and diagnoses without the need for physical transportation of specimens, enabling more timely and efficient patient care.

There are several types of telepathology, including:

1. Static telepathology: This involves the transmission of still images, such as digital photographs or scanned slides, from one location to another. It is often used for second opinions or consultations on specific cases.
2. Real-time telepathology: Also known as dynamic telepathology, this method allows for the remote control of a robotic microscope, enabling the pathologist at the receiving end to view and navigate through the slide in real time. This is particularly useful for frozen section diagnoses during surgery.
3. Whole-slide imaging (WSI): This technique involves digitizing entire glass slides at high resolution, creating a digital file that can be viewed, analyzed, and shared remotely. WSI allows for remote consultation, education, and research, as well as archiving of pathological specimens.

Telepathology has numerous applications in various settings, including hospitals, laboratories, academic institutions, and private practices. It facilitates collaboration among pathologists, enables access to subspecialty expertise, and supports remote learning and continuing education. Additionally, telepathology can help improve patient outcomes by providing faster diagnoses, reducing turnaround times, and minimizing the need for patients to travel for specialized care.

Traditional medicine (TM) refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. Although traditional medicine has been practiced since prehistoric times, it is still widely used today and may include:

1. Traditional Asian medicines such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and qigong from China; Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani and Siddha from India; and Jamu from Indonesia.
2. Traditional European herbal medicines, also known as phytotherapy.
3. North American traditional indigenous medicines, including Native American and Inuit practices.
4. African traditional medicines, such as herbal, spiritual, and manual techniques practiced in various African cultures.
5. South American traditional medicines, like Mapuche, Curanderismo, and Santo Daime practices from different countries.

It is essential to note that traditional medicine may not follow the scientific principles, evidence-based standards, or quality control measures inherent to conventional (also known as allopathic or Western) medicine. However, some traditional medicines have been integrated into modern healthcare systems and are considered complementary or alternative medicines (CAM). The World Health Organization encourages member states to develop policies and regulations for integrating TM/CAM practices into their healthcare systems, ensuring safety, efficacy, and quality while respecting cultural diversity.

Darier Disease is a genetic skin disorder, also known as Keratosis Follicularis. It is characterized by the formation of greasy, crusted, keratotic papules and plaques that typically appear on the upper arms, torso, and scalp. The lesions may also affect the nasolabial folds, central face, and mucous membranes. Darier Disease is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes a calcium pump protein involved in keratinization. It is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease if one of their parents is affected. The onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood. Treatment options include topical medications, oral retinoids, and photodynamic therapy.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica (EBD) is a type of inherited skin disorder that belongs to the group of conditions known as Epidermolysis Bullosa. This condition is characterized by the development of fragile, blistering skin that can be caused by minor trauma or friction.

In EBD, the blisters form in the upper layer of the skin (epidermis) and the underlying layer (dermis), leading to scarring and tissue damage. The symptoms of EBD can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Blistering of the skin that can be triggered by friction, heat, or other factors
* Formation of scars, particularly on the hands and feet
* Thickening of the skin (hyperkeratosis)
* Nail abnormalities, such as ridged or brittle nails
* Mouth sores and blisters
* Dental problems, including tooth decay and gum disease

EBD is caused by mutations in the genes that provide instructions for making proteins that help to anchor the skin's layers together. As a result, the skin becomes fragile and prone to blistering.

There are several subtypes of EBD, each with its own specific genetic cause and symptoms. Treatment typically involves wound care, prevention of infection, and management of pain. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to treat complications such as scarring or contractures.

Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides that are widely distributed in nature and play an important role in the innate immune system. They are expressed in various tissues, including the epithelia of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as in immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

The human cathelicidin gene is called CAMP (camp gene) and encodes a precursor protein called hCAP-18 (human cationic antimicrobial protein of 18 kDa). After cleavage by proteolytic enzymes, the active peptide LL-37 is generated.

LL-37 has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It also has immunomodulatory functions, such as chemotaxis of immune cells, modulation of cytokine production, and promotion of wound healing. Dysregulation of cathelicidins has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), psoriasis, and rosacea.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Antimicrobial cationic peptides (ACPs) are a group of small, naturally occurring peptides that possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. They are called "cationic" because they contain positively charged amino acid residues (such as lysine and arginine), which allow them to interact with and disrupt the negatively charged membranes of microbial cells.

ACPs are produced by a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, and plants, as part of their innate immune response to infection. They play an important role in protecting the host from invading pathogens by directly killing them or inhibiting their growth.

The antimicrobial activity of ACPs is thought to be mediated by their ability to disrupt the membranes of microbial cells, leading to leakage of cellular contents and death. Some ACPs may also have intracellular targets, such as DNA or protein synthesis, that contribute to their antimicrobial activity.

ACPs are being studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents to treat infectious diseases, particularly those caused by drug-resistant bacteria. However, their clinical application is still in the early stages of development due to concerns about their potential toxicity to host cells and the emergence of resistance mechanisms in microbial pathogens.

Otitis externa, also known as swimmer's ear, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal (the outermost part of the ear canal leading to the eardrum). It often occurs when water stays in the ear after swimming, creating a moist environment that promotes bacterial growth.

The symptoms of otitis externa may include:
- Redness and swelling of the ear canal
- Pain or discomfort in the ear, especially when moving the jaw or chewing
- Itching in the ear
- Discharge from the ear (pus or clear fluid)
- Hearing loss or difficulty hearing

Otitis externa is typically treated with antibiotic eardrops and sometimes oral antibiotics. Keeping the ear dry during treatment is important to prevent further irritation and promote healing. In severe cases, a healthcare provider may need to clean the ear canal before administering medication.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

'Onchocerca volvulus' is a species of parasitic roundworm that is the causative agent of human river blindness, also known as onchocerciasis. This disease is named after the fact that the larval forms of the worm are often found in the rivers and streams where the blackfly vectors breed.

The adult female worms measure about 33-50 cm in length and live in nodules beneath the skin, while the much smaller males (about 4 cm long) move between the nodules. The females release microfilariae, which are taken up by blackflies when they bite an infected person. These larvae then develop into infective stages within the blackfly and can be transmitted to another human host during a subsequent blood meal.

The infection leads to various symptoms, including itchy skin, rashes, bumps under the skin (nodules), and in severe cases, visual impairment or blindness due to damage caused to the eyes by the migrating larvae. The disease is prevalent in certain regions of Africa, Latin America, and Yemen. Preventive measures include avoiding blackfly bites, mass drug administration with anti-parasitic drugs, and vector control strategies.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Melanocytes are specialized cells that produce, store, and transport melanin, the pigment responsible for coloring of the skin, hair, and eyes. They are located in the bottom layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) and can also be found in the inner ear and the eye's retina. Melanocytes contain organelles called melanosomes, which produce and store melanin.

Melanin comes in two types: eumelanin (black or brown) and pheomelanin (red or yellow). The amount and type of melanin produced by melanocytes determine the color of a person's skin, hair, and eyes. Exposure to UV radiation from sunlight increases melanin production as a protective response, leading to skin tanning.

Melanocyte dysfunction or abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as albinism (lack of melanin production), melasma (excessive pigmentation), and melanoma (cancerous growth of melanocytes).

Phototherapy is a medical treatment that involves the use of light to manage or improve certain conditions. It can be delivered in various forms, such as natural light exposure or artificial light sources, including lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or fluorescent lamps. The wavelength and intensity of light are carefully controlled to achieve specific therapeutic effects.

Phototherapy is most commonly used for newborns with jaundice to help break down bilirubin in the skin, reducing its levels in the bloodstream. This type of phototherapy is called bilirubin lights or bili lights.

In dermatology, phototherapy can be applied to treat various skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and acne. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy, PUVA (psoralen plus UVA), and blue or red light therapies are some examples of dermatological phototherapies.

