Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Skin DiseasesSkin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Skin UlcerPoultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Theileriasis: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.ArtiodactylaCoccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Animal DiseasesDucksMycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseMilk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Enzootic Bovine Leukosis: A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Housing, AnimalDigestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Canidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Pets: Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.GeeseMannheimia haemolytica: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Babesia bovis: A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.ArgentinaEscherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.BrazilTheileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Rinderpest: A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Theileria parva: A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.JapanPiroplasmida: An order of protozoa comprising heteroxenous tick-borne blood parasites. Representative genera include BABESIA, Dactylosoma, and THEILERIA.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Rupicapra: A genus of ruminants in the family Bovidae. The common name chamois usually refers to the species Rupicapra rupicapra. Rupicapra pyrenaica, found in the Pyrenees, is more properly referred to as the Pyrenean chamois.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
For example, domestic sheep and goats produce wool and mohair, respectively; cattle, swine, deer, and sheep skins can be made ... This can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are ... Indoor production systems are typically used for pigs, dairy cattle, poultry, veal cattle, dairy goats, and other animals ... In cattle, sheep, and swine shows, the winning animals are frequently auctioned off to the highest bidder, and the funds are ...
The animals provided milk and meat for domestic consumption, and livestock, hides, and skins for export. As a result of the ... The Saudi Arabian government decided to stop importing Somali cattle, and this ban soon was expanded to include sheep and goats ... The sugar economy differed from the banana and cotton economies in two respects: sugar was raised for domestic consumption, and ... In 1950 the sugar factory's output reached 4,000 tons, enough to meet about 80 percent of domestic demand; by 1957 production ...
... is the raising and breeding of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). It is a branch of animal husbandry. Goats ... easier-to-manage animal. The skin of goats is a valuable by product of goat farming. Up until 1849 all Rolls of Parliament were ... Goat farming can be very suited to production with other livestock such as sheep and cattle on low-quality grazing land. Goats ... Likewise, the skins need to be pricked so that air can ingress, as botulism needs an anaerobic medium in order to multiply. ...
Further, cattle and so are other edible domestic animals play significant religious functions as in the case of healing and ... Oral traditions hold that prior to the advent of coffins, cattle skins were used to wrap the deceased prior to interment. ... rear animals predominantly cattle and chicken, and few sheep, goats, donkeys and horses. Cattle are a source of draught power, ... According to Samunzala (2003) the Tonga particularly addressed the Subiya as "uwe u musubila" meaning you light skinned one. ...
Zoonosis affecting domestic animals is caused by contact with milk, urine, and genital organs, which concentrate the causative ... Some reservoirs include buffalo and other animals, but mostly cattle. In humans, the disease is acquired from unpasteurised ... milk and products or undercooked meat (consumers), laboratory inhalation (lab workers), accidental skin penetration or abrasion ... Prevention now includes: Control of disease in domestic animals by immunization using B. abortus strain 19 and B. melitensis ...
... or ichthyosis-like disorders exist for several types of animals, including cattle, chickens, llamas, mice, and dogs ... In some cases, excess dead skin sloughs off much better from wet tanned skin after bathing or a swim, although the dry skin ... Ichthyosis of varying severity is well documented in some popular breeds of domestic dogs. The most common breeds to have ... Ichthyosis is a family of rare genetic skin disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin. There are more than 20 types ...
Infestation of the outer skin is typically caused by psoroptic mites. Psoroptes ovis is an example, it infests sheep and cattle ... Close attention to domestic animals is necessary, including regular hand grooming of companion animals. This enables early ... Mites of domestic animals cause important types of skin disease, and some mites infest other organs. Diagnosis of mite ... A variety of mites cause mild dermatitis in their hosts and biting nuisance and disgust to the owners of domestic animals. ...
Remains included sheep, goat, cattle, horses and swine. There is evidence they also traded wild animal skins with Black Sea ... weaponry and domestic and personal objects. The culture is connected to the proto-Slavs, with possible links to the peoples of ...
Congenital and hereditary diseases of skin". In Maxie, G. Jubb, Kennedy & Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals (6th ed.). ... In cattle and sheep, it is called dermatosparaxis ('torn skin'). The skin is also abnormally fragile. The skin flaps peel or ... Halper, J (2014). "Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals". Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 802: 231-40 ... It is also called dermatoproxy, hereditary skin fragility or cutis elastica ("elastic skin") and is found in humans, cats, dogs ...