Phototherapy can also be used to alleviate symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and other mood disorders by exposing patients to bright artificial light, which helps regulate their circadian rhythms and improve their mood. This form of phototherapy is called light therapy or bright light therapy.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any phototherapy treatment, as inappropriate use can lead to adverse effects.

Secretory proteinase inhibitory proteins (SPIPs) are a group of proteins that function to regulate the activity of proteinases, which are enzymes that break down other proteins. SPIPs are produced by various cell types and secreted into extracellular spaces, where they help maintain the balance between protein degradation and synthesis.

Proteinases play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and immune defense. However, uncontrolled or excessive proteinase activity can lead to tissue damage and disease. SPIPs help prevent this by inhibiting the activity of specific proteinases, thereby protecting tissues from unwanted proteolysis.

Examples of SPIPs include:

1. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT): A serine proteinase inhibitor that primarily inhibits neutrophil elastase and protects lung tissue from damage during inflammation.
2. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI): A serine proteinase inhibitor that inhibits several proteinases, including elastase, cathepsin G, and trypsin. SLPI is produced by epithelial cells and has anti-inflammatory properties.
3. Elafin: A serine proteinase inhibitor mainly expressed in the skin and mucous membranes that inhibits neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and trypsin.
4. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs): A family of proteins that inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are involved in extracellular matrix remodeling.
5. Cystatins: A group of proteins that inhibit cysteine proteinases, which play a role in various physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer.

Dysregulation of SPIPs has been implicated in several diseases, such as emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, and cancer.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections refer to illnesses caused by a group of bacteria called mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and dust. They can be spread through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with contaminated materials.

NTM infections can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues. Lung infections are the most common form of NTM infection and often occur in people with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. Symptoms of NTM lung infection may include cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.

Skin and soft tissue infections caused by NTM can occur through direct contact with contaminated water or soil, or through medical procedures such as contaminated injections or catheters. Symptoms of NTM skin and soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage.

Diagnosis of NTM infections typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and laboratory tests to identify the specific type of mycobacteria causing the infection. Treatment may involve multiple antibiotics for an extended period of time, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease medication. It's primarily used to prevent or treat malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It works by killing the malaria parasite in the red blood cells of the human body.

In addition, hydroxychloroquine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In these conditions, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues, causing inflammation and damage. Hydroxychloroquine helps to regulate the immune system and reduce inflammation.

It is important to note that while hydroxychloroquine has been studied as a potential treatment for COVID-19, current evidence does not support its use outside of a clinical trial setting due to lack of efficacy and potential for harm.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Psoralens are a class of organic compounds that can be found in several plants such as figs, celery, and parsnips. They are primarily known for their use in the treatment of skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema. When combined with ultraviolet A (UVA) light therapy, psoralens can help to slow down the excessive growth of skin cells that lead to these conditions.

Psoralens work by intercalating into DNA, which means they fit between the base pairs of the double helix structure of DNA. When exposed to UVA light, the psoralen molecules undergo a chemical reaction that forms cross-links in the DNA, which can inhibit the replication and transcription of DNA. This effect on skin cells can help to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of affected skin cells, leading to an improvement in symptoms of certain skin conditions.

It's important to note that psoralens can have side effects, including increased sensitivity to sunlight, which can lead to sunburn and an increased risk of skin cancer with long-term use. Therefore, it's essential to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using psoralen therapy.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

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Autoimmune skin disease in dogs are a group of diseases that occur in dogs that are caused by the body's immune system, where ... "Structure of the Skin in Dogs - Dog Owners". Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2019-11-09. Immune-mediated Skin Diseases. ... Dog skin disorders "Autoimmune Skin Disease in Dogs". vca_corporate. Retrieved 2019-11-09. "Immune system", Wikipedia, 2019-10- ... and other skin damage, as well as loss of skin pigment. Two cases of autoimmune diseases that are often found include Discoid ...
The Sindh Institute of Skin Diseases (Urdu: سندھ ادارہ برائے امراضِ جِلد) known as Skin Hospital or Chamra Hospital (Urdu: چمڑہ ... This hundred-bed hospital specializes in skin diseases exclusively. It does not charge any fees for services and is governed by ... The 50-bed hospital for treatment of skin diseases was established in the 1990s. "Karachi's 'Chamra' hospital offering free ... It is the only public sector skin hospital in Karachi and is located in the Regal Chowk area. ...
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... , or Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, is a medical textbook in ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.1981.tb02334.x. Jackson, Scott (2023). Skin Disease and the History of Dermatology: Order out of Chaos ... ISBN 978-1-000-64401-2. Plewig, Gerd (November 2014). "[Manual of Skin and Venereal Diseases (Jadassohn) and supplementary ...
... is the recommended name for skin manifestations in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Multiple different ... Although a clear understanding of the various skin lesions in IgG4-related disease is a work in progress, skin lesions have ... IgG4-related disease Note: Some do not consider cutaneous plasmacytosis to be a feature of IgG4-related disease for reasons ... "IgG4-related skin disease". British Journal of Dermatology. 171 (5): 959-967. doi:10.1111/bjd.13296. PMID 25065694. Yasuhito ...
... "fresh water skin disease". Duignan, Pádraig J.; Stephens, Nahiid S.; Robb, Kate (15 December 2020). "Fresh water skin disease ... Fresh water skin disease (FWSD) is a disease of marine cetaceans in coastal and estuarine environments, caused when they are ... The symptoms are widespread skin lesions and ulcers. Circular lesions can resemble cetacean pox, which is more common in ... Costa, Jedda (22 December 2020). "Like 'third-degree burns': Cause found for 'horrific' skin lesions on endangered dolphins". ...
"Vietnam seeks foreign help to beat mystery skin disease". BBC News. 2012-04-21. "Fatal disease baffles doctors". Viet Nam News ... "Vietnam seeks help with mystery disease; 19 dead". USA Today. 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-22. New strange skin disease ... The disease is reported to begin as a skin rash, and in numerous cases appears to have led to the death of the affected ... "Bizarre skin disease outbreaks again in Quang Ngai". VietNamNet. 2013-03-11. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, ...
Dermis and Skin Senses Program Skin Immunology and Diseases, Skin Microbiome Program Skin Repair, Pigmentation and Appendages, ... and advances in imaging technologies for diagnosis and tracking of skin disease progression. The Skin Biology and Diseases ... the study of skin as an immune organ, and the genetics of skin diseases. Areas of particular emphasis include investigations of ... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Home Page". nih.gov. "NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin ...
... how lumpy skin disease spread like wildfire". The Print. Retrieved 24 September 2022. "Lumpy skin disease: Narendra Singh Tomar ... "What Is Lumpy Skin Disease And How India Is Fighting It: 10 Points". NDTV. Retrieved 25 September 2022. "Lumpy Skin Disease: ... "Lumpy skin disease among cattle to hit milk production in Assam". EastMojo. Retrieved 25 September 2022. "Lumpy skin: the ... "Maharashtra announces aid as 42 cattle succumb to lumpy skin disease". India Today. Retrieved 25 September 2022. "Lumpy skin ...
... where does lumpy skin disease stand?". Profit by Pakistan Today. "Lumpy skin disease badly affects beef business in Peshawar". ... "Bracing for a second wave of the lumpy skin disease". Dawn. Hanif, Haseeb (9 September 2022). "Lumpy skin disease kills 7,500 ... Lumpy skin disease was spotted in Pakistan in Jamshoro district, Sindh in November 2021. By 9 September 2022, over 7000 cattle ... "Lumpy skin disease is expanding its geographic range: A challenge for Asian livestock management and food security". The ...
This is a shortened version of the twelfth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue. It covers ICD ... 706.8 Other specified diseases of sebaceous glands 706.9 Unspecified disease of sebaceous glands 707 Chronic ulcer of skin ... 686 Other local infections of skin and subcutaneous tissue 686.0 Pyoderma 686.1 Pyogenic granuloma of skin and subcutaneous ... 709 Other disorders of skin and subcutaneous tissue 709.0 Dyschromia 709.01 Vitiligo 709.1 Vascular disorders of skin 709.2 ...
Ramdass P, Mullick S, Farber HF (December 2015). "Viral Skin Diseases". Primary Care. 42 (4): 517-67. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2015.08 ... Fifth Disease is most prevalent in children aged 5 to 15 years old. Fifth disease occurs at lower rates in adults. The virus ... It, or a disease presenting similarly, was first described by Robert Willan in his book On Cutaneous Diseases in 1808 as " ... The name "fifth disease" comes from its place on the standard list of rash-causing childhood diseases, which also includes ...
IgG4-related ophthalmic disease IgG4-related prostatitis IgG4-related skin disease Wallace, Zachary S.; Deshpande, Vikram; ... related disease: an orphan disease with many faces". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 9: 110. doi:10.1186/s13023-014-0110-z. ... IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), formerly known as IgG4-related systemic disease, is a chronic inflammatory condition ... Overview of IgG4-related disease - UpToDate's article on IgG4-related disease. DermNet NZ entry (CS1 Japanese-language sources ...
Ramdass, P; Mullick, S; Farber, HF (December 2015). "Viral Skin Diseases". Primary Care (Review). 42 (4): 517-67. doi:10.1016/j ... 2% vehicle). Erythema was the most frequently reported local skin reaction. Severe local skin reactions reported by Aldara- ... Any area of the skin may be affected, with abdomen, legs, arms, neck, genital area, and face being the most common. Onset of ... The viral infection is limited to a localized area on the topmost layer of the superficial layer of the skin. Once the virus- ...
Hnilica, Keith A.; Patterson, Adam P. (August 2016). "Chapter 3. Bacterial skin diseases. Pyotraumatic dermatitis". Small ... The main reasons are to prevent the animal from ingesting any of the medicine being applied on the skin, or to prevent it from ... In addition to preventing the animal from harming themselves or ingesting medicine being applied on their skins, Elizabethan ...
Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M. (April 2010). Busam, Klaus J. (ed.). "Blistering Skin Diseases". Dermatopathology: 210-249. doi: ... More commonly, skin reactions occur including erythema or redness of the skin, hyperpigmentation with darker patches of skin, ... Wrong, N. M.; Smith, R. C.; Hudson, A. L.; Hair, H. C. (June 1951). "The treatment of pyogenic skin infections with bacitracin ... Animal studies have shown actinomycin-D is corrosive to skin, irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory ...
Skin diseases ambulance; ORL ambulance; Infectious diseases department; Department of Transfusiology and providing blood and ... Internal diseases department; Children's health preventive department; General Surgery department; KARIL, Gynaecology and ...
... allergic skin diseases, diseases of the anal sacs, inflammation of the ear canal, foreign bodies or irritants within the coat, ... Pyotraumatic dermatitis". Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat a Colour Handbook (2nd ed.). London: CRC Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1- ... The affected skin weeps (that is, it exudes serum), and this moist surface layer of skin can become colonized by bacteria, ... The skin becomes red, moist and weeps. The affected area is obviously defined and separate from the surrounding healthy skin ...
Farokh J. Master (2003). Diseases of Skin. New Delhi: B Jain Pub Pvt Ltd. p. 223. ISBN 978-81-7021-136-5. "Potassium dichromate ...
Gill, James H. (May 2001). "Avian Skin Diseases". Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 4 (2): 463-492. ... Common forms of self-harm include damaging the skin with a sharp object or by scratching, hitting, or burning. The exact bounds ... This is most commonly regarded as direct injury of one's own skin tissues usually without a suicidal intention. Other terms ... An estimated 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders engage in self-harm at some point, including eye-poking, skin- ...
Die Hautkrankheiten in tabellarischer Form, Heidelberg 1836.- Table of skin diseases. Cyclopaedia of the Diseases of Children, ...
List of cutaneous conditions James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Patrizi, A (2016). "Frequent newborn skin diseases". Clinical Dermatology. 3 (3-4): 82. doi:10.11138/cderm/2016.4.3.082. Ghosh ... Patrizi, A (2016). "Frequent newborn skin diseases". Clinical Dermatology. 3 (3-4): 82. doi:10.11138/cderm/2016.4.3.082. Ghosh ... This rash also generally has a higher incidence in non-African-American infants with skin of color. There is significant ...
Prevention of Skin Diseases; Disposal of Human Wastes; Disposal of Dead Bodies; and Prevention of Respiratory Diseases. Where ...
Manual of Skin Diseases. Lippincott. 1985. Page 315. ISBN 0-397-50668-6. Kuo, HW; Yang, CH. (2003). "Venous lake of the lip ... Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. Page 588. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Habif, Thomas P. Clinical ...
Marshall, James (1960). Diseases of the skin. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone. p. 944. Gip, L (1994). "Black piedra: The first ... Piedraia hortae causes the formation of nodules on the hair shaft, a clinical superficial disease commonly known as black ... "Guidelines of care for superficial myoctic infections of the skin: Piedra". American Academy of Dermatology. 34 (1): 122-124. ...
He did much to pioneer (in retrospect now seen as a mistake) the use of x-rays in treating of skin diseases. He also worked ... See Handbook of Skin Diseases (1919) Occupational Dermatitis (as part of British Journal of Dermatology and Syphilis 1922) ... Handbook of skin diseases. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Edinburgh : E. & S. Livingstone. (CS1 errors: missing periodical, ... He died at home in Manor Place, Edinburgh, following a long illness (thought to be skin cancer induced by over-use of x-rays), ...
Yoshiki Miyachi (3 November 2009). Therapy of Skin Diseases. Springer. pp. 327-. ISBN 978-3-540-78813-3. Retrieved 1 May 2011 ...