Heads of animals, especially of cattle, were mounted on walls. A painting of the village, with the twin mountain peaks of Hasan ... Children observed domestic areas. They learned how to perform rituals and how to build or repair houses by watching the adults ... Stephanie Meece, for example, argues that it is more likely a painting of a leopard skin instead of a volcano, and a decorative ... The main rooms contained raised platforms that may have been used for a range of domestic activities. Typical houses contained ...
Diseases of domestic cattle such as sleeping sickness can be transmitted to the animals and take their toll. The erection of ... Traditionally blue wildebeest have been hunted for their hides and meat, the skin making good quality leather though the flesh ... ISBN 978-3-642-61749-2. Horak, I G; De Vos, V; Brown, M R (1983). "Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XVI ... They can compete with domestic livestock for grazing and water and can transmit fatal diseases like rinderpest to cattle and ...
The skin disease dermatophilosis of cattle, sheep, and goats is caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis, which is ... are suspended in water for application to the hair coat of domestic animals. Cattle can be immersed in dip-baths containing ... and protozoa between domestic animals. These microbes cause diseases which can be severely debilitating or fatal to domestic ... When the skin of livestock animals is made into leather, these scars remain as blemishes that reduce the value of the leather. ...
Domestic cattle, the water buffalo, the yak, and camels are used for work, as rides, or as pack animals.[page needed] The ... The penises of even-toed ungulates have an S-shape at rest and lie in a pocket under the skin on the belly. The corpora ... These were small animals, some as small as a hare, with a slim build, lanky legs, and a long tail. The hind legs were much ... Among them are cattle, sheep, caprines, and antelopes. The hippos (Hippopotamidae) comprise two groups, the hippo and the pygmy ...
No figures are available regarding the provincial gross domestic product, but it is known that animal exploitation is the ... largest contributor to the economy by raising cattle, sheep and alpacas, which generate end products such as milk, wool, skins ...
1999) Skin lesions and cattle hide damage from Haematobia irritans infestations. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 13: 324-329 ... Cattle and domestic buffalo are also the main hosts of Stomoxys and Haematobia flies. Irritation is caused by large numbers of ... Larval Hypoderma warble-flies infest the skin and muscles of cattle. Larval Oestrus nasal-bots infest the nasal cavities of ... Disease caused by small pathogenic organisms that pass from the flies to domestic animals is described here under Transmitted ...
... or calf leather is a leather or membrane produced from the hide of a calf, or juvenile domestic cattle. Calfskin is ... Fine calfskin is one of the skins used for vellum and parchment manuscripts. In Spanish, the word is novillo, referring to ... leather from animals less than three years old. Chickenskin, despite its name, is a form of calfskin made using the skin of ... In fashion, soft finished calfskin is sometimes described as veau velours (French for "velvet calf"). Goldbeater's skin, made ...
... the items were made from the skins of at least four animals. Part of the coat was made from domesticated goat belonging to a ... Shoelaces were made from the European genetic population of cattle. The quiver was made from wild roe deer, the fur hat was ... Genetic analysis showed that the sheep species was nearer to modern domestic European sheep than to wild sheep; ... Also, it was found that his epidermis, the outer skin layer, was missing, a natural process from his mummification in ice. ...
Common commercial hides include leather from cattle and other livestock animals, buckskin, alligator skin and snake skin. All ... Such skins are sometimes still gathered from hunting and processed at a domestic or artisanal level but most leather making is ... A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use. The word "hide" is related to the German word "Haut" which means skin. ... Rabbit and squirrel skins were traded and taxed in timbers of 40 hides each. Skins were also traded in binds of 32 or 33 skins ...
A Boran cattle bull was cloned at the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi. In 2015 the Chinese company ... The China first cloned goat from adult ear skin,was born at Yangling,Northwest A&F University. The Middle East's first and the ... In 2001 at the Trans Ova Genetics in Sioux Center, Iowa, United States, a cloned gaur was born from a surrogate domestic cow ... This is a list of animals that have been cloned. The list is subheaded by animals of different types. The cloned animal are ...
... is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe; in the ... skin and soft tissue infections Calves: enteritis, navel ill Cattle: respiratory tract infections, soft tissue infections, ... Synulox can be used in domestic-food animals as long as a specified withdrawal period is observed. Bacterial antibiotic ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is used in numerous animals for a variety of conditions: Dogs: periodontitis, kennel cough Cats: ...