Conditions of the skin appendages, Rare diseases, Human hair, Hair diseases). ... Sutton, Richard L. (1916). Diseases of The Skin. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company. pp. 408, 705. Retrieved November 29, 2009. ... James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10 ed.). Saunders. p ... called Cushing's disease. It is the most common endocrine disease of the middle-aged to older horse, often resulting in fatal ...
Kostović, K.; Lipozencić, J. (2004). "Skin diseases in alcoholics". Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica. 12 (3): 181-190. PMID ... Symptoms include red, scaly, greasy, itchy, and inflamed skin. Areas of the skin rich in oil-producing glands are often ... This is based on the fact that summer growth of Malassezia in the skin alone does not result in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Besides ... This is based on observations of high counts of Malassezia species in skin affected by seborrhoeic dermatitis and on the ...
A commercially available skin test to aid Parkinsons disease diagnosis is available in most states. How do clinicians use it? ... Cite this: The Hows and Whys of the Skin Biopsy Test For Parkinsons Disease - Medscape - Nov 07, 2023. ... The Hows and Whys of the Skin Biopsy Test For Parkinsons Disease ... The Hows and Whys of the Skin Biopsy Test For Parkinsons Disease ...
... preexisting skin disease, atopic skin diathesis, and anatomic region exposed. Another occupational skin disease is glove- ... Occupational skin diseases are ranked among the top five occupational diseases in many countries. Contact Dermatitis due to ... The acute form of this dermatitis develops on exposure of the skin to a strong irritant or caustic chemical. This exposure can ... The chronic form occurs as a result of repeated exposure of the skin to weak irritants over long periods of time. Prevention ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(6):1008. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080223.. APA. Dardick, K. (2008). Imported Skin Diseases. ... Imported Skin Diseases is organized primarily by diagnosis rather than by syndrome. The disease descriptions are generally ... Imported Skin Diseases. Volume 14, Number 6-June 2008. Article Views: 252. Data is collected weekly and does not include ... This book is neither an encyclopedic compendium of all tropical skin diseases nor a simple handbook for the house officer or ...
Learn to spot and treat skin conditions commonly found in adults such as acne, Covid-19 rashes, eczema, shingles, psoriasis, ... Covid-19 (Coronavirus) Skin Rashes. Skin rashes have been associated with COVID-19 infection. Much like other viral diseases ... skin center/ skin a-z list/slideshows a-z list , skin problems pictures slideshow article ... The adult disease tends to favor the scalp, skin behind the ears, forehead, brows, nasolabial folds of the face, mid-chest area ...
What are work-related skin diseases? *Overview - What are work-related skin diseases? ... Her skin is sensitive even to dry, coloured hair as well as hair coloured months ago. Applying colour to her own hair also ... Now and again her skin would worsen, so Julie went to see her doctor. He could not determine the cause of her condition and ... Causes of skin disease *Overview - Causes of skin disease. *Causes of Contact dermatitis ...
Addisons disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is an endocrine disorder where insufficient amounts of cortisol ... Treatment of Addisons disease The treatment for the skin symptoms of Addisons disease is generally the same as treatment ... Symptoms of Addisons disease. The darkening of the skin in Addisons disease is sometimes referred to as "bronzing " and ... Addisons Disease and Skin Problems. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Addisons-Disease-and-Skin-Problems.aspx ...
S metabolism in skin disorders, and the potential value of H,sub,2,/sub,S as a therapeutic intervention in skin diseases. ... The aberrant metabolism of H,sub,2,/sub,S is involved in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, such as vascular disorders ... In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding H,sub,2,/sub,S and its antioxidant effects on skin pathology, the ... S unique in its ability to regulate cellular and organ functions in both health and disease. Acting as an antioxidant, H,sub,2 ...
... but the genetic component may also increase your risk of a variety of diseases ... skin and some heart diseases, according to the largest study linking height and disease to date. The findings suggest that ... Taller people may have a higher risk of nerve, skin and heart diseases. Your height is determined by both your genes and ... and linked this to around 50 diseases, but the links between height and many other diseases were unexplored. ...
The 4-triangular-skin-flap approach is useful for umbilical diseases and laparoscopic umbilical port access. ... Four-triangular-skin-flap approach to umbilical diseases and laparoscopic umbilical port J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Sep;39(9):1404-7. ... Conclusions: The 4-triangular-skin-flap approach is useful for umbilical diseases and laparoscopic umbilical port access. ... Methods: The umbilicus is opened by creating 4 isosceles triangular skin flaps. Closure is by suture of the flap apex only, ...
The Skin and Its Diseases. Subject Area(s): Cell Biology; Human Biology and Disease. Edited by Anthony Oro, Professor, ... Wound Healing and Skin Regeneration. Makoto Takeo, Wendy Lee, and Mayumi Ito. Immunology and Skin in Health and Disease. ... Adipocytes in Skin Health and Disease. Guillermo Rivera, Brett Shook, and Valerie Horsley. Melanocytes and Their Diseases. Yuji ... The Genetics of Human Skin Disease. Gina M. DeStefano and Angela M. Christiano. Epidermal Polarity Genes in Health and Disease ...
Moisturizers, especially early in a childs life, may help prevent eczema, food allergies and other allergic diseases. ... has identified itching and dry cracked skin of eczema patients as a significant promoter of the atopic march. ... Cracks in the Skin of Eczema Patients Promote Allergic Diseases. Protecting and moisturizing the skin may help prevent food ... Cracked, itchy skin is a hallmark of eczema.. Scratching the dry, itchy skin of eczema patients can further damage the skin ...
... Archive. Access over half a million forum posts, organised by topic ... Skin diseases on neck area 1. Dear List, My wife has Skin diseases on neck area its get worsen while exposer to Sun. She has ... Skin disease 5. hi, i am 30 year old male suffering from skin disease in my palm since last 7-9 months.please help me out ... remedy for skin disease eczema.... Started by Reaz Haider. Last post: 2011-03-08. Terrible skin disease and UTI. Please HELP! 1 ...
Loss of livestock raises alarm in cattle-rearing communities as infectious viral disease spreads to 14 districts ... Lumpy skin disease claims 1,500 animals in Gujarat Loss of livestock raises alarm in cattle-rearing communities as infectious ... More than 1,500 animals, mainly cows and buffaloes, have died in Gujarat due to the infectious lumpy skin disease, which has ... Veterinarians from the Department of Animal Husbandry screen the cattle for lumpy skin disease at the cattle shandy at ...
North Americas salamanders threatened by bloody skin disease. North Americas salamanders threatened by bloody skin disease. ... A gruesome and deadly skin disease threatens to wreak havoc among North Americas salamanders, researchers warn in a study ... The Asian fungus that causes the disease - called Bsal - has already reached Europe, wiping out 96 percent of fire salamanders ... When scientists tested it on rough-skinned newts - a North American species - 100 percent of the amphibians died within a few ...
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. ... Disease Ontology Browser vascular skin disease (DOID:9540) Alliance: disease page Alt IDs: ICD9CM:709.1, MESH:D017445, NCI: ...
skin disease in Peru. (Photo: Dr. Andrea Boggild). Dr. Andrea Boggild, staff physician in the Tropical Disease Unit and ... This tropical skin disease is most commonly found in: Central and South America, the Mediterranean basin, and the Middle East. ... University Health Network,Corporate,Newsroom,Physician pioneers new diagnostic technique for tropical skin disease ... a parasitic skin disease transmitted by sand fly bites. Some patients are also diagnosed with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), a ...
... and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases. ... The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) supports research into the causes, treatment ... Skin Diseases Allergies, irritants, genetic makeup, certain diseases, and immune system problems can cause skin conditions. ... Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis is a type of rheumatic disease. Rheumatic diseases usually affect joints, tendons, ...
Skin Care. April 30, 2019. April 30, 2019. Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan Home Remedies for Skin Care Skin is the largest organ of a ... Principles Of Treatment Of Skin Diseases And Tips Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body covering and constitutes the ... Skin Diseases And Tips. April 7, 2023. April 19, 2023. Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan ... The skin protects the body from harmful agents such as ultraviolet rays and from infective organisms in the atmosphere. It has ...
Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets: Books: by Sue Paterson ... Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. by Sue Paterson. Skin Diseases of ... Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets includes:. *skin diseases and treatment *examination and diagnostic tests *structure and function ... Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. by Sue Paterson. 2006 • 333 pages • $88.95 + shipping. Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales ... of skin *200 color photographs. Contents. *Dermatology of Birds *Dermatology of Reptiles *Dermatology of Fish *Dermatology of ...
This primary skin disease leads to overproduction of an oily, waxy substance by the skin glands, which clumps in the fur and ... This primary skin disease leads to overproduction of an oily, waxy substance by the skin glands, which clumps in the fur and ... Skin biopsy. Once every other potential cause of the condition is ruled out, a diagnosis of primary idiopathic seborrhea can be ... Seborrhea in cats tends to affect the skin along the back and around the eyes and ears. It also causes irritation in those ...
As if that wasnt enough, little Stormy also has a skin disease, which paired with Panosteitis, makes her skin painful to the ... At only three months old, she has a long journey ahead of her before shes fully healed of this painful disease, which will end ... take biopsy samples for histopathology and culture to try to get a definitive diagnosis on how to best treat this skin disease ...