Contact with the plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, and dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals. ... It may be used as a remedy for skin inflammation, rheumatic pain, diarrhoea, urinary tract infections, dysentery, malaria and ...
Related page of the Merck Veterinary Manual Johannes Kaufmann, Parasitic infections of domestic animals, Birkhäuser Verlag, ... The repartition and gravity of the skin lesions suggests that the causative agent may be slightly different from the one ... Transmission involves fly vectors of the genus Musca, which ingest microfilariae when feeding on the skin lesions. The disease ... Verminous haemorrhagic dermatitis is a filariasis of cattle marked by a cutaneous haemorrhagic nodule. It is referred sometimes ...
The deceased were wrapped in animal skins or birch bark and placed into wooden burial chambers in subterranean rectangular pits ... The Fatyanovo culture is viewed as introducing an economy based on domestic livestock (sheep, cattle, horse & dog) into the ... and stable animal husbandry with the breeding of horse, cattle, and to a lesser extent, pigs and sheep. Scholars interpret some ... The economy seems to be quite mobile, but then we are cautioned that domestic swine are found, which suggests something other ...
This gives the skin of the animal a darker hue and often occurs in response to changes in mood or environment. Such a ... Laboratory mice Dogs Big cats Horses Cattle Chickens Bananaquit Gyrfalcon Kermode bears Rock pocket mice Domestic rabbits ... gene are associated with coat colours in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)". Animal Genetics. 37 (5): 489-93. doi: ... Studies show the MC1R Arg163Gln allele has a high frequency in East Asia and may be part of the evolution of light skin in East ...
In addition, needle sticks with concentrated virus or scratches from infected animals may result in local infection of the skin ... Cowpox only occurs in Europe and adjacent Russian states and, despite its name, occurs only rarely in cattle. One common host ... is the domestic cat, from which human infections are most often acquired. Cowpox virus has also infected a variety of animals ... Vaccine-derived vaccinia has been found replicating in the wild in Brazil, where it has caused infections in rodents, cattle, ...
... and cause epidemics among animals, particularly domestic cattle. They can also spread ticks, lungworms, tapeworms, flies, and ... A bag made with wildebeest skin. The black wildebeest is depicted on the coat of arms of the Province of Natal in South Africa ... "Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-08-21.. *^ a b c d e f g h Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ...
Sheep and cattle ranchers in North Carolina are petitioning to remove the red wolf from the ESA, because it is not a ... There was a large concern about whether or not the animals would leave the refuge since red wolves are only protected within it ... The Smithsonian Institute allowed Wayne and Gittleman to collect six red wolf skins from their fur vault that dated back before ... Nowak investigated 15 cranial and dental characteristics of domestic dogs, red wolves, coyotes, and gray wolves (Wayne and ...
These diseases spread to tapirs from domestic livestock, particularly cattle and horses, and can potentially increase tapir ... The skin of Lowland Tapirs is thickest at the nape, and often covered by scars, scratches, and bruises; beneath the epidermis ... Given that natural situations impose a toll on the animals, age of first reproduction in the wild was estimated to be four ... Previous studies suggested that a lower level of animal activity during moonlit nights is a result of higher predation risk. In ...
Infestation of the outer skin is typically caused by psoroptic mites. Psoroptes ovis is an example, it infests sheep and cattle ... Close attention to domestic animals is necessary, including regular hand grooming of companion animals. This enables early ... Mites of domestic animals cause important types of skin disease, and some mites infest other organs. Diagnosis of mite ... A variety of mites cause mild dermatitis in their hosts and biting nuisance and disgust to the owners of domestic animals. ...
Swine, dairy cattle, poultry, horses, humans. Feed refusal, diarrhea, vomiting, skin disorders, reduced growth ... Mycotoxins in Crops: A Threat to Human and Domestic Animal Health. Schmale, D.G., and G.P. Munkvold. 2009. Mycotoxins in Crops ... Mycotoxins are chemicals produced by fungi that are harmful to humans and domestic animals. These chemicals may contaminate ... Present important diseases of humans and domestic animals caused by mycotoxins (known as mycotoxicoses), ...