... thus contaminating the body tissues to produce a skin disease. In Ayurvedic terms, although skin diseases are caused due to ... A skin disease is, mostly, rooted deeply into various dhatus or tissues like fat, muscles, blood etc. Most skin treatments are ... Wheat grass juice is also beneficial in skin diseases as it boosts the immune system, which helps to fight the disease. ... As the disease is deepseated it is difficult to fix the problem quickly. Ayurvedic skin treatments may take a few weeks to ...
KLK6 expression in skin induces PAR1-mediated psoriasiform dermatitis and inflammatory joint disease. ... KLK6 expression in skin induces PAR1-mediated psoriasiform dermatitis and inflammatory joint disease. ... The psoriatic skin and joint phenotypes are reversed by normalization of skin KLK6 levels and attenuated following genetic ... results demonstrate that KLK6/PAR1-mediated inflammation in the skin alone is sufficient to drive inflammatory joint disease. ...
Exploratory Clinical Trial Grants in Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (R21) PAR-17-293. NIAMS ... Skin Diseases:. Ricardo Cibotti, Ph.D. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Telephone ... Rheumatic Diseases:. James Witter, M.D., Ph.D. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) ... Bone Diseases:. Faye H. Chen, Ph.D. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). Telephone: ...
http://www.therocktologist.com All rights reserved ...
... and prebiotics on the normal function of healthy skin as well as their role in the prevention and therapy of skin disease. ... while kefir is also shown to support the immunity of the skin and treat skin pathogens through the production of antimicrobial ... Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics and thought to mediate skin inflammation, treat atopic ... can contribute to the treatment of diseases including ACD, acne and photo aging primarily by enhancing the growth of probiotics ...
... such as your environment or your skin care routine. Underneath the surface, your skin is affected by a ... Your skin is affected by numerous external factors, ... How to Prevent Dry Skin in Spring?. *Skin Care Routine for City ... Skin Genetic Diseases: Keratosis, Epidermolysis Bullosa, Lamellar Ichthyosis. Skin Genetic Diseases: Keratosis, Epidermolysis ... Genes have a significant influence on skin because skin is made of so many proteins. The main structure of the skin is created ...
Brooke is supporting local services to tackle an outbreak of a fast-spreading disease among donkeys across West Africa. ... Disease outbreak linked to donkey skin trade. Brooke is supporting local services to tackle an outbreak of a fast-spreading ... Donkeys being stolen for their skins Thousands of donkeys are being stolen, abused and slaughtered to meet the demand for their ... The disease is thought to be equine influenza, but local veterinary laboratories have limited capacity and equipment to ...
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Well, recent findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that the disease is actually spreading in the southern U.S. and has been for quite some time. (kcbx.org)
  • Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (medscape.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Study after study has shown that even in the best of centers, we're wrong 1 out of 4 times," says Stuart Isaacson, MD, the director of the Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center of Boca Raton, Florida. (medscape.com)
  • ABSTRACT Children with disabilities may be particularly susceptible to skin disorders, therefore the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of skin disease among such children in Mansoura, Egypt. (who.int)
  • Moles, psoriasis, hives, eczema, and recently associated Covid-19 coronavirus rashes are just a few of the more than 3,000 skin disorders known to dermatology. (medicinenet.com)
  • Read on to see signs and symptoms of the most common skin disorders and learn how to identify them. (medicinenet.com)
  • The aberrant metabolism of H 2 S is involved in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, such as vascular disorders, psoriasis, ulcers, pigment disorders, and melanoma. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding H 2 S and its antioxidant effects on skin pathology, the roles of altered H 2 S metabolism in skin disorders, and the potential value of H 2 S as a therapeutic intervention in skin diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • But irritants, infections, and inherited genetic mutations cause hundreds of skin disorders, ranging from mild cosmetic conditions to serious diseases such as cancer. (cshlpress.com)
  • Topics such as age-related changes to the skin, the roles of resident microbes in skin health and disease, and advances in therapies for cutaneous disorders are also covered. (cshlpress.com)
  • A simple knowledge of Ayurveda can help us prevent and even treat painful skin disorders. (jiva.com)
  • Since it is also the most exposed organ in the body, there are many chances for it to be exposed to bacteria and plenty of germs that cause skin disorders. (edocr.com)
  • People who work in nail salons are prone to skin disorders as a result of their work. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Why are nail salon workers particularly at risk of skin disorders? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Skin disorders are believed to account for 40-70% of all occupational diseases. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Skin disorders occur when the natural defences of the skin are compromised by mechanical, chemical or biological agents, leaving the skin more vulnerable to infections and the breakdown of the skin barrier. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Biopsy Doctors can identify many skin disorders simply by looking at the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Increase in approval of a large number of drugs by FDA and other regulatory bodies to cure autoimmune skin diseases and disorders one of the major factor in the rising of autoimmune skin diseases treatment market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • The Asia Pacific region in Autoimmune skin diseases treatment market is slated to observe strong growth and development in the coming years in autoimmune skin diseases treatment market on accounts of expanding mindfulness about skin disorders and their repercussions, a massive population base, and the progressing development of new treatment methods and devices. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • This review of the literature shows that a number of disorders and diseases of the skin and mucous membranes are related to tobacco use. (medscape.com)
  • Knowledge of many of the skin manifestations in the setting of cardiac diseases has become very important and is immensely helpful for proper diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiovascular disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, this article studies the presence of Humor Disorders (anxiety and depression) on 47 women interned on Dermatologic Nursery of a University Hospital, evaluating the impact of skin diseases on their self-esteem and self-perception. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the clinical characteristics of skin disorders among hospitalized patients before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic , a retrospective study was conducted based on hospitalized patients with skin diseases from Xiangya Hospital of Central South University , the largest hospital in the south-central region of China , between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2021. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the latest WHO data published in 2020 Skin Disease Deaths in Mauritius reached 64 or 0.65% of total deaths. (worldlifeexpectancy.com)
  • We found 89.5% of blind students, 99.3% of deaf students and 100% of mentally retarded students had 1 or more skin diseases (both infectious and non-infectious) in comparison to 24.2% of the control group. (who.int)
  • More than 1,500 animals, mainly cows and buffaloes, have died in Gujarat due to the infectious lumpy skin disease, which has spread in 14 districts of the State. (thehindu.com)
  • But Opposition party leaders slammed the State government over its slow response in tackling the infectious disease. (thehindu.com)
  • Infectious diseases that were prevalent in the medieval era have reappeared within homeless populations in California and other unsanitary locations nationwide, Kaiser Health News reported. (ajmc.com)
  • Dr. Peter Melby, an infectious diseases doctor at University of Texas Medical Branch, says it goes back further than that. (kcbx.org)
  • A full skin examination includes examination of the scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It happened when the immune system attacks human skin and mucous membranes which cover inside mouth, nose, and other different parts of your body. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Autoimmune skin diseases treatment consists of drug class act on autoimmune skin diseases which are a heterogeneous group of conditions clinically characterized by blisters and erosions on the skin and close-to-surface mucous membranes. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increased amount of reduced hemoglobin in the small blood vessels of the skin. (medscape.com)
  • In the central type, the desaturation of the arterial blood affects both the mucous membranes and the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with psoriasis more commonly develop cardiovascular disease and diabetes, which may be attributable to system-wide inflammation. (medicinenet.com)
  • Conservation of this regulatory pathway was confirmed in human psoriasis using vorapaxar, an FDA-approved PAR1 antagonist, on explanted lesional skin from patients with psoriasis. (jci.org)
  • Beyond defining a critical role for KLK6/PAR1 signaling in promoting psoriasis, our results demonstrate that KLK6/PAR1-mediated inflammation in the skin alone is sufficient to drive inflammatory joint disease. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, compared with the prepandemic group, there were decreases in the occurrence of most skin diseases in the pandemic group, but the proportions of keratinolytic carcinoma (6.6% vs. 5.2%), dermatitis (24.0% vs. 18.9%), and psoriasis (18.0% vs. 14.8%) were higher in the pandemic group. (bvsalud.org)
  • One Disease is a non-profit organisation with a mission to eliminate crusted scabies as a public health concern in Australia by the end of 2022. (ruralhealth.org.au)
  • became the Director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) in February, 2021. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of the NIAMS clinical trial program is to prevent or reduce symptoms and improve outcomes and function in patients with rheumatic, musculoskeletal or skin diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Conducting early-stage safety/tolerability/dose/efficacy trials with drugs, biologics, devices, behavioral interventions, and/or physical therapy for treatment of arthritis, musculoskeletal, or skin disease. (nih.gov)