Stables are a haven for a host of animals, some adorable and some repulsive - but for anyone planning to give birth we ... Lowing cattle, etc. Most of the familiar farmyard animals were firmly domesticated by Jesuss time, possibly because wild ... Cows would surely have been infested with cattle-biting lice, which chew on their hair and skin. "Lice are more common in ... Nevertheless, the archaeology of the region has given us a wealth of information on the history of domestic animals, and ...
Ringworm is a disease of the hair and skin of most domestic animals throughout the world. It is not a worm but is caused by ... The most important sign in cattle is that the animal bellows (calls) very frequently and with strange sound. The animals will ... 4 How to bury animals.. 5 Burning dead animals.. Handling dead animals If you do not know why an animal has died you should ... Ringworm is caused by a fungus which infects the hair and skin of most domestic animals throughout the world. It causes the ...
Learn about Wound-Kote Gentian Violet for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Effective against bacterial infections most common in skin lesions of domestic animals, including horses, cattle and dogs. ... Avoid Skin And Eye Contact. In Case Of Eye Contact, Flush Thoroughly With Large Amounts Of Water For 15 Minutes And Get Medical ... Irritates Eyes, Skin And Respiratory Tract. Wound-Kote™ Spray is a quick-drying, deep penetrating antiseptic dressing and gall ...
Any botfly larva which burrows in or beneath the skin of domestic and wild anima... ... Any botfly larva which burrows in or beneath the skin of domestic and wild animals, thus producing sores. They belong to ... Domestic cattle are often infested by a large species. See Gadfly. Called also warble, and worble. ...
... farm animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses; domestic mammals such as dogs and cats; laboratory animals ... Skin problems result when cancerous T-cells move from the blood into the skin. Patches are most commonly found on the lower ... Although the skin is involved, the skin cells themselves are not cancerous. Mycosis fungoides usually occurs in adults over age ... Most affected individuals initially develop skin lesions called patches, which are flat, scaly, pink or red areas on the skin ...
Learn about StandGuard Pour-On Insecticide for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... HAZARDS TO HUMANS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Harmful if swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Causes moderate eye irritation. ... StandGuard pour-on Insecticide is not effective in controlling cattle grubs. Therefore, this product can be used on cattle at ... Keep out of the reach of children and domestic animals. In case of leak or spill, contain material and dispose as waste. ...
Bag Balm has been used for over 100 years on cattle, horses and other domestic animals. Its loaded with lanolin, a natural ... COAT DEFENSE® TROUBLE SPOT DRYING PASTE is used AFTER the skin is heavily inflamed or broken. The thick consistency creates a ... Rather, the reviews are part of an online community of animal owners that desire to share their particular experience with ... SmartPak customers are some of the most conscientious animal owners around. We encourage you to share your experience with the ...
The tropical Bont tick prefers to feed on domestic cattle, but will also infest sheep, goats, horses and dogs. In some areas, ... The parasite is also associated with an increased prevalence of acute dermatophilosis, a skin disease of cattle caused by the ... The animal owners pivotal role in eradication has contributed to the reduced cost of the field actions and the increased ... However, there is growing evidence that this tick is also carried by the cattle egret, a bird that can fly easily from island ...
1999) Skin lesions and cattle hide damage from Haematobia irritans infestations. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 13: 324-329 ... Cattle and domestic buffalo are also the main hosts of Stomoxys and Haematobia flies. Irritation is caused by large numbers of ... Larval Hypoderma warble-flies infest the skin and muscles of cattle. Larval Oestrus nasal-bots infest the nasal cavities of ... Disease caused by small pathogenic organisms that pass from the flies to domestic animals is described here under Transmitted ...
Both its fruit and stems are used as food for humans, as well as by cattle and other domestic animals. It was cultivated by ... Its juice is used to relieve the pain of wounds and skin rashes. The prickly pear was introduced to Africa and Australia for ... Cacti play an important role in the desert ecology and are a vital source of food and water for many desert animals. Some ... They provide a source for food and water for animals in desert environments, including deer, quail, wild turkey, pack rats, ...
It most often kills domestic animals like sheep and cattle but it can kill humans too. And you only need to be exposed to it on ... mascara mineral oil nail polish nails natural no poo parabens PEG podcast preservatives probiotics retinol scars silicone skin ... The compound has been shown to cause liver cancer in lab animals & has been associated with live cancer in humans. Governments ... we get tons of comments and emails telling us how all-natural ingredients are the best thing you can use on your hair and skin ...