  • Results from a National Institutes of Health-supported study that evaluated skin biopsy testing were presented at the American Academy of Neurology's annual meeting in April 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Frequently, these cutaneous signs can be used in facilitating a diagnosis of the underlying cardiac disease. (medscape.com)
  • Epidermolysis bullosa: A condition that causes the skin to blister at the slightest pressure or temperature change. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
  • Vincenzo Mascoli, at left with his parents and Peter Marinkovich, has dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a genetic skin disease that leads to painful wounds. (stanford.edu)
  • People with a blistering skin disease called dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa often suffer from large open wounds that last for years or decades. (stanford.edu)
  • That trial was the first to show that gene therapy vectors for skin diseases can be effective when applied topically and was the first trial of gene therapy in children with epidermolysis bullosa. (stanford.edu)
  • People with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa have a genetic mutation that renders them unable to make a protein called collagen VII, which binds the middle and outer layers of the skin together. (stanford.edu)
  • Companies operating in the dermatology drugs market are teaming with other pharmaceutical firms to develop new and innovative products is another expected factor for the increase in Autoimmune skin diseases treatment market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Hives, also known as urticaria, is one of the most common allergic skin conditions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Moisturizers, especially early in a child's life, may help prevent eczema, food allergies and other allergic diseases. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Cracks in the skin of those with eczema often set off a chain of allergic diseases that develop over several years. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Restoring the skin barrier as soon as eczema develops is the best way to stop the atopic march in its tracks and prevent allergic diseases from developing," said Dr. Leung. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Increasing evidence compiled by Dr. Leung and others indicates that food particles entering the body through cracks in the skin can trigger an allergic response that leads to food allergy. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Dr. Leung believes that careful care of a baby's skin right from birth could prevent eczema and other allergic diseases. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics and thought to mediate skin inflammation, treat atopic dermatitis (AD) and prevent allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). (mdpi.com)
  • Scabies is also known to underlie many skin infections in the Northern Territory (NT), which can lead to serious conditions such as sepsis, acute rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. (ruralhealth.org.au)
  • Contact Dermatitis due to irritation is inflammation of the skin which results from a contact with an irritant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her mother, Stephanie, says they were trying to get her skin inflammation under control, when they were suddenly confronted with another problem. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Dermatosis is often thought of as one and the same as dermatitis, which refers to skin inflammation. (edocr.com)
  • Eczema is a skin disease that is characterized by the inflammation of the upper layers of the skin and includes dryness and stubborn rashes that may be swollen, red, itchy, flaky, oozy, and even bleeding. (edocr.com)
  • But a new skin biopsy test is taking some of the guesswork out of the process. (medscape.com)
  • The development of a simple skin biopsy test could not only enable clinicians to confirm suspicions of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases much earlier but also help pharmaceutical companies create drugs that target pSyn. (medscape.com)
  • In particular, he's found it useful for patients in three scenarios: (1) those with early symptoms of PD who want a more accurate clinical diagnosis, (2) those with a PD diagnosis who are not responding to dopamine replacement medication, and (3) those who clearly have progressive PD and may not need DaTscan testing if synuclein degeneration can be detected with a skin biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • We need to take biopsy samples for histopathology and culture to try to get a definitive diagnosis on how to best treat this skin disease. (austinpetsalive.org)
  • Also, see eMedicineHealth's patient education articles Coronary Heart Disease , High Cholesterol , Cholesterol FAQs , and Atorvastatin (Lipitor) . (medscape.com)
  • The foreword to Imported Skin Diseases states, "This book was written and illustrated for the health professional in order to help in the diagnosis and management of patients with diseases acquired in another, often tropical, environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Imported Skin Diseases is organized primarily by diagnosis rather than by syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease descriptions are generally complete, with adequate sections on diagnosis and treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the Exploratory Clinical Trials Grants Program is to foster clinical trials that will lead to clinically meaningful improvements in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of these diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The lack of a confirmed diagnosis means that, for the moment, options for stopping the spread of the disease are limited. (thebrooke.org)
  • Identifying the cause of the disease is the most important first step, and we are working closely with the Animal Health Trust to ensure an accurate diagnosis. (thebrooke.org)
  • is the standard procedure for confirming the diagnosis of Bowen disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For example, the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in patients presenting with acute carditis includes 2 skin signs out of the 5 classic Jones criteria (ie, arthritis, carditis, erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules, and chorea). (medscape.com)
  • Clinical manifestations of the contact dermatitis are also modified by external factors such as environmental factors (mechanical pressure, temperature, and humidity) and predisposing characteristics of the individual (age, sex, ethnic origin, preexisting skin disease, atopic skin diathesis, and anatomic region exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acute form of this dermatitis develops on exposure of the skin to a strong irritant or caustic chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eczema (sometimes called "dermatitis") is a genetic condition associated with itchy, dry skin. (medicinenet.com)
  • I have been diagnosed with progressive pigmented purpuric dermatitis i.e Schamberg's disease. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Here, we show that skin-targeted overexpression of KLK6 causes generalized, severe psoriasiform dermatitis with spontaneous development of debilitating psoriatic arthritis-like joint disease. (jci.org)
  • Skin problems arising in nail salon workers include hand dermatitis , stomatitis , mechanical injuries, infections, and the effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation . (dermnetnz.org)
  • Secondary bacterial skin infections can complicate dermatitis and wounds. (dermnetnz.org)
  • This volume is therefore a vital reference for dermatologists, cancer biologists, cell and developmental biologists, immunologists, and all who seek to understand the numerous functions and diseases of this major organ. (cshlpress.com)
  • In addition, it's also important to do a thorough self-examination every month following the ABCDs of skin cancer. (utah.edu)
  • B order - With skin cancer, a spot on your skin appears to have edges uneven, poorly refined, blurred or ragged. (utah.edu)
  • It is also very important to know the risk factors for skin cancer. (utah.edu)
  • Knowing the risk and being proactive about sun screening and prevention is the best way to catch skin cancer early, when it's easier to treat and sometimes even curable. (utah.edu)
  • People with the condition are vulnerable to infections and skin cancer, and they often die in early adulthood. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Markova is a board-certified dermatologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, who specializes in treating skin conditions that result from bone marrow transplantation. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • UV breaks the DNA strands within the cells predisposing to skin cancer [1] and also damages eyes [2,3]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma is cancer that begins in the squamous cells of the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although the association between tobacco and cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and cancer is well known to health care professionals, the many skin diseases caused by tobacco use may be less recognizable. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this review article is to evaluate the role of pro- and prebiotics on the normal function of healthy skin as well as their role in the prevention and therapy of skin disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Donald Leung, MD, PhD , head of Pediatric Allergy & Clinical Immunology at National Jewish Health, has identified itching and dry cracked skin of eczema patients as a significant promoter of the atopic march. (nationaljewish.org)
  • A few small studies have suggested that regular treatment with skin moisturizers can help reduce an infant's chances of developing eczema and the other diseases in the atopic march. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Dr. Leung is currently working to confirm those studies and identify the ideal moisturizer components to prevent eczema and the other diseases of the atopic march. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a skin disease caused by the return of a chickenpox infection from latently infected nerve cells in the spinal cord or brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • Incapability to maintain nutrient homeostasis plays a part in cardiovascular and gentle tissue calcifications which might describe the high mortality price in sufferers with adynamic bone tissue disease[5]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Research by Dr. Leung has shown that patients with eczema lack important proteins and lipids in the outer layers of their skin. (nationaljewish.org)