Skin diseases of cattle (mange) and demodecosic mange of dogs are frequently encountered. Coccidiosis of rabbits is universal. ... About one-half of the cattle and buffalo are used as working animals (in agriculture and lumbering, along with elephants). ... There is a struggle of ideas going on in the literary life of Burma which reflects the complexity of the countrys domestic and ... A number of reserved areas with rich fauna-Padaun, Shwezetto, Shwe-u-Daung, and others-stand out; animals include the Indian ...
For example, domestic sheep and goats produce wool and mohair, respectively; cattle, swine, deer, and sheep skins can be made ... This can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are ... Indoor production systems are typically used for pigs, dairy cattle, poultry, veal cattle, dairy goats, and other animals ... In cattle, sheep, and swine shows, the winning animals are frequently auctioned off to the highest bidder, and the funds are ...
It affects mainly individuals from rural areas in close contact with cattle or other domestic animals. The infection presents ... Scrophuloderma (6)Actinomycosis of the Skin (2)AIDS-Related Complex (9)Candida Intertrigo (1)Granuloma Candidomycetica (3)Gram- ... common fungal infection of the bearded area and surrounding skin of adolescent and adult males. The most common aetiologic ...
... SCC associated with ambient solar exposure has been reported in cattle, horses, cats, sheep, goats ... and skin lesions and cataract in farm-raised fish (Mayer 1992), both of which have been associated with significant economic ... Other effects in domestic animals that may increase under ozone depletion include exacerbation of infectious bovine ... although occasionally herds of susceptible cattle or sheep can demonstrate incidences as high as 20 per cent (Mendez et al., ...
Tuberculin skin testing is quite reliable for detecting active infection in domestic animals; but may lack specificity and ... bovis from animals to humans4, 5. The primary reservoir host for M. bovis is domestic cattle; however, BTB has been reported in ... skin tests are conducted on the animals in the herd of origin and in cattle in contact herds18. The key elements of the US BTB ... It is important to emphasize that other domestic and wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of M. bovis for ...
Zoonosis affecting domestic animals is caused by contact with milk, urine, and genital organs, which concentrate the causative ... Some reservoirs include buffalo and other animals, but mostly cattle. In humans, the disease is acquired from unpasteurised ... milk and products or undercooked meat (consumers), laboratory inhalation (lab workers), accidental skin penetration or abrasion ... Prevention now includes: Control of disease in domestic animals by immunization using B. abortus strain 19 and B. melitensis ...
... reservoir in domestic and wild animals Fascioliasis Cattle-raising areas Reservoir in cattle, other Praziquantel None -- of ... of intense skin transmission by treatment, isolation infection; skin-to-skin contact or associated with via clothing poverty ... Reservoir in cattle, other Personal hygiene None -- domestic and wild animals; fecal-oral transmission; diagnosis by fecal ... domestic animal sandfly; destroy animal New World; reservoirs; multiple reservoirs; estimated 12 strains of parasite; ...
Sarcoptes scabiei is a skin mite that infests humans and animals, including swine, dogs, cats, foxes, cattle, and coyotes (75, ... certain domestic, exotic, or wild animals are not appropriate for use in exhibit settings where a possibility of animal contact ... If animals or animal products (e.g., animal pelts, animal waste, and owl pellets) (100) are used for educational purposes in ... Animal births. If animal births occur, ensure that the public has no contact with animal birthing by-products. The environment ...
  • This lesson provides an overview of economically important mycotoxins that may contaminate livestock feed or human staple foods and threaten the health of humans and domestic animals [ Table 1 ]. (apsnet.org)
  • With the exception of the turkey, all livestock animals had been domesticated a long time before the birth of Jesus," says Albano Beja-Pereira of the University of Porto in Portugal. (newscientist.com)
  • This all tells us that the popular picture of the Nativity attended by familiar livestock animals like cows, sheep and donkeys is at least archaeologically plausible, if unverifiable. (newscientist.com)
  • Stable flies mostly feed on the blood of livestock , particularly cattle, but they do sometimes bite humans as well. (newscientist.com)
  • These infestations and infections cause distress to companion animals, and in livestock industry the financial costs of these diseases are high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterinary parasitology also covers arthropods in the Class Acari, the ticks of domestic animals and mites of livestock which have distinctly different structure from arthropods in the Class Insecta. (wikipedia.org)
  • It inflicts a nasty bite, one that often develops into a septic wound or abscess in livestock, greatly reducing the trade value of animal hides. (fao.org)
  • In affected Caribbean islands, heartwater disease and dermatophilosis have severely reduced domestic livestock production. (fao.org)
  • Local livestock producers, with the guidance of government staff, take responsibility for applying the necessary acaricide (tick killing chemical) treatments to their animals. (fao.org)
  • Initial successes, particularly in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in Saint Lucia, have increased the private and public sectors' confidence in both livestock production and the animal health services capacity," according to Dr Rupert Pegram, CAP Programme Manager. (fao.org)
  • Goat farming can be very suited to production with other livestock such as sheep and cattle on low-quality grazing land. (wikipedia.org)
  • ples from humans and 105 fecal samples henselae and B. clarridgeiae are rec- from livestock animals. (cdc.gov)
  • USDA works cooperatively with the Nation's livestock industry and State animal health agencies to eradicate bovine TB from domestic livestock in the United States and prevent its recurrence. (usda.gov)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture does not mandate reports of CL in domestic livestock, but a 2009 National Animal Health Monitoring Study found about one-third of goat producers with herds larger than 100 animals reported CL symptoms. (wa.gov)
  • Whether you're butchering wild animals from a hunt or livestock from your homestead, you need to establish if meat from the animal is edible or not. (naturalnews.com)
  • The disease is primarily associated with herbivores and domestic livestock and occurs with regularity in countries where widespread vaccination of animals is not practiced ( http://www.promedmail.org ). (cdc.gov)
  • 1) Widely used in livestock improvement skills in a variety of domestic animals with frozen semen cryopreservation. (benadorassociates.com)
  • We are hoping to work with the New Mexico Livestock Board and the USDA to evaluate infected animals in the real world," Dr Mukundan said. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Populations declined dramatically during the last five decades due to multiple possible factors including uncontrolled hunting, deforestation and competition with domestic livestock linked to human demographic growth, and wars. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Livestock handlers and animal skin processors were interviewed and tested for the presence of IgG antibody. (ajtmh.org)
  • Livestock market employees, abattoir workers, and animal skin processors accounted for 16 (57%) of 28 cases with known occupational status. (ajtmh.org)
  • Right now in the usually sleepy Rajasthani desert town of Pushkar, thousands of lean, athletic-looking camels are on display for prospective buyers at the annual cattle fair, one of the largest livestock markets of its kind in the world. (wsj.com)
  • With the livestock sector accounting for around 8% of Rajasthan's gross domestic product and the agricultural industry generating employment for millions of the state's rural inhabitants, the department of animal husbandry in Rajasthan is aware of the economic benefits of keeping the cattle fair healthy. (wsj.com)
  • And often when livestock is allowed in the buffer zone around a national park, there are plenty of places around the edges where the wild animals inside may be separated by only 100 yards from cattle grazing outside. (phys.org)
  • 1980), and skin lesions and cataract in farm-raised fish (Mayer 1992), both of which have been associated with significant economic losses. (ciesin.org)
  • It can spread from animal to animal through contact with ruptured lesions, contaminated soil or feed, and flies. (wa.gov)
  • An outbreak in a commercial Drakensberger herd in South Africa followed the introduction in late 2000 of a 3-year-old bull that developed skin lesions in 2001 and was culled in 2002. (scielo.org.za)
  • The disease, also known as orf, contagious pustular dermatitis, or scabby mouth, is characterized by proliferative lesions in the skin of the lips, around the nostrils, and in the oral mucosa ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • High mortality rates occur when lesions in lips and udders prevent infected animals from suckling and grazing, resulting in rapid emaciation ( 13 , 41 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • 2. A disease characterized by suppurative (causing pus) and granulomatous (inflammatory) lesions (abnormality of the skin or organs) in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. (wordinfo.info)