  • As a result of eczema patients' defective skin barrier, water escapes from the skin, drying it out and leading to cracking and itching. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Cracked, itchy skin is a hallmark of eczema. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Scratching the dry, itchy skin of eczema patients can further damage the skin barrier and activate the immune system. (nationaljewish.org)
  • The more common examples of skin diseases are acne, athlete's foot, and eczema. (edocr.com)
  • While scarring is rare, a sufferer of eczema can have temporary skin discoloration from healed lesions. (edocr.com)
  • There are a number of skin diseases prevalent in the rainy season. (jiva.com)
  • BDD symptoms are more prevalent in patients with dermatological conditions than in the general population, but there are no large sample studies comparing the prevalence of BDD symptoms between patients with dermatological conditions and healthy skin controls. (nih.gov)
  • The skin condition vitiligo can also appear simultaneously with idiopathic autoimmune Addison's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Dear Colleagues, Many studies have shown that autoimmune diseases disproportionately affect women - nearly 80 percent of those with an autoimmune disease are women. (nih.gov)
  • The skin is a complex organ that acts as a stage for a range of inflammatory processes, including infection immunity, tumour immunity, autoimmune, and allergies, in addition to providing a strong barrier against external shocks. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Autoimmune skin diseases are a group of uncommon skin illness. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Autoimmune skin diseases treatment market showcase to grow significantly owing to increases in the prevalence of skin diseases, development of new therapies, introduction to new molecules, strong pipeline of dermatological drugs are expected to add the revenue in the autoimmune skin diseases treatment market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Developing mindfulness about skin diseases, expanding disposable income of people, which is prompting the high reception of skincare products, including dermatological drugs are other contributing factor in autoimmune skin diseases treatment market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Global autoimmune skin diseases treatment market has been gaining importance as small to large companies dedicate their resources in the R&D for progressively compelling and reasonable treatment alternatives. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • The extension and potential for the world wide autoimmune skin diseases treatment market is expected to significantly rise in the forecast period. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • North America may be the most unmistakable market for autoimmune skin diseases treatment, trailed by Europe. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • Europe is relied upon to be the second leading market position for the autoimmune skin diseases treatment market. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • There are few components driving the interest for autoimmune skin diseases treatment, the primary one being progressing technological advancements and subsequently, the accessibility of the recent products and devices for the treatment of skin diseases. (persistencemarketresearch.com)
  • The chronic form occurs as a result of repeated exposure of the skin to weak irritants over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also found that having genes linked to being taller was associated with a higher risk of developing nerve damage and infections of the skin and bones. (newscientist.com)
  • Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Dermatophytoses are fungal infections of the skin and nails caused by several different fungi and classified by the location on the body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • FUNGAL INFECTIONS - One of the most common skin diseases, even more than that caused by bacteria. (morereader.com)
  • Approximately 20% of patients clinically diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) turn out not to have the movement disorder, resulting in unnecessary treatments, medications, and procedures. (medscape.com)
  • I would have preferred this approach to be covered in greater detail because it would be much more useful to the Western practitioner who is confronted with a patient returning from the tropics with an undiagnosed skin disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is an endocrine disorder where insufficient amounts of cortisol and aldosterone hormones are produced by the adrenal glands. (news-medical.net)
  • The terms occupational skin disorder or occupational skin disease are used to refer to dermatological conditions that develop or worsen due to the nature of a person's work. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Much like other viral diseases such as HIV and bacterial diseases like syphilis, COVID-19 rashes can take many different forms. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tiny cut on the skin surface or sudden removal of hair from skin may cause bacterial entry. (morereader.com)
  • Clinical trials in rare diseases where the number of potential study participants is limited. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the prevalence of BDD symptoms between patients with different dermatological conditions and healthy skin controls and to describe sociodemographic, physical and psychological factors associated with BDD symptoms to identify patients who may have a particularly high chance of having this condition. (nih.gov)
  • The district has been declared Lumpy Skin Disease affected by the collector to curb the prevalence. (outlookindia.com)
  • Principles Of Treatment Of Skin Diseases And Tips Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body covering and constitutes the first line of defense. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Taking soft or mild laxatives to clear the bowels is also beneficial in the treatment of skin diseases. (jiva.com)
  • I am suffering from a rough scaly skin disease. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • However, in the case of Lamellar Ichthyosis, the two layers don't separate or shed and it results in a build-up of hard, scaly plates of skin. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
  • Thick, scaly growths appear on the skin and do not heal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The symptoms include redness and swelling of the skin along with the formation of blisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two common symptoms of Addison's disease other than hyperpigmentation. (news-medical.net)
  • The treatment for the skin symptoms of Addison's disease is generally the same as treatment utilized for other symptoms of the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • As a result, the symptoms disappear temporarily, and the disease is not rooted out permanently. (jiva.com)
  • Ayurvedic skin treatments may take a few weeks to remove the symptoms but the diseases are treated permanently. (jiva.com)
  • There are other systematic diseases that manifest their symptoms through the skin, including measles and rubella, among others, but such diseases are not classified as dermatoses. (edocr.com)
  • Learn how graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can affect the skin, hair, and nail, and treatment options available to relieve symptoms. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • The test involves getting a small injection on the inside of your forearm, similar to a skin test for tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on H 2 S-mediated effects, focusing on the most recent results and mechanism of the antioxidant effect of H 2 S in various skin diseases, to provide new insights into further exploration of its therapeutic targets. (hindawi.com)
  • There are various skin diseases that are faced by millions of adults as well as children around the world. (edocr.com)
  • Bowen disease most commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas of the skin but may occur anywhere. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The most common skin changes that occur with age are dry and duller skin appearance, blotches and sun spots, fine lines and wrinkles, loss of collagen and slack skin on the neck and décolletage areas. (morereader.com)
  • The outlook is much worse if blood diseases occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cite this: Tobacco Use and Skin Disease - Medscape - Jun 01, 2001. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Kaplan's research focuses on identifying the molecular mechanisms that promote the initiation and perpetuation of perturbed immune responses and the development of organ damage and premature vascular disease in systemic autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • Wheat grass juice is also beneficial in skin diseases as it boosts the immune system, which helps to fight the disease. (jiva.com)
  • A wide range of cells work together to create effective immune responses, which are launched by resident populations and change when new cell populations are recruited to the skin. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A skin test can detect whether you have developed an immune response to the fungus Coccidioides , the cause of Valley fever. (cdc.gov)
  • A positive skin test generally means that you are immune to Coccidioides and will not get Valley fever in the future. (cdc.gov)
  • Veterinarians from the Department of Animal Husbandry screen the cattle for lumpy skin disease at the cattle shandy at Karungalpalayam in Erode in Tamil Nadu. (thehindu.com)
  • An outbreak of lumpy skin disease would cost Australia $7.4 billion in its first year. (abc.net.au)
  • Expert analysis has warned that lumpy skin disease (LSD) is almost three times more likely to arrive in Australia compared to foot-and-mouth disease but getting barely any national attention compared to the latter. (abc.net.au)
  • Lumpy skin disease is spread to cattle and buffalo via insects such as flies, mosquitoes and possibly ticks, and can spread at up to 28 kilometres a day. (abc.net.au)
  • There are other experts that believe that lumpy skin disease, given the patterns of spread around the world will enter Australia, so 100 per cent probability, but the timeline for that is unknown, it could be potentially as early as this wet season, but could be 10 years away,' Dr Fitzpatrick said. (abc.net.au)
  • Will Evans wants northern Australia to be well prepared in case lumpy skin disease is detected in Australia. (abc.net.au)
  • Federal Agriculture Minister Murray Watt says it's important to remember that Australia remains free from lumpy skin disease. (abc.net.au)
  • Nanded in Maharashtra has been declared a Lumpy Skin Disease affected district, with the figure of animals having the ailment reaching 3,618, an official said on Thursday. (outlookindia.com)
  • Lumpy Skin Disease is a viral ailment characterised by fever, nodules on the skin of the cattle. (outlookindia.com)