  • Genomic analyses have challenged the epidemiological hypothesis that M. tuberculosis is a human‐adapted variety of M. bovis that was acquired from cattle 3 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • In Tennessee, a 71-year-old immunosorbent assay previously of Liverpool, Neston, United Kingdom woman with a 3-week history of a evaluated to detect antibodies in productive, nonbloody cough was domestic cats (7). (cdc.gov)
  • Deer and other wildlife occasionally have lumps or abscesses for a variety of reasons and most are usually insignificant to the health of the animal and to humans. (wa.gov)
  • It also infects wild deer and elk, which can pass it on to domestic cattle with which they graze. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sample from Ötzi's quiver, which was previously believed to made of chamois leather, was in fact from roe deer hide, although researchers cannot exclude the possibility that the quiver was made from the hide of more than one animal so there could be chamois areas that haven't been sampled yet. (thehistoryblog.com)
  • In addition to seeds and nuts, his diet would have consisted of red deer, aurochs (large wild cattle) along with some freshwater fish . (sott.net)
  • Ringworm on a person's head usually shows as a bald patch of scaly skin and elsewhere it can cause a red, ring-shaped rash that may be itchy. (kingcounty.gov)
  • Ringworm in the pig is one of the most confusing conditions that producers face in that it is not caused by a worm - and usually in the UK does not produce rings on the skin. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia , which are endemic in both animal and human populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, dairy enterprises and crop production have diminished somewhat and beef cattle numbers have remained relatively constant. (wvencyclopedia.org)
  • Brucella is the cause of brucellosis, which is a zoonosis transmitted by ingesting contaminated food (such as unpasteurized milk products), direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is transmitted by ingestion, inhalation, and direct contact with mucosal surfaces or broken skin. (visualdx.com)
  • The incidence of these tumors is generally very low, although occasionally herds of susceptible cattle or sheep can demonstrate incidences as high as 20 per cent (Mendez et al. (ciesin.org)
  • A number are recognized zoonotic pathogens, and thus faecal shedding by animals and stormwater runoff from areas affected by the presence of animals are also important sources. (canada.ca)
  • The present manuscript analyzes and reviews the zoonotic pathogens that have recently emerged (or re-emerged) from our companion animals. (mdpi.com)
  • Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is companionistic (pets), economic (farming, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research contact with or consumption of animals, animal products, or animal derivatives (vaccines, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods and Systems for catalyzing the oxidative destruction of animal tissues, particularly medical waste and animal and human corpses. (google.com)
  • Typically the reaction chamber is maintained at a temperature in a range from about 400 C. to about 500 C. The methods and systems quickly and efficiently destroy medical waste and a variety of other animal tissues such as corpses. (google.com)
  • E rhusiopathiae has food safety implications, because it can survive for several months in animal tissues such as frozen or chilled pork, cured and smoked ham, and feed byproducts such as dried blood. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Many occur as a result of contamination from human or animal wastes, whereas some are free-living microorganisms that exist naturally in the recreational water environment. (canada.ca)
  • In endemic regions, exposure to unsanitary water or close contact with animal urine represents potential exposure. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • If the animal has been previously sensitized by exposure to an allergen (antigen) and produces IgE antibodies, then injection of the sensitizing antigens directly into the bloodstream can result in anaphylactic shock and related reactions (eg, hives, urticaria, facial-conjunctival edema). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Humans usually become infected by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. (iaff.org)
  • People become infected by ingestion of fecal contaminated food or water, or by direct contact with infected animals. (rochester.edu)
  • Humans can become sick when they come into contact with water, food, soil, and mud contaminated with the urine of infected animals. (iamat.org)
  • E. Bang, a Danish veterinarian, described the intracellular pathogen causing abortion in cattle in 1897, and named it Bacillus abortus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These problems occur wherever domestic animals are reared. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997;Teifke and Lohr, 1996) These tumors occur principally in poorly pigmented skin unprotected by hair, and thus are frequently found on eyelids, nose, ears, tails, and the mucocutaneous junctions of the eyes and anogenital regions (Teifke and Lohr, 1996). (ciesin.org)
  • We're producing may be one in 20 or one in 30 cloned blastocysts that are 'normal' and capable of producing a pregnancy and we just haven't got them into the animal recipient at the right time to allow implantation and pregnancy to occur," Professor Wolf said. (lifeethics.org)
  • multiple purulent granules may occur in the skin on the face, lips, nose, jaw and neck with regional lymph nodes usually being involved. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • Since 1992, researchers have attempted to identify the animal source of the Iceman's couture by microscopic analysis, peptide analysis of keratin and collagen content, and in 2012, the first genetic analysis extracted mitochondrial DNA from fragments of leather that could not be connected to a specific garment. (thehistoryblog.com)