  • Skin rashes have been associated with COVID-19 infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Dear Dr My son age of 13 having skin problems for many years.white circle arround two eyes and rashes on whole body especially on chest.He is also very tall , thin and abscent min. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • My son age of 13 having skin problems for many years.white circle arround two eyes and rashes on whole body especially on chest.He. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Others are caused by failure to use the appropriate protection gear for the skin, like gloves, aprons, overalls, and many others, and this can result in light rashes and irritation or serious poisoning. (edocr.com)
  • Any skin rashes may be a sign of infection, so never ignore them, take proper action on time. (morereader.com)
  • Low quality evidence exists for the effectiveness of certain therapies and their ability to specifically prevent hand skin irritation in the workplace. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved three systemic therapies for chronic GVHD: ibrutinib (Imbruvica®) ruxolitinib (Jakafi®) and belumosudil (Rezurock®) which are helpful when treating skin GVHD. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • Topical therapies for sclerotic skin GVHD are only minimally effective. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • Advanced medical and invasive therapies have led to recognition of many new dermatologic manifestations, for example, angioedema from ACE inhibitors, ankle swelling due to calcium channel blockers, or radiation skin burns following prolonged angioplasty and radiation exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Now, a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a gene therapy gel developed at Stanford Medicine shows improved wound healing in 31 people with the disease, including 19 who were 18 years old or younger. (stanford.edu)
  • The researchers hope that the results with the modified herpes virus will advance gene therapy for other diseases in which genes are missing or damaged. (stanford.edu)
  • The important functions of skin stem cell populations in tissue development, homeostasis, and repair are described, as are the roles of resident and recruited cells in inflammatory responses. (cshlpress.com)
  • However, USC graduate student Kelly Wright was so horrified by what she learned about the far-reaching negative effects of the inflammatory skin disease that she became determined to help increase awareness about it. (scienceblog.com)
  • [ 1 ] Certain congenital cardiac defects are associated with unique skin manifestations, such as coarctation of the aorta associated with external features of Turner syndrome or atrioventricular (AV) septal defects associated with skin features of Down syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Clubbing, as illustrated below, is seen in persons with cyanotic congenital heart diseases (eg, tetralogy of Fallot, Eisenmenger syndrome). (medscape.com)
  • This may include using a combination of shampoos and conditioners to control the amount of oily buildup and calm the itchy skin. (petmd.com)
  • The ubiquitous distributions of H 2 S-producing enzymes and potent chemical reactivities of H 2 S in biological systems make H 2 S unique in its ability to regulate cellular and organ functions in both health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The skin is the largest organ in the human body, and it is constantly bombarded with external stimuli. (cshlpress.com)
  • Home Remedies for Skin Care Skin is the largest organ of a human body. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Page 2 Presented by Daniel Toriola Skin Diseases And Its Various Types By NaNa Dumro The skin is known to be the largest organ in the body. (edocr.com)
  • The skin is the first contact organ with the external ambient and the structuring element on self-image construction and can compromise the way the person deals with herself and the others, causing or intensifying humor disturbances. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hello my friends, I am suffering from chronic skin problems for the last 23 years. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • There are two types of skin GVHD: acute and chronic. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • 09:20): Chronic GVHD affects skin differently than acute GVHD and typically presents more than 100 days post-transplant. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • 09:50): Chronic skin GVHD can be non-scarring or scarring. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • We will review the timeline of manifestations of chronic GVHD on the skin, hair, and nails. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • This note covers the following topics: Diabetes and Flu: What You Need to Know and Do, Diabetes and Disasters, Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative, Vision Health Initiative (VHI), County Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes, Diabetes and Pregnancy. (freebookcentre.net)
  • A more specific blood test, the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), identifies beryllium sensitization which may lead to chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Strict hygienic measures, periodic skin examination and health education of persons caring for students with disabilities are recommended. (who.int)
  • The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has suggested the outbreak may be a consequence of the unregulated global movement and trading of donkeys for their skins . (thebrooke.org)
  • Scientific and commercial interest of probiotics, prebiotics and their effect on human health and disease has increased in the last decade. (mdpi.com)
  • Check in tomorrow to see what skin problems are hereditary and what to look out for in your family health history! (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
  • Education of health staff through training and skin health course modules. (ruralhealth.org.au)
  • A full suite of our resources is available on the One Disease website, as well as on the Australian Indigenous Health InfoNet , where the resources will continue to be available once we finish our work this year. (ruralhealth.org.au)
  • When Wright researched the topic further, she realized one of the reasons it hasn't received much press coverage is that tungiasis is not one of the 17 declared neglected tropical diseases (NTD) recognized by the World Health Organization. (scienceblog.com)
  • Combining their unique skills, Drs. Accardo and Lyons head the team of physicians and allied health professionals in a mission to combat sarcoma and other diseases of the bones and soft tissue. (wafb.com)
  • The latency associated with many tobacco-related diseases ensures that tobacco-induced health problems will continue for many years to come. (medscape.com)
  • Three instruments were used: Mini Mental, Social Demographic Questionnaire and PRIME-MD. It was possible to observe the frequency of 53,2% Depression and 59,6% Anxiety and that skin diseases have influence on mental and physical health of the patients, wich have feelings of discomfort and isolation attitudes. (bvsalud.org)
  • At only three months old, she has a long journey ahead of her before she's fully healed of this painful disease, which will end when she stops growing. (austinpetsalive.org)
  • As if that wasn't enough, little Stormy also has a skin disease, which paired with Panosteitis, makes her skin painful to the touch. (austinpetsalive.org)
  • The Skin becomes extremely photosensitive and the skin develops redness, painful irritation and blisters when exposed to sunlight for a short period. (cosmeticlaserskinsurgery.com)
  • The greater production of MSH leads to the over-stimulation of melanocytes which are the melanin-producing cells that provide color (melanin) to the skin. (news-medical.net)
  • Children with disabilities age matched students was selected from may be particularly susceptible to skin dis- nearby urban and rural public schools as orders, sometimes as a direct consequence the control group. (who.int)
  • A baby's skin is particularly susceptible to drying out when it first emerges from the warm, watery environment of the womb into the dry air of the outside world. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Contributors discuss the various components of the epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, glands, and nerve endings that make up the skin, the molecular pathways and processes that underlie their development and function, and what happens when these processes go awry. (cshlpress.com)
  • The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and protects the body from the environment. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Athlete's foot, also known as Tinea Pedis and refers to the disease and not the organism, is another kind of skin disease, one that is a parasitic fungal infection that occurs in the epidermis of the human foot and is more common in males than in females. (edocr.com)
  • that is confined to the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) and has not yet invaded the deeper layers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Occupational skin diseases are ranked among the top five occupational diseases in many countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being taller may increase your risk of developing nerve, skin and some heart diseases, according to the largest study linking height and disease to date. (newscientist.com)
  • This primary skin disease leads to overproduction of an oily, waxy substance by the skin glands, which clumps in the fur and causes a bad smell. (petmd.com)
  • Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. (definitions.net)
  • Probiotics are shown to decolonise skin pathogens (e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • P. aeruginosa , S. aureus , A. Vulgaris , etc.) while kefir is also shown to support the immunity of the skin and treat skin pathogens through the production of antimicrobial substances and prebiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • The skin is the physically exposed part of the body which encounters various harmful microorganisms and pathogens. (morereader.com)
  • It is also important to pay close attention to moles, bumps or patches of skin that bleed or don't heal. (utah.edu)
  • This observational, cross-sectional, comparative multicentre study included 8295 participants: 5487 consecutive patients with different skin diseases (56% female) recruited among dermatological outpatients at 22 clinics in 17 European countries, and 2808 healthy skin controls (66% female). (nih.gov)
  • The findings suggest that height could be used as a risk factor to prioritise screening tests for those at greatest risk of certain diseases. (newscientist.com)
  • 06:36): For patients with widespread skin GVHD, systemic steroids or light therapy may be the preferred option. (bmtinfonet.org)
  • Acne is a skin ailment, or infection that people all over the world suffer from. (edocr.com)